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HBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
DAVIS
A MANUAL OF.MARKS

ON

_POTTERY AND PORCELAIN

A DICTIONARY OF EASY REFERENCE

BY

W. H. HOOPER AND W. C. PHILLIPS

inutlnn
MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED
NE“! YORK; THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

1898

All rights rcxcmcdmm“


UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA‘
DAVTS
RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LIMITED,
LONDON AND BUNGAY.

First Ea'z'h'on 1876; Second Edition 1877 1 Reprinted 1879, 1886;


with corrections and additions, 1894, 1896, 1893.
PREFACE.
THIS edition has been carefully revised and enlarged
by the addition of many new marks.

When first issued none of the marks of Japan had


been published. At that time information was diflicult
to obtain, and much of it has since been found to be un
reliable; by the kind permission of Sir A. W. Franks
a large number of marks are now inserted, which will
be found to include all the factories of importance.

Being only intended for a pocket-volume, unimportant


factories and unknown marks are left out. For more
detailed information, the works of Brongniart, Chafiers,
Demmin, Jacquemart (admirably translated by Mrs.
Bury Palliser), Marryat, Robinson and others may be
consulted.

The work is divided into four parts; in the first, the


Marks are classed under descriptive heads, as Anchor,
Animal, etc. ; in the second—Majolica—the factories of
Italy are arranged alphabetically; in the third, other
factories of Europe on the same plan ; and in the fourth,
the Oriental Marks are arranged by the number of
characters inscribed.
iv PREFACE.

The Marks on Pottery and Porcelain are of three


kinds—factory, workman, and pattern mark. The first
is usually placed in a prominent position, sometimes
accompanied by the mark of the maker or decorator.
Sévres Porcelain, for instance, often having four or five
workmen’s marks, besides that of the factory. The
pattern mark is-usually a number ,' this is seldom given,
being useless without a description of the pattern
itself.

The Marks, when pencilled or incised, vary very con


siderably ; a difierent hand, a full brush, or a flaw in
the material, all tend to make them unrecognizable ,
even when printed they are often blurred by the action
' of the fire or running of the enamel, and when im
pressed, a shrinking of the wet clay will change or
obliterate them.
IN) *3 X.
MARKS.
NpOM PAGE PAGE
Anchor .. enema-H Fleur-de-lys .. 22 Oval QQ

Animal .. Flower 23 ~J~q


Arrow ,. Palette
Grass .. 25 Pickaxe -~
Axe . . .. ‘1 KO
b—l
Pipe
Beacon Hayfork 2.5 -1
Rose ..
Bell Head .. 26
Bird Heart .. .. 26 Sceptre a efiha-urcw
Bow . . Horn .. ,. 26 Shell . .
Butterfly Shield. . ~1‘ -1 —1q-1
Label .. 27 Ship . . ..
Caduceus 0000-1620:
r-lmm Leaf .. 27 Square Marks
Circle . . Letters 28 Star ..
Claw .. \-| Lines .. 45 Sun ..
Crescent Sword. .
Cross . Mitre .. 45
Crown Monograms .. .. 46 Table . .
‘1
Q
Musical Instruments 59 Tower.. 79
Dome . . Triangle
Dot Names 59 Trident
Numeral 67
Ermine Vases ..
Orb .. 68
Fish Oriental 69 Windmill

MAJOLICA.
84 Gubbio .. 89 Bimini
Bassano
Rome . .
Caffagiolo .. 84 Lodi 91
Caste] Durante 85 Savona
Castelli 85 Milan .. 92 Slena . .
Montelupo 92
Diruta 85 'I‘reviso
Naples 92 Turin . .
Faenza 86
Florence Padua. . 93 Urbino
Forli . . 88 Pesaro 94
Venice
. 100
Genoa.. .. 89 Ravenna 94
vi ,. INDEX.

FACTORIE S.
men PAGE PAGE
Altenrolhau .. 101 Etruria .. . 181 Marieberg . . .. 147
Amstel .. .. 101 Marseilles . . u 148
Amsterdam.. .. 101 Ferrybridge .. 137 M eissen .. .,. 149
Andennes .. .. 102 Florence .. .. 138 Menecy Villeroy .. 149
Anspach .. .. 102 Frankenthal . 138 Middlesbrough .. 149
Aprey .. . . 103 Fulda. . .. 138 Montet .. .. 149
Arnstadt .. .. 103 Furstenberg . 139 M ontpellier n. 149
Arms .. .. .. 103 Montreuil ..
Gem .. .. .. 139 Moscow a.. 150
Baden-Baden .. 103 Gotha .. 139 Moustiers ..
Bayreuth . . 104 Grosbreitenbach .. 139
Berlin .. 104 Nantgarw .. 110
I.

Bordeaux .. 106 Ha ue, The. .. 14-0 Naples


Bourg-la-Reine .. 106 Ha densteben .. 140 Nevers .. .. 152
I.

Bow . . .. .. 106 Hanley .. .. 140 Newcastle . .


Bradwell .. .. 108 Herculaneum .. 145 Niederviller .. 152
Bristol .. .. 108 Herend .. 141 N imes .. .. 152
Brussels .. 109 Hesse Cassel .. 141 Nove . . .. .. 152
Burslem . .. 109 Hesse Darmstadt . . 141 Nuremburg. . .. 153
Buen Retire .. 110 Hildersheim . 141 Nymlihenberg . 153
Hdchst . 142 Nyon . . ..
Caen .. .. 110
Caldas .. .. 110 Kid .. .. 142 Oporto .. .. 154'
Capo di Monti .. 110 Kiel .. .. 142 Orleans . 154.
Caseméne .. .. 111 Korzec .. . 142
Castleford .. .. 111 Kreuzen .. .. 142 Paris .. ..
Caughley .. .. 111 Perkenhammer .. 156
Chantilly .. .. 112 Lane End or Long Pinxton .. .. 156
Chelsea .. 113 ton .. .. 143 Plymouth . . .. 157
O O

Clignancourt .. 114 Leeds 143 Popplesdorf


Coalport or Coal Lille .. 143
brookdale .. 114 Limbach 144 Quimper .. . . 157
Cobridge .. 115 Limoges.. . 144
Cologne . .. 115 Lisbon 145 Rauenstein 157
Copenhagen .. 116 Liverpool .. . 145 Regen sberg or Ra:
Criel .. . . 117 Lougport .. 146 tisbon . . .. 157
Loosdrecht . . 146 Rockingham .. 178
Damm .. 117 Lowestoft . . 146 Rouen . . .. 158
Delft .. .. 117 Ludwigsburg 146 ‘ Rudolstadt . . . 158
Derby . 132 Luxembourg 147
Doccia . .. 133 Saintes .. .. 159
Dresden .. .. 134 Madrid .. 110 St. Amend .. . 159
Malta .. .. 147 St. Cloud ..
Elbogen .. .. 137 Marans , .. .. 147 8t. Petersburg . 160
INDEX.

PAGE PAGE PAGE


St. Samson .. .. 161 Swansea .. .. 178 Venice .. 180
Sceaux Penthiévre 161 Swinton .. .. 178 Vienna .. 180
Schaffhausen .. 162 Toulouse .. .. 179 Vifigfigggs
V' .. 181
Schlakenwald .. 162 .. 181
Sévres.. .. 162 'l‘oumay .. . . 139 Volkstadt .. 181
,, Table or'nates l63 TOUI‘S . . . . . . 119 Voisonlieu .. 181
,, Painters’ Marks 166 Tunstall
Turin ..
..
..
.. 179 ,
.. 180 “'edgwoo‘i .. 181
Shelton .. .. 176 Worcester .. 182
Sinceny .. .. 176 Uzes .. .. .. 180 Wurzburg . 184
Stoke-upon-Trent .. 177
Strasbourg .. .. 177 Val sous Mendon . . 180 Yarmouth .. 184
Sunderland .. .. 1713 Varages .. 180 [Zurich . 184

ORIENTAL MARKS.
CHINA.
Cycle .. .. .. 189 Grass .. .. 195‘ Rabbit . 209
Bat .. .. .. 193 Sacred Axe .. . . 209
Inscriptions.. .. 195
Dates .. .. .. 190 1 Shell .. . 209
,, Seal .. .. 191 “Hall” Marks .. 201 Square . 209
Dragon .. .. 193 Syinbolical 0r naments212
Fish .. .. .. 193 Leaf .. .. .. 207 . 214
Table . .
Flower .. .. 193
Fly .. .. .. 191 Numerals .. .. 208 Pa-qua. . 215

JAPAN.
Dates .. .. .. “316 ‘Imadon .. .. 2‘23“ Seto suké . 234
I Imuq'i .. .. .. 223 Soma .. I. 234
Factories and Wares 218 Kaga .. .. .. 223 '1 okio. . .. 235
Akahada .. .. 218 Kiolo .. .. .. 226 Tuyoura .. 235
Asahi .. .. .. 219 Kiomidzu .. .. 228 Tozan. . . 235
Awaji .. .. .. 219 Kishiu . . .. 229 Yei'raku .. 229
Awata.. .. .. 2‘26 Kutani .. . . 2'23 Flower - 236
Arita .. .. .. 221 Minato . . . . 230
Inscriptions. . -- 236
Bank0.. .. .. 219 Mine .. .. .. 230
Bizen . . . . .. 220 Raku .. .. . 230 Leaf -- 236
Hirato . . .. L21 Sada .. .. .. 231 - 239
Square
Hezen.. .. .. 221 Satsuma .. .. 232
Hiahu.. . . .. 222 SrtO .. .. . . 232 Vase- . . . 240
CONTRACTIONS.

The quality of the Ware is described in the first column,


and the mode of marking in the second, as follows :—

maj. ... Majolica. [ inc. ... ... Incised.


h. p. Hard Paste. ‘l imp. Impressed.

s. p. Soft Paste. , p, Pancz'llcd.


pot. ... ... Pottery. pr. ... ... Printed.
sten. . . . .._ Stoneilled.

The third column contains the dates,


Pottery and Porcelain iMarks. I

ANCHOR.

CHELSEA s p imp 174

H .. porgold
red ,,

N J h H

H I I;

91 ° H I l D

POPPLESDORF pot imp 176

Sonnux PENTHIEVRE s p p blue 176.


(6‘0
’i‘E’H
Pottery and Porcelain

eEeHblA SCEAUX PENTIIIEVRE pot p blue

VENICE hp p red 1765

,, This mark varies majt p color 17


very much

COLOGNE .. pot p blue 17—


iii—r
Bow 5P p red 173—
<42 —l—'€** The form and position of
the sword nary.

COALBROOK DALE hp p blue

DERBY CHELSEA w p gel/1 1770

@% or red
Mark“. 3
CM
d} VENICE s p p gold 1']—
Giovanni Marconi 01' color
‘4
tr Woacnsrnn p color 175
M Richard Holdship, decorator
He also worked for Derby
o9qzspo'l’)
I Lousroar ..-. pot imp 1793

., ,, pr blue 1505

Thus road from _


n imperfect impression pot Imp 18—
of name

CALDAS pot imp 18—


CALDAS ' t“ion of Pa l'issy lVare
Imita
ORTUGAI.
go
(’0 .o

: °*4
3 m MIDDLEsBonoueH pot pr bluo
-' I
i -< 20, Pattern mark imp H
2U
4 Pottery and Porcelain
ANIMAL.

Swnc'ron h p p red 1824


The Rackingham Crest.

A MEIsssN pot imp l7—


l NearDresde'n.

h ‘ Hessn CASSEL hp p blue 1763


i

AMSTERDAM b p p blue 1772

u - n n n ,

(Ki.
> FRANKENTHAL h p p blue 1754


? CHINA
On old Nomkin Ware.
1: p p blue

Kill?
ll‘f .. .. ..
Marks. 5

ARROW.

E Bow s p p blue 173—

H (P) PLYMOUTH 11 p ,, H

/ CAUGHLEY .. h p p blue 17—

R. Lnnns pot imp 177


Also with name Hartley, Green & Co.

PARIS h p p blue 1773


De la Courtille (sometimes called >
Torches)

% v on .n 2: >1 n

AXE. ,

‘ ’ BADEN BADEN h p p gold


Widow Sperl. or color 1\ "1758
Pottery and Porcelain

BADEN BADEN h p p gold 1753


Widow Sperl. or color

Dr,er pot p blue 1764


Do 31/1 (The Awe)
Justus Broawer
‘9 fl 9’

I! I, v 1!

BEACON.

GENOA muj. p lo—

BELL.
DEL“ pot p blue 1764
De drei Klohlren. (The 3 bells)
7V. Van der Does

This mark caries so much that it


is called Leaf and Arrow head.
1| ' n n n
Marks. 7

\ BIRD.
I Q \ _
14 J? AMSTERDAM pot p color 1780
f: Han-tog and Brandeis.

é
fig“ ANSPACH hp p blue 1718
Sometimes used without the letter

,| ' II N H

Ssvuns h p 19 red 1810


1st Empire. {iten &
imp

Napoleon III. Emperor hp pr color 1652

LIVERPOOL pot p color 1833


A Liver, the Arms of the Town.
Case, Mort §f Co.
Pottery and Porcelain

HAGUE (The) hp p blue 177


The A rms of.

5P p blue 173

BUTTERFLY.
CHINESE On old Nankin p blue
11v

CADUGEUS.
Dunsnrn
This mark varies very much. 11p p blue 1712

Woncnsrnn 5P p blue 1753


In imitation of Dresden

CIRCULAR MARKS.
FAENZA maj. p blue
And other varieties, and also
without the circle
Marks.
9
® Hocnsr hp p gold 1720
The arms of the Archbishop of or color
Mayertce.

® ,, Dahl pot p color 1794


D M"
g D Dunn Aschafenberg hp p blue 17-—

Dr:er pot p blue 1691


T’Fortuyn Fortune
99 P. Van der Breil

1fEY .
:y Y ,, Marti'n'as Gouda pot :1 1675
'3

® ® FLORENCE sp p color l5—


@ The arms of the Medici.
® ® ® Francis II. A very rare mark.

URBXNO mnj. p color 15——


Orazio Fontana Urbirto fecit.
IO Pottery and Porcelain

hp pr 00101: 1815

@D Gonosnn pot 16...

{PMPQL l MoNTPELIJEn pot imp 18—


u "1
cans?» Lo Vouland.

SIIELToN pot pr color 1820

BERLIN hp pr 1850
Royal Factory

SEVRES hp pr color 1830


The mark was used with the year
date from 1830.

Louis Philippe h p 1834


Mar/es. l l

Suvuna h p pr color 1834

,, Republic 11 p p red 1848

Bunsnmr pot & imp 1768


Wedgwood 8’ Bentley hp

CLAW.

DELFT
4“, De Klaauw (The Claw) pot pblu. 1764
Lambertus Sanderus.

1’ ,1 I) i.

II '. 0! II

'— -' n ‘
' 92'0
1‘2 Pottery and Porcelain

CRESCENT.

Cancnnnv h p. p blue 1750


And without name.

Woncn's'rnn 5P p blue 1751


or gold

Ummm
Also with the initials E. F. B. maj. p blue 1594

NAPLES maj. p blue 17—

Woncssrsa hp p blue 1783


.Mark;. 13

MARIEBERG, Sweden pot & pcolor 1750


Sp
Ehrenreich, 1, n 1759

CROS S.
4. ex BRISTOL hp p in 1773
color

Funm ,. hp 9 blue 1763

VARAGES ... pot p bltcrc 1730


or red

Dnnsnnn ... hp p blue 1720

.1. .1 +
COPENHAGEN hr p color 1772

CASEMENE pol imp 18—


Pottery and Porcelain

BOURG-LA-REINE 11 p
Le Chappelet.

BIus'roI. bP p color 1773

TURIN Vinenf hp imp 1770


Dr. Gioanetti.

CROWN.
Bassnno maj. p color 1540
Also with the signature of
Antonio Terchi 51/ B" Tet-chi

CASTELLI mai. p color 16—

ST. PETERSBURG h p p blue 1801


Alerander I. or color

,, hP p blue 1865
Alexander II. or color
Marks. Is

Panrs 11:1
Porcelaine de la Reine(Antoimtte) p red 1778

VENICE maj 17—

DERBY p gold 177


5P

BRUSSELS hp p color 18—

Woncns'rnn
Barr, Flight 8" Barr. hp irnp 1807

NAPLES maj. p 16—


Crown of various shapes.
sometimes B. G.

SEVRES Charles X. hp '” blue 1829


[6 Pottery and Porcelain

3:(:19 ESE
' is
5 \ SEVREs Charles X. h p p blue 1820

o 30 9

$ LUD\VIGSBURG hp p blue 1758


Also attributed to
m BUEN RETIRO sp p color 176
Madrid. Carlos III. & pot

® Lunwmsncne hp p blue 1758


I Initial of Duke Charles

% NIEDERVILLER h o p blue 1786


3 De Custine, director 8‘ p°t

m n l ' n u

E URBINO maj. ,., 16—


(P) Luca Cambiasi

% Hocns'r h p p gold 1720


& color
.~_ ._ ._
Marks. I7

‘g PARIS h p p blue 1769


CP Charles Philippe, Comte
d’Artois, patron

® FRANKENTHAL .. hp p blue 1761


£4 Carl Theodore '

‘ W DERBY hp p red or 1780


g Dueshury violet

%) ,, with monogram D K
.;><_- Duesbur'y and Kean ,, ,, 1798
'9 1

>2 ,, also without crown ,, n ,,

,, Stevenson 7} Hancock ,, ,, 186

% Hxnnnnsrmm m ,,. hp p blue 1760


18 Pottery and Porcelain

58*
338
~§ti<r
Ed}
@t FULDA hp p blue 1763

Caro n1 MONT], Naples 5? p color 1780


Ferdinandus Rea

PARIS
Dihl and Guerhard hr p red 1780

HESSE DARMSTADT hp p blue 1756

ST.Nicholas
PETERBBURG
I. hp p color 1825‘

@a
at Sinners
Louis-Philippa hp. imp or
pr color
1845

CLIGNANCOUBT ... ... hr at red 1780


Mar/es. I9

® BUEN RETmo, Madrid sp p color 176


D

J1 Lu
753.23 .MABIEBERG, Sweden pztprlt p color 1750

www
N n i) H 1’

MBW

@ am In Mom, Naples sp p red or 1759


(‘9 blue

% ,, n- n n V n
N & imp

In SiavaEs. Napoleon III. s& p color 1854


In this year the mamufacture h p
5%“ of soft paste was resumed

>/<= SAVONA. (P) Guidobo'no maj. ,, 16—

JVZG -

ORLéAns .,, .,. pot p color 1753

C38
20 Pattery and Porcelain

ST. PETERSBURG. Paul I. h p p color 1796

DRESDEN h p p blue 1750

§@
5553+
121%
éél Sachsiche Porzellen Manufacture

LUDWIGSBURG hp p blue 1806

OPORTO hp gold 1790


Vista Allegra or color 1

WORCESTER hp p color 1793


filly/gm”, Flight and Barr

:9"$ 6 LIVERPOOL pot . a


1mp 1796
g 3 pr color

DOME.
FLORENCE .,. s p p color 1580
A rare mark
Marks. '2 1

3 DOT.
"o * LIMBACH hp p 1761
O

o
0 0° URBINO ti: FAENZA mnj. p 16
o

ERMINE.
:1 STOKE-ON-TRENT .. hp p color 185—
Minton & gold

FISH.
ac. ’r/ @ GENOA maj. p 16—

w N‘zon h p p blue 1790

LILLE .. hp sten & 1784


The Dauphin. Patron p red

CHINA hp p blue 969


Old Nankin ware to 1106
This mark varies much
Pottery and Porcelain

CHINA hp p blue 969


to 1106

n u. ” I! ,1

FLEUR‘DE-LYS.
Bow sp p blue 173—

Caro m MONTI, Naples sp p blue 1736


Removed to
BUEN Rn'rmo, Madrid ,, ,, 176—

MARSEILLES pot pr color 1777

I, U P In u

ROUEN n p 00101- 1542

u u- ... u T) I
Marks. 23

% ST. 0mm) sp imp 1702

Sevres Siwnns h p p blue 1830


50

FLOWER.
CHINA. (P) Sesamum hp p color 1403
to 1424

w ,, .. ,, 9 red 1426
& gold to 1435

$5 a: H - n n n

,, (P) Emblems of longevity ,, 1) blue


[Ii/use maer am from, old
Namk'in ware,- date un
ce'rtvlin

%%
24 Pottery and Porcelain

at. CHINA hp p blue

tier
ask

JAPAN. On old and modern


ware in imitation of old
Nanhin patterns hp "

n I»
R
_/,
ks
Marks. 25

GRASS.
\I CHINA. This mark is known
3“ as the “ Grass Mark,” but it
is meantfor a water plant hp p blue 960
to 963
,, u. -- u n n

I
” ..- n n n
,..

y n "' '" 1: H n

HAYFORK.
Rnnonsmn'r hn 11 0010: 1758

O
.0 . .. ,, p blue, .,

\< 11
Also Wonons'rsr
Pottery and Parcelai n

HATCHET (see AXE).

