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PHYSICS

Electromagnetic I nduction

6 ELECTROMAGNETIC
INDUCTION

INTRODUCTION
In year 1820 Orested discovered the magnetic effect of current. The Faraday gives the
thought that reverse of this phenomenon is also possible i.e. current is also produced by
magnetic field. Faraday throw a magnet in a coil which is connected by a sensitive
galvanometer when the magnet passes through the coil the galvanometer gives instataneous
deflection.
DEFINATION : Whenever relative motion between coil and magnet takes place
an emf induced in coil. If coil is in closed circuit then current and charge are also
induced in the circuit. This phenomenon is called "electro magnetic induction".

Conclusion's of Faraday's Experiment :–


(i) Whenever magnetic poles (N or S) moves towards coil, same types of poles
(N–N or S–S) induced in the coil, and magnetic poles (N or S) move away from the coil,
opposite types of poles (N–S, or S–N) induced in the coil.
(ii) Galvanometer shows the deflection whenever magnet in motion otherwise deflection is
disappeared i.e. current becomes zero.
(iii) Higher the velocity of magnet (towards or away)  more is the deflection in galvanometer
(iv) When number of turns of coil increased or soft iron core is inserted in coil then deflection
is increases i.e. intensity of current is increases.
(v) If resistance of coil circuit is increases then deflection or current is decreases.
(vi) If magnet is at rest but coil circuit is move away or towards the magnet then galvanometer
also shows the deflection.

FARADAY LAWS OF E.M.I.


Faraday : Founder of E.M.I.
First Law : Whenever there is change in magnetic flux with respect to time for a coil
or circuit, an emf induced in it and remains in it till change in flux takes place.

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Electromagnetic I nduction
Second Law : The induced emf is directly proportional to rate of change of flux through
the coil.
d
e
dt
Magnetic Flux (  )
Def. : The number of magnetic field lines which are crossing through given area of cross
section is called magnetic flux of that area.
Plane of Area
1. Magnetic flux through given area of cross section
 
 = B .A B
 = BA cos

Where B  External magnetic field vector A

A  Area vector which is directed perpendicular to the plane of area of cross
section or towards observer.
 
  Angle between B and A .
2. Magnetic flux is a scalar quantity.
N m
S.I. weber, , T – m2
A
3. Unit
dyne – cm
C.G.S. maxwell, , G – cm2
AbA
4. 1 webar = 108 maxwell
5. Dimensions :- [M1L2 T –2 A–1]
6. Magnetic flux through a coil of N turns and A area of cross section
 
e j
 = N B. A

 = NBA cos ,where B is external magnetic field.


7. (a) When a plane of coil is perpendicular to the external magnetic field direction then
field is called transverse for the coil and in transverse magnetic field, magnetic
flux through the coil is always maximum.
(b) When plane of coil is parallel to the external magnetic field direction then field
is called longitudinal for the coil and in longitudinal magnetic field, magnetic flux
through the coil is always zero.

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PHYSICS
Electromagnetic I nduction

B B

A A A B

= 0° = +NBA = 180° = –NBA = 90° =0


(out flux) (In flux) (Zero flux)
Transverse field Transverse field Longitudenal field

LENZ LAW
This law state that direction of induced current in the coil in such a way that it always
opposes the cause by which it is produced.

(Coil face behaves as North pole (Coil face behaves as South pole
to opposes the motion of magnet.) to opposes the motion of magnet.)
d
e ( ) , where (–) ve sign indicates the Lenz law..
dt

IMPORTANT POINTS
(i) Induced emf does not depends on nature of the coil i.e. resistance.
(ii) Magnitude of induced emf is directly proportional to the relative speed of coil magnet system,
(e  v).
(iii) Lenz law is based on conservation of energy.
(iv) The direction of induced current in any coil or circuit is find out with the help of Lenz
law.
(v) S.I. unit of  : volt – sec.

BASIC INDUCED PARAMETERS


1. induced emf (e) 2. Induced current (I) 3. Induced charge (q)
4. Induced heat (H) 5. Induced electric field (Ein )

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PRE-MEDICAL
Electromagnetic I nduction
Let for a coil its mag. flux changes by  in time interval t and total resistance of
coil-circuit is R.

Now rate of change of flux =


t

Average induced. emf. eav =


t

e = Lim
FG – IJ
1. Instantaneous induced emf t 0 H tK
d
e
dt

e
2. Induced current flow at this instant I =
R

I
FG IJ
1 d
H K
R dt
3. In time interval dt, induced charge dq = Idt
d
dq
R

z z
t t
e2
4. Induced heat :- H I2 Rdt dt
R
0 0

5. Induced electric field :- A time varying magnetic field (dB/dt) always produced induced

electric field in all space surrounding it.

