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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Fluid Structure Interaction

Thesis

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE

In

CIVIL ENGINEERING (STRUCTURES)

By

Supervised by

Prof. Dr. Gamal Hussein Dr. Amgad Ahmed Dr. Nasr Eid

Mahmoud Talaat Nasr

Structural Engineering Structural Engineering Structural Engineering

Faculty of Engineering Department Department

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Faculty of Engineering

Ain Shams University Ain Shams University

Cairo – 2018

I

AIN SHAMS UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Thesis : Seismic analysis for pure conical elevated tanks including fluid

structure interaction

Degree : Master of science in civil engineering (Structural)

EXAMINERS COMITEE

Prof. Dr. Eman Anwer Mohamed Salem El-Shamy

Professor of Structure Analysis and Mechanics

Faculty of Engineering

Zagazig University

Professor of Structure Engineering

Faculty of Engineering

Ain Shams University

Professor of Structure Engineering

Faculty of Engineering

Ain Shams University

Date:

II

AIN SHAMS UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Thesis : Seismic analysis for pure conical elevated tanks including fluid

structure interaction

Degree : Master of science in civil engineering (Structural)

SUPERVISORS COMITEE

Professor of Structural Engineering

Faculty of Engineering

Ain Shams University

Dr. Amgad Ahmed Talaat

Assistant Professor

Structural Engineering Department

Faculty of Engineering

Ain Shams University

Dr. Nasr Eid Nasr

Assistant Professor

Structural Engineering Department

Faculty of Engineering

Ain Shams University

Date:

Postgraduate Studies

Authorization stamp: The thesis is authorized at / / 2018

College Board approval University Board approval

/ / 2018 / / 2018

III

0 CURRICULUM VITAE

Nationality Egyptian

degree Ain Shams University, 2012

IV

0 STATEMENT

This thesis is submitted to Ain Shams University for the degree of

M.Sc. in Civil Engineering.

The work included in this thesis was carried out by the author at the

Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ain

Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

qualification at any other University or Institution.

Signature:

Date:

V

0 ACKNOWLEDGMENT

First and foremost thanks to GOD for his many graces and blessings.

Hussein Mahmoud, Professor of Structural engineering, Faculty of

Engineering, Ain Shams University for his kind supervision, fruitful

comments and valuable advice.

Professor of Structural engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams

University for his patience, help, guidance, useful suggestions, dedication

and encouragement throughout this research till its completion which is

gratefully acknowledged and sincerely appreciated.

An appreciation and thanks to Dr. Amgad Ahmed Talaat for his guidance,

recommendations, and encouragement throughout this research.

A very special gratitude to Prof. Dr. Ashraf El Damatty for his help at the

beginning of this research.

Most important, my deepest thanks and love for my father, mother, brother,

and sisters. Your constant and everlasting support is the reason I was able

to finish this research.

Also I would like to thank my gorgeous wife for her support and patience

through the ups and downs, the sleepless nights and hard times throughout

this long but rewarding journey.

Also I would like to thank Dr. Batool Wahba for her continuous support

and help.

Last but certainly not least, I would like to dedicate this thesis to my friend

Mohamed Hesham who passed away leaving our hearts bleeding.

VI

0 ABSTRACT

industries for storing toxic and flammable liquids, also water supply is

essential for controlling fires that might happen during earthquakes, which

cause a great damage and loss of lives. Therefore, elevated tanks should

stay serviceable in the post-earthquake period to ensure water supply is

available in earthquake-affected regions and to prevent catastrophic

damage if those tanks collapsed. The truncated conical shape tank is used

for transferring materials such as water and pesticides to many locations;

also it provides easy draining of materials and an easy cleaning manner.

Due to inclination of conical tanks` walls, the seismic response of a conical

tank is expected to be different from the response of a cylindrical tank.

Research studies associated with the dynamic performance of cylindrical

tanks are comprehensive.

shape, an equivalent cylinder tank procedure may be followed, although a

limited number of researches have investigated the seismic performance of

conical tanks. The first studies on the dynamic response of conical tanks

were done by El Damatty et al. (1997). An experimental work was

accomplished by Sweedan and El Damatty (2002) to explore the dynamic

characteristics of conical vessels. El Damatty and Sweedan (2006) have

developed a mechanical model that can be utilized to evaluate the seismic

response of conical tanks subjected to horizontal ground excitations.

The main objective of this study is to create a parametric study for conical

ground and elevated tanks by using the mechanical analog parameters

developed by El Damatty and Sweedan (2006) to study the fluid-structure

VII

interaction and seismic response of those tanks through three dimensional

finite element models using SAP2000 V15.1.0 software by using response

spectrum analysis. Results obtained are then compared with the

corresponding values obtained from American Water Works Association

(AWWA D100 (2005)) and Egyptian code for loads (ECP 201 – 2012)

procedures. The effect of changing geometric features of the tank are

investigated such as vertical inclination of vessel`s walls, liquid height to

radius at the base of the vessel ratio (hw/Rb), volume of the tank, and

height of elevated tanks.

Finally an evaluation was done one the parametric study findings and it

was found that the vertical inclination angle of the tank walls of 15o is the

angle where the moment below tank walls is the minimum for the same

tank volume and liquid height to base radius of the vessel ratio (hw/Rb),

also correction factors are recommended to be used for equivalent cylinder

tanks approach of design codes to get a more conservative seismic

response.

analog.

VIII

0 SUMMARY

shape, an equivalent cylinder tank may be used, although a limited number

of studies have investigated seismic response of conical tanks. El Damatty

and Sweedan (2006) have developed a mechanical model that can be

utilized to evaluate the seismic response of conical tanks subjected to

horizontal ground excitations. The main objective of this study is to create

a parametric study for conical ground and elevated tanks by using the

mechanical analog parameters developed by El Damatty and Sweedan

(2006) to study the fluid-structure interaction and seismic response of those

tanks through three dimensional finite element models using SAP2000

V15.1.0 by using response spectrum analysis. Results obtained are then

compared with the corresponding values obtained from American Water

Works Association (AWWA D100 (2005)) and Egyptian code for loads

(ECP 201 – 2012) procedures. Finally an evaluation was done on the

parametric study findings to reach the vertical inclination angle of the tank

walls where the moment below tank walls is the minimum for the same

tank volume and liquid height to base radius of the vessel ratio (hw/Rb),

also correction factors are recommended to be used for equivalent cylinder

tanks approach of design codes to get a more conservative seismic

response.

Chapter (1) is the introduction to this research; it discusses the scope and

the main objectives of the research.

researches of the response and the behavior of liquid containing ground and

IX

elevated tanks, the historical disastrous damages of tanks. Seismic isolation

systems are also briefly studied. Also, design codes and standards

guidelines for design and analysis of tanks are also summarized.

including the analysis program used, and different types of elements that

may be used in the analysis. Also, modeling procedure used is explained

while showing the mechanical analog parameters used to simulate the fluid

structure interaction.

Chapter (4) presents the verification of the finite element model procedure

used in the research in order to make sure of the validity of using this

model procedure in the parametric study. A comparison is done between

model results and manual procedure explained by El Damatty and Sweedan

(2006), also a finite element model has been compared with an experiment

conducted by Maheri MR, Severn RT on a cylinder steel tank.

different parameters on the seismic response of conical tanks. Also

AWWA-D100 (2005) and ECP 201 – 2012 procedures by using equivalent

cylindrical tanks are presented.

presented. Finite element model results are compared with AWWA- D100

(2005) and ECP 201-2012 procedures. Also a comparison between studied

tanks is performed to show the effect of changing the geometry of the

conical shape tank on its dynamic response.

Chapter (7) presents the summary and the conclusions of the research. It

ends up with the recommendations for future studies and research subjects

related to this research subject.

X

0 TABLE OF CONTENTS

STATEMENT ......................................................................................... V

ACKNOWLEDGMENT ........................................................................... VI

SUMMARY........................................................................................... IX

XI

2.3.3 Seismic isolation of liquid containing tanks ............................ 50

XII

4.3 Finite element model compared to manual procedure by El

Damatty ................................................................................................ 74

Maheri MR, Severn RT........................................................................... 76

XIII

Chapter (7): Summary and Conclusion ................................................. 191

XIV

0 List OF Figures

Figure 2-2 the 1964 Alaska earthquake oil tanks` damages ........................................................ 33

Figure 2-3 oil spillage over tanks in the 1983 Coaligne earthquake ........................................... 34

Figure 2-4 tank roof damage in the 1994 Northridge earthquake ............................................... 35

Figure 2-5 tank damaged due to elephant foot buckling in the 1994 Northridge earthquake .... 35

Figure 2-6 tank tilted due to liquefaction in the 1995 Kobe earthquake ..................................... 36

Figure 2-9 Chobari village tank collapsed due to flexure cracks ................................................ 38

Figure 3-4fluidheightsparametersforƟv=15o........................................................................ 70

Figure 3-5fluidheightsparametersforƟv=30o........................................................................ 71

Figure 4-1 Water tank studied by (Maheri MR, Severn RT (1988)) ........................................... 77

XV

Figure 6-1 Ratios of convective and impulsive masses and convective spring stiffness (ECP201-

2012) ........................................................................................................................................... 96

Figure 6-6 Moment below tank walls from FEM for volume 250 m3 ....................................... 120

Figure 6-7 Moment below tank walls from FEM for volume 500 m3 ....................................... 121

Figure 6-8 Moment below tank walls from FEM for volume 1000 m3 ..................................... 121

Figure 6-9 Moment below tank walls from FEM for volume 2000 m3 ..................................... 122

Figure 6-10 Moment below tank walls from FEM for volume 4000 m3 ................................... 122

Figure 6-11 Base shear for volume 250 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5 ................................................... 124

Figure 6-12 Base moment for volume 250 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5 ............................................... 124

Figure 6-13 Base shear for volume 500 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5 ................................................... 125

Figure 6-14 Base moment for volume 500 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5 ............................................... 125

Figure 6-15 Base shear for volume 1000 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5 ................................................. 126

Figure 6-16 Base moment for volume 1000 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5 ............................................. 126

Figure 6-17 Base shear for volume 2000 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5 ................................................. 127

Figure 6-18 Base moment for volume 2000 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5 ............................................. 127

Figure 6-19 Base shear for volume 4000 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5 ................................................. 128

Figure 6-20 Base moment for volume 4000 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5 ............................................. 128

Figure 6-21 Base shear for volume 250 m3 and hw/Rb = 2 ...................................................... 129

Figure 6-22 Base moment for volume 250 m3 and hw/Rb = 2 .................................................. 129

XVI

Figure 6-23 Base shear for volume 500 m3 and hw/Rb = 2 ...................................................... 130

Figure 6-24 Base moment for volume 500 m3 and hw/Rb = 2 .................................................. 130

Figure 6-25 Base shear for volume 1000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2 .................................................... 131

Figure 6-26 Base moment for volume 1000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2 ................................................ 131

Figure 6-27 Base shear for volume 2000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2 .................................................... 132

Figure 6-28 Base moment for volume 2000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2 ................................................ 132

Figure 6-29 Base shear for volume 4000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2 .................................................... 133

Figure 6-30 Base moment for volume 4000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2 ................................................ 133

Figure 6-31 Base shear for volume 250 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5 ................................................... 134

Figure 6-32 Base moment for volume 250 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5 ............................................... 134

Figure 6-33 Base shear for volume 500 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5 ................................................... 135

Figure 6-34 Base moment for volume 500 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5 ............................................... 135

Figure 6-35 Base shear for volume 1000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5 ................................................. 136

Figure 6-36 Base moment for volume 1000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5 ............................................. 136

Figure 6-37 Base shear for volume 2000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5 ................................................. 137

Figure 6-38 Base moment for volume 2000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5 ............................................. 137

Figure 6-39 Base shear for volume 4000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5 ................................................. 138