HEAD.
DELFT pot p color

HEART.
Mous'rmns. Olery pot p color 17—

_
NAPLES maj 10—

ST. SAmsou on pot 183—

HORN.
CHANTILLY 5}) p blue 1725
or imp

LUDWIGSBUB: hp p red or 1758


blue
Marks. 27

LAB EL.
OnLnANs h & p color 1753
Gerault Daraubert s p

LEAF.
BERLIN

5
r
titties“
e This mark is frequently painted
in green or gold over the Berlin
sceptre on damaged pieces

GROSBREITENBACH hp p color 1770

,, Sometimes a mere flourish ,, ,, ,,

CHINA hp p blue
A great variety of leaves are
found on old Nankin ware,
the mark was imitated by
Dr:er and other factories
28 Pottery and Porcelain

CHINA.

(P) Bamboo leaves, mark of a hp p blue 1573


Factory in King-te-chin 1619

JAPAN. On were painted with hp p blue


Chinese patterns

LETTERS.
PARIS. Le boeuf p rec 177
A is also found on Bow ware

ANSPACH. This mark varies hp p blue 1718


'very much and sometimes
looks like crossed swords
Mark: 29

I DELFT pot p blue 1764

'7 D De Griekse A (The Alpha)


‘5 J. T. Dickst'raat or Dexfra
I

4%—
Pwvw
? n " u I, n u

‘ DELFT pot p blue ,,


A K De Witte Stew (The White Star)
' ‘ A Kiell
* I, ' ’3 n I)

AK 7
N ALTENROLHAU h p &, imp 1829
A- . A Nowotny Director pot ‘

URBINO maj p 160


A Alphonso Patanazzi

AR ARRAS s p p blue 1782

11ij H
37M DEI-FT .,. pot p‘ I?“
Z 1)
30 Pottery and Porcelain

WORCESTER 11D 1110 1793


BB Barr. B is also on Bow ware

MARSEILLES pot p color 1769


w Bonnefo'y

wilt DELFT
I. Brouu'er pot p blue 175

SAIN TES .. pot 1538


Attributed to Bernard Pallissy

BRISTOL hp p color 1773

GUBBIo
Maestro Giorgio maj p color 15—

Lnxmmonno pot p color 1806


Bock &hp.

Bound LA Roms: 5 P p blue 1773


& pot
DELFT ... " pot p blue
Marks. 3l

B BRYREUTH not
pot p blue
blue 15—

8' f DELFT
(?) Berghem

DELFT pot p blue


0 D (?) Van der Does."

ST. PETERSBURG hp h 176


c c Catherine

@l BAYREUTH hp p 0010!: 1744

#- DELFT — u. - pot p blue 17—


De Pacmw (The Peacock)
.m ( ?) Com el'ws B 0 umce ste r

6.2 COALBROOK DALE hp p blue 1787

(,1) LIMOGES .. h‘ p ,,
p red I784
1773

PARIS
cal-L Oha/nou
3: Pottery and Porcelain

*c + SINCENY .. pot p color 177


+ S+ Joseph to Ce'rf

DERBY sp p red 1756


$ Dnesbnr'y
CAUGHLEY '
.D (A Crescent, not a, Letter, hp p blue 1750
though often mistaken for
one)
LILLE pot vp color 174
Dorez _
@D Room: pot Ip color 15—

DELFT pot p blue 1764,


DEX (do Grtekse A) (The Alpha.) ‘
T. Dextm
b]; K DELFT pot p blue ,,
- (de Dubbetde Schenkkan)
4 (The Double Can)

V MENIJ‘CY VILLEROY ap p color 1735


D Due de Villero'y, patron &1 inc

Q ST. PETERSBURG ... hp p blue 1762


v Catherine Ii
Marks. 33

g ST. PETERSBURG hp p blue 1762


nK P. Kornilofi'e

m E MARIEBERG pot p color 1759


\/“ Ehrenreich, director & s P
14 ‘6'
DELFT pot p 1764
E B S T’ jorzgue Moriaans Hofl't
(The young Moors head.)

BRISTOL hp p color 1773


I (Imitation Oriental.)

F FLORENCE .. maj ,, 17—


(A late mark on Fine Pottery.)

‘ FAENZA mad , 14.—


E -s\ (Many varieties of the letter
("‘8 found.)
ad FURSTENBERG hp p blue 1750

,, ... I" Q! a

3‘ F is also found on Bow wars

DELFT .- pot p blm


34 Poltery and Porcelain

URBINO. Xanto maj. p color 15—

1w
Feb/4 Mous'rmns. Fe'raud pot p color 178

FDV NAPLES
Fab. del Vecchio, Napoh' muj. imp
N &hp 17- -

H FLORENCE. For Firenze maj. p

EP Unnmo. Patanazzi maj. p 1608


1611

FR NEVERS pot p color 1730

PERKENHAMMER. Fischer &


F8<R Reichembach hp » 1802

{ISL GUBmo m maj. ,, 1536

|536
CAFFAGIOLO. G is found on
G 1 Bow wan II I L507
Marks. 35
NAPLES. Gtustiniani ... maj. imp 85 17—
p color

DELFT
GOTHA
Gum ... ... hp p blue 1780

gG 175—

6-B-c pot p red

GOG n ‘“ ' n

"179
,, Toude Moa-iaans Hoflt.
(The old Moor’s head) pot p blue 1764
Geertrny Verstetle.

E,
MI
I
:r: STRASBOURG. Hannong hp 1752
&pot

Puma. Ha/rm-ong p color 1773

NEVERS. Henri Borne 7_ p color

DELFT. Jacobns Haldea'Adr'iens


500“ ... p color 1765
36 Pottery and Porcelain

H. F NAPLES Ina-j. p 17—

? DELFI‘ ... ... pot p red


9 iv a;
o a. o,‘
NUREMBERG not p blue 15—
Hans Kraut Villingen

H DELFT pot p blue 1764


4 Hendrick Van Hoorn
DELFI‘ pot p blue ,,
T’Hart (The Hart)
Hendrick van Miadeldijh

IAG LISBON pot imp 18—

1 DM DELFT pot p blul. 1764


\-_\_ (P) JaCobus de Mildo

J K) g DELFT ... pot p blue


W
Marks. 37

I K DELFT .. pot p blue 1680


*0 Jam Kuylich

I p (P) PESABO. (F) In Pesaro maj p


I

DELFT pot p blue 1764


E2 De Griekse A (The Alpha)
7 J. T. Dikstraat or Deactra.

lw DELF'I‘ u as

J Dunn ,, ,,

' PARIS hp p blue 1790


Jacob Petit

LIMOGES pot p red 18»


J. Pouyat

VOISONLIEU pot at color 1835


Jean Zeigler I & 1m?

Dmu'r Pot P blue


(9) Jam KuyT/ich
Pottery and Porcelain

DELFT
Jan Kwylich pot p blue 1680

KIEL
Buck/would, director p gold 177 -
or color
A. Lethamer, decorator

DRESDEN hp p blue

DELFT pot

LIMBAGH hp p red 1761

MONTELUPO
Given by Jacquemart, Wolf's maj.

Brush
BRUSSELS hp p color 1791
L. Cretté
DELFT
De La/mpetka/n (The Pitcher) pot p blue 1764
(PK Widow G. Browwer
Marks. 39

BonnEAux
Lahens and Rateau 11p p color 18—

DELFT
(7) Van Dammelar pot p blue

CAFFAGIOLO mini 1) 15—

SINCENY pot p color 1864


Moulin

PAnIs
Morel a Paris hp p blue 1773

GUBBIO
Maestro Giorgio maj 15

” no M

Loosnrmon'r
,, be p blue 1772
Manufactur oude Loosdrecht 8: imp
Moll director
Potter] and Porcelain

Crown
Rocha Sea/re pot p gold
or color

DELFT pot p blue 1639


De Metaale Pot (The Metal Pot)
Lambertus Cleflius

DELFT
NEVERS ... Pot ,.

pot p color 15—

'52? GUBBIO
Vincent'io or Cencio son of“
111115 P 153

N, Maestro Giorgio

05}? GUBBIO ' N

hp p blue 1773
O BOURG-LA-REINE

LILLE
Petit ‘ .. pot p color 1778
1?
Marks. 4,:

.P p LIVERPOOL ... pot p gold 1760


Pennington & h p or color
& imp
PINXToN Ip p color 1791
P These letters are ascribed to
PP Pinaton, but the ware was
seldom marked

[P GUBBIO maj p 15—


’ ?Maestro Perest'ino

I! DELFT pot p

m CAFFLGIOLO maj p 15—

PA ROUEN pot p color 15—

PB C NIMES ,, imp 183 -


Plantier, Bonconrant 4' ()0.

PP ROUEN pot p color 15—

f “W DELFT on m pot p blue 1764


' P '0 Doom
4.2 Pottery and Porcelain

\D‘B DELFT pot p blue 1691


Q: P van der Breil

PVM Dr:er pot p blue 1764


- —F- P mm Meemm

gfii, ‘ DELFT ., P brown

Q MARSEILLES pot p black 1777


R Robert 85 h p

R REGENSBERG on RATISBON hp p blue 17%

,, hp p blue 17—

R—n Rsumnsrmm hp p blue 1760

R$ DELF'I.‘ pot ..

R'VHL COLOGN'I ... pot p blue 16—


WT‘
Marks. 4.3

S CAUGHLEY h p p blue 1750


Salopiam,

S SGHLAKENWALD h p p color 180\

'80 SINCENY pot p color 1733

SEVBES on white ware hp pr green 1833

., m Scratch denotes that


the piece left the factory
undecorated. ,, n 186 .
ST. CLOUD pot & p blue 173—
T Trou Director 5p

S X Scmux PENTHIIVRE ap inc I750

Ve n fi- Vmuc: maj
&hp p color 15—
17_
BERLIN hp p blue 1751

8 Wegeley, founder
+4 Pottery and Porcelain

PLYMOUTH hp p blue 176


Probably the usual
sign Jupiter,
pencilled

WORCESTER sP p blue 1751

’1
And others in H n

oriental marks

DELFT pot p blue 1764


De Twee Wildem
Savages) Willem Van Beek

DELFT pot p blue 1764:


Widow van der Briel

URBINO mud p 15—


F”; Xanto

n
maj X p blue ,
N red lustre

552 mad P u
Marks. 4.5

’ o
flg" Gnnnro ... ..- mai P 15

% Zunrcn hp p blue 1759

Dunn .. .. pot p 1765


Z‘ DEX: Deatra zoon

LINES.
' ALT HALDENSTEBEN hp imp 17—

”— CoqrieNgaoniu th t d hp p blue 1772


’0' can , e grea an'
little Belts

S ST. Pnrmnsnum hp p blue 17—


_- ,, ,- ., ,,

MITRE.
WURZBUBG hp p blue 17-
46 Pottery and Porcelain

MONOGRAMS.

wfii
gééee‘oe
to LILLE e. pot p color

AMSTERDAM
Daeuber director
or Amstel hp p blue 178

PARIS
Gros Caillou Advemlr Lamarre hp p color 1773

D1:er pols p blue 1774

ANDENNES
A Der Vamdor Woart pot imp 18—

Moscow
A Gardner hp p color 17—

GUBBIO maj 1519


Giorgio Andreoli 1537

De witte Ster (The White Star) pot


DELYI.‘ 1) blue 1764

A K'ielle
Marks. 47

K4 Durmr pot p blue 1764


A Kielle

“A ,, n a »

A m m u. » SI n

R Moscow hp p color 1830


A Popoflr

R APREY m ... Pot P black 1750

W n ... I" n. n n 1!

DELFT pot p blue 1764


R De twee Scheepjes (The two
Ships) Ant Pennis
A] Moscow hp p color 1830
A Popofl

DELFT ... pot p blue 1680


Keyser & Pynaker

g ., -.. '0' u. n I! n
.1; oo Pottery and Porcelam

DELFT
Keyser 4‘ Pynaker pot p 00101 1680

DRESDEN hP p blue 1709


$§A>Ee§¥§®% Augustus Rex

DRESDEN p blue 18—


A modem mark & imp

PARIS
Reverend pot p blue 16-—

DELFT 16—

ANSPAGH 0r Frankenthal hp
.T. A. Hannong

TOUR-s
Victor Avisseau hp 184

1
T
\
\ NEVEBS
Jacques Bou'rdu pot p color 1602
Marks. 49

e lwr‘éie' ‘Luxmmouse
Boch V p color
l 1806

l \1760
NIEDERVILLER
Beyerle' founder p blue

MARANS p color 1740


Jean Pierre Roassencq

NYON
Pierre Malhausen decorator p blue 18—

COALBROOK DALI 11!) p blue 1787

Unamo
A uim'ilar mark is dated 1549. maj 15— ~

STOKE-ON-TRENT 11p pr color 185—


Consume

SEVRES .5. hp p blue 1824


"6%“"52 Charles K.
Pottery and Porteloz'n

VENICE
Probably Gia/n Andrea and maj P 15—

Pietro Bertolini

COALBROOK DALE hp p blue 1787

DIRUTA
PARIS ...
m mai

hp precl 1784
Ghanou

URBINO maj 15-—


Nicolo d’ Urbino

DELFT
De Paanw (The Peacock) p blue 1651
DRN
Jaeobus do Milde 1764

“'2.

we
. Marks. :1

m DIEUTA maj p 16—

E L' FLORENCE maj p 14—


FAPEBAT
ELF NEVERS ... pot p color 1636
Den/[s Lefebvre

55' DELPI‘ pot p blue 1680


Johannes Mesch

.AZA URBINO maj ,, 16—

% Tounowsm pot p 0010! 1820


Fouqué Amom: & Co.

g % LILLE p01: p color 1729


F. Boussemart

KREUSSEN ... pot p color 1610


Caspar Vest 1500
Ha/ns Christophe Vest
fl PARIS . . h p p red 1780
Dihl <9 Guerhard, Duo d’An
gouléme patron
Pottery and Porcelain

.7 NUB‘EMBERG ... pot p blue = 1667


George I/tebolt

DELFT
De dre'i porcele'y'ne Fleschjes pot ~p blue ' 1764'
(The 3 porcelain bottles)
Hugo Browwer

NUREMBEEG
NAPLES
DELm‘
Jam Jan zoon
> Kwyblbh pot imp

moi p 17—

pot p blue 1680

H "l u“ 7) 1| )1

Noammnmne
Ha/na Kra/at pot p blue 15—

STRASBOU’RG & FRANKENTHAL pot p blue 17—


Pout Hartmmg &hp & inc 7
» .mrkI-s

GUBBIO H .3.

eknewew§ Hiqaolltto Rombariotti

Srmsnouxo & FRANKENTHAL


Hannong

FRANKENTHAL & STRASBOURG


‘ J. ($- P. Hannong

NEVERB
Jacques Seigne 17—

NIEDEBVILLEB 1802
Lamfray

anucn (P) 176—

Puma
Gros Caillou I _1773
54 Pottery and Porcelain

SEVRES 51! p blue 1753


The letter indicates the date
See Se'wes

“- " hp p blue 1814


Louis XVIII.

Mows'rmas Olery pot p 0010:

REGENSBERG or Ratisbon hp p blue

Cor.on p blue

HEREND ... hp p blue 1839


Maurice Fischer

DELF'I‘
De Metaale Pot (The Meta] pot p blue

Pot)
Marks. 55

we FAENZA . mod p 154

W “' '" N I! i,
\W‘

W n In on n n

Umamo mad p 15—


N'icolo d‘ Urbino
haStho
DELFT pot p blue 1680
Q K le'yuove’n
ISM I
Unamo maj p 15—
I- ’ Orazio Fontcma,

CLIGNANCOURT hp at red 1775


26") {1” Monogram of the patron Louis
9‘, Stam'slas Xam'er Comte (a
Provence

Dunn . pot p 16—


(7) Philip Wouvermam
56 Pottery and Porcelain

ngeggeed DELFT pot p blue ' 1680


J. Pynaker, O. Keyser o A.
P'ynaker

DELFT pot p blue 1764


De Romeyn (The Roman)
\4
Peth 'van Meemm

DELFT pot ,, ' 1691


P van der Briel

DELF'I‘ .. pot p blue 1764


De porceleyne Fles (The por
celain bottle) Pieter ran
Doorrw

SEVRES h p color 1792


Re'publique Franeaise & Sp

GUBBIO maj p 16—


(t) Salimberw

Couumoox DALE .. h p '1861


Caughley Swansea 4' Nantgarw '
Marks. 57

fl DELF'I pot p blue 165-—


Sa/muel Piet Roerder

$ DIRUTA mag' p I6—

; CAFFAGGIOLO maj p 15—

a a I ,9 ,’ I,

L ) ST. AMAND pot p 175


Fauquez

3Q STOKE-ON-TRENT hp p blue 179—


M M'inton or red

. 1} CASTELLI maj p 17—


' Sa/uerio Grue

DELFT pot p blue 1580


kw? Suter van der E've'n
Pottery and Porcelain

SCHAFFHAUSEN
Tobias Stim'mar pot p color 1660

DELFT
Antoni
FAENZA .. . Ter Hmnpelin maj 15—

fifizfl§$$$ pot p blue 1650

NEVERS
Tite Ristori pot p color 1850

DELFT
Jan ran der Kloot Jan Zoon pet p blue 1764

DELFT .. .. pot p blue 1580


(P) Van der Even
0l
eéfiz'e ,9 n. "

PESARO
(P) Giovanni Vejaso maj 15—

MARSEILLEB
Veuve Perrin pot p black 1760
Marks. 59

"R URBINO muj p blue 16—

DELFT pol; p blue 1764


“D (1’) ann der Does

=a MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.