Induced emf e= z
Induced emf from laws of emi

Ein . d .....(1)

d
e = – .....(2)
dt

from (1) & (2) e z 


Ein . d
d
dt
Properties of induced electric field :-
(i) It is non conservative and non electrostatic in nature.
(ii) Its field lines are concentric circular closed curves.

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PHYSICS
Electromagnetic I nduction
IMPORTANT POINTS
(i) Induced current is also depends on nature of coil (or circuit) i.e. resistance.
(ii) Induced emf may be exist in open circuit, but there is no induced current and induced
charge in open circuit.

S S

a<g a=g

N N

I cut
ACW
Metal loop
No induced current

(iii) In all E.M.I. phenomenon, induced emf is non-zero induced parameter.


(iv) Induced charge in any coil (or circuit) does not depends on time in which flux change
occurs i.e. it is independent from rate of change of flux through the coil or relative speed
of coil–magnet system.
(v) Induced charge depends on change in flux through the coil and nature of the coil (or circuit)
i.e. resistance.
(vi) S.I. unit of  : C – ohm

BASIC KEY CONCEPTS FOR DIRECTION QUESTIONS


(i) Flux change  Faraday concept, Opposition of flux change  Lenz concept
(ii) Opposition of flux change possible only in closed circuit and by action of induced current
(iii) E.M.I. in open circuit  only induced emf, EMI in closed circuit  Induced emf, induced
current and induced charge.

NO E.M.I. CASES

=0 (No flux linkage through the coil)  No EMI


Condition of No EMI, if
=Const. (Flux linkage through the coil is constant   No EMI

CASES
Vt wire
(i) If current6 I increases with respect to time, no emf
induced in loop because no flux associated with
I Hz loop
it, as plane of circular field
field lines in
hz. plane
lines of straight wire is parallel to the plane of loop.
( = 0)

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Electromagnetic I nduction
(ii) If current I increases with respect to time Solenoid
no emf induced in solenoid because no flux Hz
I wire
associated with solenoid

field lines in vt plane


( = 0)

(iii) (a) Magnet (b)


S N

No Relative motion No Relative motion


( = const.) ( = const.)

(c) Magnet
(d)
S N

No Relative motion No Relative motion


( = const.) ( = const.)

B uniform
(iv) Any rectangular coil or loop translates within the uniform 
transverse magnetic field, no emf induced in it because its rectangular loop
b
flux remains constant.

=constant

(v) Any coil or loop rotates about its geometrical axis in uniform
transverse magnetic field, no emf induced in it because its
flux remains constant.

(vi) If current of one coil (or loop) either increase or decrease, vertical
no emf induced in another coil (or loop) because no flux
I
associated for the coils (or loops) which
are placed mutually perpendicular. horizontal

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PHYSICS
Electromagnetic I nduction
TYPES OF E.M.I
For a loop flux,( = BA cos,) changes w.r.t. time in following three manner and according
to it
electro magnetic induction classify in three ways :-
(1) Self Induction
dB d (In this case EMI occurs
(A) If (A, )  const & tatic6 EMI
 dt  Static for rest coil)
dt
(2) Mutual Induction

dA d
(B) If (B,  )  const &  dt  Dynamic EMI (In this case EMI occurs for a
dt
moving straight wire)
d d
(C) If (A,B)  const &  dt  Periodic E.M.I (In this case E.M.I. occurs for
dt
a rotating coil)

dI dB d
(A) Static E.M.I.   dt  dt  Static EMI
dt
1. Self Induction :–
Basic concept :– When current through the coil changes, with respect to time then magnetic
flux linked with the coil also changes with respect to time. Due to this an emf and a current
induced in the coil. According to Lenz law induced current opposes the change in magnetic
flux. This phenomenon is called self induction and a factor by virtue the coil shows opposition
for change in magnetic flux called self inductance of coil. Considering this coil circuit in
two cases :-
Case–I : Current through the coil is constant :– (N, )

If6 I  B    Const.  No EMI


total flux of coil (N)  current through the coil I flux lines
N   I Rh
+ – ( )
N LI E K

N NBA Total
L , Where L : self inductance of coil
I I I

weber N m J
S.I. unit of L  1 =1 henry = 1 = 1 2 Dimensions : [M1 L2T-2 A–2 ]
A A 2
A
Sp. Note :– L is constant of coil it does not depends on current through the coil.