Figure 6-40 Base moment for volume 4000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5 ............................................. 138

Figure 6-41 Base shear for volume 250 m3 and hw/Rb = 3 ...................................................... 139

Figure 6-42 Base moment for volume 250 m3 and hw/Rb = 3 .................................................. 139

Figure 6-43 Base shear for volume 500 m3 and hw/Rb = 3 ...................................................... 140

Figure 6-44 Base moment for volume 500 m3 and hw/Rb = 3 .................................................. 140

Figure 6-45 Base shear for volume 1000 m3 and hw/Rb = 3 .................................................... 141

XVII

Figure 6-46 Base moment for volume 1000 m3 and hw/Rb = 3 ................................................ 141

Figure 6-47 Base shear for volume 2000 m3 and hw/Rb = 3 .................................................... 142

Figure 6-48 Base moment for volume 2000 m3 and hw/Rb = 3 ................................................ 142

Figure 6-49 Base shear for volume 4000 m3 and hw/Rb = 3 .................................................... 143

Figure 6-50 Base moment for volume 4000 m3 and hw/Rb = 3 ................................................ 143

Figure 6-51 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 10m ...................... 146

Figure 6-52 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 10m .................. 146

Figure 6-53 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 10m ...................... 147

Figure 6-54 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 10m .................. 147

Figure 6-55 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 10m .................... 148

Figure 6-56 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 10m ................ 148

Figure 6-57 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 10m .................... 149

Figure 6-58 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 10m ................ 149

Figure 6-59 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 10m .................... 150

Figure 6-60 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 10m ................ 150

Figure 6-61 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 10m ......................... 151

Figure 6-62 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 10m ..................... 151

Figure 6-63 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 10m ......................... 152

Figure 6-64 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 10m ..................... 152

Figure 6-65 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 10m ....................... 153

Figure 6-66 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 10m ................... 153

Figure 6-67 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 10m ....................... 154

Figure 6-68 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 10m ................... 154

XVIII

Figure 6-69 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 10m ....................... 155

Figure 6-70 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 10m ................... 155

Figure 6-71 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 10m ...................... 156

Figure 6-72 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 10m .................. 156

Figure 6-73 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 10m ...................... 157

Figure 6-74 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 10m .................. 157

Figure 6-75 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 10m .................... 158

Figure 6-76 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 10m ................ 158

Figure 6-77 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 10m .................... 159

Figure 6-78 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 10m ................ 159

Figure 6-79 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 10m .................... 160

Figure 6-80 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 10m ................ 160

Figure 6-81 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 10m ......................... 161

Figure 6-82 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 10m ..................... 161

Figure 6-83 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 10m ......................... 162

Figure 6-84 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 10m ..................... 162

Figure 6-85 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 10m ....................... 163

Figure 6-86 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 10m ................... 163

Figure 6-87 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 10m ....................... 164

Figure 6-88 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 10m ................... 164

Figure 6-89 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 10m ....................... 165

Figure 6-90 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 10m ................... 165

Figure 6-91 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 20m ...................... 166

XIX

Figure 6-92 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 20m .................. 166

Figure 6-93 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 20m ...................... 167

Figure 6-94 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 20m .................. 167

Figure 6-95 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 20m .................... 168

Figure 6-96 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 20m ................ 168

Figure 6-97 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 20m .................... 169

Figure 6-98 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 20m ................ 169

Figure 6-99 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 20m .................... 170

Figure 6-100 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height 20m .............. 170

Figure 6-101 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 20m ....................... 171

Figure 6-102 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 20m ................... 171

Figure 6-103 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 20m ....................... 172

Figure 6-104 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 20m ................... 172

Figure 6-105 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 20m ..................... 173

Figure 6-106 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 20m ................. 173

Figure 6-107 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 20m ..................... 174

Figure 6-108 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 20m ................. 174

Figure 6-109 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 20m ..................... 175

Figure 6-110 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height 20m ................. 175

Figure 6-111 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 20m .................... 176

Figure 6-112 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 20m ................ 176

Figure 6-113 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 20m .................... 177

Figure 6-114 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 20m ................ 177

XX

Figure 6-115 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 20m .................. 178

Figure 6-116 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 20m .............. 178

Figure 6-117 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 20m .................. 179

Figure 6-118 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 20m .............. 179

Figure 6-119 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 20m .................. 180

Figure 6-120 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height 20m .............. 180

Figure 6-121 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 20m ....................... 181

Figure 6-122 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 20m ................... 181

Figure 6-123 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 20m ....................... 182

Figure 6-124 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 20m ................... 182

Figure 6-125 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 20m ..................... 183

Figure 6-126 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 20m ................. 183

Figure 6-127 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 20m ..................... 184

Figure 6-128 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 20m ................. 184

Figure 6-129 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 20m ..................... 185

Figure 6-130 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height 20m ................. 185

Figure 6-131 Correction factor for base moment of ECP in ground conical tanks ................... 188

Figure 6-132 Correction factor for base moment of AWWA in ground conical tanks ............. 188

Figure 6-133 Correction factor for base moment of ECP in elevated conical tanks ................. 189

Figure 6-134 Correction factor for base moment of AWWA in elevated conical tanks ........... 189

XXI

List of Tables

Table 4-1ComparisonbetweenECPcylindertankandconicaltankwithƟv=0formechanical

analog parameters in case of (hw/Rb=2) ..................................................................................... 74

Table 4-2 Comparison between manual procedure developed by El Damatty and Sweedan

(2006) and finite element model ................................................................................................. 76

Table 4-3 Comparison between experiment conducted by Maher et.al. and finite element model

..................................................................................................................................................... 77

XXII

0 List of Symbols

{F} global force victor in finite element method

C damping matrix

u relative displacement

u` relative velocity

ug`` ground acceleration

kc convective mass stiffness in design codes

m2 convective mass portion in Housner model

Ɵv vertical inclination angle of conical tanks` walls

mf/mt flexible mass portion in conical tanks

XXIII

hf/hw flexible mass height to the total water height in conical tanks

Kf flexible mass stiffness in the conical tank mechanical analog

ms/mt convective mass portion in conical tanks

hs/hw convective mass height to the total water height in conical tanks

mo rigid impulsive mass

G``(t) ground acceleration

V volume of water in conical tanks

hweq water height in the equivalent cylinder tank

Ci impulsive mode factor

tu walls thickness

E young`s modulus

f1 impulsive mode frequency in conical tank analog

tank analog

XXIV

fsys liquid-shell system impulsive mode frequency in conical tank

analog

Sas convective mode spectral acceleration

Q base shear

M base moment

XXV

1 Chapter (1)

Introduction

1.1 Introduction

industries for storing toxic and flammable liquids, also water supply is

essential for controlling fires that might happen during earthquakes, which

cause a great damage and loss of lives. Therefore, elevated tanks should

stay serviceable in the post-earthquake period to ensure water supply is

available in earthquake-affected regions and to prevent catastrophic

damage if those tanks collapsed. Vessels that have a truncated conical

shape with no or small cylindrical part exists at the top of the conical part,

this type of tank is referred to as "pure conical tanks". The truncated

conical shape tank is used for transferring materials such as water and

pesticides to many locations; also it provides easy draining of materials and

an easy cleaning process. Due to inclination of conical tanks` walls, the

seismic response of a conical tank is expected to be different from the

response of a cylindrical tank. Research studies associated with the

dynamic performance of cylindrical tanks are comprehensive.

shaped, an equivalent cylinder tank procedure may be followed, although

the stability of conical tanks under hydrostatic pressure has been

investigated intensively by Vandepitte et al. (1982) and El Damatty et al.

(1997), although a limited number of researches have investigated the

seismic performance of conical tanks. The first studies on the dynamic

26

response of conical tanks were done by El Damatty et al. (1997).An

experimental work was accomplished by Sweedan and El Damatty (2002)

to explore the dynamic characteristics of conical vessels. El Damatty and

Sweedan (2006) have developed a mechanical model that can be utilized to

evaluate the seismic response of conical tanks subjected to horizontal

ground excitations.

ground and elevated tanks by using the mechanical analog parameters

developed by El Damatty and Sweedan (2006) to study the fluid-structure

interaction and seismic response of those tanks through finite element

models using response spectrum analysis. Results obtained are then

compared with the corresponding values obtained from American Water

Works Association (AWWA D100 (2005)) and Egyptian code for loads

(ECP 201 – 2012) procedures. The effect of changing geometric

characteristics of the tank are evaluated such as vertical inclination of

vessel`s walls, liquid height to radius at the base of the vessel ratio

(hw/Rb), volume of the tank, and height of elevated tanks.

Chapter (1) is the introduction to this research; it discusses the scope and

the main objectives of the research.

Chapter (2) is a literature review which briefly discusses the past researches

of the response and the behavior of liquid containing ground and elevated

tanks, the historical disastrous damages of tanks. Seismic isolation systems

27

are also briefly studied. Also, design codes and standards guidelines for

design and analysis of tanks are also summarized.

including the analysis program used, and different types of elements that

may be used in the analysis. Also, modeling procedure used is explained

while showing the mechanical analog parameters used to simulate the fluid

structure interaction.

Chapter (4) presents the verification of the finite element model procedure

used in the research in order to make sure of the validity of using this

model procedure in the parametric study. A comparison is done between

model results and manual procedure explained by El Damatty and Sweedan

(2006), also a finite element model has been compared with an experiment

conducted by Maheri MR, Severn RT on a cylinder steel tank.

different parameters on the seismic response of conical tanks. Also

AWWA-D100 (2005) and ECP 201 – 2012 procedures by using equivalent

cylindrical tanks are presented.

Finite element model results are compared with AWWA- D100 (2005) and

ECP 201-2012 procedures. Also a comparison between studied tanks is

performed to show the effect of changing the geometry of the conical shape

tank on its dynamic response.

Chapter (7) presents the summary and the conclusions of the research. It

ends up with the recommendations for future studies and research subjects

related to this research subject.

28

2 Chapter (2)

Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

response of ground and elevated tanks is presented. In section 2.2 damages

and failures in different type of tanks due to earthquakes are presented.

Section 2.3 presents an overview on current design procedure of different

tanks in different design codes. Section 2.3 also summarize previous

studies on seismic analysis and dynamic response of tanks, also

contributions by previous researchers are presented.

Moslemi et al. (2011) have summarized some of famous failures of tanks

due to earthquakes such as 1933 Long Beach, 1952 Kern County, 1960

Valdivia, 1964 Alaska, 1964 Niigata, 1966 Parkfield, 1971 San Fernando,

1978 Miyagi prefecture, 1979 Imperial County, 1980 Kono, 1983 Coalinga,

1994 Northbridge, 1995 Kobe, and 2001 Bhuj.

Failure of storage tanks depends on many factors such as, material of the

tank, supporting type, and geometric characteristics of the tank.

The most mutual damages in steel tanks are buckling, anchorage failure,

and roof damage due to sloshing.

29

Elephant foot buckling is occurred in steel tanks due to lift-off of the tank

base caused by overturning moment, this lift-off cause high compressive

stress in the wall near the base which causes elephant foot buckling.

Stresses generated from hydrodynamic pressure of the contained liquid and

large mass of concrete may lead to cracking.

For elevated tanks, it is noted that elevated tanks are sensitive to seismic

forces due to their height with large lumped masses which leads to high

tensile stresses generated from high overturning moments.

of the following types:

shell which causes large axial compression, as shown in fig. (2-

1) photo (a)

during earthquakes, as shown in fig. (2-1) photo (b)

in fig. (2-1) photo (f)

30

b. Failures in the anchor bolts and foundation, as shown in fig. (2-

1) photo (d)

liquefaction, as shown in fig. (2-1) photo (e)

to the relative movement of the shell, as shown in fig. (2-1)

photo (c)

31

(a) (b)

(f)

Figure 2-1 damage types of tanks: (a) Elephant foot buckling, (b) Damage

of upper part of shell due to sloshing, (c) pipes failure, (d) anchor failure

due to high uplift, (e) failure due to soil liquefaction, and (f) failure in

supporting structure.

