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ENE 5729

Terra como condutor não ideal

Se σ solo é finita, as eqs. do campo eletromag. tornam-se


muito + complexas e incluem integrais que convergem
lenta/ (integrais de Sommerfeld).

Geral/ aceita-se que E vert. e H horiz. não são muito


afetados pela σ solo → geral/ calculados assumindo-se a
terra com σ → ∞.

Razoável a uma pequena dist. do canal (< alguns km),


mas a grandes dists. a propagação dos campos no solo
real não pode ser desprezada.

ENE 5729

E horiz.: muito afetado por σ.

Aproximações:

Fórmula Wavetilt

Cooray - Rubinstein

ENE 5729
Fórmula Wavetilt

Relaciona a transformada de Fourier do campo elétrico


horiz. Er(jω) com a do campo vertical Ez(jω).

Er ( j.ω ) 1
W ( j.ω ) = =
E z ( j.ω ) σ g 
ε rg +  j .ω .ε 
 0

ε rg : permissividade relativa do solo


σ g: condutividade do solo

Ez: geral/ calculado (σ → ∞) ou medido

1
ENE 5729
Wavetilt

Aplica-se ao caso de ondas planas com pequeno


ângulo de incidência em relação ao plano de terra:

- pto. observação distante da fonte ou


- primeiros µs (frente da onda ainda próxima ao solo)
se estiver próximo.

Para o caso da LEMPs, tem se mostrado razoável p/ o


caso de pto. observação a poucos km de distância do
canal da descarga.

ENE 5729
Aproximação de Cooray - Rubinstein

E r (r, z, j.ω ) = E rp (r, z, j.ω ) – E rc (r, z, j.ω )

µ0
E r (r, z, j.ω ) = E rp (r, z, j.ω ) – Hφp (r, z = 0, j.ω ).
σ g 
εg +  j.ω 

1o termo: E horiz. (altura z, plano condutor perfeito)


2o termo: leva em conta o efeito de ρsolo ≠ 0

↑ r: Cooray – Rubinstein → Wavetilt

ENE 5729

Se a condutividade do solo for alta (σg >> ω.εg):

Er (r , z , jω ) = Erp (r , z , jω ) − H Φp (r , z = 0, jω ) ⋅
(1 + j )
σ g .δ

δ: prof. pelicular (efeito “skin”) = ( 2 /(ω . µ g .σ g ) )


Transformada inversa de Fourier → Er (t)

2
ENE 5729

[11]: Cooray-Rubinstein

µ0
E r (r, z, j.ω ) = E rp (r, z, j.ω ) – Hφp (r, z = 0, j.ω ).
σ g 
εg +  j.ω 

Modelo TL, com v = 1,1 . 108 m/s e


(
i(0, t ) = I 0 e − at − e −bt ) (I0 = 10 kA, a = 3.104 s-1 e b = 107 s-1).
Zeddam e Degauque: solução exata, mas ineficiente sob o ponto
de vista computacional.

ENE 5729

[11]: Cooray-Rubinstein

µ0
Er (r, z, j.ω) = Erp (r, z, j.ω) – Hφp (r, z = 0, j.ω).
σ 
εg +  g j.ω 
 

[12]: Cooray-Rubinstein (σg >> ω.εg)

Er (r , z, jω ) = Erp (r , z, jω ) − H Φp (r , z = 0, jω ) ⋅
(1 + j )
σ g .δ

Modelo TL, com v = 1,1 . 108 m/s e


(
i (0, t ) = I 0 e − at − e − bt ) (I0 = 10 kA, a = 3.104 s-1 e b = 107 s-1).
Zeddam e Degauque: solução exata, mas ineficiente sob o ponto de vista computacional.

ENE 5729

Er calculado a três diferentes distâncias para σ = 10-2 S/m e εr =10. Modelo TL, com v = 1,1 . 108 m/s e
(
i(0, t ) = I 0 e − at − e −bt ) (I0 = 10 kA, a = 3.104 s-1 e b = 107 s-1).
[22]: Zeddam e Degauque (solução exata, mas ineficiente sob o ponto de vista computacional).