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Electromagnetic I nduction
Case–II : Current through the coil changes w.r.t. :–
dI dB d
If    Static EMI
dt dt dt
N = LI
d dI d
–N =– L , where – N called self induced emf of coil 'eS'
dt dt dt

dI V sec
es L S.I. unit of L  
dt A

Energy Stored in an indeuctor (energy assosiated with self-inductance)

LdI
dn = – EIdt  dW = Idt
dt

I0
1 2
n= dW L dI W LI
2
0

IMPORTANT POINTS
R
(i) Thin wire R  0 &6 L = 0  Role of R  to
opposes flow of current, now this wire moulded in form of coil.

R L
Role of L  to opposes changes in
R 0
current, if current becomes constant, then
R–L series combination
L 0 no role of 'L'
Sp. Note : Resistance is possible without inductance but inductance is not possible without
resistance.
dI
(ii) If wrt I   dt (+ve)  es (-ve) opposite emf    Enet E es

dI
(iii) If wrt I   dt (-ve)  es (+ve) same directed emf  Enet E es

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PHYSICS
Electromagnetic I nduction
(iv) Current variation with key :–
(a) Just closing of key  I  = dI (+ve)  es (-ve)

(b) Just opening of key (source emf E cut out)  I  = dI (-ve)  es (+ve)
(c) At the time of sudden opening of key, due to high inductance of circuit a high
momentarily emf. induced and sparking occurs at key position. To avoid sparking a capacitor
is connected parallel to the key.
(v) Self inductance always opposes the change of current in electric circuit so it is also called
inertia of electric circuit.

(vi) Mechanics v/s Electricity :–


Mechanics Electricity
Mass inertia6 (m) Electric Inertia6 (L)
Velocity6 (v) Current6 (I)
Momentum6 (mv) Magnetic Flux6 (LI)
Kinetic energy (½ mv2 ) Energy stored in Inductor6 (½ LI2 )
Retarding force6 (–m dv/dt) Self induced emf6 (–L dI/dt)

(vii) Resistance coil of resistance box, wound in two layer in opposite manner. the self inductance
of coil becomes negligible

R 0
L  0 (Non inductive resistance)

(viii) In checking balancing of wheat stone. Bridge, firstly we always pressed cell key and
after wards galvanometer key, so that momentarily induced current due to self inductance
of coil becomes almost zero or disappear.

MUTUAL INDUCTION :- (M.I.)


Basic Concept :– Whenever current passing through primary coil or circuit change with
respect to time then magnetic flux in neighbouring secondary coil or circuit will also changes
with respect to time. According to Lenz Law for opposition of flux change an emf and
a current induced in the neighbouring coil or circuit. This phenomenon called as 'Mutual
induction'.

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PRE-MEDICAL
Electromagnetic I nduction

(N 1, 1,B1,L1) air gap (N2, 2,B 2,L 2)

I A1 M I A2
primary (S.I.) secondary (M.I.)

+ – G
( )
E Rh

Due to Air gap always6 2<1 and 2 = B1A2 (=00).


Case–I : When current through primary is constant :–
Total flux of secondary is directly proportional to current flow through the primary coil
N2 2  I1
N2 2 = MI1
N2 2 N 2 B1 A 2 ( T )s
M , Where M : mutual inductance of circuits.
I1 I1 Ip

(i) The units and dimension of M are same as ‘L’.


(ii) The mutual inductance does not depends upon current through the primary and it is
constant for both circuits.
Case–II : When current through primary changes w.r.t. :–
dI1 dB1 d d 2
If   1   Static EMI
dt dt dt dt
N22 = MI1
d 2 dI
= –M 1 ,
FG N2
d IJ
–N2
dt dt H dt K called total mutual induced emf of secondary coil em.

(N1 )
Different mutual inductances :– I1

(a) In terms of their number of turns A


(b) In terms of their self inductances
(a) I n t er ms of their number of tur ns (N1 , N2 )
(N2) S
(1) Two co–axial solenoids6 (M S1S2 ) :-

N 2 B1 A N
= 2
FG 0 N1 I1 IJ A
M s1s2 =
I1 I1 H  K
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PHYSICS
Electromagnetic I nduction

0 N1 I1
 M s s
FG 0 N1N 2 A IJ
where B1 =

1 2
H  K
(2) Two concentric and coplanar coils6 (M C1C2 ) :-
N2 N1
r2 O
N 2 B1 A 2 0 N1I1
M c1c2 = , where B1 = & A2 = r2 2 r1 I1
I1 2r1
(r 1>>r 2)

N2 FG 0 N1I1 IJ M c1c2 0 N1N 2 r22


M c1c2 =
I1 H 2r1 K (r 2
2
) 
2r1

IMPORTANT POINTS
(i) Two concentric and coplanar loops :-
tiny
r22 r2 O
M (r1 >> r2)
r1 r1