(Courtesy of University of California at Berkeley)

32

During the 1964 Alaska earthquake, as shown in fig. (2-2) damage to oil

tanks caused a release of liquids and fire that stayed for days. The damage

was caused by soil settlement and liquefaction.

(courtesy of www.theatlantic.com)

During the 1971 San Fernando earthquakes, some tanks was observed to

have uplift up to 14 inches due to high overturning moment resulted from

seismic motion. This high overturning moment causes high compression

stress at the area that still in contact with ground leading to elephant foot

buckling failure.

During the1978 Miyagi prefecture earthquake, oil spill-over into the harbor

due to the cracking of the plate of the tank caused by tension stresses from

high bending moment.

33

During the 1983 Coalinga earthquake, Unanchored ground tanks in oil

fields were damaged; failure types included elephant's foot buckling at the

base of three moderate size tanks, joint rupture and top shell buckling in a

tank, bottom plate rupture of a tank and damage to roofs of 11 tanks. Also

as shown in fig. (2-3), oil overflowed many tanks and secondary damages

occurred in pipe connections.

Figure 2-3 oil spillage over tanks in the 1983 Coaligne earthquake

(Manos, G. C. and Clough, R. W. (1985))

Valley suffer a sloshing ending up on top of the pans but without sinking

and only a spillage occurred that was removed later and tanks remained in

service. Five water tanks in the west of Northridge suffered failure due to

elephant foot buckling as shown in fig. (2-5). Five tanks located in the

Santa Monica Mountains suffer functional failure resulted from broken

piping and spillage but no damage in the tanks` shells, one tank in the same

are collapsed totally and was removed later. In the north of Northridge, one

34

tank suffered damage due to roof damage as shown in fig. (2-4), elephant

foot buckling, and roof-shell joint failure.

Figure 2-5 tank damaged due to elephant foot buckling in the 1994

Northridge earthquake (Courtesy of Haroun, M.A., and Bhatia, H (1995))

35

During the1995 Kobe earthquake a liquid storage tank on the waterfront

was damaged due to soil liquefaction as shown in fig. (2-6).

Figure 2-6 tank tilted due to liquefaction in the 1995 Kobe earthquake

(courtesy of www.planat.ch)

During the 2001 Bhuj earthquake, many elevated tanks suffered damage

due to supporting structure failure. As shown in figs. (2-7) to (2-9), tanks

like Manfera tank with supporting structure of frame type staging suffered

a collapsed as brace-column joints were not designed and detailed for

inelastic deformations. Tanks like Chobari village tank with supporting

type of shaft suffered severe flexural cracks close to ground which resulted

in collapse.

36

Figure 2-7 frame staging type collapse (courtesy of Durgesh C Rai (2003))

37

Figure 2-9 Chobari village tank collapsed due to flexure cracks

earthquakes which leaded to disastrous collapses, comprehensive

researches has been carried out on liquid containing tanks.

Jacobsen (1949) and Jacobsen and Ayre (1951) studied the dynamic

response of cylindrical tanks in case of horizontal ground motions. That

study concluded hydrodynamic masses and masses` moments for the

contained liquid.

38

In the 1960s, Housner (1963) has utilized a lumped mass approach for

obtaining response of rigid rectangular and cylindrical water tanks in case

of full anchored to foundation under horizontal ground motion. Liquid was

assumed to be incompressible fluid. Housner divide the liquid response into

impulsive motion where the liquid is rigidly attached to the tank`s walls

and moves with them and moves with the same acceleration of the ground,

and convective motion also known as sloshing motion where the liquid

surface moves freely with a long period vibration. It is noted that impulsive

portion of movement of the liquid has the greatest effect on base shear and

base moments of tank under seismic motion.

standards and codes of practice like ACI standards. Counter to Housner`s

method, ACI 350.3 has taken wall flexibility into account by determining

vibrating water mass components based on rigid tank and using the

amplified pseudoacceleration corresponding to the natural period of the

system. This approximation may be inaccurate for values H/R (liquid

depth/ tank radius) larger than 1 (Veletsos (1984)).

response of liquid containing tanks. A cylindrical tank with H/R ratio of

less than two was analyzed using finite element method. The developed

finite element model considered the coupled interaction between the liquid

and tank`s walls.

due to hydrodynamic pressure in both rectangular and cylindrical tanks

through curves.

39

Veletsos (1974) and Yang (1976) approved that tank wall flexibility could

have a great effect on dynamic behavior of cylindrical tanks during

horizontal ground motion. Veletsos and Yang (1977) utilized Flugge`s shell

theory (Flugge, 1960) and Rayleigh-Ritz method to calculate natural

frequencies of the tank-liquid system.

rectangular and cylindrical tanks during horizontal ground motion. They

have derived mathematical equations to predict fluid motion. Also the

displacement of the liquid free surface was examined experimentally in a

cylindrical tank. The obtained results using mathematical equations were

compared to the corresponding results using experiments and results have

shown a good agreement.

scale thin-walled tanks. The results of hydrodynamic pressure were much

larger than those proposed by Housner`s method. It was believed that this

big difference is due to tank wall flexibility.

Haroun (1980) and Barton and Parker (1987) have done several numerical

studies with taking flexibility of shell into account.

using modal superposition analysis. Finite elements were used to model

tank shell and fluid was done mathematically using boundary solution

method.

including wall deformability`s effect. This mechanical model works with

three equivalent lumped masses. The three masses are convective mass

40

corresponding to sloshing of the liquid, impulsive mass corresponding to

portion of liquid that moves with the horizontal ground acceleration and

short period mass corresponding to deformable tank walls acceleration in

flexible tanks. If the tank walls are rigid the short period mass is not

considered. This study showed that the flexibility of the tank walls may

results in very high hydrodynamic pressure compared with rigid tank walls.

using a finite element code. The fluid was assumed to be incompressible

and inviscid and sloshing of the fluid wasn't considered.

Minowa (1980 and 1984) has studied tank wall flexibility effect on the

hydrodynamic pressure exerted on the tank shell. Also he performed

experimental studies on rectangular tanks.

ambient vibration tests on ground cylindrical flexible tanks. To determine

modes of vibration, three full scale tanks were tested. This study resulted in

better understanding of dynamic behavior of tanks.

tanks using the classical potential flow approach in rigid wall case. The

fluid was assumed to be inviscid, incompressible and homogeneous. The

tank was subjected to horizontal and vertical components of earthquake.

Bending moments in the walls were estimated. This study resulted in

theoretical equations to calculate bending moments in tank walls and tables

of numerical values of moment coefficients for seismic design of

rectangular tanks.

41

Veletsos and Kumar (1984) have established a simplified approach to

estimate the effect of vertical component of earthquake on cylindrical

tanks.

Haroun and Tayel (1985) have used finite element method to investigate

the dynamic behavior of cylindrical tanks with elastic walls under vertical

seismic action. Sloshing of the contained liquid was ignored. This study

was based on superposition analysis of free vibration modes of fluid-

structure interaction system. Axial and radial components of

walls`displacement and stresses were calculated.

system with taking effects of kinematic and inertia interaction into account.

The results are compared with a no soil-interaction case and with kinematic

interaction case. The convective motion isn`t affected by neither kinematic

nor inertial interactions, therefore it wasn`t examined. This study concluded

that kinematic and inertia interactions reduce the impulsive components

response and doesn`t affect convective components. Also both interactions

have a greater effect on short, wide tanks than tall, slender tanks.

consequences on rigidly supported tanks ate the base in case of vertical

seismic excitation. This study concluded that soil-structure interaction may

reduce hydrodynamic effects in vertically excited cylindrical steel tanks.

Veletsos and Tang (1990) have studied dynamic behavior of tanks rested

on flexible foundation with rigid mats. This study explained that the

translational and rocking vibrations of tank base cause extended impulsive

period and larger effective damping.

42

Park et al. (1992) have used coupled boundary element method to

investigate the dynamic behavior of concrete rectangular tanks using time-

history analysis.

He used Flugge`s exact equations of motion to study the vibration of the

tanks. The hydrodynamic pressure was obtained using velocity potential

approach. The results were compared with Haroun and Housner method`s

results.

Kim et al. (1996) has used Rayleigh-Ritz method to study the dynamic

response of flexible rectangular tanks. The effect of sloshing component

wasn`t included in this study.

Dogangun et al. (1997 and 2004) has studied the dynamic response of

rectangular tanks. He used analytical methods and finite element method

using the modified version of SAPIV program to study the dynamic

response. The fluid was represented in the model using displacement-based

fluid elements. The effect of flexibility of tank`s walls was taken into

account. The proposed model considered the effects of convective motion

and fluid compressibility. FE results were compared with those obtained by

boundary-finite element method and Eurocode-8 provisions.

with considering the sloshing vibration in order to estimate the dynamic

response of 3D rectangular water tanks subjected to horizontal seismic

excitation.

Chen and Kianoush (2005) have developed a new method called sequential

method to estimate hydrodynamic pressure in rectangular tank. In this

43

method fluid and structure are coupled by using first analysis results as

boundary conditions or loads in a second analysis. The study was done in

2D space with taking effect of tank walls flexibility and without taking

sloshing effect in consider.

Virella (2006) has studied mode shapes, modal periods, and dynamic

response of partially filled cylindrical tanks due to horizontal seismic

excitation. The finite element general program ABAQUS was used for

finite element modeling. The fluid was represented in the model using two

different methods: the added mass method and acoustic fluid elements

based on linear wave theory. The studied tanks vary in height to diameter

ratios from 0.40 to 0.95. Sloshing wasn`t included in this study. The study

concluded that the response of tank-liquid system due to horizontal seismic

excitation may be estimated by considering only the fundamental model.

Also it was proved that tanks with height to diameter ratios larger than 0.63

have a fundamental mode similar to fundamental mode of a cantilever

beam while for shorter tanks the fundamental mode was a bending mode.

rectangular tanks due to vertical seismic excitation in 2D space. It was

concluded that vertical seismic excitation should be considered in design as

it has a significant effect on dynamic response off tanks.

Kianoush et al. (2006) have proposed a new approach for seismic analysis

of rectangular tanks in time domain with taking both impulsive and

convective components into account. This method solves the coupled

liquid-tank problem in 3D space.

rectangular and cylindrical tanks in 3D space. The tanks were assumed to

44

be fixed. The study comprised both impulsive and convective components.

Tanks were analyzed in time domain under both horizontal and vertical

seismic excitation of a real seismic record. Fluid-structure interaction was

considered and with including walls flexibility. This study concluded that

for both rectangular and cylindrical tanks, the effect of vertical seismic

excitation may be significant if taken individually, while it was of less

significance if the horizontal and vertical seismic components were applied

together.

cylindrical tanks using a proposed FE model. They have done modal,

spectral and time history analysis using a general finite element analysis

software with taking damping, wall flexibility and sloshing motion. They

have concluded that fundamental impulsive and convective modes are

enough for estimating the dynamic response of ground cylindrical tanks

under horizontal seismic excitation, the effect of sloshing component on the

dynamic behavior of those tanks is more considerable in shallow tanks than

tall tanks. It was also concluded that walls flexibility increases the

impulsive component while the convective component is independent of

walls flexibility.

For the dynamic behavior of elevated liquid storage tanks, limited number

of literature is available. Many attempts have been made recently to study

the fluid-structure interaction in elevated tanks.

carrying out seismic response of elevated tanks.

45

Sonobe (1965) has done two scale models of elevated water tanks with free

vibration and stationary vibrations tests. The first tank was a cylindrical

elevated tank supported on frame system. The second tank was a spherical

tank. pseudo El-Centro NS 1940 was input to the forced vibration test and

the cylindrical elevated tank was tested. Maximum displacement and

acceleration of the frame and maximum sloshing height of the stored water

were estimated. The results showed a close agreement with those estimated

with the two-DOF system simplified method.