CHINA hp p blue
Nankin ware

NAMES.
w. Adm, TUNSTALL pot imp 1780
Astbury. SHELTON ... pot imp 17—

Elliot), " pot imp 1750

Bgiiign‘l' LANE END pot imp 18—

Bul 99“?“ FAENZA ... mod p 15—


in, Guam

372735,?“ Woacns'rm hp pr 1807


6o Pottery and Porcelain

Enoch Booth: TUNSTALL pot ' imp 1750

p wBra/Imelda SWJNfron h P pr red 1807


&pot

DELFT
Verboom painter pot p color 1680

BPATbEB'b ST. PETERSBURG hp pr colon


1v827
KOPHHAOBBIX'JS Korneloflski Brothers

ammo/r SWANSEA hp p color 178—

iiOIardMCho ffer: LIVERPOOL pot p color 1751

Chamberlain. WORCESTER hp p color 178


& imp

GMld. TUNSTALL pot 1763

Christian. Lrvmwoon pot imp 1765

60W _Cou.rmoox DALE hpr p blue 1787


' l
Marks. 61
.—-,-—-._. -.___..__

Copeland. STOKE-ON-TRENT hp imp 1847


& pot
Copeland and Garrett, 1833
Copeland, late Spade, 18417

Dagoty. PARIS hp p red 179—

Davenport. Loneron'r
Plums...
FAENZA (P) pot imp 1793

Dihl. hp p red 1780

bONfiIORSIO maj 1489


1e39
Dunn
De porceleyne Schootel (The pot p blue 1764

\Dléilv porcelain plate)


J. 'van Dunn

Eastwood. HANLEY
Bmwmm'. pot 179

Elers. pot ' imp 1690

Feuillet. hp p red 179


62 Pottery and Porcelain

Flight. WORCESTER. hp p color 1783

Flight 7} Barr
n 1793

Flight, Barr
& Barr. ,, .u ,, 1807

DELFT
T. Fortuyn (Fortune)
K
ZlCAm an:
pot p blue 1691

P van der Breil

Moscow
Galena. Fabrica Gospodina hp imp’ color 18—
(I) l‘ & pot
TyAI/IHA The Factory of our Lady)

Moscow
Gardner hp imp 17—
I'APM'IE P'b

Ginori. Doccu Sp imp 1735

' [fm'emi NAPLES


Giustiniani Brothers maj imp 1?,

I‘QN
Grainger, Lee WORCESTER. hp p red 1800
& Co.
GRATAPAGLB
TURIN (so attributed) muj p 17—
FE :TAVR
Guerhard et PARIS ... .1.. be st red 1780
Dihl.
Marks.

Hackwood. LANE
SHELTON
END pot imp

Harley. pot mm 1809


&hp
Heath. DERBY
LIVERPOOL pot film 1760

lIe'rcuZaneu/m. imp 1796

T. 4- J.Holl'ins. Summon pot imp 18—

Housel. PARIS
“ De la reine ” hp p color

A.&E.Keel'ing. TUNSTALL pot imp 1770

KiEB'b KIEF pot p color 178—


I5

Hans/1’I'duf NUBEMBERG pot p color 1578


1578
Lakin & Poole. HANLEY pot imp 177—

J. Lockett. LANE Em) pot imp 17—

Mason’s
HANLEY, Lane Dolph near pot pr color 1813
Ironstone
China.
o4
' Pottery and Porcelain

E. Mayer. HANLEY pot imp 177

May’ &Newbfl‘. LANE END pot imp or 18—


pr color

T_ Maven Sroku-ou-TBENT... pot imp 182

Mm-gh. ‘ HANLEY pot imp 178

B06

“95"? STOKE-ON-TRENT ... hp pr 18—


Farcelam

WWW
Nash PARIS hp st red 1783

New)“ HANLEY .. pot Imp 178

Neale. " '- PM? imp 177G

Neale & Cc, " - -- n a, 1778

, N DELFT ... pot p blue 1651


)W uw
'
Pennington LIVERPOOL hp unp & 1760
&V pot p color

Phillips.
Lonerom‘ pot imp
l
Marks. 65

Phillips & Co. SUNDERLAND pot pr color 1780

B. Plant. LANE END pot imp 177—

Moscow .. hp p color 1830


HOIIOBbl A Popofl:

pom/at & PARIS hp p red 1773


ltussinger. De la Courtille

Reid <9 00. LIVERPOOL .. hp imp 175

Rockingham. SWINTON pot imp 1757


&hp

Sadler&Green. LIVERPOOL .. pot pr color 1756


&hp '

William Sans. BURSLEM pot imp 167-}

“Na! SEVRES sp at red 1803


S Ewes National Factory

Mlméfi ’7 h p st red 1806


desev‘rei Imperial Factory
66 Pottery and Porcelain.

Jm Szvmzs .. sp p color 1792


Republic

Shaw. LIVERPOOL pot imp 170—

It. Shawe. BURSLEM .. pot imp 173—

Shorthose. HANLEY .. pot imp 1770

Shorthose & ,, . pot imp 18—


Heath.

T. SNEYD. ,, pot imp 18—

SPODE, STOKE-O N-TREN'I.‘ pot imp 1770


hp p red
Steel. Bone:me Pot’ imp ls—

.»8’2'8377/ DELFT .. pot p 1650

THA'KI ,, pub p 1764.

wHoMAg BURSLEM ... pot in relief 1670


T01? T Also Ralph Toft

TURNER. LANE END pot imp 1276


67

Wflaalc' DELFT .. {Jot 1660

1769
7! pot 1769
%)W1)!”
Voyez. Common pot imp 1773

Aaron Wood. Bunsmm


I! pot imp 1750 '

Enoch Wood. pot imp 1783


lVoocl d!
Caldwell. ’1
1790

WEDcwoon. ,. hP 175—
& pot
chdgwood 11
1768
Bentley. $7

Wedgwoodg-Co Fconrnnmez 11 p
& pot

NUMERAL.
CAuommY
There are many other numerals hp p blue 177

thus pencilled, to resemble


Oriental marks
68 Pottery and Porcelain

l MALTA... pot '18—

4i NEVERB pot p color


O

PLYMOI'TH hp p blue 176—


This mark, the sign of Jupiter,
Q] i is often considered as 2, 4
I. joined

‘2 ST. CLOUD pot p color 1700


B B J. B. Chicannoau

‘8 DELFT pot
____

é ORB.
BERLIN hp [1 bl no 1830
KPM
|
I1; SAVONA maj

1'. L 5
Marks.

A GUBBIO Luaj
cg.
¢| ORIENTAL.

%c%%
rare
e l
CHINA
011] Nankin ware. Sacred axe
hp p blue

Precious things. Instru u


ments of writing

Kwei, or emblems of in
Mandarin
7O Pottery and Porcelain

CHINA
Instrument used as a. tuning hp p blue

% fork

i595 DELFT
In imitation of the ‘ six mark ’ pot p blue 18—
1m)?

OVAL.
ANDENNES
B. Lammens 49' CO. pot imp 18—

Uzcs
Francois Pichon pot imy

(?) On
VENICE
modern ware ma.) 18—

Lanrjorois
MONTET pol; .mp 18—

PEBARO AND r'AENZA moi lo—


Marks. 7|

’@;‘ PESARO AND FAENZA maj p 15

VAL sous MENDON’ pot imp 179


Mittenhofl" rs- Monrot & PT

COLOGNE pot. p blue 16—

PALETTE.
PARIS .._ h p p gold 18-—
\ Schlossmacher I

PICKAXE.
R LEEDS pot p color 1770

PIPE.
x ARNSTADT pot p color 176—

‘ ' n m n h n

% VINCENNEF . h p ,, 178
\
2 Pottery and Porcelain

ROSE.
@ CAUGIILEY ... .. b p p color 179!)
J. Rose & CO.

9 DELFT pot p blue 176;


@ De Roos (the Rose), Dirk van
der Does

@ n I, m ,1 'I II

DVD

SCEPTRE.
BERLIN hp p blue 176*

i g, .... ... n- n n I'

SHELL OR HELMET.
“% CHINA 11 p p blue
Marks 73

élcrmemifiéi CHINA .. hp p blm

" u. -u u- “ n

SHIELD.
ANSPACH bp p blue 1718

NYMPHENucno h p imp 1758

SAVONA maj p 16—


Sometimcs with initials G.
A. G., (7) Gian Anto. Guillo
bone, G. S. 4' B. C'.

,, Girolamo Salomono
74 Pottery and Porcelain

SAVONA maj 16—

DELFT
VOLKSTADT pot p red

hp p color 1762

And Shield alone with Cross.


TURIN mej 15—

Arms of Savoy

VlENNA hp imp or 1774


p blue

SHI P.
COBRIDGE pot p blue 18—

SQUARE MARKS.
CHINA
For other Square Marks, see hp p blue

Oriental, used also by


VVORCESTER. and DRESDEN
Marks. 75

r3] DRESDEN‘ .. l1 p { blue 17—


Imitatton Oriental

g ,, On Bb'ttger ware n h 11
AH

“ URBINO maj p 15—


"I
‘91-: Orazio Fontana

.2 ,, ,, In Greek Characters ., ,, ,,

STAR.
* DocCIA sp p color 1735

* NOVE hp p gold or 1750


color

9]/\_ DELFT pot p red


76 Pan”), and Porcelain

SUN.

ST. CLOUD pct pblue 1702


&sp

SAVONA .. .v. 1‘15 .- 16—

A —

>S< SWORD.
CAUGHLEY h p g qun 1750

x DRESDEN ... h p p blue 172 L)

.. u .. 1730
Marks. 77
___'._.__‘ “

DRESDEN be p blue 1770

19 Marcolini Manager 1796


71%

on White Porcelain—for
Sale " 17—
scratched
through
on imperfect pieces
Iz><uz><.
><|l
><|
7? Pottery and Porcelain

$ DRESDEN h p go blue 1750


é Brith Manager

74 M n m ... ,,

B ELBOGEN ll p mp 1810

.W_ MONTREUIL ,, p blue 18—


Tinet

i '4 TOURNAY sp p gold 175*


or blue
.y

T
(P) CAUGHLEY hp p blue 177
Attributed to Worcester

Woncms'rua op p blue
Marks. 79

\|b
A WORCESTER sp 11 blue \7—

TABLE.
CHINA . hp ;.

..3
,, ... .. , ,

W ,, imitated by DERBY ,, w

/.
TOWER.
TOURNAY s p |- blue [75
80 Pottery and Porcelain

E VINCENNES 59 p color 17~—

TRIANGLE.
Bow, CHELSEA & DERBY sp& p gold 80 17—
color &
imp & inc

BRISTOL an 11p imp 18—


& bis

$0<E3>®> _ DOOOIA 51‘ p gold


& imp
1735

KOEzEc hp p blue 1803

N YMPHENBE no hp p blue 1753

QUIMI’ER ... pot imp 1809


Hulaudie‘:c
Marks. 8|

TRIDENT.
‘e-E BOW A p p blue 173

59— ” III to n n ’1

HR
Ea‘lj’fi: ,, the triangle imp k. ,, ,,
.v‘ “"

LP CAUGHLEY hp p blue 17—

CArFAGIOLo maj ,, 15
% Also attributed to Faenza 4'
Gubbz'o

SWANSEA SWANSEA hp imp 18—

And one trident

VASES.
BRISTOL ... b p pr blue 18—
The Cross imp

JAPAN ... ... h p imp 18—


color
82 Pottery and Porcelain

15 2,5‘
0 a Gunmo maj p blue 15—
fl :3"
WINDMILL.
X CLIGNANCOURT .. _ e8 hp ; color 1’775
Varies greatly
Majolica. 83

MAJOLICA.

THE manufacture of Italian Pottery—generally known


as Majolica or Rafl'aelle ware—was f01 many years under
the patronage of the ‘Urbino family, and was principally
carried on at Urbino, Gubbio, Pesaro, Oastel Durante, Faenza
and Diruta.
The were is coarse and bad, but it is valued for the
decorations, which are from designs by Rafi'aelle, Michael
Angelo, Guilio Romano, and other great masters ; and some
are thought to be painted with their own hands.
Marryat says: “It was the usual custom for the Artists
to write the title of the subject, in blue characters on the
back of the dish, but rarely to affix their names and place of
abode.” The examples given will, it is hoped, be sufficient
for the identification of such marks as may be met with in
duplicate, those that are given in type are too large for
engraving in a small handbook.
84 Pottery ana’ Porcelain.

MAJOLICA.

BAssANo, Venetia 1540


M Also with the signature of Antonio Terchi and
B°- Terchj

CAFFAGIOLO, Tuscany 1507


The ordinary mark is thus made, it is S. P. in t
monogram, sometimes the P is alone given.

heiggml. ,, The trident is used both with and without


above. The name is also signed In Gafugolo ,,
*5

$ ,, This mark is also attributed to Faenza and


Gubbio ... u

G ,, (P) for Gafagiolo ... ... .,

42A ,, ... ,,
Majolica. 85

.524. >
CASTEL DURANTE, Urbino founded 1361
The earliest known date is 12 Sep., 1508
a" grab“ Sebastiano d' Marforio signs and dalcs a piece in 1519
mm“ Francesco Durantino ,, n 1533

FaitoinBotega ,, The Chevalier Piccolpasso was director of a


di Piccohmsso factory about 1550

Diyagilostilslil ., On Modern Ware, in imitation of the old


.. , ,

w CASTELLI, Naples 14—


So attributed by Passeri 16—

,, Saver'io Grue. Also initials and name 17—

L' G. P. ,, Luigi Grue ... ,,


,, Fra°~ Ant°~ Grue ... ... 1722

G. Rocca di
Castelh', 1732. " "' "32

Gentih' P. ,, nu ... ... 17—

. l S 4 5“
Indaufa DIBUTA, Papal States 15—
“R‘gw‘i Other varieties of this signature are found
'5:
86 Potlery and Porcelain.

'5 5 4
jnlh’ru-K" DIBUTA, Papal States ... M 15—

¢ ,’ I" "I ‘0! '0.

$ ,, Given by Darcel as a mark of this factory ,,

FAENZA
MSW-anamoth
HONOREM-DHCT - . 0 -
mermcmus On one of the earllest pleces of MaJohca, known 1475
VECXT'FIERFAWLY]

how-3:?8h ‘ ,, (P) Gubbio. Supposed to be Maestro Giorgio 14—

E -$\\ ,, Man y varieties of the letter F are found D!

Fata
I (J in Faenz
P t n, ,, Casa Piroto—The name of a factory of
n 'awa, £10 a
I Fnenza 15—
Majalica. 87
I FAJENZA

And without the circle .. ... 15—

® ,, Also attributed to Pesaa‘o _, _,_ ”

w ,, Many other varieties of this mark are found ,,

Balga am I,
Also initials B. M. 154‘
WLCL’IIQYOL

9!
And
(P)BBaldasa/ra
without the T
Pottery ana Porcelain.

FAENZA
Attributed to Baldasara

F. R. ,, In a square, and initials only no "

1
FLORENCE, Tuscany 1

Luca della Robbia and his family made their


famous ware here until about 1560
This mark and another, LR FA, 1454, is attributed
D L- "1'29
TAcaBAT to Luca, but both are very doubtful

F. ,, A late mark on fine pottery ... . 17—

El n ,, (P) for Fire'nze ... ‘ ,_

F0121!
Also without date. and with signature 15—
Fata in Forli, of
1542. Leucadius Solambrmus, 1555

I L1 Botega d
M0 Jero da u u.
Forli.
Majolim. 89

GENOA 15—
The beacon is well known, it varies very much

. .
$7 //’ ,, Gwen by Demmm ... -.. 16

GUBBIO, Urbino 14—


Giorgio Andreoh', afterwards known as Maestr
Giorgio, first used the beautiful metallic lustre
which caused the Gubbio were to be so valued

g _., Also ascribed to him. .. n

u n n- In N. 1519
90 Pottery and Parcelain.

Bk' Guano—Maestro Giorgio


a \I

6? BA, Merchants’ mark... 1528


humane“?
I72."

I51 1
,5 ° ,, ... .0. 1532

. 0
M ¢ ,, With merchants’ mark 15—

O
m'g n 0.0 m ... "- ,,

9 o

0
"7% ,, Attributed to Maestro aim» .. ... ,,

15;?
‘ ,, Vincentio or Ceucio, son of M°~ Giorgio w

k,
Majolica. 9:

I 5 7’ GUBBIO
N Also N. G. 15—

’.‘3 ,, (P) Maestro Perestino. Also signature in full ,,

i ,, (P) Salimbem ... m ... 16—

% ,, (P) Hipollito Rombarioth' ... -- ,,

F B
,, (P) Rovigo ... ... 15—

I 5' 3 6
M. A. I. M. ,, 7!

i1 Loni, Lombardy . \ 16—


And with the initials only
lfil‘l I764
92 Pottery and Porcelain

$567M!» MILAN, Lombardy ... m a... 17—


FBEC And name only

0'2.
13 a8, .- ». a. a ,,
415/: no

G. R. ,, On modern pottery ... .. 18—

11 . ] MONTELUPO, Tuscany .,, a 16—


1627. Vuriously written

M“ LP" ,, With signature Rafiaello Girolamo


1639.
,, Given by Jacquemart p black
In“. (P) Wolf’s brush modern

NAPLES ... .— an 15—

,, Crown of various shapes, some


times B. C. 16—
Majalim. 93

NAPLES.
N ,, And Ferdinando del Vecchio Napoll' imp in full 17—

H.F SO attributed

"iutm
(I. Giustiniam' Brother: imp 17—

& p color

,, And in outline ... p blue 17—

P d PADUA, Venetim .,. ... l5—


“ “‘1' With date,1548
A. Padoa. ., ,, 1563
94 Pottery and Porcelain.