(ii) Two concentric and coplanar square loops :-

tiny
b2 a
M
a b

(iii) A square and a circular concentric and coplanar loop %


96 tiny

r2 r
M
a
a

(b) In terms of6 their self inductances (L 1 ,L2 ) :-


For two magnetically coupled coils :-
M K L 1L 2 , where 'K' is coupling factor between two coils and its range 0  K  1

IMPORTANT POINTS
(i) For ideal coupling Kmax = 1  M max L 1L 2 (Where M is geometrical mean of
L1 & L2 )

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Electromagnetic I nduction

(ii) For real coupling (0 < K < 1)  M K L 1L 2


(iii) Value of coupling factor 'K' decides from fashion of coupling.
(iv) Different fashions of coupling :–

air gap
P S P S

d
Ideal coupling (Coaxial fashion) Normal coupling(0°fashion) (Planes are parallel)
K = 1 M max = L 1 L 2 0<K<1 M = K L1L2 , if d K M

P S

90° fashion (planes are perp.) No coupling


No coupling P (zero overlapping)
K=0, M=0 K=0 M=0

s mag. flux linked with Secondary


(v) 'K' also defined as k = =
p mag. flux linked with Pr imary

'M' depends on6 %


9
Number of turns (N1, N2 )
Self inductances (L1, L2 )
Area of cross section
Magnetic permeabibility of medium (r)
Distance between two coils (As d  = M  )
Orientation between two coils
Coupling factor6 'K' between two coils.
FG dA d
Dynamic E. M. I.
IJ
(B) Dynamic E.M.I. H dt dt K (Only for conducting rod or wire)
Firstly experiment is carried out and after that theory background is formed by Lenz.

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PHYSICS
Electromagnetic I nduction

When a conducting rod moves in external magnetic field in such a way that it cuts the field
lines. Due to this motion all free electron which are present inside the rod experiences a
magnetic force and they are transfers from one end to another end of the rod (L to N).
Due to this motion of free electrons a potential differences develops across the ends of
the rod and an electric field induced inside the rod (HP to LP). This electric field exerts
an electric force on all free electrons, just opposite to the direction of magnetic force.
Motion of free electrons occurs untill magnetic force just balanced by the electric force.
At the equillibrium condition value of maximum potential difference or induced emf across
the ends of the rod is called dynamic or motional emf and this phenomenon is known as
dynamic EMI.

IMPORTANT POINTS
(i) Due to motion of free electrons a current is also induced in rod which flow from LP to HP
end of the rod.
(ii) Phenomenon of dynamic EMI does not takes place for non conducting rod due to absence
of free electrons.
(iii) Induced electric field inside the rod :–
   

Ein = – ve B j  Ein eB v j
(iv) Dynamic emf or induced emf across the ends of the rod :–
R|v 
B&

 

ed = –  . v e B j S| B&

 (ed )max. Bv
T v (Max. flux cutting)
  
e
ed   . B  v j
R|v || B or
S||| B or  (ed )min. 0

T || v (No flux cutting)

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Electromagnetic I nduction
(v) If all three vectors are perpendicular to each other then value of dynamic emf is maximum
across the ends of the rod
(ed )max. Bv
(vi) If any of the two vectors are parallel (or antiparallel) to each other then value of induced
emf across the ends of the rod is zero
(ed )min. 0
(vii) Do flux cutting  Dynamic EMI
No flux cutting  No Dynamic EMI
(viii) Direction of induced current or HP end of the rod find with the help of :–
(a) Flemming right hand rule. (b) Left hand palm rule. (gekjk)
(a) Fleming right hand rule :–

Fore finger  In external field B direction. v

Thumb  In the direction of motion ( v ) B
of conductor.
Middle finger  It indicates HP end of
conductor/direction of induced I
current in conductor.

(b) Left hand palm rule (3253 5) :–



Fingers  In external field B direction. I v
 B
Palm  In direction of motion ( v ) of
conductor.
Thumb  It indicates HP end of
conductor/direction of induced
current in conductor.

IMPORTANT POINTS
(i) Induced emf in circuit e Bv

e Bv
(ii) Current flows through circuit I
R R
(iii) Retarding opposing force exerted on metal rod by action of induced current
  
Fm = I(  × B )
Fm = BI , where  = 900
B 2 2 v
Fm
R

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PHYSICS
Electromagnetic I nduction
(iv) External mechanical force required for uniform velocity of metal rod.
For constant velocity resultant force on metal rod must zero and for that Fext = F m
B2 2 v
Fext. Fm  If (B, , R)  const.  Fext.  v
R
(v) For uniform motion of metal rod, The rate of doing mechanical work by extenal
agent or mechanical power delivered by external source given as :-
 
Pmech = pext = Fext . v = F ext v

B2 2 v2
p ext. pm  If (B.,R)  const.  p mech. v2
R

(vi) Rate of heat dissipation across resistance or thermal power developed across resistance is :-
1 FG Bv IJ 2
B 2 2 v 2
Pth = I2 R =
R H RK p th
R
It is clear that pth = pmech which is consistent with the principle of conservation of energy.