Chandrasekaran and Krishna (1965) and Tamiah and Gupta (1966) have

suggested that dynamic response estimation of elevated tanks may be

satisfactory obtained using a single-DOF system.

Ifrim and Bratu (1969) and Garcia (1969) used a two-DOF method to

investigate the dynamic response of elevated tanks.

Shepherd (1972) has utilized the two-mass idealization system to study the

dynamic response of elevated tanks. The model was verified by comparing

the results with those obtained from a simple dynamic test done on a

prestressed concrete elevated cylindrical tank. Housner`s equations were

used to calculate equivalent water masses, heights and the effective spring

stiffness. The result of the study showed that using of the two-mass system

will give satisfactory estimations of natural frequencies of the elevated

tanks.

to estimate the dynamic response of elevated tanks. Braced frame system

and concrete pedestal tower system were studied. Both rocking and

transitional motion of the tank`s vessel and tank`s walls` flexibility were

considered in their study. It was assumed that the vessel is rigidly

46

connected to the supporting tower in their study. Analyses proved that

rocking motion of the vessel has a significant effect on shear and moment

at the top of the tower.

stability of conical tanks under hydrostatic loads; this study was done

following the collapse of a conical tank in Belgium during the 1970s.

loads through a wide numerical study. A finite element model was

proposed to study the stability of conical tanks under hydrostatic including

geometric non-linearity and material non-linearity. The effect of geometric

imperfections was modeled by using initial strains in the model of the tank

before assigning the loads.

of elevated conical steel tanks. They have established a numerical model

where the tank walls were modeled by shell elements and the liquid effect

was considered using the coupled boundary-shell element method. The

impulsive component of the fluid was only considered. Several tank models

based on tank radius to its height ratio were studied. The supporting

structure was modeled as linear springs to vessel`s base while the vessel

was prevented from rocking. Both material non-linearity and geometric

non-linearity was considered in the model. Free vibration analysis and non-

linear time history analysis were done. This study concluded that elevated

conical tanks are very sensitive to seismic loads and large load factor need

to be considered to design them safely. Also it was shown that vertical

seismic component has a significant effect on dynamic stability of conical

elevated tanks and needs to be included in seismic analysis of such tanks.

47

Joshi (2000) proposed an equivalent mechanical analog for dynamic

response of rigid intze type tanks under horizontal seismic excitation.

Analog parameters were assessed for a wide range of tank shapes and

compared with results of equivalent cylindrical tanks. Liquid pressure was

estimated by linearized potential flow theory. The liquid was assumed to be

inviscid and incompressible and the sloshing height was assumed to be

minor. Also only first sloshing mode was considered. His study concluded

that differences between equivalent cylindrical tank model and original

intze tank are negligible and the equivalent cylindrical model may replace

the intze tank.

evaluating free surface sloshing in conical tanks under seismic excitations.

This model was valid for both pure conical and combined conical tanks.

The sloshing response was assumed to be estimated based on rigid wall

boundary condition. The shell vibration was estimated based on zero

hydrodynamic pressure at the free surface of the liquid assumption. Later

on, this model was verified by experimental research work done by

Sweedan and El Damatty (2002) on pure conical tanks.

vessels to identify their dynamic parameters using shake table test. The

fundamental frequencies and impulsive modes were determined. Results

were compared with results from analytical and numerical methods and

they showed anexcellent agreement.The impulsivemode (cos(Ɵ)-mode)

was found to be higher modes of vibrations.

pure conical tanks subjected to vertical seismic excitation. It was concluded

48

that vertical seismic excitation may lead to a significant increase in the

compressive meridional stresses in the walls.

model for dynamic analysis of pure conical tanks based on coupled finite-

boundary element approach. This mechanical model may be used to

estimate base shear and overturning moment for both ground and elevated

conical tanks due to horizontal ground motions. This mechanical model

takes into account the flexibility of tank`s walls and sloshing component of

liquid while rocking motion of tank`s base wasn`t considered. The

impulsive portion of the liquid dynamic pressure is divided into rigid

component and flexible component. Rigid component is the one that

vibrates with the base excitation while flexible component is the one that

vibrates with the tank walls. Parameters of this analog are introduced for a

wide range of walls vertical inclination angle. The mechanical analog

parameters were verified through comparing them at vertical angle of

inclination of zero with those obtained from cylindrical tanks reported in

the literature. An excellent agreement was shown between the two

mechanical models.

simplify the seismic analysis of elevated combined conical tanks through

duplicating the forces in the tanks under vertical seismic excitation. This

analog considers the flexibility of walls. The liquid components were

represented as flexible and rigid components. The flexibly component is

the component associated to vibrate with tank walls and the rigid

component is components associated to vibrate with the base acceleration.

Parametric study was done to calculate the natural frequencies of the

49

system. Also the influence of the liquid to the impulsive response was

determined using modal analysis.

tanks subjected to seismic excitation. Finite element method was used to

estimate the dynamic response using both time history and free vibration

analyses. The effect of liquid sloshing and tank wall`s flexibility was

considered. Results were compared to some codes of practice (ACI 350.3-

06 and ASCE 7-05). FEM was compared with results from experimental

and numerical studies in the literature. Natural frequencies and effective

liquid mass ratios were very close to those obtained from Housner`s

methods. The results of this study showed that current practice could

calculate the dynamic response of elevated tanks with a good accuracy.

Patel et al. (2012) have studied seismic response of elevated water tanks

supported on staging frame system with different column proportionality

using a two-mass model under four seismic records. It was concluded that

sloshing height increases as the number of supporting panels increase.

available in literature. Base isolation system is followed to absorb energy

transmitted to the tanks from seismic actions. It is also utilized in

rehabilitation and repair of tanks to improve their performance during

seismic events. It was suggested to rehabilitate many elevated tanks using

this technique (Bleiman and Kim (1993)). Detailed analyses were done on

many alternatives for rehabilitation of large capacity tanks and it was

concluded that seismic isolation was the best rehabilitation choice.

50

Chalhoub and Kelly (1990) have done tests on shake table on fixed base

and base isolated ground tanks. A significant reduction in hydrodynamic

pressure and base reactions was noticed. Also a small increase in sloshing

height was noticed.

Bo and Jia-xiang (1994) have created a model for an isolated ground tank

using finite element method. The study showed reduction in hydrodynamic

pressure and sloshing height.

Kim and Lee (1995) have done experimental study on isolated tanks. they

have done a series of pseudo-dynamic tests on isolated tanks under uni-

directional acceleration. Tall and broad tanks were the two types tested to

study the hydrodynamic forces. Tests were done on two steps, fist was

testing the isolated part, and second was to model the tank using a proper

modeling method. The liquid was modeled using three equivalent lumped

masses. Tanks were isolated by laminates of rubber bearing. Free vibration

tests and seismic tests were done with real earthquake records. It was

concluded that seismic isolation is an effective method to reduce dynamic

response of storage tanks.

ground tanks with different isolation techniques. He has investigated

several rehabilitation systems as vertical isolation, passive energy

dissipation systems as hold-down anchors, and lateral isolation. For all of

the mentioned systems, significant improvement in the dynamic behavior

was noted; however an increase in the sloshing height in the laterally

isolated tanks was stated. Also a new technique for seismic isolation of

ground cylindrical tanks was proposed. In this technique, the walls of the

tank were disconnected from the base plate and were supported on isolation

51

bearings. Also the base plate rested on the ground directly. In order to

prevent liquid leakage between walls and the base plate, a flexible

membrane was added between them. This membrane allowed the walls of

the tank to move freely. This isolation system reduced the dynamic

behavior and compressive stress on the walls of the tank; however a tensile

force was generated in the bearings of tall tanks due to the small weight

applied on the bearings compared to the fluid`s weight.

Shenton III and Hampton (1999) have investigated the dynamic response of

isolated elevated tank under seismic excitation using a three-DOF model.

The mode shapes and the natural frequencies of this tank were estimated

and seismic analysis was done using response spectral analyses method

with considering only a linear elastic isolation system. Also tank walls

were assumed to be rigid and the rocking effect wasn`t considered.

Isolation bearing was assumed to be rigid in the vertical direction. Results

of isolated tanks were compared with the corresponding values in non-

isolated tanks. It was concluded that base isolation reduced the seismic

response of elevated tank effectively.

Shirmali and Jangrid (2003) have studied the dynamic behavior of isolated

elevated tanks excited by real earthquake record using a four-DOF model.

The isolation material was lead-rubber bearings. The fluid was modeled

using lumped masses. Isolation bearing was assumed to be rigid in the

vertical direction and the effect of rocking and uplift weren`t considered. It

was concluded that the dynamic response of isolated elevated tanks

reduced significantly. Also a two-DOF and two single-DOF models were

studied by assuming the motion of the tank to be rigid under seismic action.

It was concluded that this simplified models could estimate seismic

response of the isolated elevated tanks accurately.

52

Jadhav and Jangid (2004) have studied the dynamic behavior of tanks

isolated by elastometric bearings and sliding system subjected to real

earthquake records. The fluid was modeled by lumped masses. Jadhav and

Jangid (2006) have used the same model to study the dynamic behavior of

tanks subjected to near-fault earthquake.

cylindrical tanks subjected to horizontal seismic excitation in 3D space.

The fluid was modeled using internal boundary elements and the tank was

modeled using shell elements. The base isolation was modeled using

bilinear hysteretic elements. It was concluded that dynamic response of

isolated tanks is significantly reduced and sloshing wave displacement

increased due to base isolation. It was also concluded that the base isolator

is more effective when its stiffness is smaller; however the base isolator

stiffness should maintain the tank stability.

seismic response of liquid containing structure. In this section a summary

of some these codes and standards is presented. The summary will focus on

Egyptian code of loads ECP 201 (2012), American codes like ACI 350.3-

06 (2006), ACI 317-08 (2008), American Water Work Association codes

AWWA D110 (1995), AWWA D115 (1995), and AWWA D100 (2005),

The American Petroleum Institute API 650 (1998), The American

Petroleum Institute API 620 (1998), New Zealand Standard NZS 3106

(2010), Eurocode-8 (2006), British standard BS 8007 (1987), and

American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE 7-10 (2010).

53

In Eurocode-8 (2006) and Egyptian code of loads ECP 201 (2012) the

seismic analysis of rigid circular tanks is performed using Veletsos and

Yang`s model (1977). For flexible circular, models developed by Veletsos

(1984) and Haroun and Housner (1981B) together with the method

proposed by Malhotra et al. (2000) are used. On the other hand, for rigid

rectangular tanks Housner`s method (1963) is followed for seismic analysis

of those tanks. Both codes states to use equivalent volume cylindrical tanks

for other tanks shapes.

procedures for the seismic analysis and design of liquid containing

structures. For Rectangular and circular tanks, equations used in the code

were developed by Housner (1963). ACI 317-08 (2008) provides more

guidelines for designing and constructing elevated concrete and composite

elevated water tanks.

The American Water Work Association has provided two different codes

AWWA D110 (1995) and AWWA D115 (1995) for design of prestressed

concrete liquid containing tanks. Also it has provided guidelines regarding

design of welded steel liquid containing tanks in AWWA D100 (2005).

AWWA D100 (2005) code states to use equivalent height cylindrical tank

for tanks shape rather than the cylindrical or rectangular shapes.

The American Petroleum Institute (API) has provided two standards API

650 (1998) and API 620 (1998) for design of tanks is used in the petroleum

standards. It also states to use equivalent height cylindrical tank for tanks

shape rather than the cylindrical or rectangular shapes.

54

Both AWWA D110 and API 650 codes have used Housner`s mechanical

model (Housner (1963)) with some modifications for estimating seismic

forces with the contained liquid.