In Pesarm PESABO ... a. 13—


With dates, 1542 to 1765

FattoinPesaro ,, ,, ... ... ... 15—

X. p ,, Doubtful

VFO ,, (e) Giovanni Vejaso 1542

Rawm RAVENNA
' Between two flourishes .E, .‘ 16

In Arimin lenx .. .. 15—


1535- ' Stifliy written

In Rimino
1535_ ,, . . 1535

Fato in
Arimz'nensis ,, ... ,h 1635
1635.

Faito in Roma
da Gionpavlo ROME ... 16
91111an Pcncilled in oval ... 1000
M.D.O.

In Roma. ,, Pencilled and impressed '90


Majolica.

Bonn.
16-—

,, (i’)
Sworn, Guidobono
Girolamo
Genoa Salomone .1. ... 16-—

16—

-o “q "I

With initials G. A. G. (Gian Ant‘f. Guidobono)


and G. S. (Salomone) & B. C.
()6 I Pottery and Porcelain.

@' SAVONA, Genoa

,S

6 n u. ... .i. ... -

LL
Fala'iSiena. S‘ENA’Tuscany "' 15—
With signatures of M0 Benedetto

BM Terese ,, Ba/rtolomeo Terenzt'o Romano 1727


Roma.

F 0 ,, Also m monogram Ferdinando Maria


' ' Ca/m/pam' 1733

TREVISO, Lomad-dy 15-—


Trem'so. In circle ... ,,

N. ,, So attributed ,,

5 4;; Tmtm, Piedmont 15


And Shield alone with Cross. Arms of Savoy
M/yolim. 97
Falta'inTo'rino TURIN, Piedmont ... 1577

Fabrica Reale
di Torino
1737.

SWAP/4.61.“ ,, So attributed ...


FELTAVR
URBINO
.153 |.
. [Ix/w" Francesco Xanto Avelli da Rovigo p colour
ITvrél‘DOI

I, 31
fiàaquqg u fl
'Pilrfino ‘

R93:

H139
)6
,, X in blue, N in red lustre, probably Vicentio's
264*) max-k
II
OO
\O‘ Pottery and Porcelain.

12$0‘ N Unsure
Francesco Xanto Avelti
..

’§>
. a. .9.
\FI

§ ‘4
,, Orazio Fontana ... --°

,, ,, Urbi'no Fec'it v.
Q
E
v
n u In Greek characters

'
0 v
/

2.
HM ,, A similar mazk dated 1549

,, Nicola d’ Urbino. About ..


also signed Niculd‘di V.
5:5.“
p
May'olz'ca. 99

URBINO
Nicole (1’ Urln'no 15—
Ge'ronimo Vrbino, with date 1583

T. R. F.
‘1587_k ,,
u Also with initials
- E F B,
n dated “- ... 1594

F. G. O. ,,

,, Alfonzo Patanazzi. Also name in full 1606

AP -Q U
» ~- ~
)5? p
. h. ,, Francesco Patanazzt. . .
Also namc in full .. 1608
1 5'7 ,, Vicenzio Patanazzt', aged 12 years 1619

g ,, (P) Iruca Cambiasi, of Genoa ... 16—

B. F. V. F. ,. (P) Battista F'ranco Urbini Fecit ... ,,

W ” n~ an m s“ I
{OO Pottery a'zd Porcelain

Unano 16—

,, Also attributed to Faenza, ... ,7

VENICE
Vcnczia. is also written in full 1545

,, Probably Gian Andrea and Pietro Bertolim',


too confused to be made clearer

,, A well-known mark, with many variations 17—

,, Doubtful m ... .. 1'7

,, 011 modern ware ... _. 18—


Fartories. l OI

FACTORIES.

ALTENROLHAU near Carlsbad,


Germany pot imp 1829
Pa" N' A. Nowotny, Direclnr &hp

g“ Ams'rnL,Oude,nearAr sterdam,
'I mdlz Holland hp p blue 1782

Amsran, Niewer hp p blue 18—

AMSTERDAM, Holland hp p blue 1772

II n n n W

fl ,, A. Daeuber, Director ,, a 178—


102 Potter) and Porcelain

“ My 5,
Q AMSTERDAM, Holland pot pcolor 1780
‘ Hartog & Brandeis

ANDENNES, France pot imp 18—


hggfédw B. Lammens & Co.

0" - II I! n
NW i, I,

A. Der Vander Ww'rt

ANSPACII, Bavaria. hp p blue 1718


And other varieties of the
A.sometimeslikecrossed
swords

,, The Eagles and Shields ,, D

vary very much, and


sometime: on used
without the letter
Factories. I o3

»<\
® ANSPACH hp p blue 1718

,, And FBANKEN'IHAL n ,, ,,
J. A. Hannong

@ APREY, France pot p black 1750

A II I! N. I" I, I, 1’

>< ARNSTADT, Germany pot p color 176—

'x‘ n n '- '1 u I,

AR AREAS, France B p p blue 1782

DADEN-BADEN, Germany hp p gold > 1753


Widow Sperl - or 0010;
104. Pottery and Porcelain

BADEN-BADEN, Germany ... hp p gold 1753


Widow Sport or color

is " ~-- 7) ,1 n

'llaijre'ufl t
Bamnu'rn, Bavaria ... pot p black 15—
if J'loe)

BE » n ... pot D blue 15—

(1?: " ” ... hp p 1744

BERLIN, Paussu.
Established by W. G. Wegeley, in 1751, and purchased
by Frederick the Great, in 1763. Pott, a chemist at
this factory, claims the invention of transfer printing on
porcelain.

BERLIN, Prussia.
,, Wegeley ... ... h p p blue 1751
Factories. 1 o5

BERLIN, Prussia
,, Royal Factory. Many
forms of sceptre hp p blue 176

” ll - n n 'n

n n - 0 n n

,, Konigliche Porzellen
M'anufactur ... ,, n 1830

n ,, t p I 1850
This Eagle is also used by
Schuman, of Moabit,
with name:

,, Frequently painted in
green or gold over the
seeptre mark, on
damaged pieces ,, ,, 13"
106' Poltery and Porzelzzin

Bonmmux, France hp p color 18


Lahens & Rateau

BOURG-LA-REINE, France a p p blue 1773


& pot

n n ~-- 11 p w u

,, Le Chappelel ,, ... n P

BOW.
This factory was established about 1735, but did not
become celebrated until many years later.

Bow ... ap pblue 173

'z i I I
Factories. ~ I 07

Bow p blue 173

boil??? 7) The form and position


of the sword vary
p red
& gold
n

The triangle has long been iznp ..


considered a Bow mark, me
but recent researches p gold
have rendered it doubt & color
ful, it is often hard to
say if it is a Bow 01
Triangle, the latter is
now proved to have been
used at CHELSEA and
DERBY

sel§ Triangle, imp ... p nlue ,,

1) H

A. B. F. G. & K. are also n g


found, probably work
men’s marks

N Also BRISTOL ...


108 Pottery and Porcelain

ELERS BRADWELL pot imp 1690

BRISTOL
4' >o( Founded by Richard hp p color 1772
Champion

I ,, And other imitations of


Oriental marks ,, ,, ,,

B n m n- n n n

B7 n I" .u n n

,, The cross impressed h p pr blue 18—

1' w - a: imp n
80 biscuit

,, For Tebo, the modeller.


To Many other workmen’s
marks are found ,, inc 17—
Factories. I 09

ffw‘tte'defiouelo BRUSSELS, Belgium hp p color 1791


mfifluowg/iy/ L. Crette'

L CI n u ~-~ H. n P u n

% n "- u- ,, p n 18-—

;UHOMAg Boasmm, Stafi'ordshire


'l‘oF '1' And Ralph Taft pot in relief 1670
William Sans. ,, ,, imp 167—

WEDowoon.
R. Shawe. ,, .- 1| 1)

Wedgwood. H il ly 175—

W.aBquLILFZZZ.
01 d& ” "‘ H n 1768

Aaron Wood. ,, n ,, 17 5—

Enoch Wood. ,, ,, ,, 1783


Woool do
Caldwell. ~ " " 179°
18“—
Steel.
l 10 Pottery and Porcelain

BUEN RETIRO (Madrid), Spain sp p color 176—


Attributed to Royal & pot
"‘ Factory, Charles 111.,
m- butprobably LUDWIos
none

,, The Capo di Monte mark


is found on early pieces ,, ,, "

fi-D n manly "j 0 1| 0

(Jean, France hp p red 1793


c aen Also in capitals

“A F R4 CALDAS, Portugal pot imp 18—


v? Mafra, maker. Imitations
CALDAS of Palissy ware
PORTUGAI
CAPO DI MONTI, Naples sp p blue 1736
m w And various other forms >
of Fleur de lys

\lgl ,, Ferdinand IV, patron ,, p red 1759


or blue
N d: imp.
Factories. III

CAPO m MONTI, Naples


w ,, This factory has success
1‘: fully imitated old ma
jolica sp p color 1759

L% ,, Ferdinandus Rel ... ,, peolor 1780

* CASEMENE, France pot imp 18—


Lafie'ckere and Pailtaird

D- D- 8" 00' CASTLEFORD, near Leeds pot imp 1790


CASTLEFORD
POTTERY_ D. Dunderdale

CAUGHLEY, Shropshire hp p blue 1750


g Established in 1750, by
Brown, taken in 1772
mom“ by Thomas il‘uwmr.

,, Crescent marked thus is pblue


often mistaken for D
.D and attributed to
Duesbury of DERBY.

” n- as
I [2 Pottery and Porcelain

S
X CAUGHLEY, Shropshire h p p blue 1750

TURNEB- ,, ... hp imp 1772


& pot

LP ” hp p blue 17—

K ,, ... .. ,- ,,
4‘ .
F g,‘ ,, And other numerals thus
WL/ \ treated, to resemble
@ oriental marks n P blue 177-

T .
,, (7) Turner, attrlbuteol lo
WORCESTER ,, n n

9 ,, Rose 4' Co. u- I! ll color 1799

w CHANTILLY, France s p p blue 17“};


Also with name and imp
Factories. l 13

CHELSEA.

This factory, established in the 17th century, acquired


little celebrity until about 1750, when the modelling and
beauty of the paste rendered its productions equal to
those of any foreign factory.

CHELSEA s p imp 174.

leacheé~@ " l»
1710 best quality in gold
q. ,, p gold
or red
174

u "' m n n n

. u- u n I, II

I, ‘I I“ ll n n

n .0 .\ OI I, I
114. Pottery and Porcelain

CHELSEA
And with name infnlt sp p gold 1745
or red
do imp

CLIGNANCOURT,
This varies near
very much
Paris h & s p p color 1775

V
D ., Monogram of the Patron, hp at red

at
;>*>
‘1N F4;
Louis Stanislas Xavier,
Comte ole Provence

,, Porcelaine de Monsieur II I. 1780

h9 p blue 1787
6W Connrom, or COALBROOK
DALE, Shropshire

ea. ,, And 0'. Dale


II * IQ. ’I II

'I .9

18—
@@ .7 U“ 0.1 II \
th‘lfll’ifl. I I5

0 COALPORT, or Cousnoox
- DALE, Shropshire
,, hp p blue 18—

,, Caughley, Swansea, Nant- ,_ .1861


9am, united 182-1

Yo'yez. COBRIDGE, Stafl'ordshire pot imp 1773

evlnéo
H
@ COLOGNE,
n Germany
u -n pot
n ; blue
p 1589

15%;»

RVE .. 16—
' l
Pottery and Porcelain

COLOGNE, Germany pot p blue 16—

,, Cremer ,, ,, 17-

Given by M. Demmin.
,, B. M. L. \V., 1573.

,, B. V., 1574. M. G., 1586.

_, F. T., 1559. M. 0.
,, F. V. 0.,1543. S. M.

,, I. E., 1539. W. R.

,, I. R., 1588. W. T.

,, K°~ R., 1598.

M
COPENHAGEN, Denmark hp ,, 1772
H The Sound and great and
little Belts

,, ... ... ,, p color 0'


%
Factories. 117

01mm, France pot imp 178


Also with monogram 0
Stone-Coquerel and Le
Gros of Paris

Drum, Germany h p p blue 17—

DELFT, HOLLAND
Potteries were established here at a very early date,
it is said that fine ware was produced in 1480, nothing
certain is known before 1611», when a patent was granted
to Claes Janssén Wytman’s, for making porcelain, probably
fine pottery.

it DELFT, Holland
,, The ALPHA De Griekse A. Mark registered 1764

“M .7. T. Dewtram‘Dikstraat pot p blue

+3U
F! " ... m n n Fl
118 Pottery and Poreeloin

DEX DELFT, Holland ... pot [1 blue 1764

Z:DE)C ! Zoon Deztra ... 0 ,, 1765

On ware with same pat


'q terns asihat with first
mark ... .. H n

ulwlr ! The works were carried on


by Jaooblls Halder
Adriens Zoon in 1765... ,9 fl 9,

(P) Jacobus Halder p blue


I. H. D. Cornelis van Os had the
works in 1767

The AXE. De Byl ... reg 1764

Justus Brouwer ... p blue I ,,

7| I)
Factories. I l 9

Dnnrr, Holland pot p blue 1764


* Justus Brouwer.
15 This is also attributed to
A. Kielle, of the White
Star.

6!}; ,, ’The CLAW. De Klaauw ,, ,, reg 1764


é‘p Lambertus Sanderus.

,, This niark is so 'uaried ,, ,, ,,


(7*) that it is usually “ 1m
’8 0 known." It has been
called The Griffin!

9, I. .' i! II ’I

/80
’7,kM I' I) ". I. I, I.

[9 2' Z)

O _n K ,, The DOUBLE Prrcunn.


Dc Dubbelde Schenkkan fl 1764
Thomas Spaandoncle...
120 Pottery and Porcelain

, DELFT, Holland
%%w mm or FORTUNE T’ Fortuyn... pot p blue reg 1691
Pieter van der Briel

xiotujt ,, n In M n n

to
W ,. .. t. n ..
\D
WVDB ., Weduwe v. d. Brtel. ,, N 1764

.‘l'. H. F.
Int. Fortuyn. " --- 9,

,, The GOLDEN Boer. In


I' D‘ A' der vergulde Boot ,, ,, 1764
Joha/nnes oler Appel

,, TlIOGOLDEN FLownnPo'r.
De BkaOt- De vergulde blompot ,, U 1764
P. Verberg
Factories. l 9. I

DELFT, Holland
THAR'I' The
Hendrik
HART.
Ivan T’
Middeldijk
Hart pot p blue reg 1764

vao ,, ,I

The METAL Po'r 1639


MP De Metaale Pot
Lanlbertus
Pieter PareeClefllus n n
,, 1764

The
In t’old
oude
Moon’s
Moriaans
HEADHofi't ,1 ’i

(M?
Geertruy Verstelle I: U

The young Moon’s HEAD ,1 ‘I

E. B. S. T’jongue Moriaans Heft


Widow of Pieter Jan
0. d. Hagen

Probably a. mark of one or


other of these factories "
p color

we The Pmcocx. De Paauw


Jacobus de Milde
p blue .. 1651
,, 1761

23? 9|
122 Pottery and Parcelaz'n.

‚ N DELFT, Holland
Pam” ,‚ Jacobus de Milde m pot ;. blue 1761

I-D'M n n I" " n n


*\

if:
LB— „ (2) Cornelis Boumeesícr „ „ 17

L—
P "a ,, The Poncnmm Bom‘m: reg 1761
‘ De Porceleyne Fles
——-'
Pieter van Doome

n u f!

The PORCELAIN PLATTER


De Po’rcele‘yne Schootel
Johannes van Duyfl. m

h, The ROMAN
De Romeyn
Petrus van Memm ...

n „—
Factories. I 23

DELFT, Holland
w „ Jan mm derK'loot Ja’nzoon pot p blue 1764
took the factory

@ ,, The ROSE ' ... mg 1764


De Roos
DWD ,‚ Dirk van der Does ... „ u n

ij n n n 0 u n ‘l

„ The THREE BELLS


De drie klokken
(P ,, W. van der Does ... w ,, u „

(P Q This ’uaries so much


that it 1': often
I
L “ unknown " ‚‚ n ’

4
fi ,' b“ ‘l j, n >I1

W IQ
Doubtful ... - i, r.
124. _ Pottery and Porcelain

DELFT, Holland
,, The THREE PORCELAIN reg1764
BOTTLES De drie Por
celey’ne fleschjes
11B ,, Hugo Brouwer pot p blue ,,

Ham-en. ,, The THREE PORCELAIN 9! ‚I II H

BARRELS De drie Por


cele’yn asloî’men

,‚ Hendrick van Hoorn ... ‚l I, ‚l

‚‚ The Two Stars „ ‚‚


De twee Sheepjes
R „ Ant. Pe‘nm‘s m ‚‚ I.‘ n

„ TheDeTwo
tweeWILD
wildemams
Mm: 71 N

e, Widow of Willem van u n n


Beek

‚, The WATER CA2: ‘. .


(l) K De Lampetka‘n
‚, Widow of Gerardus Brouwer „ ‚. ‚.

L P Kan u n “- u I. u
Factories. 125

DELFT, Holland
The WHI'i‘E STAR reg 1764
De witte star
H
A Kielle pot p blue

@ng
§~?.<*
U ,, ~00 '.I 0'

Q. 9, c0

0. 000 I‘

79 I, 0..

Ii
,, And other variations

9’
(?) Van der Bosch 1774

n
Berghem ... m
m w.
1 26 I Pattery and Porcelain

DELFT, Holland
B ,, Isaak Brouwer „. p blue 1750

8 ,, (P) Van der Does ‚.. n

L IJ „ (P) Van Dammelar ... K

,, Suter van der Even .„ n 1580

Ml V n ‘Ü - I r

M „ so altrwuted bl

EY
Q „ Martinus Gouda „r. mg 1675
>2;

ä “ Antoni Ter Humpelin ... poolox‘ 1650


Factarz'es. I 27
l
i DELFT, Holland
@ 99 Q- Kie'ynoven .9. p blue reg 1680

,, Jan Kuylz'ch the younger ,, ,,

“K n N 0“ v n

2% ,, U. a. t '

n ' ' n 0" n > n

,, Johannes Meson on M .,

Comelis Keyser an ., ,, ,,
é Jacobus P'ynaker and
Adrien Pynakcr

n n 0 g. 0‘

n n on n ”
128 Pottery and Forte/din

DELFT, Holland
K ,, Keyser & Pynaker m 1) blue 1680

{\g ,, (P) Pynaker ... ,, u

.6?” ,, Jan Stee'n ,, 1650

k ,, Samuel Piet Roe'rdcr ... 1 color ,,

Wy/ltz/f “ Willem 'van der Velaie ,, 1660

JHMHM' ,, Abraham Verboom ... n 1630

MW
1 6
7 9 ,, 571.6881“ "- m u

j?‘ W ,, (P) Philip Wouvermams ,, 16—

__‘u~_,4_ A‘~l ikl


Factories, [29

DELFT, Holland
AVH
3M
27]) UNKNOWN MARKS p color 1773

1113

3:? 9 Mat;

y/lio

6-36 p rah

679 9) 54".?
"179

17473-7
QWIQ,
flex»,

.778? n (H I" 7.” FOTl‘l/Ill D Min

1/22. I K
0
(4| 1 Pottery and Porcelain
1w DELFT, Holland
UNKNOWN MAnKs .u 9 blue

J18 ,, .. ,
K H , (P) Jan Kuylich H

KVK ‘ n n
.. I
b1 “9 173]

ILA-\Z/‘g » ., m -.. p color

’31 ,, , ... u. p blue

I}.
52:72).“ ,, ,, u! . m p brown

R$ ,, ,,‘ p Mm

‘b-a ,, ,, .,
On ware painled in the p red 17__
angle of Majolica. A“
I imitation of a Savona
mark.
Factories.

f
DELFT, Holland -.. p red

E ,, Imitation of the “ Sim p blue 18—


% mark." On warepainted.