3
ENE 5729

Descargas em objetos altos

Medições de correntes em
torres altas:

→ "contaminação" pelas
reflexões na base e no topo
da torre

ENE 5729
Ondas Viajantes (revisão)

L L

C C carga

µo 2.h 2.π .ε o
L= . ln C=
2.π r ln
2.h
r
1 1
v = =
L .C µ 0 .ε 0

ENE 5729
Equaç
Equação de onda:

L
x crescente
v I C

dx

∂V
∂x = − L . ∂∂It ∂I
∂x = − C . ∂∂Vt

4
ENE 5729

Derivando uma eq. em relação a x e a outra em relação a t:

∂ 2V
= − L . ∂∂x .∂It
2

∂x 2
∂ 2I
= − C . ∂∂ t V2
2

∂ x .∂ t

∂ 2V
= L.C . ∂∂t V2
2

∂x 2
Equações da LT
∂ 2I
= L.C . ∂∂t 2I
2

∂x 2

ENE 5729

Soluções

V = f1 ( x + v.t ) + f 2 ( x − v.t )

I= V
ZL

ZL = L
C
(impedância característica)

ENE 5729

Funç
Função f1

f1(a) f1(a)

v.t +x

5
ENE 5729

Ondas incidentes e refletidas

V = Vi + Vr
I = Ii + Ir

Vi = Z L . I i (onda incidente)

Vr = − Z L . I r (onda refletida)

ENE 5729
Reflexão e Refração de Ondas viajantes

Ii

ZL
Ir
ZR VT
IT

Ir ZR −ZL
VT = Z R .IT Ii =− ZR +ZL
Vr ZR −ZL
Vi +Vr = ZR .(Ii + Ir )
Vi = ZR +ZL

ENE 5729
Coeficiente de refração

VT 2. Z R
Vi = ZR +ZL
descontinuidade

Vi
VT
Vi

ZL ZR Vr

6
REFLEXÃO E REFRAÇÃO ENE 5729

Vr ZR −ZL
ZR = 0
Vi = ZR +ZL = −1 VT = Vi + Vr = 0

+
Vi
- ZR VT

REFLEXÃO E REFRAÇÃO ENE 5729

ZR = ∞ Vr ZR −ZL
Vi = ZR +ZL =1 VT = Vi + Vr = 2.Vi

s
+
Vi
- ZR VT

REFLEXÃO E REFRAÇÃO ENE 5729

ZR = ZL Vr Z R −ZL
Vi = ZR +ZL =0 VT = Vi + Vr = Vi

+
Vi
- ZR VT

7
REFLEXÃO E REFRAÇÃO ENE 5729

ZR = 0 Ir
Ii = − ZZ RR +− ZZ LL = 1 I T = I i + I r = 2.I i

+ s
Vi
- ZR IT

REFLEXÃO E REFRAÇÃO ENE 5729

ZR = ∞ Ir ZR −ZL
Ii =− ZR +ZL = −1 IT = I i + I r = 0

+
Vi
- ZR IT

REFLEXÃO E REFRAÇÃO ENE 5729

ZR = ZL Ir
Ii = − ZZ RR +− ZZ LL = 0 IT = I i + I r = I i

+
Vi
- ZR IT

8
REFLEXÃO E REFRAÇÃO ENE 5729

 2.h  2.Z 2
Z L = 60. ln  τT =
 r  Z1 + Z 2
VT = Vi .τ T
Vi
VT

Vr
R
Z −Z Vr = Vi .τ r R.Z L
τr = 2 1 Z2 =
Z1 + Z 2 R + ZL

ENE 5729
Multimodo
M (2)
I1
L
(1) C2 L
I2
C1 C1

V1 V2

Circuito 1: Circuito 2 :
− ∂V1
∂x =L ∂I1
∂t +M ∂I 2
∂t
− ∂∂Vx2 = L ∂∂It2 + M ∂∂It1
− ∂∂Ix1 = C1 ∂∂Vt1 + C2 ∂ (V1∂−t V2 ) − ∂∂Ix2 = C2 ∂∂Vt2 + C1 ∂ (V∂2t−V1 )

ENE 5729

Descargas em objetos altos

Medições de correntes em
torres altas:

→ "contaminação" pelas
reflexões na base e no topo
da torre

9
TORRE p/ CAPTAÇÃO de DA´s ENE 5729

• IEE/USP
• metálica, 62,5 m de altura
• estaiamento c/ bastões de
fibra de vidro