NZS 3106 (2010) uses the mechanical model developed by Veletsos and

Yang (1977) for rigid tanks and the mechanical model proposed by Haroun

and Housner (1981B) for flexible tanks.

publications that included procedures for seismic analysis and design for

liquid storage tanks in the nuclear industry; ASCE 4-98 (1998) and ASCE

58 (1980).

modes. All standards specify damping value of 0.5% for convective mode,

while for impulsive modes ACI 350.3-06, AWWA D110, AWWA D115,

API 650, and ASCE 7-05 recommend damping value of 5%, while in

Eurocode-8 and ECP 201 recommend damping value of 5% in concrete

tanks and 2% for steel tanks. In NZS 3106, damping ratio for impulsive

component is estimated based on tank geometry, material and shear wave

velocity in the supporting soil.

55

3 Chapter (3)

Numerical Modeling

3.1 Introduction

problems in Structural Engineering, Also it is a tool that can analyze

problems comprising non uniform geometry and complicated boundary

conditions. In this thesis, 3D finite element models were used to analyze

the seismic response of the studied tank using SAP2000 finite element

software.

In this chapter, a brief description of the finite element method and the

analytical model used in this study are illustrated.

3.2.1 General

several engineering problems. It is also known as Finite element analysis

(FEA).

The development of this method began in the early 1940s, the basic

concepts of this method is to use stiffness matrix of different elements that

represent the model. The most traditional approach usually used to solve

finite element problems in the Structure analysis field is the virtual work

principle approach for both linear and non-linear material analysis, which

follows the simple rule of conservation of energy for any conservative

56

system that is any work added to the system through applied external force

is equal to energy stored through strain of the structure components

equivalent system of finite elements.

are used to approximate the variation of the actual displacements

over each finite element. Displacement functions may be

polynomials, or trigonometric.

includes the material and geometric characteristics of elements. The

stiffness matrix [k] links the nodal displacements to the applied

nodal forces, as follows:

Where {Q} is the nodal force vector and {U} is the nodal

displacement vector.

step includes the assembly of the global stiffness matrix [K] for the

entire continuum from the individual element stiffness matrices, and

global force vector {F} from the element nodal force vectors.

Where {U} is the nodal displacement vector for the entire body.

57

5. Calculation of the unknown displacements. The equations assembled

in step 4 are solved for the unknown displacements.

3.3.1 General

through 3D models using finite element software SAP2000 version 15.1.0.

Computers and Structures, Inc (CSI) which was founded on 1975 has

Developed many engineering software, one of them is Sap2000.

such as dams, communication towers, stadiums, industrial plants, tanks and

buildings.

as three dimensional modeling. In the following sections a brief description

of the different parts of Sap2000 program while highlighting the different

options used in this study

3.3.2 Inputs

an easy graphical user interface to enter different structural parts (slabs,

walls, columns, beams; etc.), external loads, material properties such as

elastic modulus and density, auto meshing or manual meshing may be

done, boundary conditions are then assigned to the whole model.

58

3.3.3 Elements types

the basic finite element method elements types; it is easier for modeling

through graphical user interface.

trusses in two-dimensional or three-dimensional problems,

regardless the problem is linear or nonlinear.

behavior of slender cables including nonlinear deflections.

regardless the problems is linear or nonlinear.

As shown in figs. (3-1) and (3-2), in this study special concentrated point

masses are modeled with joints and connected to other elements with link

element, Columns and beams are modeled with frame elements, while

tank`s walls and floors are modeled with shell element.

Modal analysis is used to get the mode shapes and natural frequencies of

the structure. These modes are used to get the behavior and the structure. It

is also used in the modal superposition response spectrum analysis and

modal time history.

59

There are two methods of modal analysis may be used in Sap2000,

Eigenvector and Ritz-vector

3.3.4.1 Eigenvector

mode shapes and natural frequencies. The generalized eigenvalue problem

is defined as the following:

[K-Ω2 Md] ɸ = 0

diagonal matrix of eigenvalues and ɸ is the matrix of mode shapes

3.3.4.2 Ritz-vector

loading, it is recommended to use this modal analysis type if response-

spectrum analyses to be done in the model as it takes into account the

spatial distribution of the dynamic loading.

In this study Modal analysis by RITZ-vector is used to get the mode shapes

and natural frequencies of the tank. Six modes are generated for the studied

tank in both X and Y directions.

The main aim of this thesis is to study the response of conical tanks under

seismic loads. In this study seismic load is represented through response

spectrum analysis.

60

3.3.6 Response-Spectrum analysis

natural frequencies (i.e. mode shapes) that are forced into motion by a

vibration. The plot is used to get the response of system through combining

response of its multi natural frequencies with any method like square root

of sum of squares (SRSS) or complete quadratic combination (CQC) or any

other method.

structure subjected to ground motion is given by:

mass matrix, u, u', and u'' are the relative displacements, velocities, and

accelerations with respect to the ground, mx, my and mz are the unit

acceleration loads, and ugx'', ugy'', ugz'' are the components of ground

acceleration.

include displacements, forces, and stresses that are got from response

spectrum analysis are maximum positive response.

axes of this local system are 1, 2 and 3. They are corresponding to the

global X, Y and Z directions if the angle is set to be zero.

61

3.3.6.2 Response-Spectrum function

The response spectrum curve for a given direction is defined by plot the

pseudo-spectral acceleration response versus the natural period of the

structure. The response spectrum curve defined shall reflect the expected

damping of the structure modeled and that damping ratio is inherent in the

curve itself.

The modal damping shall be defined in the response spectrum case. Unless

overrides are defined in the response spectrum case, the damping ratio will

be the same for all modes.

modes time periods obtained from modal analysis. Results may be

acceleration, displacement, forces and stresses in any direction. The

following mathematical methods may be used.

3.3.6.4.1 SRSS

the square root of the sum of their squares. This method doesn't take into

account coupling of modes and it is not affected by modal damping

3.3.6.4.2 CQC

the square root of the sum of their squares. This method takes into account

coupling of modes and it is affected by modal damping.

62

3.3.6.4.3 GMC

Rosenblueth correlation coefficient while setting time duration of the

strong earthquake motion to be infinity. This method takes into account

coupling of modes and it is affected by modal damping.

the sum of the absolute values. This method is over-conservative.

3.3.6.4.5 NRC

with correlation coefficients that depend on damping. It is similar somehow

to GMC and CQC methods.

In the response spectrum analysis, after getting the positive results for each

direction of defined acceleration. These results need to be combined again

to produce a single positive result for the response spectrum load case. The

following mathematical methods may be used.

3.3.6.5.1 SRSS

by taking the square root of the sum of their squares.

63

3.3.6.5.2 CQC3

except that it doesn`t depend on the angle direction as it reports the critical

loading angle with corresponding maximum response.

by taking the sum of the absolute values with a defined scale factor. This

method is over-conservative.

3.3.6.5.4 Results

The base reactions are the total shear and moments about the defined global

directions of the model at the level of the supports. The base reaction

shears and moments are always referred to the local axes of the response-

spectrum analysis case. It is noted that Ritz-vector modal analysis type

gives accurate base reactions.

code of practice (ECP) with considering 5% damping ratio with using

SRSS modal combination method and SRSS directional combination

method.

with contained fluid, if the tank is subjected to ground motion, oscillation

occurs which causes fluid to accelerates in two modes of oscillations,

impulsive mode and convective mode, the effect of two modes needs to be

64

modeled to get accurate response of the tank by using added mass

approach.

seismic response of tanks using finite-element method like; Added mass

approach, Eulerian approach, Lagrangian approach and Eulerian-

Lagrangian approach.

For the added mass approach, the obtained masses has two types, impulsive

mass and convective mass. Those masses are added to the mass of the

structure without changing the stiffness matrix or damping matrix of the

structure so that general equation of motion for a system subjected to

ground motion will be as the following:

Where M* is the total mass matrix including structure mass and added mass

of the fluid, C is the damping matrix, K is the stiffness matrix, u, u`, and

u`` are the relative displacement, velocity and acceleration, and ug`` is the

ground acceleration.

The impulsive mass is the portion of the fluid that accelerates with vessel`s

walls, and a portion of this mass will have the same fundamental mode of

the deformations of walls in case of flexible walls and the remaining

portion will be activated with higher impulsive modes.

The impulsive mass is added to the walls of the tanks through many

techniques. First technique is lumped mass obtained from mechanical

65

analog and added to the walls at height of (hi+ (hi-hc)/2). The second

technique is to distribute the mass based on the hydrodynamic pressure

obtained from any method (i.e. westergaard or housner or ECP etc.). third

technique which was studied by Algreane, G. A. I. et al. (2009), is to

distribute the mass equally over wall`s joints at height (hi).

height, both are obtained from mechanical analog of the tank.

The convective mass is the portion of fluid accelerates freely with sloshing

mode i.e. free surface wave.

Convective mode has always a frequency much lower than the impulsive

mode, so the analysis of the model with uncoupled modes assumption is

accepted.

The convective mass is lumped at joint in the middle of the volume of the

fluid at height (hs) and connected to the walls of the tank in both X and y

direction with link element with stiffness of (Ks/2)

represents the convective mode, both are obtained from the mechanical

analog of the tank.

Figs. (3-1) and (3-2) show ground tank and elevated tank finite element

models.

66

3.4.2 Fluid parameters in the finite element model

will be used as explained in this chapter. Impulsive and convective

parameters will be obtained from the conical tank mechanical analog

developed by El Damatty and Sweedan (2006). This mechanical analog is a

result of a wide parametric study done on conical tanks with taking walls`

flexibility into account. It consists of rigid, flexible, and sloshing

components. In their paper, charts were presented to estimate the properties

of conical tanks depending on the vertical inclination angle of vessel walls

(Ɵv) and liquid height to base radius of the vessel ratio (hw/Rb).

in the model. These parameters are impulsive mass ratio (mr/mt) that

represents the total impulsive mass portion of the fluid, the flexible mass

ratio (mf/mt) that represents the portion of fluid which vibrates with the

deformation of vessel`s walls, flexible mass height ratio (hf/hw), convective

mass ratio (ms/mt), convective height ratio (hs/hw), and finally sloshing

frequency (fs) that is used to get the stiffness of the link element used for

convective mode in the model. It is also noted that the residual rigid mass

mo is equal to (mr-mf) represent the portion of the fluid that vibrates rigidly

with the base of the vessel. Figs. (3-3) to (3-8) show the charts used to

obtain the discussed parameters extracted from El Damatty and Sweedan

(2006) study. Extrapolation and interpolation for more Ɵv values is

suggested in their study.

67

Link element to

represent sloshing

effect Lumped Convective

mass (ms)

Distributed

impulsive flexible

mass (mf)

hs

hi

Fixed nodes

representing full

anchored case

Base Level

68

Link element to

represent sloshing Lumped Convective

effect mass (ms)

hs

hi

Residual

impulsive mass

(mo)

Staging frame system

Base Level

69

Figure 3-3 Conical Vessel geometric parameters

70

Figure 3-5 fluidheightsparametersforƟv=30o

(El Damatty and Sweedan (2006))

(El Damatty and Sweedan (2006))

71

Figure 3-7 fluidmassesparametersforƟv=30o

(El Damatty and Sweedan (2006))

72

4 Chapter (4)

FINITE ELEMENT MODEL

VERIFICATION

4.1 Introduction

method of modeling and the results of the finite element analysis are

correct and represent the actual seismic response of the conical tanks.

In this chapter verification will be done one two steps, first step is to verify

the mechanical analog parameters used to model fluid-structure interaction

as explained in chapter (3) and second step is to verify the finite element

model results.

geometry characteristics, in order to make sure of the validity of using that

Mechanical analog parameters, a conical tank is selected with vessels walls

height to base radius ratio (hw/Rb) = 2 and with vertical inclination angle

of vessel`s walls (Ɵ) is set to be zero then the output parameters is

compared with ECP parameters of the cylinder tank, results are displayed

in Table (4.1). Results show a good agreement between the two mechanical

analog.