E%
$ with Oriental patterns

From M. Demmin.
A D \V. A° D. M. I. G. V. R. or A. R.

1‘69'1663.
A. I. D' V' X' I" 1768.
’ 1540- I. H. F.
B' P G. D., 1605. 143°
S. B. + +
B V. S. 1702 _ 1742.
’ G. v_ M_ I. V. L, 1663.
D., 154.0. s. L., 1650.
J. G.
D. H. N. I.
_12 I. G. J' V' L' s. M., 1725.
B. 22% M. Q.
v. 11., 1620.
DECORATORS.
Aalines. ' J. Kuwyt.
O. Boumester, 1680. J. Meer.
J. Dam. Meer. } Jan 11. d. M621 de mm
.S'. Dam. A. Veerhart de Gouda.
J. Decker, 1698. C. Zachtle'uen Fa. 1650.
Heindering Waanders, 1781.
Pottery and Porcelain

DERBY.

Founded in 1751, by W. Duesburg, who, in 1770, pur


chased the Chelsea Works, and, in 178 L, removed the
moulds and models to Derby ,- also Bow, 1776.

DERBY
Duesbur'y. on 5P p red 1756

DERBY CHELSEA 5P p gold 1770


or red

,, Later in lilac, then in red p gold 177..

'%H@@®
CROWN
Also
DERBY
without the dots— hp p red 1780
or violet

El
@@ with monogram D K
Duesbury and Kean 1798

,, Also with g! in old English


type ... II 1780
Faetorz'es. I 33

$ DERBY
,, In imitation of the Se‘vres hp p red or 1798
mark , violet

iii ,, In imitation of the Chinese ,, p blue ,,

A " Probably a workman'l ,, ,, ,,


mark & imp

,, And
Stevenson
in oval
& Hancock
... ...
... hp pr
p color
color } 186

Joshua Heath. ,, Cockpit Hall ... pot imp 1760

* * DochA, near Florence, Italy ap p color 1735


Various star marks

,, no u. ,, imp 8|; ,,
p gold
I 34. Pottery and Porcelain

GINORI. Doccm, near Florence, Italy... ap imp 1735


The founder's name
The Capo dr' Monti mouldi
were transferred here
about 1821

DRESDEN, SAXONY
The first European Porcelain manufaclory, established
by Augustus II. in 1709, under the management of
Boltyer.
% DRESDEN, Saxony
,, Augustus Rear, founder ll p p blue 1709

f ,, The Caduceus (sale mark) ,, ,, 1712


to 1720

m ,, Bb'ttger ware ... ,, about 1718

M I, II "' "' D, l€ II

,, And other square marks ,, ,. n


in imita mm 01' Oriental
Factories. 135

\/
i' DKEE'DEN, Saxony... h P P blue 1720
\ \< Herold, manager 3

a ,, n ,, ,. 1726

“a

Hu n
n m
s - n
,g ,,
g, v _ 01739

2’85t1/6M7y

,, Brilhl, manager ... ,, ,, 1750

K_H_CV/ " "- an n n 17_

i4 ,, Meissen- porzellen manu- ,, p ._


faol'ar. Also without
the swords.
Pottery and Porcelain

DRESDEN, Saxony... h p p Mn:


Early mark

,, Sachsiche porzellen mama ,, 1750


facmr

Ko'nigliche porzellen mann- ,, 17—


factnr

1;?70

Md/I‘COl'l’Il’L, manager ... ,, 1796


25‘"
On white porcelain (per- ,, 9 blue 17—
feet), for sale. scratched
through

0n inwerfect piece: ..
X"
Factories. I 37

_ DRESDEN, Saxony... h p p blue 17—


On imperfect piece: scratched
through

% ,, On faulty table goods .. ,, ,, u

% n n m w n u

i ,l I, "‘ 9, I, H

A A modern imitation of ,, p blue 18—


early mark & imp

a ELBOGEN, Bohemia. hp imp 1810

ETUURIA—see Wedgwood

WedgwoooMCb FERRYBRIDGE, near Burslem ' ,, ,, 1796


& pot
r— be (fl Potlery and Porcelain

FLORENCE, Italy .. “P p colcr 1580

,W’
This varies very much
'11

® ,, The arms of the Medici l!

®@@@ @
family. Rare mark.

FRANKENTHAL, Bavaria hp p blue 1754


The arms of. Hannong
of Strasbourg, removed
here, 1753.

,, Also
PaulI.Hannong
A. H., in monogram
Q00$w$ & pot;
I,

to in!

,, Carl Theodore, patron M) p blue 1761

FULDA, Fiirstlick
Germany Fuldaisch p blue 1763
to 1780
_ .,
Factories. 139

-|- FULDA, Germany ... hp p blue 1763


On figures.

F FURSTENBERG, Germany h p p blue 1750

$ ,, The F varies very much... ,, ,, ,,

5 G GERA ... h p p blue 1780

g G- GOTHA H. ... b p p blue 175

R ,, Rothenborg, the founder ,, 3i ,,

% Gnosnnnrrmmcn hp p 00101‘ 1770

<%' ,, Sometimes a more flourish ,, h ,,


I 40 Pottery ana Porcelain

HAGUE (THE), Holland h p p blue 177—


J Slork—the Arms of the
Town

II I. u. I) II I'

—-- HALDENSTEBEN, ALT, Germany hp imp 17—

HANLEY

E- Mayer- ,, pot imp 177

Lakin (9‘ P0019. .‘ "- m u a n

Shorthose. ,, ... no H n n

NEALE & Co. ,,


9, ...
I! u-
“' "
I! Hh 1779

J & ,, Also Meigh ,, ,. 178—

NEELD. ,, In imitation of Wedgwood ,, ,, 178—

._‘1_L__
Factories. I 4. l

J. Keeling. HANLEY pot imp 179—


Eastwood. ,, W. Baddeley ,, ,, ,,
s'llgigng 4” ,, ,, ,, 18—
'11‘i SNEYD, ” . ,, ,, n
ANLEY
Mason’s
Ironstone ,, Lane Dolph, near ,, pr color 1813
China.
HERCULANEUM—see LIVERPOOL.

HEREND. HEREND, Hungary hp p blue 1800


Also Shield <7 Crown of
Austria, 4' Shield 4'
Crown of Hungary.

W ,, Maurice Fischer ,, ,, 1839

HESSE CASSEL, Germany hp p blue 1763

(-i) HESSE DABMSTADT, Germany hp p blue 1756

g
(% HILDERSHEIM, Germany ... hp p blue 1760
[42 Pottery and Porcelain
b®®%*l
Hecnsr, near Maycnce, Germany h p p gold 1720
The arms of the Archbishop do color
of Moyence

" .v n- n n H

,, Dahl ... ... pot p color 1794


&hp

.75 53a
l Kmr, Russia pot p color 178

iglrlk_ lxr'lon KIEL, Denmark


Bachwald, Director
.. pot p gold
or color
177

Abr. Leihamerfecit

$a
Qfisl ,, Also K. T. G ,, ,; ,,

Koaznc, Poland .. h p p blue 1803


,, The mark 'uaries very much,
and is sometimes used
with the name
KREUZEN, Germany pot p color 1610
Caspar Vest to 1690
Hans Christophe Vest
Factories. ! 4.3

J. Lockett. i LANE END or LONGTON, pot imp 17—


} Stafi'ordshiro
TURNER. ,, ,, ,, 1762
B. Plant. ,, ,, ,, 177

gégagfi’l: ,, . pot & imp 1809


hD
May' ‘9 Newbd ,, Mayer <f- Newbold ,, imp & 18—
i pr color

ngiggj i ,, .. pot in... 18—


LEEDS
POTTERY_ i LEEDS .. pot -
Imp 1770

2 as ,, ,, p color ,,

K ,, Also with name, Hartley, ,, imp ,,


Green & Co.
Ulla g LILLE, France pot p color 171!

D2 ,, Dorez ,, ,, 174.
D is also found on soft paste.

A ,, ,, ,, 17
I44 ' Pottery and Porcelain

LILLE, France pot p color 1729


F. Boussemart.

,, Petit .. 1778

My ,, Patron, The Dauphin .. hp sten & 1784


Leperre Duroo. p red

LIMBAOH, Saxe-meiningen hp 1761

wk“; p gold

n (3’) .. p ooio:

0+6 0

\\
U LIMOGEs, France 111) p red 1773
Factoriex. I 4.5

lP eroons, France pot: p color 18'


L J. Pouyat

l Lrsnou ... ,. mp 18—

SHAW- LIVERPOOL -- n n 17—


thhurdmt‘haffers " ,, p color 1751

SADLEB- ,, ‘Sadler claims the inven- ,, pr color 1751.


tion of transferprinting &hp
on pottery, 1756.
SADLER a
Reid 4' Co.
GREEN. ,,
” “' "‘ hhp ,,
n 175

,, Pennington—also name pot imp 1760


1) IP infull &hp p gold
or color
Christian. ,, pot; imp 1765

(pm ,, Hercnlaneum pot ,, 1796


EM ,, Also name on garter round ,, pr color ,,
g: a crown

\ . n ,, Case, Mort 4* 00. pet p color 1833


A liver—arms of the town.

L
I46 Pottery and Porcelain

Davenport. Lonarom pot imp 1793

Lonoron'r. ,, J. Davenport ... ,, pr red


'Mgrliz’o‘P
A A blurred impression of
91 imp
" the mark is read Liver
El; pool in mistake for
Darcnport.

I,

n pr blue 1805

,, u. " DI II 1760

Loosnnccm‘, near Amsterdam, bp p blne 1772


Holland
Manufactur oude Loos
drecht. Moll, director

Lawns'rom
Na mark used .by factory n 175—

Lvnwmsnunc, \Vilrtcmberg hp p blue 1758 _


Initial of Duke Charles,
sometimes used with
out the crown
Factories I 47
Lvnwrasnwno, Wiirtemberg p blue 1758
Thisform is also attributed
to Madrid

,, An antler—from the arms I, .0


of Wilrtemberg or red

,, Also W. R. ... p blue 1806


to 1818

LUXEMBOURG, Belgium p color 1806


Boch, Director

MADRID—see BUEN RETIRO.

MALTA ... ... imp 18—

R MARAHS, France ...


Jean Pierre Roussenoq
p 0010 r 1740

f:EE
i
E E
MARIEBERG, Sweden p color 1750

[E
5s
Pottery and Porcelain

MARIEBEBG, Sweden ... pot p color 1759


Ehrenreich. &5P

I. II "' "I ,’ II I

ll II "' "' 'l 7! "

MARsEILLEs, France ... pot p color 1777


Also with C. (9' S.

,, Savy m ... :1 pr n I!

,, Veuve Perrin .. ,, pblack 1760

,, Bonnefoy .. u 0s s ,, poolcr 1769

,. Rolled ... ... hp p black 1777


7. a not
Factories. I49

mesan, near Dresden, Saxony pot imp 17—


Bältger

MENECY VILLEROY, France np p color 1735


Duke of Villeroy &. ino

MIDDLESBOROUGH, Yorkshire pot 13 blue 18


20, the pattern mark imp

MONTET, France ... pot imp 18—


Laurjo'rois, manager

MONTPELLIER, France pot imp 18—


Le chland

MONTREUIL, sous bois, France h p p blue 18—


Tinet

rAPhHEP'b Moscow, Russia. ... 11 p p color 17


A. Gardner

p; n n. tu n
l 50 Pottery and Porcelain

Moscow, Russia ... ... b p p color 1830


IIOTIOBb] A. Paper}.

A n n "' "' I) a! ,7

R n n --- m n n n

(I) I" ,, F. G. Fabr'ioa Gospodina hp imp 18—


DAMHA v (The factory of our & pot color
| Lady) Galena
I
Q l MOUSTIERS, Franco ... pct ,, 1686
Oler'y ,, p color 172

I, D "' 'u H 1, ,l

,, Fe'raud ... pot p color 178

,, Guichard ... ,, atom in ,,


Also the G only dots

NANTGARW. NANTGARW, Wales ... hp imp 8:. 1813


color
Factorzes. 151

NAans.—Scc Caro DI MONTI.

pot p color 15—


‘%2 Nuvrms, France

Jacques Bourdil 1602


$
Denis Lefebvre 1636

Henri Borne 1689

Jacques Seigne

Francois Rodrig ue 1730

Tito Risto'ri 1850


I 52 Pottery and Porcelain

NEWCASTLE. NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE pot imp 18—

NIEDERVILLER, near Sbras- hp p blue 1760


Na bourg, France & pot
Baron de Beyerle', the
founder

% ,, General de Custim ... ,, ,, 1786

w ,, And other varieties of the u ,, ,,


I coronet

: z ,, Lanfray, director ,, sten 1802

m I, ” “' ’7 l,

NIMES, France pot ,, 183


' Plantier Boncnurant & Co.

NOVE, Italy ... ... hp p gold 1750


9K 0: color

NOVE " n. O" I, I,

9%
Factories. 1 53
l
NOVE. Italy m hp p gold 175

* 5
\‘élD NUREMBURG,
,, Hans Kraut
Germany ... pot
or color

imp 155(
155©
Hans/(law
n p blue 1578
' 5 78

IR I. I) III Q I7 !,

,, George Liebolt ,, 1667


5

14/
95 a
NYMPIIENBERG, Bavaria.
The arms of Bavaria
be imp 1758

p blue ,,

7. Q €
NYON, Switzerland ,, 1790
@

(BA ,, Pierre Millhausen, painter ,, 18—


154 Pottery and Porcelain

Oron'ro, Portugal m h p p gold 1790

$21 Vista Allegra or color

MLP ,, Manr. Porto. Rocha Soares pot ,,

ORLEANS, France ... h &sp p color 1753


Gerault Daraubert

® n p, ... ... pot p color


0
Plums, France pot p blue
AV? Reverend

,, Hannong. Charles Philippe, hp p blue 1769


Comte d’ Artois, patron.
CP
MAP ,, Morel ... m u as 1773

,, De la Cour-title ,, ”
Pour-at 4- Russinger.

>€><€ ” " "' ll I!


Farlorz'es. I 55
l
PARIS, France ... h p p color ~1773
Gros Ca€llou.

% ,, ,-, Advenir Lamarre ,, ,, ,,

H ,, P. A. Harmong ,, ,, 1773

$ Porcelaine de la Reine p red 1778 .


A ,’ 1,

' ,, Lebamf. Marie Antoinette, H ,, ,,


)q’ patroness
,, Housel took the factory 1799

,, Dihl @- Guerhard ,, p rad _ 1780


Due d'Angouleme, patron

a n 0 n I! l,

Manuf"- de
MM"- ,, Also the names in full- .. .. - ,,
Gum-hard et
Dihl a PM“ together and separate.

Nut ,, Nast ... hp at red 1783


156 Pottery and Porcelain

_I)agoty. PARIS, France Dagotg hp lira. 179


Feuillet ,, Feuillet ... is

iP ,, J. Petit hp 1, blue 1790

can ,, Chanou ...I


9 red 1784

(lie
,, Schlossmacher on p gold 187
6"
PERKENHAMMER, near Carlsbad, h p p color 1802
F&R Austria
Fischer <9 Reichembach

PI NXTON sP on 1794
P)”, So attributed, but the
factory had no acknow
ledged marks.

PLYMOUTH
,, The sign of Jupiter hp p blue 176~
Factories. 1 57

PLYMOUTH .. hp p blue 176—


W Probably Jupiter carelessly
pcncilled

D-/ I I

2:90 ,, ... h p p blue 1770


I 70

H ,, Doubtful ... ... ,, ,, 17—

$ POPPLESDORF, Germany ... pot imp 176

\ QUIMPER, France on pet imp 1809


V Hl‘ Hubaudiére.

Qfly RAUINSTEIN, Germany ... hp p blue 1760

R- _ REGENSBERG or RATISBON ... hp p blue 17—


? Germany

” n n
Pottery and Porcelain

REGENSBERG, or RATISBON, h p p blu. 17—


Germany

ROCKINGHAM—see SWINTON

Roman, France pot 9 color 1542

n n H II 0

,, A great many initials are ,, v "


given. by Jacquemzwf,
as Rouen marks

I! 3 PI D, I!

D 0 I! v“ '1

RUDOLSTADT, Germany hp 11 coior 1758


Hay fork, part of the
Arms of fichwa-rtzberg
Pactories. I 59

y RUDOLSTADT, Germany b p p color 1758

SAINTES, FRANCE.
Bernard Palissy settled here about 1538 and after
unccasing efl’orts succeeded in producing the well-renown
pottery called by his name
£ SAINTES, France put: inc
So attributed -

L. Sr. AMAND, France pub p 1750


Fauquez, director.

%3 ST. CLOUD, haan sp imp 1702

,, J. B. Chicanneau pot p blue 1700

,, When patroniscd by the king ,, n 1702


8c s p to 1715
l 60 Pottery and Porcelain

ST. CLOUD, France ... potéz p I715


I s P

5+0 '
'1" - ,, Tron, director ,, ,, 1730

\/=~ Sr. PETERBBURG, Russia h p p blue 1744

_ - 00 R K n
_

C c n I! u I- ‘76—

‘q I III

(fl; ,, Catherine H. ,, ,, 1162

g ,, Made for the Palace Ml


_ Paul Kornilofic ... ,, n .,
m4

,, Paul ... ... n p color 1796


11%
Farteries. I61

ST. PETERSBURG, Russia. hp p color 1801


Alexander I.