ENE 5729

ENE 5729

Motor generator set Photovoltaic


system

10
ENE 5729
Descargas Atmosféricas
em Estruturas Elevadas
Reflexões na base e no topo da torre Zch

causam "contaminação“ da corrente

(Z t - Zch )
ρt =
(Z t + Zch )

Zt

(Z t - Z g )
ρg =
(Z t + Zg ) Zg

INTRODUCTION ENE 5729

“Contaminated” current

Zch Zch
“Undisturbed” current:
Zch = Zt = Zg

“Reference” current

Zt

Zg

“Decontamination”
Decontamination” process

AIM ENE 5729

“Contaminated” current
Zch
“Undisturbed” current:
Zch = Zt = Zg

“Reference” current

Zt

Zg

Sensitivity of the “decontamination” process: lightning


channel, strike object and grounding system

Influence of the strike object on the stroke current:


“contaminated” x “reference” currents

11
METHODOLOGY ENE 5729

“UNDISTURBED” CURRENT i0(ht,t)


• i(ht,t): measured at the top
Model: Rachidi – Rakov – Nucci – Bermudez (2002)
 1 2h
i0 (ht , t ) = 1 − ρ i (ht , t ) for t < t
c
 t

 1 1 k n n −1  2nh  2kht 2(k + 1)ht


i0 (ht , t ) = i (ht , t ) − ∑ g t (1 + ρt )i0  ht , t − c t 
ρ ρ for ≤t≤
 1 − ρt 1 − ρ t n =1 c c
with k = 1, 2, ...

• i(0,t): measured at the bottom (this paper)

 i(0, t ) 2h
i0 (ht , t ) = (1+ ρ )(1− ρ ) for t ≤ t
c
 g t

i (h , t ) = 1  i(0, t ) −  ρ n ρ n + ρ n+1ρ n i  h , t − 2nht 
( )
N
2ht
 0 t  ∑
(1+ ρg ) (1− ρt ) n=1  g t g t 0

t
c 
 for t >
c

METHODOLOGY ENE 5729

“REFERENCE” CURRENT iR(0,t)

iR(0,t) i0(0,t)

Zch = Zt = Zg

iR (0, t ) = (1 + ρ g ´).i0 (0, t )


ρg´: reflection coefficient at the interface lightning channel - soil

METHODOLOGY ENE 5729

Zch = 1 kΩ Zch = 1 kΩ

Reference current
80

60
Contaminated current
Current (kA)

40

20
Undisturbed current (Rg = Zch)

0
Zt = 275 Ω
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Time (us)

Rg = 5 Ω Rg = 5 Ω

ht = 62.5 m

12
ENE 5729

IEE/USP TOWER IMPEDANCE

V Chave
R D Zcabo

Zt
v(t) V = E×
Z t + Z ger
OSCILLOSCOPE
Rg Zt ≈ 275 Ω

Object Height ht ENE 5729

80

60
Current (kA)

40

20 "Reference" - ht=62.5 m
"Reference" - ht=62.5 m
"Reference" - ht=250 m
"Contaminated"
"Contaminated"
"Contaminated"
0 250 m
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Time (us)

62.5 m

Zch = 1 kΩ; Zt = 275 Ω; Rg = 5 Ω

Object Impedance Zt ENE 5729

120

100

80
Current (kA)

60

40
"Contaminated" current
"Reference" current - Zt=138 OHM
20 "Reference" current - Zt=550 OHM

Zt 0
250 m
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Time (us)

Zch = 1 kΩ; Rg = 5 Ω

13
Object Impedance Zt ENE 5729

90

80

70

60
Current (kA)

50

40

30
"Contaminated" current
20 "Reference" current - Zt=138 OHM
"Reference" current - Zt=550 OHM
10

250 m
Zt 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time (us)

Zch = 1 kΩ; Rg = 5 Ω

Object Impedance Zt ENE 5729

80

60
Current (kA)

40

20 "Contaminated"
Zt "Contaminated"
"Reference" - Zt=138 OHM
"Contaminated"
"Reference"- -Zt=550
"Reference" Zt=138OHM
OHM
62.5 m
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Time (us)

Zchaffected
Short objects: the stroke current is not much = 1 kΩ;by ZR =5Ω
t, gexcept in case of low Zch.