73

Table 4-1 Comparison between ECP cylinder tank and conical tank with

Ɵv=0formechanicalanalogparametersincaseof(hw/Rb=2)

Damatty

To study the validity of finite element procedure stated in this chapter,

three different conical tanks are modeled using SAP2000 software and

compared with the manual procedure developed by El Damatty and

Sweedan (2006). The manual procedure developed by El Damatty is

summarized in the following steps:

2- Based on hw/Rb and Ɵv values , get the followings from charts in El

Damatty and Sweedan (2006) as explained in section (3.4.2):

a. Convective mass ratio (ms/mt)

b. Convective mass height (hs/hw)

c. The convective mode frequency (fs)

d. Flexible mass ratio (mf/mt)

e. Flexible mass height (hf/hw)

f. Rigid mass ratio (mr/mt)

74

g. Rigid mass height (hr/hw)

3- Calculate analog parameters ms, hs, mf, hf, mr, hr, f1, and mef based

on step#2

4- Calculate stiffness of the tank using the following equation:

K = 4π2f12mf (1)

5- Calculate liquid-shell system impulsive mode (fsys) that includes the

effective tank mass using the following equation:

fsys = )/ 2 π (2)

spectrum curve based on convective mode frequency (fs)

7- Calculate impuslive mode spectral acceleration (Sasys) from response

spectrum curve based on convective mode frequency (fsys)

8- Calculate base shear (Q) using SRSS method based on the following

equations:

Q1 = ((mr-mf) + msh) * G``(t)max (3)

Q2 = (mf + mef) * Sasys (4)

Q3 = ms * Sas (5)

Q = (Q12 + Q22 + Q32) (6)

9- Calculate base moment (M) using SRSS method based on the

following equations:

M1 = {(mr-mf)*hr – (mf + msh)*hf} * G``(t)max (7)

M2 = (mf + mef) * Sasys * hf (8)

M3 = ms * Sas*hs (9)

M = (Q12 + Q22 + Q32) (10)

75

Table (4.2) shows a good agreement between the two methods with

difference not exceeding 8%.

Damatty and Sweedan (2006) and finite element model

Manual procedure

Finite Element by El Damatty

Tank Dimension Difference (%)

Model and Sweedan

Response (2006)

Spectrum

Ɵv hw/ Type

hw Rb Q1 M1 Q2 M2

(o) Rb Q (%) M (%)

(m) (m) (kN) (kN.m) (kN) (kN.m)

EC-RS

15 10 5 2 Default 2690 19920 2918 20404 -7.8% -2.3%

0.2g

ECP-RS

15 6 2 3 Type(2) 300 1320 298 1222 0.67% 8.0%

Zone4

ECP-RS

30 9 3 3 Type(2) 1948 14060 1805 13234 7.9% 6.2%

Zone4

Maheri MR, Severn RT

To further verify the finite element modeling method used in this study, a

finite element model has been compared with an experiment conducted by

Maheri MR, Severn RT on cylinder steel tanks. This Cylinder tank has

been selected due to the rare of availability of detailed experiment studies

76

conducted on pure conical tanks, also a cylinder tank is a conical tank with

Ɵv=0,thusthesamemodeling procedure for conical tanks has been

used.

Maheri MR, Severn RT have measured the base shear force in a water tank

subjected to Parkfield 1966 earthquake record with peak ground

acceleration = 0.25g as shown in fig. (4.2). Tank`s dimensions are shown in

fig. (4.1). The maximum base shear measured in the experiment is 570 N

while the finite element model has shown a very good agreement with

maximum base shear of 540 N as shown in table (4.3) and fig. (4.3).

finite element model

Difference

Finite Element Model Experiment

(%)

1st

1st 2nd Base 2nd

Base shear impulsive

impulsive impulsive shear impulsive Base shear

(N) mode

mode (sec) mode (sec) (N) mode (sec)

(sec)

77

Figure 4-2 Parkfield 1966 earthquake record

78

5 Chapter (5)

Parametric Study

5.1 Introduction

geometric parameters of the conical tanks on their seismic response. The

finite element model is done based on the procedure explained in Chapter

(3). The seismic response of the studied tanks is represented by base shear

and base moment resulted from the response spectrum cases. Results of

each model will be compared with those obtained through ECP 201-2012

and American Water Work Association AWWA-D100 codes procedures

described in Chapter (6).

vessel is represented through the followings parameters; height of vessel

(ht), height of liquid (hw), radius of vessel base (Rb), radius at the top of

liquid surface (Rt), and vessel`s walls vertical inclination angle (Ɵv).

follows: 5o, 10o, 15o, 20o, 25o, and 30o.ForeachƟvdifferent(hw/Rb)ratios

are studied as follows: 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 with different liquid volume as

follows 250 m3, 500 m3, 1000 m3, 2000 m3, and 4000 m3. The studied

tanks contain water with density 1000 Kg/m3, height of water to vessel`s

height is taken as 0.8. Each tank will be studied as ground tank, elevated

79

tank of height 10 m, and finally elevated tank of height 20 m. For elevated

tanks, staging frame system is used for supporting the vessel`s with total

number of twelve columns connected with beams each 3.33 m. The studied

tanks are assumed to be concrete tank with grade Fcu=30 Mpa. Response

spectrum function used is defined as ECP 201-2012 type 1 spectrum in

seismic zone 1 and Ground Type C as shown in fig. (5.2). Response

modification factor (R) is taken as 2. The effect of hydrodynamic pressure

on vessels base is not considered in this study. Table (5.1) shows the

studied tanks.

80

Figure 5-2 Response Spectrum used in the parametric study

Tank hw Rb Volume

Ɵv hw/Rb height thickness diameters dimensions

ID (m) (m) (m3)

(m) (mm) (m) (m)

G1 5.40 3.60 1.5 250 0 250 --- ---

G2 6.80 4.55 1.5 500 0 250 --- ---

G3 5o 8.60 5.75 1.5 1000 0 250 --- ---

G4 10.80 7.20 1.5 2000 0 250 --- ---

G5 13.60 9.05 1.5 4000 0 250 --- ---

G6 6.45 3.25 2 250 0 250 --- ---

G7 8.10 4.05 2 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G8 5 10.25 5.10 2 1000 0 250 --- ---

G9 12.90 6.45 2 2000 0 250 --- ---

G10 16.25 8.15 2 4000 0 250 --- ---

o

G11 5 7.40 2.95 2.5 250 0 250 --- ---

81

Support Vessel Columns Beams

Tank hw Rb Volume

Ɵv hw/Rb height thickness diameters dimensions

ID (m) (m) (m3)

(m) (mm) (m) (m)

G12 9.30 3.70 2.5 500 0 250 --- ---

G13 11.70 4.70 2.5 1000 0 250 --- ---

G14 14.80 5.90 2.5 2000 0 250 --- ---

G15 18.65 7.45 2.5 4000 0 250 --- ---

G16 8.20 2.75 3 250 0 250 --- ---

G17 10.40 3.45 3 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G18 5 13.10 4.35 3 1000 0 250 --- ---

G19 16.45 5.50 3 2000 0 250 --- ---

G20 20.75 6.90 3 4000 0 250 --- ---

G21 5.20 3.45 1.5 250 0 250 --- ---

G22 6.45 4.35 1.5 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G23 10 8.25 5.50 1.5 1000 0 250 --- ---

G24 10.35 6.90 1.5 2000 0 250 --- ---

G25 13.05 8.70 1.5 4000 0 250 --- ---

G26 6.10 3.05 2 250 0 250 --- ---

G27 7.70 3.85 2 500 0 250 --- ---

G28 10o 9.70 4.85 2 1000 0 250 --- ---

G29 12.20 6.10 2 2000 0 250 --- ---

G30 15.40 7.70 2 4000 0 250 --- ---

G31 6.95 2.75 2.5 250 0 250 --- ---

G32 8.70 3.50 2.5 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G33 10 10.95 4.40 2.5 1000 0 250 --- ---

G34 13.80 5.55 2.5 2000 0 250 --- ---

G35 17.45 6.95 2.5 4000 0 250 --- ---

G36 7.60 2.55 3 250 0 250 --- ---

G37 9.60 3.20 3 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G38 10 12.00 4.05 3 1000 0 250 --- ---

G39 15.25 5.10 3 2000 0 250 --- ---

G40 19.20 6.40 3 4000 0 250 --- ---

G41 5.00 3.30 1.5 250 0 250 --- ---

G42 6.25 4.20 1.5 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G43 15 7.90 5.25 1.5 1000 0 250 --- ---

G44 9.95 6.65 1.5 2000 0 250 --- ---

G45 12.55 8.35 1.5 4000 0 250 --- ---

G46 5.80 2.90 2 250 0 250 --- ---

o

G47 15 7.30 3.65 2 500 0 250 --- ---

G48 9.20 4.60 2 1000 0 250 --- ---

82

Support Vessel Columns Beams

Tank hw Rb Volume

Ɵv hw/Rb height thickness diameters dimensions

ID (m) (m) (m3)

(m) (mm) (m) (m)

G49 11.60 5.80 2 2000 0 250 --- ---

G50 14.60 7.30 2 4000 0 250 --- ---

G51 6.50 2.60 2.5 250 0 250 --- ---

G52 8.20 3.25 2.5 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G53 15 10.30 4.10 2.5 1000 0 250 --- ---

G54 13.00 5.20 2.5 2000 0 250 --- ---

G55 16.35 6.55 2.5 4000 0 250 --- ---

G56 7.10 2.35 3 250 0 250 --- ---

G57 8.95 3.00 3 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G58 15 11.25 3.75 3 1000 0 250 --- ---

G59 14.15 4.70 3 2000 0 250 --- ---

G60 17.85 5.95 3 4000 0 250 --- ---

G61 4.75 3.20 1.5 250 0 250 --- ---

G62 6.00 4.00 1.5 500 0 250 --- ---

G63 20o 7.60 5.05 1.5 1000 0 250 --- ---

G64 9.55 6.35 1.5 2000 0 250 --- ---

G65 12.05 8.00 1.5 4000 0 250 --- ---

G66 5.50 2.75 2 250 0 250 --- ---

G67 6.95 3.45 2 500 0 250 --- ---

G68 20o 8.75 4.40 2 1000 0 250 --- ---

G69 11.00 5.50 2 2000 0 250 --- ---

G70 13.90 6.95 2 4000 0 250 --- ---

G71 6.10 2.45 2.5 250 0 250 --- ---

G72 7.70 3.10 2.5 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G73 20 9.70 3.90 2.5 1000 0 250 --- ---

G74 12.20 4.90 2.5 2000 0 250 --- ---

G75 15.40 6.15 2.5 4000 0 250 --- ---

G76 6.60 2.20 3 250 0 250 --- ---

G77 8.30 2.75 3 500 0 250 --- ---

G78 20o 10.50 3.50 3 1000 0 250 --- ---

G79 13.20 4.40 3 2000 0 250 --- ---

G80 16.65 5.55 3 4000 0 250 --- ---

G81 4.60 3.05 1.5 250 0 250 --- ---

G82 5.80 3.85 1.5 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G83 25 7.30 4.85 1.5 1000 0 250 --- ---

G84 9.15 6.10 1.5 2000 0 250 --- ---

G85 11.55 7.70 1.5 4000 0 250 --- ---

83

Support Vessel Columns Beams

Tank hw Rb Volume

Ɵv hw/Rb height thickness diameters dimensions

ID (m) (m) (m3)

(m) (mm) (m) (m)