,,,, Brothers
Nicholas Kornelofl’ski
1. ,, 1825

pt ,, 1827

,, Alexander II. m
p ,,' 1855

ST. SAMSON, France pot imp 183—

SCEAUX PENTHIEVBE, France EP inc 1750


Also S P. to 1760

,, Dac cle Penthie'vre. Lord


High Ad/rm'ral, patron pot p blur 1751

s11 ,, 1753

Seem.
n
162 Pottery and Porcelain

SOHAFFHAUsEN, Germany pot p color 1560


Tobias Stimmer.

SCHLAKENWALD, Austria. hp ., 1800

SEVRES, chE.
This Factory was removed from Vincennes in 1756,
and, under the patronage of Madame de Pompadour,
became the most celebrated in Europe. The soft paste
_ cases, etc., are now invaluable, owing to their form, colour,
and artistic decoration.
SEVRES, France.
,, Royal period. Sometimes 5p p blue 1753
with crown. The letter
indicates the year. See
Table.
Jems. ,, Hard paste first made 1768

,, Republic 11 & s p color 1792

. n u
And name only )7 ,‘

%
,, National
Mark 1804.
Manufactory hp 91'. red 1803
FIN”;
Sevrfi 5 See Table.
—n—

MImplf‘ 1806
,, Imperial Mam-afactory
de Sevres
rr
Factories. I 63

SEVRES, France hp p red 1810


Imperial Manufactory. sten
& imp

,, Louis X VIII. ,, p blue 1814


Dated with the year of
the century.

,, Charles X. ... ,, _., 1824

,, ,, On plain ware ., ., 1829

,, ,, 0n decorated ware ,, .,, .

,, Louis Philippe. From ,, ,, 1m


August to December.

,, 1830, to November, 1834 ,, p color “


I 64. Pottery and Porcelain

é \\ SEVRES, France hp p blue 1834


a‘2 ‘2,
,_ . Philippe
Loms . .
\D

,, ,, With the above ,, imp or 1833


pr color

9, ’l 7’ ,I

,, 0n white porcelain n pr green 1848

‘, Republic to 1851 n p 1‘96 n


On decorated ware.

,, Napoleon III., Emeror hp pr color 1852

,, ,, The manu- h& ,, 1854


facture ofsoft paste was sp
revived 1854.

,, Thescratch marks the piera , pr green 1861


as nnclecorated.
Factories. I 65

SEVRES.—TABLE OF DATES.
A 1753 T 1772
B 1754! U 1773 T_ 9* 1801
C 1755 _V 1774 X1; 1302
D 1756 X 1775 11* 1803
E 1757 Y 1776 * The year of the
F 1758 AZA Republic.
G 1759
H 1760 BB 1779 '"““ 1804’
I 1761 00 1780 7% 1805
J 1762 DD 1781 A. 1806
K 1763 EE 1782 _"
L 1764 FF 1783 7 1807
M 1765 GG 17811 8 1308
N 1766 EH 1785 9 1309
O 1767 II 1786 10 1810
P 1768 .TJ 1787 0.2. (onze) 1811
Q 1769 KK 1788 d.z. (douze) 1812
LL 1789 17.2. (troize) 1813
MM 1790 q.z. (quatorze) 1814
” NN 1791 q.n. (quinze) 1815
00 1792 s.z. (seize) 1816
PP 1793 d.s. (dix-sept) 1817
R 1770 QQ 1794. 18 1818
S 1771 RR 1795 19 &c. 1819
The two last figures of the year to present date.
The months are given by numemls—q.z.10=00tober, 1814 ; 19,1:January, l8 9.
v-4 0\ Q\ Pottery and Porcelain
SnvnEs.—Initials and Monograms of Decorators, &c.
5s u. Asselin .. Portraits.

gonna Girard

Boullemier
Arabesques, Chinese Subjects, &0.

Gilding.

Bonnier Borders.

Barré Flowers.

Mde. Ducluzeau Subjects and Portraits.

geese_ Poupart

Bar
Rocher
Landscapes.

Figures.
Detached Flowers.
Boulanger ,7 ,7

Baudoui/n Borders, Ornaments.

a 6’ Bulidon Detached Flowers.

& Pt Beranger Figures.

lags Castel Landscapes,Hunting Subjects,Birds.

Develly . .. Landscapes and Figures.

Chabry Portraits, Pastoral Subjects.

9 3g» Commelin Flowers, Wreaths.


Foctorzes. I67
SEVREs.-—Initials and Monograms of Decorators, 5w.
v.70. Chapuis, ainé Flowers, Birds, etc.

£23 Derichsweiler
Dusollo Detached Flowers.

Borders, Arabesques.

111'. Didier n 11

@fl Drand Chinese Subjects and Gildiug.

or Dutanda Bouquets, Wreaths.

exegwggoc Couturier Gilding.

Bulot Flowers.

Richard
Leroy Gilding.
Flowers.

Richard
Rejaur Borders. Wreaths.

Flowers.

Fa,th Birds, Butterflies, Borders.

Levé Flowers and Chinese Subjects.

Pfeifi'er Detached Flowers.


Pottery and Porcelain

SEVREs.—Initials and Monograms of Decorators, 75c.


Fontaine Flowers.

Barrat Wreaths, Bouquets.

Barbin Borders, Arabesques.

Regnier
Merigol Ferdinand Flowers and Wreaths.

Figures, etc.

Fumez Flowers and Borders.

Gerard Pastoral Subjects.

Georget Portraits.

Gremont Wreaths and Flowers

Hunny Flowers.

La Roche Flowers, Trophies.

Hericourt Flowers and Wreaths.

Huard Borders, etc.

Provost Gilding.
Jubin
Factories. I 69

SEVREs.——Initials and Monograms of Decorators, &c.


André Landscapes.

.Chapuis, jeuno Detached Flowers.

Mde. Chanou Flowers and Borders.

Julienne Arabesques.

Honrion Wreaths and Flowers.

Chavaux fils Flowers and Gilding.

Thevenct fils Borders, &c.

Trager Birds and Flowers.

Dodin Figure, Subjects, Howl

Levé, pere Flowers, Birds, Borders

Le Bel, jeune Flowers and Wreaths

Le Bel Landscapes.

Le Bel, ainé Flowers.

Le Guay G inning
Pottery and Porcelain
SEVRES.iInii’ial$ and Monograms of Decorators, 4'0.
Le Gay Portraits.

Lam glacé Landscapes.

Lecot Chinese Subjects.

Mdlle. Parpette
Armand Birds and Flowers.
Detached Flowers.

La. Roche Bouquets, Flowers and Trophies.

Mossy Flowers and Trophies.

Michel Detached Flowers.

Moiron fils n n

Morin SeaViews, Military Subjects, Cupids

Mde. Bunel Flowers.

Niquet
Aloncle Birds, Animals, Trophies.

Detached Flowers.

Parpette Flowers.

Pierre, aiué Flowers and Bouquets.

__ .A‘A _
Fartories. 17 I
SEVREs.—I'nitials and Monograms of Decorators, 4'0.
Pline Borders, etc.

Boucot Flowers, Birds and Arabesques.

Philippine Flowers, etc.

Pithou fils Flowers, Trophies.

Pithou, pére Historical Subjects.

Pierre, j eune Flowers and Wreaths.

Regnier Subjects.

Richard Borders, Arabesques, etc.

Riocreux Landscapes.

Mde. Maqueret Flowers.

Memult,
Roussel ainé. Detached Flowers.

Borders.

Mde; Binef~ Flowers and Wreaths.

Mde. Nouailher Detached Flowers.


I72 Pottery and Porcelain

Wr2g :fi1gfi?'g?-S Ssvnws.—Initials and Monograms of Decorators, .fc.


Schadre .Z.
Sinsson Birds and Landscapes.

Flowers.

Swebacli Landscapes, etc.

Binet Flowars.

Vandé Gilding and Flowers.

Mde. Gerard Flowers and Borders

Hilken Pastoral Subjects

Vavasseur Arabesqucs.

Grison Gilding.

Micaud
Bouillat Flowers, Vases.

Landscapes and Flowers.

Joyau Detached Flowers.

UNKNOWN.
Figure subjects, finely painted.
Do. do.

On fine ware, with other marks.


Factories. x7 3
SEVRES.—M'arks of Decorators, li'c.

-A>£w%a®\§e Buteux, pore Flowers and trophies.

Russet Landscapes.

Pouillot Detached flowers.

Gomory Birds.

Sioux, jcune Flowers and wreaths, en coma/Tea.

Cardin Detached flowers.

Motel Landscapes.

Ledoux Landscapes and birds.

Richard, Paul Gilding.

Catrice Flowers and bouquets.


seas.
erowet, inventor of Arabesques and flowers.
Rose Pompadour,
called Rose du
Barré.
174. Pottery and Porcelain
... * 7
Q SEVRES.—Ma'rks of Decorators, ‘fc.
Chavqu Gliding.
'' ' Tandart Flowers and wreaths.
''’' Theodore Gilding.
I ,
'z' Fontaino... Trophies, miniatures.

Sioux, ainé Detached flowers.


000
o: 0% 0 D, ,'

A Choisy Flowers and borders.

* Taillamdier Flowers, etc.

0' Fontelliau Gilding.

2% Anteaume Landscapes and cattle.

Viellard Figures, trophies and borders.

Thevenet, pere Flowers, vases.

Cornaille. .. Bouquets and flowers.

Chulot Trophies and emblems.

(P) Thcvenet, pcre


Factories. I75
SEVBEs.—Marks of Decorators, &c.
@001
Carrier Flowers.
Bertrand Detached bouquets.

Buteux Bouquets and wreaths.

Merault, jeune n u

po oO Vincent Gilding.

%J*%E1
flwsqb/pb Tardy Detached flowers.

Caton Pastoral subjects, cupids.

Bienfait Gilding.

Evans Landscapes, birds and insects.

Bouchet Landscapes and figures.

Capel 1e Borders, trophies.

Buteux fils Pastoral subjects—children.

Dion Chinese subjects and flowers.


m

L' gun/y Children—Chinese subjects.

Sinsson Flowers and wreaths.


176 Pottery and Porcelain

SEVREs.—Marks of Decorators, &c.


—_ Noe'l Flowers, medallions.
J/
‘ Choisy Flowers, trophies.

‘ Aubert Flowers.
M

T] Martinet... ,,

The best Painters, ($0., are in Italics.

Jigw' SHELTON pot pr color 1820


Wall ,, New Hall Works 184.2
and name Hackwood.

M 8, ,, Miles ,, ,, 1685
ASTBURL ,, Astbury ,, imp 17—

R. a J. ,, Baddeley ., ,. 175°
BADDELEY
I. & G. ,, Bell Works ,, ,, 177
anowu. to 1816

J. &W. R. n n n I! ‘501854

Sinchmy_ SINCENY, France pot p color 1733


Factorzes. I77

-|-C+ SINCENT, France pot p color 177


Joseph le Cerf.
+$+

.M ,, Moulin 1864

SPODE. STOKE-UPON-TRENT imp 1770


p red

,, Minton p color 179—


2%
n n On best ware p gold 185—
or color

uoO

English pr blue 18
Pmelai
coo
MINTON

,, Copeland. Copeland & pr color 185


Garrett, 1833. Cope
COPELAND land, late Spade, 18417.

S'rmssoono, Germany pot p blue 17\


Hanno'ng removed to &h p

'5 Frankenthal, 1754.

N
Potlery and Porcelain

H STRASBOURG, Germany pot p blue 17—


I I & h P

. ,, J. Hmmong. I'uul ,,
M (.H Hannong.

PHILLIPMCO SUNDERLAND pot 1780


Sunderland Pottery.
DIXON & CO. ” H H 1805
MOORE & CO“ ,, Wear Pottery ,,
SOUTHWARK.
1%0

SWANSEA . nP p color 178


SWANSEA
imp 18—

SWANSEA
:l__-—n
1 ,, And trident only ,,
,J

,, And with name, Dyllwyn


SWANSEA.
' & CO' H sten red 181—

SWINTON, Rockingham hp pr red 17—


The Rockingham Crest.
X First used about 1824.
\ Brameld, ma 7:61'v
Factories. 179

BRAMELD. Swm'ron, Rockingham hp pr red 1807


depot
Tounonss,
Fouque',
France
Arnouw et Cfe. pot 1) color 1820

7i
TotmNAY,
Tour France
auto oiseaaat. Also 5? p blue 175

a potter’s kiln.

1.
1. 4. p gold
or blue

TOURS,
Victor
France
Avisseau. hp p blue 18‘],—
36b
BOOTH. TUNSTALL
And name in full—— Enoch pot imp 1750

Booth.

CHILD. 1 H33

A.&E. Keeling. 1770

W. ADAMS. 1780
180 Pottary and Porcelam

TURIN,
Vinmf,
Italy Dr. Gioanetti. hp imp

ig®g<+
Uzus, France pot 18—
Franom's Pichon.

VAL sous MEUDON, France... :2 179—


Mittenhof 4' Mourot. &pr

VARAGES pot p black 1730


or red

VENICE, Italy hp p red


..g
4" (D :3 or blue

,, Giovanni Marcane p gold 17—


(£09090; 5P
or color

119 p red 1765

VIENNA,
The Austria
shape of the shiel p blue 1774
or imp
varies.
Factories. 181

VINcmNNEs, France ap p uolor 17—


The Tower varies.

,, Hanno'ng h p ,, 178—

H5Kl/Ni VILLENGEN, Nuremberg ,, ,, 15—


Ha/ns Kraut.

VOLKSTADT, Germany h p ,, 1762

VOISONLIEU, France pot st ,, 1839


Jean Ziegler. & imp

WEDGWOQD. WEDGWOOD, Burslem and pot imp 175


Etruria. &hp 1770

Wedgwood. y, n ' H n n

n ‘ n
to 1780
182 Pottery and Porcelain

WORCESTER

This Factory was established, in 1751, by Dr. Wall and


others. The invention of transfer printing on porcelain is
attributed to Dr. Wall, but is also claimed for Sadlcr, of
Liverpool, and Dr. Pott, of Berlin.

Woncns'rss. sp p blue 1751


or gold

§rs
,, Dr. Wall ,, 1, n

,, Imitation of Chinese marks ,, p blue ,,


or red

,, Many marks are found in p p blue 17—


\
this style, in imitation or red
awe of Oriental.

‘hit
ill-EB
Factories. I 83

Woecms'rme. . sp p blue 17—


Imitation Dresden marks or red

'1) /
h, ' I‘ Q' ,9

X l

c ,, Flight n p 1) blue 1783


and name onlv

gl‘ybtzgafi ,, Fllflhl z} Burr ,, ,, ,, 1193

i} B ,, Barr ~ h p inc 1793

,, Barr, Flight 4- Barr ,, imp 1807


Also F B B, and names
in full.
BF
Pottery and Porcelain Factories.

\VORCESTER
,, And Ohamberlains only. 111; pr
178—
,, Grainger, Leo nf' Go. 1800

,, Richard Holdship. A p color 175—


Decorator’s mark. He
also worked for Derby.

thzmme, Bavaria p blm 17—

9
Absolom Yam. YARMOU'Z'H
A Decorator .. Also with pot H

name in full

ZURICH, Switzerland hp 1; blue 1759


E

W.C.P.
Oriental. 185

ORIENTAL MARKS.

CHINA.
CHINESE porcelain is said to date from about a century before the
Christian era; their pottery is of the greatest antiquity, and, like the
porcelain, is of every quality. The oldest example that can now be
obtained is of the Ming period, though, if the marks could be relied on
there are many pieces of the 10th century still to be found, but marks
are so easily imitated, and Chinese potters are so fond of reproducing
old patterns with marks complete, that very little reliance can be placed
upon them. The best periods of the manufacture of porcelain during
the Ming dynasty, were——

% 5k Yung-lo 1403 to 1424

fig Seuen-ti'h 1426,,1435
\

1J6 fill Ching-hwu 1465 "1487


'=i='
1%751- Ken-tsing 1522 ,,1566
—H
11ml"LE) Wan-Iei'h 1573 ,,1619

Egg Shell” were was first made in the Yung-lp period.


The Swen-tth was famous for all sorts of coloured ware.
I86 ' Pottery and Porcelain.

The Ohing-hwa produced the best ware and the finest


4% 7C . . . .
decoration. This mark commands larger prices in Europe
5 than any other. The dark rich blue of the Koa-tching and
% the white granulated surface of the Waa-lei‘h, are very
_' choice. “ Old blue China,” or Nankin ware, is from the Im
perial factories at King-te-chin—a town of potters named after King-fe,
the Emperor, who first patronized the manufactory in 1004—1007. The
ware bore the “ six mark" dates until 1667, when they were forbidden
by an edict from the governor of the province, lest any piece being
broken, the Emperor’s name might be profaned by being carelessly
thrown on the dust heap. This blue ware was made by direction of the
Emperor, who ordered it to be of the colour of the sky after the winter
rains.
The marks on Chinese work are seldom either Factory or Painter’s
marks. M. Stanislas Julien gives the mark of a potter of the Wan-leih
period, named Hao-chi-khieoa, who excelled in writing verses and in
painting; he appears to have taken religious vows and lived in retire
, ment; his mark is Ou-intao-jin. Ou, the hermit. M.
5% E Jacquemart mentions a. “six mar ," “sold by Pei-iching,
A ’ made by Kien-ki.” Some of those given are no doubt
' ‘ makers’ names—as San-yuh, Mountain of Gems; but the
marks most commonly found are in four or six characters, and denote
the date of the manufacture.
The “ six mark" may be made out from the table of dates without
much trouble, except from badly formed characters, handwriting being
as varied in China. as elsewhere.
Chinese writing is arranged in columns commencing at tne right,
reading dowmvards. If in a horizontal line it reads from right to left.
Oriental. 1 87

The first and second characters of the “ six mar " show
WOO“ YA TA
is
NEEN'MINC the dynasty, thusi the third and fourth, the period
MING

(né'en haou), name of the years; the fifth signifies


E year, and the sixth gig made.- thus, Tot-Ming, Hung
woo, ne'en che. Great Ming (illustrious) dynasty, Hung
woo, years; made. 1368 to 1398. Or arranged thus, Ta
Ming, Seuen-ti'h, n'o'en, che. Made in the Seue’n-tih period
of the Ming dynasty. 1426 to 14135.
The next example is—
Ta Ts’hing, Yang-citing, ne'en, che, Great Ts’hing (pure)
dynasty Yung-ching period. 1723 to 1735. The “four
mark” is more troublesome, as it does not give the
dynasty it necessitates a search through the whole list of
dates; it is read in the same order, thus: “King-till.
n'e'en, ehe, made in the King-tih period, about 1004 to
1007.
The square marks called the Imperial Seal, which have
been in use from the beginning of the last century, are
est read in the same way; they are written in an archaic
character that is only understood by antiquaries, and
@2th are usually very badly done. In the list given, from the
cuscumc'rstmc best examples that could be obtained, it will be seen that
the first, second, fifth and sixth, which should be alike in all, vary
considerably; “four mark” seals are also given which show similar
variations.
_4 oo 00
Pottery and Porcelain
P?
it!
hates Dates are also written thus: Wan-lel’h pah'n-éen chc.
Wan-léih eighth year, made 1580.

i All these may be known as dates by the last characters,


NL-‘en year; and she, to make, form or fashion.