Grounding resistance Rg ENE 5729

80

60
Current (kA)

40

"Contaminated"
"Contaminated"current
current
20 "Contaminated" current
"Reference" current - Rg=5 OHM
"Contaminated"
"Reference" current
current - Rg=5 OHM
"Reference" current - Rg=50 OHM
"Reference" current - Rg=5 OHM
"Reference"current
"Reference" current- Rg=500
- Rg=50 OHM
OHM
62.5 m
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Rg Time (us)

Zch = 1 kΩ; Zt = 275 Ω

14
Grounding resistance Rg ENE 5729

80

60
Current (kA)

40

"Contaminated"
"Contaminated"current
20 current
"Contaminated" current
"Reference" current - Rg=5 OHM
"Contaminated"
"Reference" current
current - Rg=5 OHM
"Reference" current - Rg=50 OHM
"Reference" current - Rg=5 OHM
"Reference"current
current- -Rg=500
Rg=50 OHM
62.5 m "Reference" OHM

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Rg Time (us)

Zch = 500 Ω; Zt = 275 Ω

Grounding resistance Rg ENE 5729

120

100

80
Current (kA)

60

40 "Contaminated" current
"Reference" current - Rg=5 OHM

20 "Reference" current - Rg=50 OHM


"Reference" current - Rg=100 OHM

0
250 m 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Time (us)

Rg Zch = 1 kΩ; Zt = 275 Ω

Grounding resistance Rg ENE 5729

90

80

70

60
C u rre n t (k A )

50

40

30 "Contaminated" current
"Reference" current - Rg=5 OHM
20
"Reference" current - Rg=50 OHM
10
"Reference" current - Rg=100 OHM
0
250 m
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time (us)

Rg Zch = 1 kΩ; Zt = 275 Ω

15
Channel Impedance Zch ENE 5729

80

Zch 60
Current (kA)

40

20 "Contaminated"
"Contaminated"
"Contaminated"
"Reference" - Zch=2.5 kOHM
"Reference" - Zch=2.5 kOHM
"Reference" - Zch=500 OHM
62.5 m
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Time (us)

Zt = 275 Ω; Rg = 5 Ω

Channel Impedance Zch ENE 5729

80

Zch 60
Current (kA)

40

20 "Contaminated"
"Contaminated"
"Reference" - Zch=2.5 kOHM
"Contaminated"
"Reference" -- Zch=500
"Reference" Zch=2.5 kOHM
OHM
62.5 m
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Time (us)

Zt = 550 Ω; Rg = 5 Ω

Channel Impedance Zch ENE 5729

120

100

Zch
80
Current (kA)

60

40
"Contaminated" current

20 "Reference" current - Zch=500 OHM


"Reference" current - Zch=2500 OHM

250 m 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Time (us)

Zt = 275 Ω; Rg = 5 Ω

16
Channel Impedance Zch ENE 5729

90

80

Zch 70

60
Current (kA)

50

40

30
"Contaminated" current
20 "Reference" current - Zch=500 OHM
"Reference" current - Zch=2500 OHM
10

0
250 m
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time (us)

Zt = 275 Ω; Rg = 5 Ω

Current distribution ENE 5729

8
10 MTLL MODEL
TL MODEL
MTLE
68 i (z´,t)
i (z´,t) = i (z´,t)
i (ht, =t-(z´-h
i (h )/v)=. i(1(h
t, tt-(z´-h –t, (z’-h
t)/v)
t-(z´-h t)/v)
. e-(z´-ht)/
t)/H)
λ

62.5 m62.5 m 2000 m 4000 m


6 62.5 m
(kA)

4
(kA)

2000 m
Current

4
Current

2 2000 m 4000 m
2
4000 m

00
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
-2
-2
62.5 m 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
-4
Time
Time (us)
(us)

Rg
ht = 62.5 m; Zt = 275 Ω; Rg = 5 Ω ; Zch = 1 kΩ; v = 0.3×c

CONCLUSIONS ENE 5729

Strike objects with ht < 70 m usually do not affect significantly the


characteristics of 1st RS currents.

SS or tall strike objects: the wavefronts of the currents at the base


may differ substantially from those of the currents that would flow
through the LC in the case of strikes to flat ground.

Short towers:
in general, the stroke current is not much affected by Zt,
except in the case of a low impedance LC;

the influence of Zch is usually not great, though differences


may occur on the current wavefront in case of strike objects
with high Zt;

Rg: for values below approximately 50 Ω its influence is


relatively small, especially if Zch > 1 kΩ.