G86 5.25 2.60 2 250 0 250 --- ---

G87 6.60 3.30 2 500 0 250 --- ---

G88 25o 8.30 4.15 2 1000 0 250 --- ---

G89 10.45 5.25 2 2000 0 250 --- ---

G90 13.20 6.60 2 4000 0 250 --- ---

G91 5.75 2.30 2.5 250 0 250 --- ---

G92 7.25 2.90 2.5 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G93 25 9.15 3.65 2.5 1000 0 250 --- ---

G94 11.50 4.60 2.5 2000 0 250 --- ---

G95 14.50 5.80 2.5 4000 0 250 --- ---

G96 6.20 2.05 3 250 0 250 --- ---

G97 7.50 2.50 3 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G98 25 9.80 3.25 3 1000 0 250 --- ---

G99 12.35 4.10 3 2000 0 250 --- ---

G100 15.55 5.20 3 4000 0 250 --- ---

G101 4.40 2.95 1.5 250 0 250 --- ---

G102 5.55 3.70 1.5 500 0 250 --- ---

G103 30o 6.95 4.65 1.5 1000 0 250 --- ---

G104 8.80 5.85 1.5 2000 0 250 --- ---

G105 11.05 7.40 1.5 4000 0 250 --- ---

G106 5.00 2.50 2 250 0 250 --- ---

G107 6.25 3.15 2 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G108 30 7.90 3.95 2 1000 0 250 --- ---

G109 9.95 4.95 2 2000 0 250 --- ---

G110 12.50 6.25 2 4000 0 250 --- ---

G111 5.40 2.15 2.5 250 0 250 --- ---

G112 6.85 2.75 2.5 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G113 30 8.60 3.45 2.5 1000 0 250 --- ---

G114 10.80 4.35 2.5 2000 0 250 --- ---

G115 13.65 5.45 2.5 4000 0 250 --- ---

G116 5.80 1.95 3 250 0 250 --- ---

G117 7.25 2.40 3 500 0 250 --- ---

o

G118 30 9.15 3.05 3 1000 0 250 --- ---

G119 11.55 3.85 3 2000 0 250 --- ---

G120 14.55 4.85 3 4000 0 250 --- ---

E10-1 5.40 3.60 1.5 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

5o

E10-2 6.80 4.55 1.5 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

84

Support Vessel Columns Beams

Tank hw Rb Volume

Ɵv hw/Rb height thickness diameters dimensions

ID (m) (m) (m3)

(m) (mm) (m) (m)

E10-3 8.60 5.75 1.5 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-4 10.80 7.20 1.5 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-5 13.60 9.05 1.5 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-6 6.45 3.25 2 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-7 8.10 4.05 2 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-8 5o 10.25 5.10 2 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-9 12.90 6.45 2 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-10 16.25 8.15 2 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-11 7.40 2.95 2.5 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-12 9.30 3.70 2.5 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

o

E10-13 5 11.70 4.70 2.5 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-14 14.80 5.90 2.5 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-15 18.65 7.45 2.5 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-16 8.20 2.75 3 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-17 10.40 3.45 3 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

o

E10-18 5 13.10 4.35 3 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-19 16.45 5.50 3 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-20 20.75 6.90 3 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-21 5.20 3.45 1.5 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-22 6.45 4.35 1.5 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-23 10o 8.25 5.50 1.5 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-24 10.35 6.90 1.5 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-25 13.05 8.70 1.5 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-26 6.10 3.05 2 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-27 7.70 3.85 2 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-28 10o 9.70 4.85 2 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-29 12.20 6.10 2 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-30 15.40 7.70 2 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-31 6.95 2.75 2.5 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-32 8.70 3.50 2.5 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

o

E10-33 10 10.95 4.40 2.5 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-34 13.80 5.55 2.5 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-35 17.45 6.95 2.5 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-36 7.60 2.55 3 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-37 9.60 3.20 3 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

10o

E10-38 12.00 4.05 3 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-39 15.25 5.10 3 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

85

Support Vessel Columns Beams

Tank hw Rb Volume

Ɵv hw/Rb height thickness diameters dimensions

ID (m) (m) (m3)

(m) (mm) (m) (m)

E10-40 19.20 6.40 3 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-41 5.00 3.30 1.5 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-42 6.25 4.20 1.5 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

o

E10-43 15 7.90 5.25 1.5 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-44 9.95 6.65 1.5 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-45 12.55 8.35 1.5 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-46 5.80 2.90 2 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-47 7.30 3.65 2 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-48 15o 9.20 4.60 2 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-49 11.60 5.80 2 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-50 14.60 7.30 2 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-51 6.50 2.60 2.5 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-52 8.20 3.25 2.5 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-53 15o 10.30 4.10 2.5 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-54 13.00 5.20 2.5 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-55 16.35 6.55 2.5 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-56 7.10 2.35 3 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-57 8.95 3.00 3 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-58 15o 11.25 3.75 3 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-59 14.15 4.70 3 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-60 17.85 5.95 3 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-61 4.75 3.20 1.5 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-62 6.00 4.00 1.5 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-63 20o 7.60 5.05 1.5 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-64 9.55 6.35 1.5 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-65 12.05 8.00 1.5 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-66 5.50 2.75 2 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-67 6.95 3.45 2 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

o

E10-68 20 8.75 4.40 2 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-69 11.00 5.50 2 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-70 13.90 6.95 2 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-71 6.10 2.45 2.5 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-72 7.70 3.10 2.5 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-73 20o 9.70 3.90 2.5 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-74 12.20 4.90 2.5 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-75 15.40 6.15 2.5 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

o

E10-76 20 6.60 2.20 3 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

86

Support Vessel Columns Beams

Tank hw Rb Volume

Ɵv hw/Rb height thickness diameters dimensions

ID (m) (m) (m3)

(m) (mm) (m) (m)

E10-77 8.30 2.75 3 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-78 10.50 3.50 3 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-79 13.20 4.40 3 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-80 16.65 5.55 3 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-81 4.60 3.05 1.5 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-82 5.80 3.85 1.5 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

o

E10-83 25 7.30 4.85 1.5 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-84 9.15 6.10 1.5 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-85 11.55 7.70 1.5 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-86 5.25 2.60 2 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-87 6.60 3.30 2 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

o

E10-88 25 8.30 4.15 2 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-89 10.45 5.25 2 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-90 13.20 6.60 2 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-91 5.75 2.30 2.5 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-92 7.25 2.90 2.5 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-93 25o 9.15 3.65 2.5 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-94 11.50 4.60 2.5 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-95 14.50 5.80 2.5 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-96 6.20 2.05 3 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-97 7.50 2.50 3 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

o

E10-98 25 9.80 3.25 3 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-99 12.35 4.10 3 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-100 15.55 5.20 3 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-101 4.40 2.95 1.5 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-102 5.55 3.70 1.5 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

o

E10-103 30 6.95 4.65 1.5 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-104 8.80 5.85 1.5 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-105 11.05 7.40 1.5 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-106 5.00 2.50 2 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-107 6.25 3.15 2 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

o

E10-108 30 7.90 3.95 2 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-109 9.95 4.95 2 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-110 12.50 6.25 2 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-111 5.40 2.15 2.5 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-112 30o 6.85 2.75 2.5 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-113 8.60 3.45 2.5 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

87

Support Vessel Columns Beams

Tank hw Rb Volume

Ɵv hw/Rb height thickness diameters dimensions

ID (m) (m) (m3)

(m) (mm) (m) (m)

E10-114 10.80 4.35 2.5 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-115 13.65 5.45 2.5 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-116 5.80 1.95 3 250 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-117 7.25 2.40 3 500 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

o

E10-118 30 9.15 3.05 3 1000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-119 11.55 3.85 3 2000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E10-120 14.55 4.85 3 4000 10 250 0.65 0.6 x 0.6

E20-1 5.40 3.60 1.5 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-2 6.80 4.55 1.5 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-3 5 8.60 5.75 1.5 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-4 10.80 7.20 1.5 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-5 13.60 9.05 1.5 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-6 6.45 3.25 2 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-7 8.10 4.05 2 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-8 5o 10.25 5.10 2 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-9 12.90 6.45 2 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-10 16.25 8.15 2 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-11 7.40 2.95 2.5 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-12 9.30 3.70 2.5 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-13 5o 11.70 4.70 2.5 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-14 14.80 5.90 2.5 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-15 18.65 7.45 2.5 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-16 8.20 2.75 3 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-17 10.40 3.45 3 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-18 5 13.10 4.35 3 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-19 16.45 5.50 3 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-20 20.75 6.90 3 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-21 5.20 3.45 1.5 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-22 6.45 4.35 1.5 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-23 10o 8.25 5.50 1.5 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-24 10.35 6.90 1.5 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-25 13.05 8.70 1.5 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-26 6.10 3.05 2 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-27 7.70 3.85 2 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-28 10 9.70 4.85 2 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-29 12.20 6.10 2 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-30 15.40 7.70 2 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

88

Support Vessel Columns Beams

Tank hw Rb Volume

Ɵv hw/Rb height thickness diameters dimensions

ID (m) (m) (m3)

(m) (mm) (m) (m)

E20-31 6.95 2.75 2.5 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-32 8.70 3.50 2.5 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-33 10o 10.95 4.40 2.5 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-34 13.80 5.55 2.5 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-35 17.45 6.95 2.5 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-36 7.60 2.55 3 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-37 9.60 3.20 3 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-38 10 12.00 4.05 3 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-39 15.25 5.10 3 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-40 19.20 6.40 3 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-41 5.00 3.30 1.5 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-42 6.25 4.20 1.5 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-43 15 7.90 5.25 1.5 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-44 9.95 6.65 1.5 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-45 12.55 8.35 1.5 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-46 5.80 2.90 2 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-47 7.30 3.65 2 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-48 15o 9.20 4.60 2 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-49 11.60 5.80 2 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-50 14.60 7.30 2 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-51 6.50 2.60 2.5 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-52 8.20 3.25 2.5 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-53 15 10.30 4.10 2.5 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-54 13.00 5.20 2.5 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-55 16.35 6.55 2.5 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-56 7.10 2.35 3 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-57 8.95 3.00 3 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-58 15 11.25 3.75 3 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-59 14.15 4.70 3 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-60 17.85 5.95 3 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-61 4.75 3.20 1.5 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-62 6.00 4.00 1.5 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-63 20 7.60 5.05 1.5 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-64 9.55 6.35 1.5 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-65 12.05 8.00 1.5 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-66 5.50 2.75 2 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

20o

E20-67 6.95 3.45 2 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

89

Support Vessel Columns Beams

Tank hw Rb Volume

Ɵv hw/Rb height thickness diameters dimensions

ID (m) (m) (m3)

(m) (mm) (m) (m)

E20-68 8.75 4.40 2 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-69 11.00 5.50 2 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-70 13.90 6.95 2 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-71 6.10 2.45 2.5 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-72 7.70 3.10 2.5 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-73 20o 9.70 3.90 2.5 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-74 12.20 4.90 2.5 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-75 15.40 6.15 2.5 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-76 6.60 2.20 3 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-77 8.30 2.75 3 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-78 20 10.50 3.50 3 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-79 13.20 4.40 3 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-80 16.65 5.55 3 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-81 4.60 3.05 1.5 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-82 5.80 3.85 1.5 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-83 25 7.30 4.85 1.5 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-84 9.15 6.10 1.5 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-85 11.55 7.70 1.5 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-86 5.25 2.60 2 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-87 6.60 3.30 2 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-88 25o 8.30 4.15 2 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-89 10.45 5.25 2 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-90 13.20 6.60 2 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-91 5.75 2.30 2.5 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-92 7.25 2.90 2.5 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-93 25o 9.15 3.65 2.5 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-94 11.50 4.60 2.5 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-95 14.50 5.80 2.5 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-96 6.20 2.05 3 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-97 7.50 2.50 3 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-98 25 9.80 3.25 3 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-99 12.35 4.10 3 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-100 15.55 5.20 3 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-101 4.40 2.95 1.5 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-102 5.55 3.70 1.5 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