Applications :–
(i) Moving Train (Hz – Hz) :– Induced emf across axle of moving train is :-
*At equator  eLN 0

L N
(Bv = 0)
v=constant 
e LN  B v v  Rails separation

At poles eLN max.


(Bv  max)

where Bv = Bsin,  angle of dip at that place


v  always in m/sec.
(ii) Moving Aeroplane :-
Motion of aeroplane can be deal as motion of two metal
rods (H-T) and (w1–w2) which are perpendicular to each vCM
 
other. For (H-T) conductor  | vcm , so (H-T) condutor
never do flux cutting hence no induced emf across
(H-T) of aeroplane for its any sort of motion, only
(w1–w2) conductor can do flux cutting.
(a) When aeroplane flying at a certain height ie parallel to earth surface (Hz–Hz):-

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Electromagnetic I nduction

E – W dir n6  BV cuts
If wings6 (w1– w2) in
N – S dir n6  BV cuts
Induced emf across wings of aeroplane given as (both cases) :-

ew1w2 B v  w1 w 2 v , where Bv = Bsin [ angle of dip.]

(b) When aeroplane dives vertically (Hz – Vt)6 :-


E – W dir n6  BH cuts
If wings6 (w1 – w2) in
*N – S dirn6  No flux cutting  No Dy.6 EMI
Induced emf across wings of aeroplane given as (only in one case)
ew1w2 B H  w1 w 2 v , where BH = Bcos [ angle of dip.]

(iii) Human body (Vt – Hz) :


A human body of height ‘h’ moves with constant velocity v
then induced emf between his head and feet, if it moves along:-

* flux No Dyn. EMI

(iv) Motion of an Artificial satellite (Hz–Hz) :-


axis of rotation
of earh
equatorial
If a geo–stationary satellite revolves around the earth in plane

equatorial plane  No flux cutting  No Dy. EMI

d d
(C) Periodic E.M.I. EMI
dt dt input
=2 f

When a coil, which is placed in uniform magnetic field, rotates B


A
with constant angular frequency about its one of the diameter
then magnetic flux through the coil changes periodically with
respect to time so an emf of periodic nature induced in coil.
R(load)
This phenomenon known as periodic emi. (output)

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PHYSICS
Electromagnetic I nduction

Polarity of face of
Direction of induced Nature of
S.N. Motion of Magnet coil in front of
current Magnetic Force
pole of magnet
1 N pole approaching the coil North acw Repulsive
2 N pole receding from coil South cw Attractive
3 S pole approching the coil South cw Repulsive
4 S pole receding from coil North acw Attractive

IMPORTANT POINTS
(i) Magnetic flux through the rotating coil at any instant 't' :-
 = NBA cos = NBA cost (as  = t)

0 cos t   where  0 NBA   flux amplitude or max. flux


Sp. Note :– Magnetic flux changes periodically with respect to time.
(ii) Induced emf in rotating coil at any instant 't' :-
d
e= – = NBAsint
dt

e e0 sin t , where e0 NBA 0    emf amplitude or max. emf

(iii) Induced current in load circuit at any instant 't' :-


e0
I = e/R = sint
R
e0 NBA 0
I I0 sin t  where I0  Current Amplitude or max. current
R R R
(iv) Induced emf also changes in periodic manner thats why this phenomenon called periodic EMI.
(v) Phase difference between magnetic flux through the coil and induced emf is 90°.

(a) When plane of coil B  max and emin = 0

(b) When plane of coil parallel to B  min = 0 and emax
(vi) Induced emf and current acquires their max and min values simultaneously ie phase
difference between both induced parameters is zero.
(vii) Special chart For Rotating coil
Phy. parameter Equation Max value Frequency
(f = /2)
(a) Magnetic flux  = 0cost 0 = NBA f
(b) Induced emf e = e0sint e0 = NBA f
NBA
(c) Induced current I = I0 sint I0 = f
R
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PRE-MEDICAL
Electromagnetic I nduction
(viii) Frequency of induced parameter = Rotational frequency of coil = f.
(ix) Induced emf and current changes their value with respect to time according to sine function,
hence they called as sinusoidal induced quantities
(x) Representation of one cycle of sinusoidal alternating quantity :-