17
CONCLUSIONS ENE 5729

Tall structures:

stroke currents are more sensitive to the influence of the LC


and object parameters (as expected);

the greater the differences between the impedances of


LC and object
and
object and grounding system,
the greater the influence of the structure.

ENE 5729
Position hs

Zch

ht

Zt

Rg
hs

ht = 62.5 m; Zch = 1 kΩ; Zt = 275 Ω; Rg = 5 Ω

ENE 5729
CONCLUSIONS
• the influence of Zch is small in terms of current
magnitudes and front times, although the amplitude of
the oscillations on the wavefront tends to become higher
as Zch increases;

• the "contaminated" currents at the bottom of the strike


object tend to deviate significantly from the "pure"
currents, in terms of both magnitude and waveform, as
ht increases. The amplitude of the oscillations on the
current wavefront tends to increase with ht;

18
ENE 5729

• typical first stroke currents of downward negative flashes


do not vary significantly along a short object and are
practically unaffected by its presence. On the other hand,
due to their higher steepness, subsequent strokes may be
affected by propagation effects along the strike object;

• the reflections at the top and at the bottom of tall


structures cause a considerable dependence of the
current on the position along the structure. Tall strike
objects influence significantly both the current
magnitude and waveform;

ENE 5729

• the highest current crest value occurs at the bottom of


the strike object;

• the effect of Zt on the current magnitude is negligible in


the situations considered. The current steepness tends to
decrease slightly with Zt;

• as the current crest value tends to increase as Rg


diminishes, higher stroke current magnitudes would be
in principle more likely to occur in case of low resistivity
soils. However, ...

ENE 5729
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

Object height ht

Zch

ht

Zt

Rg
hs

hs= 0 m; Zch = 1 kΩ; Zt = 275 Ω; Rg = 5 Ω

19
ENE 5729
Position hs

Zch

ht

Zt

Rg
hs

ht = 500 m; Zch = 1 kΩ; Zt = 275 Ω; Rg = 5 Ω

ENE 5729
Position hs

Zch

ht

Zt

Rg
hs

ht = 62.5 m; Zch = 1 kΩ; Zt = 275 Ω; Rg = 5 Ω

ENE 5729
Channel impedance Zch

Zch

ht

Zt

Rg
hs

ht = 62.5 m; hs = 0 m; Zt = 275 Ω; Rg = 5 Ω

20
ENE 5729
Channel impedance Zch

Zch

ht

Zt

Rg
hs

ht = 0 m; hs = 0 m; Zt = 5 Ω; Rg=5 Ω

ENE 5729
Object impedance Zt

Zch

ht

Zt

Rg
hs

ht = 62.5 m; hs = 0 m; Zch = 1 kΩ; Rg = 5 Ω

ENE 5729
Grounding resistance Rg

Zch

ht

Zt

Rg
hs

ht = 62.5 m; hs = 0 m; Zch = 1 kΩ; Zt = 275 Ω

21
ENE 5729
Grounding resistance Rg

Zch

ht

Zt

Rg
hs

ht = 0 m; hs = 0 m; Zch = 1 kΩ

ENE 5729
CONCLUSIONS
• the influence of Zch is small in terms of current
magnitudes and front times, although the amplitude of
the oscillations on the wavefront tends to become higher
as Zch increases;

• the "contaminated" currents at the bottom of the strike


object tend to deviate significantly from the "pure"
currents, in terms of both magnitude and waveform, as
ht increases. The amplitude of the oscillations on the
current wavefront tends to increase with ht;

ENE 5729

• typical first stroke currents of downward negative flashes


do not vary significantly along a short object and are
practically unaffected by its presence. On the other hand,
due to their higher steepness, subsequent strokes may be
affected by propagation effects along the strike object;

• the reflections at the top and at the bottom of tall


structures cause a considerable dependence of the
current on the position along the structure. Tall strike
objects influence significantly both the current
magnitude and waveform;

22
ENE 5729

• the highest current crest value occurs at the bottom of


the strike object;

• the effect of Zt on the current magnitude is negligible in


the situations considered. The current steepness tends to
decrease slightly with Zt;

• as the current crest value tends to increase as Rg


diminishes, higher stroke current magnitudes would be
in principle more likely to occur in case of low resistivity
soils. However, ...