Sometimes another character is used, N‘e‘en tsaou, made


'r or make.

Ta Ming-she-hé'e'n, made in the time of the Great Ming


Gillies
» government. An example was found that probably read
thus : but it was too confused to be read with certainty;
the piece was modern ware. '

E7: I To Ming 'né'en che, made in the years of the Great Ming.
This is also to be found, but is probably a modern mark.
5119,
AK
‘1‘ Another mode of dating is by the cycle of sixty years,
1 but as only the year of the cycle is given it does not
identify the period.
’2 . 24th year p blue
Oriental.

One example was written thus—


lVoo shin neon 0721:, 5th year p blue

The first column is called the ten celestial stems, and


the second the twelve terrestrial branches. The twelve

Mnmn sm gm r ib+% HWE&LiEH\iH


“branches” are the Chinese Zodiac: The Rat, Bull,
Tiger, Rabbit, Dragon, Serpent, Horse, Sheep, Monkey,
Cock, Dog and Boar. The ten “stems” are double
characters; they are allied to the five Chinese elements:
Water, Fire, Wood, Metal and Earth. This system is
also used in Japan and Siam. The 76th cycle commenced
in 1864.

EigqifiquBrrqlEPs/EF $27F§$11¥EP l
m] ZSZEZ42jiZ32EZ22ZthflZ, a
asarnesnaanaenwans
erarraarazrearrnTr
$f§55$fi4sf§f§ss¥I§25§fi15 hifigs

,v
$E“EE%ZEMEE%WE%EE6
\'\
I
$ “W@“¥hwfifififififirfi1
asserts arrive?“ are 8
arnraosaesaerioerg
an
Pottery and Porcelain.

The most interesting of these dates is that used in


the year 1721, Yew sin-chow 116m che. Made in the Sin
chow year again (recurring). The Emperor Kang-he
came to the throne in the 38th year of the 68th cycle,
and died in 1722. He therefore had reigned for a whole
cycle on the recurrence of the 38th year in 1721, an
event unexampled in Chinese history.

In a later example the date is given both by the year


of the Emperor, and the year of the cycle.
T’hung-che shih m-h new. Ku'ci yew, 12th year of
T’hung-che. 10th year of cycle=1874. The 11th
year also commences in 1874.

DATES.
TA MING Dynasty __ _
Seuente q
14.6
-- l!“
_ *Ching-t’hung 1436
Hung-woo ... 1368 E. ‘King-tae 1450
Keen-wan 1399 fifik
“7% 3i l*T’héen-shun 1457
Yang-lo 1403 '1» l
’ fiji ‘Chinv-hwa 1465
Hung-he 14125 l
* Some authorities reverse these t_wo periods—they both
belong to the Emperor Yung (171mg, who was taken
prisoner by the Tartars, and held captwe for seven years.
Oriental. 191
IlI

slB'é gb Hung-che 1488 7: TA TH’SINQ Dynasty

\ 9 .lE Ching-tih 1506


=1:- @7{ T’héen-ming 1616
9% Kea-tsing 1522
fig T’heen-tsing 1627
Lung-king 1567 gas #1"
% If“? 7LT: Tsung-te 1636
fi W an -1”l
en 1573 Shun-che 1644

Ii'ér‘mm '1\
w T a9 - 0h ang 1620
\

Kang-he 1662
l .. y —"-r
7:\: Theen-khe .. 1621 Xz/E Yung_ching 1723
l
El I44
1—1 _
m 711‘
\I Tscng-chmg 1628 Kéemhmg 1736

as I \
glk Tsung‘kwans
4
164-4
_u_.
-.!:
1% Kea-king 1796
Shauwwoo 1646 [Léé Taon-kwang 1822

Eli: It)
Lung-woo 1646 E D Han-fung 1351

Yung-leih 1647 A [5]


JD — Thugs“
I . 1861
Kwang-seu . 1876

DATES in the “ Seal” Character.


Six Characters.
Ta-th'sing, Shun-che ni‘en che ... 1641
If\, \Q - Pottery and Parcelam.

_@E!
T’hu'ng-clw 1861
5‘ Kang-he 1662 325%
E 53. NE
/w
’51
Four Characters.

FE-lfiE Er
Ching-hwa 1465
is u Probably a. forg ery.
BREE Ell-IE
Yung-ch1'ng 1723
:
I

:\-_-.
Shun-she 1644
_rm
g Kijen-Z'ng 1736 IEE%
§§E E Ké‘en-Zung 1736
fi [mmE
Kan-Ling 1796 Taou-kwang 1822

53E
J Han-fang 1851
fl 55::
J

)Q
Taou-kwomg 1822
-_—
51M? \
‘ T’hung-che_.. 1861

Han-fun!) 1851 ‘ Fifi T“'(i\g:$?>;ti§r.s'_


willm _ l U Timmy-chm. 1861
Oriental. I 93

\O BAT.
Fuh, used as a synonym for happiness.

9
DRAGON,
E
With five claws, is an Imperial emblem, with four, of
"I
the blood royal, and with three, of the nobility. Lung
fung, a. dragon and a phoenix (divine bird of felicitous
omen), was a mark of the Seuen~tc period, 1426 to 1435.

FISH.
The two fish, an emblem of domestic felicity, is .1
mark usually found on old blue or Nankin ware; it is
one of the earliest known, from 969 to 1106. Cups with
handles in the form of a red fish are of the Scum-ta
period.

FLOWER.
Many varieties of this mark are found in blue and also
in colours. A sesmnum flower painted under the foot of
a vase, &c., is a mark of Tau-chemo, 969 to 1106.
The C'he plant, a kind of fungus, used as an emblem
of longevity. 0
194 Pottery and Porcelain.

Emblem of longevity.

(?) Bat and peach.

(?) The lotus.

H041, a small flower p1inted inside a. cup, is a mark of the


Yang-lo period, 1413 to 1424. It signifies pleasure in
a vicious sense.

FLY,
Or Butterfly, is found on old “ Nankin."
Orienlal.

GRASS.
.0/)‘IR
The “grass mark” is probably a. water plant. About
A.D. 960 some such mark was used to denote were of the
/
best quality.

a f‘\ INSCRIPTIONS.
l‘) A great variety are to be met with on old porcelain,
often in the place where the European mark is found.
Some are compliments and good wishes; others are in
praise of the articles inscribed; many are quotations from
the poets and classical authors of all ages. These last are
not exemplified.

5th
an
s Tsew, wine. Small white cups thus marked were used by
the Emperor Kea-tsing, 1522 to 1566.

K'e'cn, rectitude. Mark of an early period, said to be on


articles sent to disgraced Mandarins.

Show, long life. This is a common Oriental compliment,


“May you live for ever,” and occurs oftener
than any other character. It has many variations,
sometimes a piece of pottery or porcelain is marked
with a hundred or more; these 5L0 filled “the
hundred show.” _
em am em on swam one as E sag
are tax wow em are. am am we 1% film :W
em em em .er am an ea. as... ea
Longevity
P artery and Porcelain.

is as. .vm on aim we... amass 1Q...


.3. ea as. we @eé as
Varieties of Show.

so. as em am am eggs as we
am $1M $11 @me warm gm 1% am. am mew gm
em ems/1w am ism 1%. em seam em mam ammo 1%
.3 Q @mm.
iwvm @mmr 1%?
2% 1mm“ type. Ew 83 1%.. @DM Eww 101% AR. ...AMQMM
196
Oriental. 1 97

Show, is also drawn in circular, oval and elongated forms.

as e@1194»
m e e
Ena EPEE "E
fi+<ilnt$
@4112
$5.1:
st FLIIE 1&8)“ glove @1115 int
/1’».
:1:
A
v

:13
ll
II E45
In Show this form is known as the spider mark.

Happiness, divine protection, felicity.

Also written in many different ways.

new it
198 Pottery and Porcelain.
\ttt“
‘EEPJ'
KW]:- Prosperity, wealth, great pos
i. Lil/L
\
’ sessions
_ _ __ -" q

ll if: [Fri/t, la‘r’h, and show arez\7“<


m \ often found together.
l
l
5 1r
€ \ F17 Prosperous.

g [{th Felicity, good luck.


Jade, a gem, beautiful, precious, valu
i Yir’h { able, &c., known as the F mark, being
4_ often indistinct, and like that letter.
X Wan Literature. On articles made for use of
literary men,therulingclass of China.
‘ Hing Exalted, highly esteemed.
/ \
' ENE]
b: (i!) Kc
'l't
A vessel, vase, abl 1 y, capaci y.
't

lélfit
‘33,]; Paou Precious valuable.
gr
1

ii Ting Perfect.

Shun Elegant.
Ii
Oriental.

K01) Antique.

Shi’th Holy.

Complete, perfect, a name.


Tsuen

Good, excellent, congratulations.


Ki-ng

Ch’ha Name.

J The five blessings: which are long life,


riches, health, the love of virtue, and
U'oo f12h
1 a natural death;

Chin. 111711. Precious or valuable jade.

Jade of great value; pearl of great price.


Y12h chin

This is an example of the way marks


are usually written. -
“\

Wan yak. Rare jade.


Hi?“
\\\\
Pottery and Porcelain.
f A precious rarity.
Chin Man
i A valuable curiosity.
Veritable jade. Chin yuh /‘
»

‘ .. An elegant
Great prosperity rarity. Yew wan
felicity
HH
are T“ Kath { or good fortune.
Western jade. The best I
jade comes to China
from the West. l
A pivot, and the most
polite expression for
the house of another.
0/100 foo Palace of the centre
of the universe—mark
used 1260—1367.
Kcang t’lmg Ginger preserved in syrup.
Inexpressihly precious. Paoushz'ng
' Ht
v
\ \ l
v A fruit (called dates, by 2: >1?
em:
spas \

Tsaou t'cmg
Europeans) in syrup
——Gh0w Chow. Both
marks of the Km
tsing period, 1522—66.
The arrival of friends. Yew lae eeew
Tlmg you Name—imp on old ware.
Red olive—cinnamon.
The kwei is a me
Tom kwei
taphor for literary
honours.
Yng ching Name—p blue on old ware.
Oriental. 20 I

Wm- foo citing Made to‘multiply (or increase the stock


of) vemed Jasper.

“HALL " MARKS.


There has been some uncertainty as to the exact
meaning of the word tang, but Mr. Franks has ascer
tained. that it means the name of the establishment at
which the specimens so marked were made.
Jin ho Iowan Hall of brotherhood and peace.

Luh e tang Waving bamboo hall.

Hall for the honourable reception of


Fung seen tang those who have gone before.
Hall of ancestors.

Khe yih
E Made at the Hall of rare jade.
tang chc

Tsae jun ‘
g Made at the Hall of brilliant colours.
tang che
to O to Pottery and Porcelain.
alarm“ Elna Ching tilt
Made at the Hall of virtuous research.

y iC
tang clio
,.
Made at the Hall of WW” MA
ififik
\

Pm: yak advantage.


Made at the Hall 01 lung 6]“;
fiF
rst
kH§' [an] 67.0 the jeWi-lled girdle.
Made at thejade.
abundant Hall of tang
Li” 2/1”” i
67w %1 E

T” m Made at the Hall of the


tang Che violet embroidery.
Made at the Hall 01's Task” 2 d\
the great tree. ( tang Che %w

she King Mei Made at the Hall of wor

‘21a???
7|
mng Che ship and veneration.
Made at the encouragc- Yang ho
J4
§
mentofharmonyliall. tang 0718 %

was Ming

Fuh The illustrious Fo's (01' Buddha) hall of au


|

dience or prayer.
Yué

Tang
Oriental. 203

Yah tang Beautiful vase (or excellent vessel) of the


[cm k6 jade hall—the Academy.

W” “h Made at the mu of the cultiva


tang che tion of virtue. E \‘b
Antique made at} Shin Uh tang \ ll/\
the Skin tih )fi
Hall_ 105 koo size 5 11m
Tseu shun moi 1, #5“.
Made at the Hall of beautiful jade. -
yuh tang chc

Kingle'cnlang {Imitation of antiques made at the King


fimg koo Che lean Hall, named after a distinguished
scholar.

F17h kwci zWealth, honours, and a long spring time,


Chang chm ’ or lasting youth.
\Vealth, honours, g F71h kiwi 'E E
and long life. (.hlm
, -
g mmy A 5E
Iécn Icwan p E
l\
May heaven confer happiness.
tszc f1771'
204. Pottery and Porcelain.
in *
E" l r
i like .
mm \Vondcrful precious stone, resembling
a jewel.
th chin a"
A gem rare as jade.
jou yih E 96>
' En i , .
fiéi \chulg yew The elegant collections of the Holy
- Friends.

3” ‘ P6 koo For the learned in antiquities, a valu


_
I"; .5. chin wan
able curiosity.

IVan yiih Elegant, perfect and precious ting, 01'


X. metal vase used for burning joss
5E; paou ting stick or incense.

_|__ ‘ Scholarship lofty as the Hills and the


FL‘ )L Wan \“hanfl Great Bear. Compliment comparing
\\ ‘ -I-.¢
E Sham tow thcreciplenttothemountaln
' ' ' Tae Sham
and the north pole or star, Pih tow,
,/
3i if % Mai yih
2 Made for the connoisseur of beautiful
jade.
I] I
A" ya aka l

3% Nlm chum
The elegant jade of Nan chucn.
i kin 'yfih
Oriental. ‘ 205

Wan show
An unlimited long life.
woo kcang

D a}
[EH E US, In “Seal” characters.

>
‘rH\
\\ GM we” } Precious reward for the lover of the
\“nl‘lg (hiin chin shang water 1113'

EH
ins Shwae foo
For the public usa of the general’s hall.
kzmg yimg

&I_r\ Chan wing } Chan tsing chac maker. One of a pair,


‘'3!
IE»i_ H \i “Hi chae Che the other marked Ching tih Hall.
(iiim
9‘ lb
.1. F
ra Koang nzz'ng
Keang mng kaou maker.
U,
'
kaou tsaou,

9PM
time
I
Chang ming Chan ming tsoang made it. Said to be
} as old as the Sung dynasty 960—1127.
tsoang che
P ottery and Porcelain.

Y1ng ching
} Made for the service of Y1mg citing.
yu che

Le’cn ching 1
(i) Name.
khc 71010 ,i

. ,-
J0 67”“ f g
} Deep like a treasury (éi‘ $1?
of gems.
chin tsaug fiat $255
This mark is of frequent occurrence, but is usually
very indistinct.

Kéi'h tscang
As fortunate as you can desire.
jou e

th she paou
A gem among precious vessels of rare
ting chc chin stone.
Oriental. 207

1.5-! fi Khe 2J ah p aou } A gem among precious


' . vessels of rare
ZI ting che ch in ade’

we:
5 ,3}. Ohng you mai 1
For the possessor of a true and faithful
flee yfih ya chc J
heart this elegant gem was made.

§%%'
Show 110 mm shun, Long life as south mountain.
F011 jou tzmg hai,Happiness similar east sea.
Be it Nan~shan is a mountain in Fong-thesang-fou. The in
fié scription may be read, May you live to be as old as
the hills, and your happiness he as great as the sea
25w is wide.

LEAF.
The leaf mark is very common on pieces of every period ;
probably a leaf of the artemisia, an emblem of good
augury.

$9“
208 Pottery and Porcelain.

k u) Bamboo leaves; used as a. mark in a. factory of


King-te-chin, 1573 to 1619.

\k NUMERALS.
ii "' I Yfih... 1
a" :- H um 2
g —=— W San 3
5? m X Sn 4
15 fi } 5
IE 7" '- Lew 6
‘Z-fi 4: '—"- Tseih 7
fill A; Pa '8
UL 7L2 Kew... 9
iii} 1‘ '1' Shih... 10
These are given to assist in deciphering dates.
Orienml. 209

g \? RABBIT, ,
' or Hare, sacred to the moon, found on old Nankin ware,
an emblem of longevity.

jff

SACRED AXE,
so called, it is probably the symbol Fuh embroidered on
g the Emperor‘s sacrificial robes; perhaps an equi
valent for Full, Happiness.

° _ SHELL,
a Buddhist emblem. A shell was lent by the Government
| to the ambassadors to Loochoo, to ensure them a
prosperous voyage.

& g ‘ .
SQUARE.
I’twu. Precious, valuable.

P
210 Pottery and Porcelain.

D! Ii K100, National or Governmental.


/

l Tc shan, name.

Slum yzih or Sham wang, name.

% On old were, dragon pattern.

2% Foiqul on old Nankin ware; imitated by factories of


\* v urope.

@\ Maker or decorator's mark. Called House marks by the


Chinese.

2 La Ohih, name.
Oriental. 2I1

Chung-huh she The Chung-huh family.

Foil kwez' 1 Beautiful vase for_ the wealthy and


law lee or noble; or wealth, honours, and a
wong he [ vast intellect or capacity.

Ling Chang
Made by Ling Chang-tsee.
lsee tsaou

C'hz'n chow
Valuable (vase) to explain the future.
she tsuen

J0 shin
Deep like a treasury of gems.
chin tsang

Made by (01' for) the 10rd of the Heae


Hcae chuh bamboos. Heae is the name of the
place where Ling Lun, minister of
choo jin tsaqu { the fabulous Emperor Hwang Ti, cut
bamboos to form in usical instruments.

Tsu'h Chin Nnine.


212 Pottery and Porcelain.

g" H Examples of marks on Canton ware, of recent date


@ possibly to represent the Imperial “ Seal.”
P
ill

[a ~ ~ »
SYMBOLIOAL ORNAMENTS.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Poo-paw. The eight precious things.

1. Pearl or “ tide jewel.” 2. Probably a coin as an emblem of riches.


3. Probably one of the dual symbol (2) the female. 4. Variant of last or
male of dual symbol. 5. Kiny, emblem of happiness or luck. 6. Pro
bably books. 7. Rhinoceros horns. 8. Leaf of artemisia, emblem of
good augury. ~
Oriental. 2I3

5 6 7 8

seine l")
k':'_) ,1%
I "““" _

Pa che siang. The eight lucky emblems of the Buddhists.