Phy.
quantity (2 T)
+ve
/2 /2
O t
T/4 T/2 3T/4 T time
–ve
One cycle

(a) Reversal of direction  after each half rotation


(b) In one cycle number of reversal  Two times
(c) Time for zero to max value : - T/4
(d) In one sec, number of reversal of dirh :– 2f times
(e) Time required from (+Ve) peak to (–Ve) peak :– T/2

MAIN APPLICATIONS OF E.M.I. : [G.M.T]


(A) Generator (G)  Based on periodic EMI
(B) Motor (M)  Based on force couple or torque  = BINAsin
(C) Transformer(T)  Based on Mutual induction (Static EMI)
Sp. points :-
(a) There is no mechanical losses for transformer, because it has no moving element
and hence efficiency of transformer is higher than Generator and motor.
(b) Common losses for G.M.T.
(i) Joule heating losses or Cu losses
(ii) Iron losses : (a) Eddy currents losses (b) Hysteresies losses
(iii) Flux leakage losses
(A) Generator (or Dynamo) :–
(i) Work :- It converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
(ii) Working principle  Periodic E.M.I.
A.C. Generator
(iii) Types of Generator
(Acc. to output) D.C. Generator
(iv) Generator has basic three sections
(a) Armature circuit (Internal circuit)
(b) Conveyor system (Connector of two circuit)
(c) Load circuit ( External circuit)

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PHYSICS
Electromagnetic I nduction
(v) Basic difference between A.C. G. and D.C. G. in conveyor system.
Slip Rings
For A.C.  In conveyor system
Electric Brushes

Split Rings (Commutator)


For D.C.  In conveyor system
Electric Brushes
(vi) Types of generator (According to capacity) :–
Driver  Handle
(a) Low capacity generator (L.C.G)
Magnetic field  Short magnet

Driver  Turbines (Water, Steam, Gas)


(b) High capacity generator (H.C.G.)
Magnetic field  Electromagnet

NP
(vii) Freqency of A.C. produced given by fAC
2
Where P :– Number of magnetic poles of field
N :– Rotational frequency of armature coil in RPS (Rotations per sec.)
For (i) Simple generator p=2  fAC = N

(ii) Multipole generator p>2  fAC >N


To produce A.C. of given frequency, multi pole generator is prove to be economical.

(B) Motor : (or anti generator)


D.C. motor  Drive by DC supply
Types
(Acc. to input) A.C. motor  Drive by AC supply (A.C. motor not in syllabus)
(i) Work :– It converts Electrical energy in to mechanical energy.
(ii) Working principle :– Based on the concept that when a current carrying coil placed in external
mag. field, a force couple or torque acts on it and which set the coil in rotational motion.
(iii) Back emf (eb) of d.c. motor :– Once the coil rotates in magnetic field the magnetic
flux linked with rotating coil will change with respect to time and for opposition of flux
change an emf induced which always opposes of soure emf E, so it called as back emf.
(iv) E.M.F. equation of motor :– Source emf E has to do two functions :–
(a) To control over back emf 'eb'
(b) To maintain a flow of current through armature coil
E eb IaRa , where eb angular frequency of armature coil

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PRE-MEDICAL
Electromagnetic I nduction

E eb
Current in armature I
Ra
When motor just turned on at t = 0   = 0  eb = 0
E
 Imax Ra (the coil is at rest due to inertia)

As rotation rate increases t      eb   Ia 


E (eb )max
Finally max  (eb)max  (Ia)min =
Ra
When mechanical load is applied, the angular speed of armature decreases   eb 
Ia .The additional electrical power supplied by the emf source is converted into mechanical
power of the motor.
(v) Efficiency of Motor :
E = eb + IaRa (volt)
EIa = ebIa + Ia2 Ra (watt)
Pin = P out + P Loss , where P out = ebIa , also called useful mechanical power of motor.
Fe I I
Efficiency  =
Pout
Pin
× 100 = GH EI JK
b a

a
100

eb
% 100%
E
(vi) Condition of maximum mechanical power :-
E eb
P out = ebI a = eb  Pout = f(eb)
Ra

dPout 1 E
For Pout to max  = 0  (E – 2eb) = 0  eb (So  = 50%)
deb Ra 2
Sp. Note :
E
If eb = E/2  Armature current Ia
2Ra

E2
If eb = E/2  Maximum mechanical power Pmax
4 Ra
(vii) Startor of motor :- (only used in high capacity motors)
(a) It is variable high resistance RH connected in series of motor in order to reduce
'Start up' current, so coil of motor to be safe from burning at its begning of motion.
(b) Its value is max at t = 0 and its value controlled by spring arrangement system when
motor (ie armature coil) acquires its safe design speed its value make to zero.
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PHYSICS
Electromagnetic I nduction
EXERCISE
Q.1 When the current through a solenoid increases at a constant rate, the induced current.
(1) is a constant and is in the direction of the inducing current
(2) is a constant and is opposite to the direction of the inducing current
(3) increase with time and is in the direction of the inducing current
(4) increase with time and opposite to the direction of the inducting current