ENE 5729
DISTÂNCIA DE ATRAÇÃO (rs)

rs = 10.I 0, 65
I
rs = 8.I 0,65
rs = (0,4 + 0,01.h).I (1, 4−0,001.h )

rs

ENE 5729
DISTÂNCIA DE ATRAÇÃO

I = 34 kA

rs = 10.I 0, 65 → 99 m

rs = 8.I 0, 65 → 79 m

rs = (0,4 + 0,01.h).I (1, 4−0, 001.h ) → 67 m (h = 10 m)

23
ENE 5729
• Raio de Atração (Ra) I

rs

Ra
rg
h

Ra

ENE 5729
• Raio de Atração (Ra) I

rs

Ra

ENE 5729
rs = 10.I 0, 65
rg > h:
Ra = rs 2 − (rg − h) 2
rg ≤ h:
rs Ra = rs
(rg-h)
rg (IEEE p/ blindagem)
h Ra
Ra = 0,67.h 0, 6 .I 0, 74
(Eriksson)

Raio de Atraç
Atração Mé
Médio (Ram)

→ incidência média de DA´s em linhas com h < 100 m

Ram = 14.h 0 ,6 [m] (IEEE: p/ cálculo de N)

24
ENE 5729
CONCEITO DE RAIO DE ATRAÇÃO
EQUIVALENTE

- Estrutura com área de atração Ae, localizada em


região com Ng.

- Incidência média anual de descargas:

N = Ng . Ae
Ra
- Torre:
Ae = (π .Ra 2 ).10 −6 [km 2 ]

ENE 5729

N = Ng . Ae Ae = (π .Ra ).10 [km 2 ]


2 −6

N 10 6
- Para estrutura específica: Ra = .
Ng π

Observações +
⇒ modelo analítico


Ram = 14.ht0, 6

ENE 5729
 rs 1 = 10 . I 0 , 65
, rg = 0 ,9 .rs  rs 2 = 8 . I 0 , 65
, rg = 0 ,9 .rs
• •
Ra
 1 = rs 2
− ( rg − h)2 Ra
 2 = rs 2
− ( rg − h)
2

Raio de Atração (Ra)


• Ra3 = 0,67.h 0 , 6 .I 0 , 74
160

• Ra 4 = 14 .h 0 , 6 140

120

100 Ra1 (m)


Ra (m)

Ra2 (m)
80
Ra3 (m)
60 Ra4 (m)

40

20

0
0 50 100 150 200
I (kA)

25
ENE 5729

Ra Ra

ENE 5729

Ra b Ra

ENE 5729
ÁREA DE ATRAÇ
ATRAÇÃO

Ng

Ra
Ra

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ENE 5729

ÁREA DE ATRAÇ
ATRAÇÃO

 Ae = l.(2.Ra + b) [m 2 ]

 Ae = l.(2.Ra + b).10 −6 [km 2 ]

(l, Ra, b: em metros)


Para l = 100 km:

Ae = 100 000.(2.Ra + b).10 −6 [km 2 ]

→ Ae = (2.Ra + b).10 −1 [km 2 ]

ENE 5729

NÚMERO DE DESCARGAS DIRETAS

N = Ng . Ae

N = Ng.(2.Ra + b).10-1
( 100 km.ano )
descargas

Ra = Ram ⇒ N = Ng . (28 . ht0,6 + b) / 10 (IEEE)

ht ↑ 20% ⇒ N ↑ 12 %

ENE 5729
Ex.: Linha c/ h = 10 m, b = 2 m, l = 20 km,
situada em região com Td = 80.

( km .ano )
descargas
Ng = 0,04 ⋅ Td 1, 25 = 0,04 ⋅ 801, 25 = 9,6 2

0, 6
Ra = 14 ⋅ ht = 14 ⋅10 0, 6 = 56 m
Ae = (2 ⋅ Ra + b) ⋅10 −1 = (2 ⋅ 56 + 2) ⋅10 −1 = 11,4 km 2 (p/ 100 km)

N = Ng ⋅ (2 ⋅ Ra + b) ⋅10 −1 = 9,6 ⋅11,4 = 109,4 descargas


100 km.ano
Para l = 20 km:
20
N = 109,4. = 21,9 descargas
100 ano

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