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Ascending colon
Descending Colon
5. Rectum
1. Ingestion- food and water enter the body
6. Kidneys
2. Digestion- food is broken down from the 7. Adrenal glands
complex particles to smaller particles 8. Urinary bladder
3. Absorption- absorb small molecules of nutrients PERITONITIS
4. Elimination of wastes- undigested materials,  Life-threatening inflammation of the
such as fiber from food, plus water products peritoneal membrane.
excreted into the digestive tract are eliminated in the  Main symptoms of the peritonitis are acute
feces. abdominal pain and tenderness the are
worsened by movement.
 Peptidase- stomach
 Amylase- Mouth ORAL CAVITY
1. Lip- orbicularis oris muscle
2. Cheeks- buccinator muscle
FOUR TUNICS - Protection
3. Mouth
 Mucosa- inner most layer, 4. Tongue- A large muscular organ that
 Submucosa- blood vessels, nerve fibers, occupies most of the oral cavity.
 Muscularis (Muscle)- Circular layer,
longitudinal muscle layer  Mastication-manipulate food in the oral
 Serosa (Sarsoza)- connective tissue layer, cavity and hold the food in place
Simple squamous epithelium  Mastication begins the process of
 Blood supply to the digestive tract; mechanical digestion.
 Submucosal plexus is connected to the  Cheeks help form words during the speech
myenteric plexus and connected to the process.
autonomic nervous system. TONGUE
 The anterior part of the tongue is relatively
PERITONEUM free, except for an anterior attachment to the
floor of the mouth by a thin fold of tissue
Visceral Peritoneum - Serous membrane that called frenulum.
covers the organs
Parietals Peritoneum - Serous membrane that lines
the wall of the abdominal cavity  use is for mastication

Mesenteries - connective tissue that keeps the 4 Quadrants which consists:

organs in place 1. Central inscisor
Mesentery- general term referring to the serous 2. Lateral inscisor
3. Canine
4. First Molar
 Not attached to the mesentery
 Lies behind (retro) the peritoneum 5. Second Molar
1. Duodenum
2. Pancreas
32 teeth in the normal adult is referred to as SALIVARY GLANDS (CHECK IMAGE IN
permanent teeth secondary teeth. THE BOOK p. 447)
Replaces the 20 baby teeth or primary teeth.  Produce saliva, which is a mixture of serous
fluid and mucous fluids. The salivary glands
In adults, Each quadrant contains one central and
are compound alveolar glands
lateral inscisor, one canine, first and second inscisor
 Parotid, largest of the salivary gland.
 Submandibular, produce more serous than
The third molars are called the wisdom teeth mucous secretions.
because they usually appear in the late teens or  Sublingual glands, smallest of the three
early twenties, when the person is old enough to paired salivary glands, produce primarily
have acquired some degree of wisdom. mucuos secretions.
PARTS OF A TOOTH (Check image in the book  .
p. 447) MUMPS
 Cusp  an inflammation of the parotid glands
 Crown caused by a viral infection.
 Enamel- acellular substance  The parotid glands become swollen, often
 Gingiva/gums making the cheeks quite large.
 Neck  Mumps in an adult male may involve the
 Dentin- living, cellular, bonelike tissue testes and can result to sterility.
 Root
 Pulp cavity with nerves and vessels- Center
of the tooth  Helps keep the oral cavity moist and
 Cementum- covering of the surface of the contains enzymes that begin the process of
dentin digestion.
 Periodontal ligaments  Saliva secreted is approx.. 1 liter per day.
 Alveolar bone  5% of the total carbohydrates are absorbed
 Dental caries/ tooth decay- result of and digested in the mouth. Starches
breakdown of enamel by acids produced by contained in plant cells that are surrounded
bacteria on the tooth surface by cell walls composed primarily of a
 Periodontal disease- inflammation and polyssacharide cellulose.
degeneration of the periodontal ligaments,  Humans lack the necessary enzymes to
gingiva and alveolar bone. digest cellulose. Proper chewing of food
disrupt the cellulose covering and increase
PALATE AND TONSILS the efficiency of the digestive process.
 The palate or roof of the oral cavity,  Saliva protect the oral cavity from bacteria
separates the oral cavity from the nasal with lysozyme.
cavity and prevents food from passing into  The pH of the mouth educes the harmful
the nasal cavity during chewing and effects of bacterial acids on tooth enamel.
 Anterior: Hard palate FUNCTIONS OF DIGESTIVE
 Posterior: soft palate and uvula SECRETIONS in the book Table 16.1
 Tonsils – located in the lateral posterior MEMORIZE PLS!!!!
walls of the oral cavity, in the nasopharynx,
and in the posterior surface of the tongue. PHARYNX
 Throat, which connects the mouth with the
 Nasopharynx
 Oropharynx
 Laryngopharynx
 A muscular tube, lined with moist stratified
squamous epithelium that extends from the
pharynx to the stomach.
 25 cm long and lies anterior to the vertebrae
and posterior to the trachea.
 Passes to the diaphragm and ends in the
 Transports food from the pharynx to the
 Upper and lower esophageal sphincter,
located at the upper and lower ends of the
esophagus, respectively, regulate the
movement of food into and out of the
 Lower esophageal sphincter also called
cardiac sphincter


Swallowing (Deglutition) has 3 phases:
1. Voluntary phase – bolus of food is pushed by
the tongue against the hard and soft palates and
posteriorly toward the oropharynx.
2. Pharyngeal phase – the soft palate is elevated,
closing off the nasopharynx.
3. Esophageal phase – the bolus is moved by
peristaltic contractions of the esophagus toward the