Q.2 According to Faraday's Laws of electro magnetic induction:


(1) The direction of the induced current is such that it opposes it self
(2) The induced emf in the coil is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux associated with it
(3) The direction of induced emf is such that it opposes it self
(4) None of the above

Q.3 A coil having an area of 2 m2 is placed in a magnetic field which changes from 1 Weber/m2
to 4 Weber/m2 in 2 seconds. The e.m.f. induced in the coil will be :–
(1) 4 volt (2) 36 volt (3) 56 volt (4) 1 volt

Q.4 A conducting loop is placed in a uniform magnetic field with its plane perpendicular to the
field. An emf is induced in the loop if :-
(a) It is translated within magnetic field
(b) It is rotated about its axis
(c) It is rotated about a diameter
(d) It is deformed
(1) b, c (2) b, d (3) c, d (4) a, c, d
Q.5 Two co–axial solenoids shown in figure. If key of primary suddenly opened then direction of
instantaneous induced current in resistance ‘R’ which connected in secondary:-

(1) L to N (2) N to L (3) Alternating (4) Zero


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PRE-MEDICAL
Electromagnetic I nduction
Q.6 Magnetic flux through a coil is changes with respect to time then emf induced in it which
incorrect regarding induced emf in coil :-
(1) Coil may be made up with wood
(2) Coil may be connected with an open circuit
(3) Coil must be of conducting nature
(4) Induced emf does not depends upon resistance of the coil

Q.7 The current flows in a circuit as shown below. If a second circuit is brought near the first
circuit then the current in the second circuit will be :-

(1) Clock wise (2) Anti clock wise


(3) Depending on the value of RG (4) None of the above
Q.8 Two identical circular coils A and B are placed parallel to each other with their centres on
the same axis. The coil B carries a current I in the clock wise direction as seen from A.
What would be the direction of the induced current in A seen from B when :-
(a) The current in B is increased?
(b) The coil B is moved towards A keeping the current in B constant?
(1) clockwise, clockwise (2) clockwise, anticlockwise
(3) anti clockwise, clockwise (4) anticlockwise, anticlockwise

Q.9 An emf induced in a coil, the linking magnetic flux


(1) Must decrease (2) Must increase
(3) Must remain constant (4) Can either increase of decrease
Q.10 A coil of resistance 10 and 1000 turns have the magnetic flux line of 5.5  10–4 Wb. If the
magnetic flux changed 5  10–4 Wb. in 0.1 sec, then the induced charge in coil is :–
(1) 50 C (2) 5 C (3) 2 C (4) 20 C
Q.11 The electric current in a wire in the direction from B to A is decreasing. What is the direction
of induced current in the metallic loop kept above the wire.

A B
(1) Straight (2) Anti-Clockwise (3) Circular (4) Clockwise

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PHYSICS
Electromagnetic I nduction
Q.12 A flexible wire bent in the form of a circle is placed in a uniform
magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the coil. The radius
r
of the coil changes as shown figure. The induced emf in
the coil is :-

O 1 2 t(s)
e e
e e
(1) (2) (3) (4)

1 2 t(s) 1 2 t(s)
1 2 t(s)

Q.13 A short bar magnet passes at a steady speed right through a long solenoid. A galvanometer
is connected across the solenoid. Which graph best represents the variation of the galvanometer
deflection  with time :-

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Q.14 A square loop of side 22 cm is changed to a circle in time 0.4 s. The magnetic field present
is 0.2 T. The emf induced is :-
(1) –6.6 mV (2) –13.2 mV (3) +6.6 mV (4) +13.2 mV

Q.15 The magnetic flux in a coil of 100 turns increases by 12 × 103 Maxwell in 0.2 s due to the motion
of a magnet. The emf induced in the coil will be :-
(1) 0.6 mV (2) 0.6 V (3) 6 V (4) 60 V

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PRE-MEDICAL
Electromagnetic I nduction
Q.16 A inductor of 50 mH inductance connected through 220 V, 50 H2 a.c. source. Find out
reactance.
(1) 12 m (2) 10 m (3) 5 m (4) 15 m

Q.17 A solenoid of 10 henry inductance and 2 ohm resistance, is connected to a 10 volt battery. In
how much time the magnetic energy will be increases to 1/4 th of the maximum value?
(1) 3.5 sec (2) 2.5 sec (3) 5.5 sec (4) 7.5 sec