1. Chung, a bell. 2. L0, a chank shell. 3. San, State umbrella.


4. Kac, a canopy. 5. Hum, the lotus, this is always without fillets.
6. Kwan, a vase with cover. 7. Yu, two fishes united by fillets, may
signify domestic felicity. 8. Chang, an emblem of longevity. These
emblems are found as marks, and are also used in decoration.

lVan-lsc, Ten thousand things, everything, all creation.


% The “swastika” or fylfot ; cross of Buddha.

'Efi n n

King, an emblem of good fortune.


1!

This is also intended to give forth a sound when struck ;


it is used as a tuning fork ; it has been mistaken for
a Masonic emblem.
Gourd, an emblem of longevity, inscribed Fuh, happi
® Q
ness, in “ Grass " character.

% J'oo-c, or sceptre of longevity, and musical instruments.


214 Pottery and Poreelain.

Peach and bat, the peach is an emblem of longevity and

geae% s&%es the bat of happiness, here they symbolise the phrase
Fuh show shwrmg chuen, a two-fold perpetuation of
happiness and longevity.

Pi, a pencil, ting, a cake of ink, joo-e, a sceptre of


longevity symbolizing the phrase, Pi ting joo a.
May things be fixed as you desire.

l I‘uou. Precious things. Pencil and roll of paper.

TABLE.
Many varieties of this mark are found on old Nankin
ware. It was imitated by Delft, Dresden, Worcester,
J and other factories of Europe. Mr. Franks is of opinion
that it is a four-legged vase with a high ear on each side.
Probably a wedding cup.
Oriental. 2l5

These figures occur so often on old ware, especially that


intended for sacrificial use, that a. few words may be given
to explain their purport.

The unbroken line Yang, represents the masculine or


perfection; the divided line Yin, the feminine or imper~
fection. The group of four is called the See-sccmg or
four similitudos; the eight are the Pa-qua. or eight sym
bols of Fo’h-he. The circle was added by Chow, a. member
of the Sung dynasty, who analysed and explained them.
The circle represents the original principle, the waved
line dividing it makes the dual power or the active and
passive principles of creation, it is called the Tae-keih,
this when in action, produced a male power, when at rest
a female power. From these were generated four visible
forms which represent in the innumerable combinations
of the eight symbols, the changes and transmutations
that take place in nature and in the afl'airs of the world.
Pottery and Porcelain.

JAPAN.
Tun manufacture of pottery is said to date from B.C. 660. A factory
was established by Corean potters A.D. 200. The first good glazed
pottery was made at Seto about 1230, by Téshiro, who had learnt the
art in China. Porcelain is said to have been first made by Gorodayu
Shonsui, who also studied in China, and on his return in 1513 settled in
Hizen.
The great centre of the Japanese manufacture is in the province of
Hizcn, where twenty-five villages are congregated on a mountain which
affords a plentiful supply of material for their work. Other districts
have, however, their'peculiar wares, some of which are undoubtedly of
great antiquity.
The marks used in Japan are usually the name of the factory or of
the maker or decorator ; sometimes all are given.

DATES
are marked in the same fashion as the Chinese, sometimes the year of the
period is written :
\ I I

gig Ten‘sho’ } 1780 E‘ Q JB-O, } 16r3


Fl); 711mm J L 5; 2nd Year a
11% lei/1‘s “ 7
As a rule it may be assumed that when an article is marked Dai
Nipon it is a. modern production; Chinese periods are to be found on
work made after Chinese patterns.
En-toku ...
Mei-ö
"Bun-ki
Ei-shö
Gen-chü ... Dai-ei

Mei-tolku ... Kö-roku ...

Ö-ei ... Tcm-bun ...


K V
Shö-chö ... 3 Köji...
3 7 ------------
Ei-kiö 7 Ei-roku ...
Ka-kitsu ... EUR Gen-ki
IE 3 Ten-shö ...
Bun-an ...
Hö-toku ... 1449 Bun-roku...

Kö–toku ... 14:52 Kei-chö ...

1455 Gen-na
Kö-shö
Kwan-ei ...
Chö-roku... 1457 |
Shö-hö
Kwan-shö 1460
Kei-an
Bun-shö ... 1466 |
Jö-ö ...
Ö-nin 1467
Mei-reki ...
Bum-mei ... 1469
Chö-kö Man-ji
1487
n\ I"! 00 Pottery and Porcelain.
kI
1mmw@m Kwam-bun 1661 “H 35 Tem-mei 1781
\
I
I
Em-pT) 1673 H% Kwan-sci .. 1789
Kifi-wn 1801
nE Tun-nu T11 :1.
Bun-kwa
Bun-sci 1804
8%
%w JOliiT) 1t K
Gc|1~r0ku
116-01 MY 1818

Tom-116 1830
>2!
'(:lE'IT \ 1“

9\ ~11
a ShO-tuku
K1611?» K6 kwa
Ka-ci
1844
1848
HQEMHI K\vam -pfi
Gem-bun
An'sci 1854
Man-en 1860

4m Ell-kifi
Bun-kifi 1 .
Gen-ji
1861
1864
(a: m:
aa ‘1“
HG-reki
Kwan-cn
Mei-\va
Kei~6 1865
m':‘m Meiji 1868
.n
1
-\-'\1:
‘Fu\ xw'} An-ei

FACTORIES AND WARES.


Akahada ware, Kfiriyama, founded about 1644—47-'

8 Aka-hada, name of factory


Arita, see Hizen.
1mp
'
Oriental. '2 1 9

Asahi, Uji, established 1644—47.


Asa-hi, Morning light, so named from
colour of the ware imp

Min-310i.
Awaji, established about 1840 by Ka-shz'u Min-psi.
Nipon
Aim-fl (Made by) Kashiu Sanpci in
C Vs Kwshz'“ Awaji, Japan.
K
3% San-poi

AWATA.
Awata, see Kioto.

Banko Kichibei, established by, 1652—60 at Koume-mu


ra, near Tokio, known as Yedo Banko, now closed. imp
2319 Isé Banko.

as
“we
.Vipon Banko.
Shiba-ta
tsuku'ru
1 Made by Shihata Banko,
J Japan imp

Banka.

5)

Articles known as Banko were are now made at


Kuwana, Yokka-ichi, and neighbourhood.
220 Pottery and Porcelain.

1 Nipon
aa } name
imp

ZR Sh ivgen, name
:1: l

X' 4% i Baum 1 Not easy ,,

a Nat. yous-iii. J Difficult.

4%;
% \ Bank-0, The eminent of flowers inc

35
he l Go-so, name imp

4-.—
P Bizen, supposed date, B. C. 97—30.
g1? ‘ At Imbe-mura a kiln has been worked since 1390.
H“! Ro-kei sei, Made by Rokei, modern mark.
are ‘ ~
‘ Fujina, commonly called Idsumo ware.
~55 Fqua, Matsuye.
3]? . Un-yei, name.
Oriental. 22 I
Hirnto, Mikaweji, Hizen, established 1655—57.
The were was made for the use of a. prince of the
Matsu-um family, not for sale.
Hirato, 111ikawnji.
.I
die,
(fitfeeh?
ammu
M Hirato Shi-aye lsukuru, Shiaye maker.

Mikawaj17.
\. :
14 U-F’; Mari Chikara tsukuru.
fiberWI2“
Hirato.
0 tome yaku, The honourable close of burning.
The prince closed the factory; the article so marked
may have been the last fired.
m
(a
r. Hizen. A large number of kilns have been worked in
this province, but only those so marked are named here.
55
Hl
Q‘ Hezm Arita K'wmi. Arite is an important town where
is
(“52:
we many noted kilns are situated. Kami, name.

$11112
leer Nishi Hezzm Arita yama, West Hezen.
Nan-iii sci, Made by Nandi.
Pattery and Porcelain.

chcn.

Shin-116 tsuku'ru, Made by Shinpo.

Hezen.

Reki-san tsukuru, Made by Rekisan.

Hizcn.
Sara yam.

Fuka-gawa (sci omitted), Made by (Yeizaynnon) Fukw


gawa at Arita.

Fukami (Smninosuke').
Fukami, Arita; also \‘_|_ Fuka with Hezen and Great
Japan. L“

Hishu Arila.

Ten-taz' tsukuru, Made by Tentai.


li%’£\ \l Oriental. 223

'lhrshbrfiw ZO-sh'lm toi.

Sam-126 sci, Made by Sampfi at the Zoshun


(inclosure of Spring) Hall.

it}leer Zd-shun toi.

Sui-chi tsukuru, Made by Saichi.

(s:
wees EE-EIII
.415 Arita ware is also known as Imari.

Niehi Hizon.
Fukmgttwoi sci, Made by Fnkagawa of
Niehi Hizen. On Okawaji ware.

Imado, Tokio. Origin unknown imp


Go-saburo, name.

Kaga or Kutani ware, established about 17th century.

Kutani, The nine valleys p red

es Kutani p gol rl
224. Pottery and Porcelain.
6*»
re Kutani tsukzn'u, Made at Kutani p red

1‘7 Kaga fly” Kaga ? m


’p\\ Kutani 95% [7%) Kutmzi s p go

1) H
772 Kaga Kulam' p red
16
I

g ,, tmtklmo p black

‘§:§ Dm' Nipon, Great Japan.

$72!
em» Kutlmi sci, Made at Kntani [1' black

1L
/ \

5/; Kutani Bokuzan, name p blue


11!

‘ Kutam', in centre the name To mu, :1


I] " decorator pred

Dai Nipon.
“M en: To zan no in, Seal of Tozan
Oriental. I 225

mm PM
i
W Kiyo-zan, name ,,
'8 i
1
® [ Pon-‘zan ,, imp

is? Diwo-zo ,, ,,
' U '

To-wo ,, ... p red

77“ :71? Kutam' sei, Made at Kutani.


% Z:
ibf‘ it], Kayo, Na-Ice'n, Kaga Long house ... p black
>9?

2&2" Dai Nipan Kulani, omitted.

Uchi-mni kichi-zo, name


Q
226 Pottery and Poreelain.

a th-zan, name, Yuzan Hall, Kutani.

Fuku, happiness

Rok“, riches Are often found on Kaga. ware.

Ju, long life


Kioto. A potter entitled Nin-sei, 1644—51, erected
kilns in various places; amongst them were those still
-
working at Awata, Kinkozan, and Kiomidzu.
12 Nin-sei, Mark of Nonomura Ninsei about 1650 imp

A '
J 1 2 7 ,, I,

_ Awata ware.

Nipon Kioto, Japan, Kioto.

Kin Ice zari tsulcuru, Made by Sobei Kinkozan p gold

% Kinkozan I. _ imp
Oriental. 227

Iehi-gaya.

Tan-zan, Mark of Seikai Tanzan imp

r—fi
m ‘ Tanzan ’)

\_1_/ I

er
.fi; :1 p black
1
1
Lu 1
I
g Iwa-lcum-zan, Mark of I. Kichibeye imp
o
w

'57?! H0 zany, name


Pottery and Porcelain.
I
a C Ken-mu, Mark of Ogata Shinsho, about
1730... p brown

Kiomidzu ware.
Soi kan ji, Name of village whence came
the maker.

\
l
§
‘5 Dohcwhi', name imp
J \I

\
é ,, (Takahashi D.) inc

7\
i? Kan-:(m, name, K. Denshiehi p

\-— .
7H3?- Soz-f'u, name . p
m With “Great Japan,” “maker,” etc.

Ki-toi, name, Wake Kitei.


Oriental. 229
Kishiu ware. Wakayama, an old-established kiln ;
wares greatly improved in 1827.
Kai-mica } Made at the garden of
yewsai mingled enjoyment imp

Shit-lea D6, Early flower Hall.


Yeiraku ware, made at an old establishment by the
Zengo'ro family. Riyozen (the 10th generation) was the
first to make porcelain. The Prince of Kii honoured him
with the title Yeimlcu, and presented him with the
seals used as marks.
Ka'hin } The branch factory of the river. Seal
ski-#7:“ used by Yeiraku Riyozen about 1810.

Yei-raku, Perpetual enjoyment.

Dai Nipon.

Yea-mien tsukuru.

Makuzu, near Kioto.

Fu-ji yo, Made at the Fuji kiln of Maknzu.

Ma-k’ltz'tt tsukuru.
Pottery and Porcelain.

Mak'azu yo p blue

Ko-z'an tsukuru, Made by Kozan at the Makuzu kiln.

Minato ware, near Saki, Idsumi. Of great antiquity,


it is believed that Giyoji, the inventor of the potter’s
wheel, was the first to work here.
Minalo yakz', Minato ware imp

Mino ware. \Vorked in 17th century. Porcelain first


made in 1810.

NW)" Mi‘no 7mm} Made by Kaito Gosuké, in the pro


Kaito Gomtké 8m- vince of Mine, Japan.

Raku ware, used in the tea ceremonies. Introduoed


by a Corean named Ameya, 1658—69. He settled at
Kioto, and worked with clay found at Juraku. Taiko
Hideyoshi honoured the son of Ameya, Chojiro, with a
seal engraved Raku, enjoyment, since which it is called
Ralou yaki, and marked with a seal so inscribed.

Sen-raku } Made at the Senraku garden. Seal


used by Chojiro Kichizayemon of
yen sei the 11th generation.
Oriental. 23 1

Ohi Raku, Obi-machi, Kaga. Founded 1680 by


C'hozayomon.

5M, seal used by the fourth C.

Osaka Raku, made by Kikko,'187—.

Kilzu-ko or Ki'kko.

Tokio Raku, made by Kozawa. Benshi, who is still


working.
Ni'pon’ Tovkio Rakuho, potter of Tokio,

to-ko Baku-ho Japan imp

Sado ware. Made of a material found in the mines ;


the ware is scarce, and in Japan is valued both as a
curiosity and as having some medicinal quality. Small
portions are broken ofl', crushed in the mouth and
swallowed for no special disorder, but simply as a good
thing to take.
Sado kin gin zan wo moltoi mil-moi d1; kore wo tzukum.
Made of an unnamed material found in the gold
and silver mines of Sado. ‘
232 Pottery and Poreelairt.

h“asst Sho ju
May you live 1000 years.
son. hen }
Av“?
Jo-zan, name.
All written on the soft clay with a. point.
3; Satsuma, established 1467-86. The Prince brought
putters from Corea about 1592, when the well-known
ware was first made. No mark is found on old ware.
Satsu-ma.
Naka-jima
Soto, Owari,
(sei),ofMade
greatby
antiquity;
N. date unknown.
p gold 187—

Dai Ni-pon.
Se-to sci, Made at Seto, Great Japan.

Nipon, Soto. Japan, Seto.

Kan-a moto, Maw-kichi tsukuru, Made by M. Kawamoto.


Oriental. 233

Dai Ni-pon, Great Japan p blue

Han-sake sci, Made by Hansuké Kawamoto.

Nipon, Seto.

(Q) Eu-roku sei.

Sei-getsu, name of a celebrated painter of porcelain.

A'i-wo, name.

Sin-zan fude, name of decorator.


234 Pottery and Portelain.

lIfldEFPtE
Yama—moto She-tan, Name of a celebrated painter of
porcelain.

Seto-Suké, Yokkaichi, established 1764-80.


gun So-to-suke', Name of factory.

Shiba.

has i ‘ Resident of Shiba in Tokei.

GM»
ifr1
F“.
Soi-im-toi, Factory.

(is—\~>~ Hikomaro, name p black

Soma ware, Naga-mura. It is a popular belief in


Japan that this is the oldest ware made there, and the
possessors of specimens prize them highly. The running
horse with which they are decorated probably dates
from 1670.

So ma, name imp


Oriental. 235

QiKanc-shige
Yen zan, name "PP
name

Tokio.

Dai Ni-pon.

Din-to sq; Maker’s name p blue

Tokz'o.
Matswmoto
} Name . p red.
yashi-nobo
Both marks on one piecé.

Div-to, Maker.

Toyo-ura ware, Nagato, established 1716—35.

Togo-um yama, Name of factory imp

Tozan ware, Himeji. ~ \ .

Hime-ji sei, Made at Himeji.


\
2 36 Pottery and Porcelain.

Q€
11%
FLOWER.
Many varieties of this mark occur on porcelain both
old and of recent date.
l

Ht?
ratify l
\

i
l .
' LEAF.
; And other varieties are often found on porcelain.
l
lNSCRIPTIONS
l
l Of a similar character to the Chinese are found on all
l
l kinds of ware.
l
‘ Dzou, long life.

So-wo, name hp imp

g; Kami sei, Kami, maker ,, 1) blue


I

‘% Raku-masa tsulcuru ,, p red


,, ,, maker.

a .
RHH Huji-nori, name ,, p blue
/\
4?;
Oriental. 237

M
wflewe Ju-shin
i Deep like a. treasury of V
Chin tsang I gems p blue
A11 imitation of an old Chinese mark.

Shin f0
Name
se-scki

@\*>
31%“?
we Sh.1pm i The seven jewels Com

kuaisha { Pally 01' Enamel Co.


'-/\//H
ml!
\I

we]
weH Nmki
E
5%:
ew» Sm sztzu 1 Hall of the increase of

kin 760mg ’ peace and harmony ,2

Fu ki Wealth, honours and

ché min long hfe'

To gig/0k“ 1 Made at the jade pot.

- f tery house __ ,7
yen set
Pottery and Porcelain.

To giyoku yen
Made by Gosuki at the jade
pottery house. h p p blue HI? 3E
Gosukz' sei
%%IE
The Chinese dates Scum-tilt and Ching-hu'a a m
are often found on Hezen ware decorated
with old Nailkin patterns. '1 G

Gen-M
} Made in the Gen-ki years 1570—73.
awn-sci

Kama yama ‘
The work of Kameyama}
26 no

Fuku-shun km‘L Made by Giyokusei


at Returning
Spring House.
GiyokzL-sci sci §
Oriental. 239

Ki-to ken }
Made by Hokuhan at the Curious
Pottery House.
Hokra-lean sei

SQUARE.

Called House Marks.

Hata, name of a factory hp p red

San-hon, mountain middle, name ,, p blue

Yeh-san or
Itsi-yotma one mountain, name

Ka, felicity.

Goa, strong, name


Pottery and Porcelain, '

All on blue decorated ware called Hezen ; niarks such


as these are found in great variety, they often difier
in a set of cups and saucers that are evidently from the
same hand.

Roku, wealth.

Aoi, blue.

This appears to be “happiness.”

So-wo, name.

thku, happiness.

VASE.
This curious mark is impressed and coloured; it re
411;)“ presents a sacred Vessel used in sacrificing and. is in
w scribed with the characters Fuku, happiness‘ and id.
longevity. ~
W. H. H.

;
7' LIBRARY USE ONLY
l 370881
Hooper, WJ-l. H6
‘ A manual of marks on 189).;
pottery and porcelain. R

* I H WWW”WHSWHI
UN

31
1750 25 8 9 323 4