Q.18 A coil of 0.4 mH inductance connected through a 400 pF capacitance capacitor. Find out
wavelength for this circuit.
(1) 753.6 m (2) 853.6 m (3) 725.5 m (4) 765.6 m

Q.19 Which statement is correct from following –


(a) Inductor store energy in the form of magnetic field
(b) Capacitor store energy in the form of electric field
(c) Inductor store energy in the form of electric and magnetic field both
(d) Capacitor store energy in the form of electric and magnetic field both
(1) a, b (2) a, c (3) b, d (4) b, c

Q.20 Two coils are made of copper wires of same length In the first coil the number of turns is 3n
and radius is r. In the second coil number of turns is n and radius is 3r the ratio of self
inductances of the coils will be :-
(1) 9 : 1 (2) 3 : 1 (3) 1 : 3 (4) 1 : 9

Q.21 If a current of 2A give rise a magnetic flux of 5 × 10–5 weber/turn through a coil having
100 turns, then the magnetic energy stored in the medium surrounding by the coil is :-
(1) 5 joule (2) 5 × 10–7 joule (3) 5 × 10–3 joule (4) 0.5 joule

Q.22 For a solenoid keeping the turn density constant its lenght makes halved and its cross section
radius is doubled then the inductance of the solenoid increased by :–
(1) 200% (2) 100% (3) 800% (4) 700%

Q.23 In the circuit shown in figure bulb will become suddenly bright if :- Bulb
(1) Key is closed
(2) Key is opened
(3) Key is opened or closed
+ –
(4) Would not become bright
Key

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PHYSICS
Electromagnetic I nduction
Q.24 Two bulb of same rating B1 and B2 are connected in series with the inductors as shown in
figure which bulb take more time to light at max. brightness.

5H B1 10H B2

E E
(1) B1 (2) B2 (3) Both take same time (4) None

Q.25 A constant current i maintained in a solenoid. Which of the following quantities will increase
if an iron rod is inserted in the solenoid along its axis:-
(a) Magnetic field at the centre (b) Magnetic flux linked with the solenoid
(c) Self inductance of the solenoid (d) Rate of Joule heating
(1) a, b, c (2) c, d (3) a, b (4) Only b

Q.26 A current time curve is shown in the following diagram. This type of current is passed in the
primary coil of transformer. The nature of induced emf in the second ary coil will be :-
I

0 t

e e e
e
t
(1) 0 (2) 0 (3) t (4)
t 0
0 t

Q.27 The armature coil of dynamo is in motion. The generated induced emf varies and the number
of magnetic lines of force also varies. Which of the following condition is correct:-
(1) lines of flux will be minimum, but induced emf will be zero.
(2) lines of flux will be maximum, but the induced emf will be zero.
(3) lines of flux will be maximum, but induced emf will be not be zero.
(4) the lines of flux will be maximum, and the induced emf will be also maximum.

Q.28 A simple electric motor has an armature resistance of 1 and runs from a dc source of
12 volt. When running unloaded it draws a current of 2 amp. when a certain load is connected,
its speed becomes one-half of its unloaded value. The new value of current drawn :-
(1) 7 A (2) 2 A (3) 5 A (4) 3 A
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PRE-MEDICAL
Electromagnetic I nduction
Q.29 A d.c. motor has internal resistance 4 ohms. It is operated at 220 volts and draws 5 ampere
current. The useful mechanical power developed is :-
(1) 550 W (2) 100 W (3) 1100 W (4) 1000 W

Q.30 An electric moter runs on a D.C., sources of emf. E and internal resistance ‘r’. Then the
power out put of source is maximum when the armature current (Suppose resistance of
armature is zero)
E E
(1) (2) (3)  (4) 0
r 2r

Q.31 When a metallic sphere is moved in a magnetic field, it gets heated due to :-
(1) Direct current (2) Eddy currents
(3) Alternating current (4) Additional current

Q.32 Two copper cubes A and B composed of


(A) (B)
identical insulated plates are suspended from
strings in between the pole pieces of an
electromagnet. Both cubes are rotating at the
same angular velocity. The electro magnet is
energise when we swithch on the electro
magnet, the cube that will come to rest letter is.
(1) A (2) B (3) Both A and B (4) None of these

Q.33 A bar magnet is dropped into a vertical copper tube, considering the air resistance as negligible,
the magnet acquired a constant speed. If the tube is heated the terminal velocity will be :-
(1) Decrease (2) Increase
(3) Remain unchanged (4) Datas are incomplete

ANSWER KEY
Q. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans. 2 2 2 3 1 3 2 1 4 2 4 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 2
Q. No. 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
Ans. 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 4 2 2 1 2
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