30o

E20-103 6.95 4.65 1.5 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-104 8.80 5.85 1.5 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

90

Support Vessel Columns Beams

Tank hw Rb Volume

Ɵv hw/Rb height thickness diameters dimensions

ID (m) (m) (m3)

(m) (mm) (m) (m)

E20-105 11.05 7.40 1.5 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-106 5.00 2.50 2 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-107 6.25 3.15 2 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-108 30 7.90 3.95 2 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-109 9.95 4.95 2 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-110 12.50 6.25 2 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-111 5.40 2.15 2.5 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-112 6.85 2.75 2.5 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-113 30 8.60 3.45 2.5 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-114 10.80 4.35 2.5 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-115 13.65 5.45 2.5 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-116 5.80 1.95 3 250 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-117 7.25 2.40 3 500 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

o

E20-118 30 9.15 3.05 3 1000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-119 11.55 3.85 3 2000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

E20-120 14.55 4.85 3 4000 20 250 1.1 0.6 x 0.6

91

6 Chapter (6)

Results and Discussion

6.1 Introduction

reviewed. For each tank, base shear and base moment (overturning

moment) are obtained from the finite element model and compared with the

corresponding values obtained by equivalent cylinder tank approach of

Egyptian code of loads ECP 201-2012 and American Water Work

Association AWWA D100-2005. It should be noted that due to not

considering hydrodynamic pressure effect on vessels base, base moment of

ground tanks may represent also the moment just below vessels walls for

both ground and elevated tanks for the same vessel`s dimensions.

seismic design of conical tank shape and most of current design codes

for any tank shape like conical tanks other than rectangular and cylindrical

92

shape. This equivalent cylinder tank should be with the same volume of the

original conical tank while its radius will be the same of the conical tank

radius at the top of the liquid surface. The procedure of getting the

1- Get the geometry of the cylinder equivalent tank using the liquid

volume of the conical tank (V) and the radius is the radius at the top

as:

3- Determine the convective mode`s period (Tc) using the stiffness and

4- Determine the impulsive mode`s period (Ti), for ground tanks (Ti)

6.2 Ti = ( )*( )

diameter,ρisthefluid`smassdensity,andEistheyoung`smodulus

93

of the tank wall. For elevated tanks (Ti) may be estimated using

modes` periods.

6- Determine the base shear for convective mode (Vc) using the

following equation :

6.3 Vc = Sd (Tc) * mc

7- Determine the base shear for impulsive mode (Vi) using the

following equation :

8- Determine the total base shear (Vt) using square root summation of

6.5 Vt =

94

9- Determine the base moment for the convective mode (Mc) using the

following equation:

10- Determine the base moment for the impulsive mode (Mi)

11- Determine the total base moment (Mt) using square root

6.8 Mt =

95

Figure 6-1 Ratios of convective and impulsive masses and convective

spring stiffness (ECP201-2012)

96

Figure 6-3 Ci factor (ECP201-2012)

AWWA-D100 (2005) uses equivalent cylinder tank for conical tanks. This

noted that the equivalent height and radius give a cylinder tank with a

volume higher than the original conical tank. The procedure of getting the

height in the conical tank ,and Ɵv is the vertical inclination

97

6.10 Equivalent tank radius (Req) = , where

WhenDeq/Heq≥1.333:

( )

)* Heq

equation:

98

6.18 Tc = √

method.

modes` periods.

6- Determine the base shear for the convective mode (Vc) using the

following equation :

6.19 Vc = Sd (Tc) * mc

convective mode.

7- Determine the base shear for the impulsive mode (Vi) using the

following equation :

12- Determine the total base shear (Vt) using square root

6.21 Vt =

99

13- Determine the base moment for the convective mode (Mc)

14- Determine the base moment for the impulsive mode (Mi)

15- Determine the total base moment (Mt) using square root

6.24 Mt =

100

Table 6-1 Studied tanks results

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

101

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

102

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

103

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

104

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

105

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

106

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

107

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

108

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

109

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

110

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

111

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

112

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

113

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

114

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

115

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

116

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

117

Base shear (kN) Base moment (kN.m)

Tank ID

FEM ECP AWWA FEM ECP AWWA

The following figures display base reactions obtained from finite element

model and codes for all the studied tanks. Results are displayed in three

groups.

results are shown for each (hw/Rb) value in different colors. This group

shows the moment below tank walls for both ground and elevated tanks

finite element models as shown in figs (6-4) and (6-5). It should be noted

base moment of ground tanks may represent also the moment just below

118

vessels walls for both ground and elevated tanks for the same vessel`s

dimensions.

119

Below tank walls level

2000

1500

M (KN.m)

hw/Rb=1.5

1000

hw/Rb=2

hw/Rb=2.5 500

hw/Rb=3

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-6 Moment below tank walls from FEM for volume 250 m3

120

5000

4000

M (KN.m)

hw/Rb=1.5 3000

hw/Rb=2

2000

hw/Rb=2.5

hw/Rb=3 1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-7 Moment below tank walls from FEM for volume 500 m3

12000

10000

8000

M (KN.m)

hw/Rb=1.5

hw/Rb=2 6000

hw/Rb=2.5 4000

hw/Rb=3 2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-8 Moment below tank walls from FEM for volume 1000 m3

121

25000

20000

M (KN.m)

hw/Rb=1.5 15000

hw/Rb=2 10000

hw/Rb=2.5

hw/Rb=3 5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-9 Moment below tank walls from FEM for volume 2000 m3

60000

50000

40000

M (KN.m)

hw/Rb=1.5

hw/Rb=2 30000

hw/Rb=2.5 20000

hw/Rb=3 10000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-10 Moment below tank walls from FEM for volume 4000 m3

Figs (6-6) to (6-10) show moments below vessel`s walls with different

hw/Rbratiosvariesfrom1.5to3withdifferentƟvvariesfrom5 o to 30o.

Tanks volumes studied are 250, 500, 1000, 250, 2000, and 4000 m3. It is

foundthatforthesameliquidvolume,asƟvincreasesthefluidheightin

the vessel decreases so moment below vessel`s walls will decrease till a

122

more significant due the effect of vertical resultant of the hydrodynamic

15o is the vessel`s walls vertical inclination angle where the moment below

vessel`s walls become the least for the same volume and the same hw/Rb.

displaying moment and shear at base level on vertical axis versus different

(Ɵv) values on horizontal axis in case of ground tanks; results are shown

different colors.

123

350

300

250

Q (KN)

200

ECP

150

FEM

100

AWWA 50

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-11 Base shear for volume 250 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5

1400

1200

1000

M (KN.m)

800

ECP

600

FEM

400

AWWA 200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-12 Base moment for volume 250 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5

124

700

600

500

Q (KN)

400

ECP

300

FEM

200

AWWA 100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-13 Base shear for volume 500 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5

3500

3000

2500

M (KN.m)

2000

ECP

1500

FEM

1000

AWWA 500

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-14 Base moment for volume 500 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5

125

1400

1200

1000

Q (KN)

800

ECP

600

FEM

400

AWWA 200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-15 Base shear for volume 1000 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5

8000

7000

6000

M (KN.m)

5000

ECP 4000

FEM 3000

2000

AWWA

1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-16 Base moment for volume 1000 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5

126

3000

2500

2000

Q (KN)

ECP 1500

FEM 1000

AWWA 500

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-17 Base shear for volume 2000 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5

20000

15000

M (KN.m)

ECP 10000

FEM

5000

AWWA

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-18 Base moment for volume 2000 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5

127

6000

5000

4000

Q (KN)

ECP 3000

FEM 2000

AWWA 1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-19 Base shear for volume 4000 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5

50000

40000

M (KN.m)

30000

ECP

20000

FEM

AWWA 10000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-20 Base moment for volume 4000 m3 and hw/Rb = 1.5

128

400

350

300

250

Q (KN)

ECP 200

FEM 150

100

AWWA

50

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

1600

1400

1200

M (KN.m)

1000

ECP 800

FEM 600

400

AWWA

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

129

800

700

600

500

Q (KN)

ECP 400

FEM 300

200

AWWA

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

3500

3000

2500

M (KN.m)

2000

ECP

1500

FEM

1000

AWWA 500

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

130

1600

1400

1200

1000

Q (KN)

ECP 800

FEM 600

400

AWWA

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵ

10000

8000

M (KN.m)

6000

ECP

4000

FEM

AWWA 2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

131

3500

3000

2500

Q (KN)

2000

ECP

1500

FEM

1000

AWWA 500

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

25000

20000

M (KN.m)

15000

ECP

10000

FEM

AWWA 5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

132

7000

6000

5000

Q (KN)

4000

ECP

3000

FEM

2000

AWWA 1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

60000

50000

40000

M(KN.m)

ECP 30000

FEM 20000

AWWA 10000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

133

400

350

300

250

Q (KN)

ECP 200

FEM 150

AWWA 100

50

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-31 Base shear for volume 250 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5

1800

1600

1400

1200

M (KN.m)

ECP 1000

800

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-32 Base moment for volume 250 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5

134

800

700

600

500

Q (KN)

ECP 400

FEM 300

200

AWWA

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-33 Base shear for volume 500 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5

4000

3500

3000

M (KN.m)

2500

ECP 2000

FEM 1500

1000

AWWA

500

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-34 Base moment for volume 500 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5

135

2000

1500

Q (KN)

ECP 1000

FEM

500

AWWA

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-35 Base shear for volume 1000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5

10000

9000

8000

7000

M (KN.m)

6000

ECP 5000

FEM 4000

3000

AWWA 2000

1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-36 Base moment for volume 1000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5

136

Base Shear (V=2000 , hw/Rb=2.5 )

3500

3000

2500

Q (KN)

ECP 2000

1500

FEM 1000

AWWA 500

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-37 Base shear for volume 2000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5

25000

20000

M (KN.m)

15000

ECP

FEM 10000

AWWA 5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-38 Base moment for volume 2000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5

137

8000

7000

6000

5000

Q (KN)

ECP 4000

FEM 3000

2000

AWWA

1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-39 Base shear for volume 4000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5

60000

50000

40000

M (KN.m)

ECP 30000

FEM 20000

AWWA 10000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-40 Base moment for volume 4000 m3 and hw/Rb = 2.5

138

500

400

300

Q (KN)

ECP

200

FEM

AWWA 100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

2000

1500

M (KN.m)

ECP 1000

FEM

500

AWWA

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

139

1000

800

600

Q (KN)

ECP

400

FEM

AWWA 200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

5000

4000

M (KN.m)

3000

ECP

2000

FEM

AWWA 1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

140

2000

1500

Q (KN)

ECP 1000

FEM

500

AWWA

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

12000

10000

8000

M (KN.m)

ECP 6000

FEM 4000

AWWA 2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

141

4000

3500

3000

2500

Q (KN)

ECP 2000

FEM 1500

1000

AWWA

500

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

25000

20000

M (KN.m)

15000

ECP

10000

FEM

AWWA 5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

142

8000

7000

6000

5000

Q (KN)

ECP 4000

FEM 3000

2000

AWWA

1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

70000

60000

50000

M (KN.m)

40000

ECP

30000

FEM

20000

AWWA 10000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

As shown in figs (6-11) to (6-50), for ECP 201 – 2012, the equivalent

cylinder tank methodology used generates a broad tank which has a height

of liquid less than the one in the conical tank, it is also noted that broad

tanks have equivalent impulsive heights less than narrow tanks. This leads

to base moment less than the one calculated by finite element model that

143

represent the real conical tank which means that ECP 201 – 2012

equivalent cylinder tank is less conservative and doesn`t represent the real

masses ratio are almost the same for the equivalent cylinder tank in ECP

201 2012 and the equivalent conical tank used in the finite element model,

base shear calculated by ECP 201–2012 is higher than the one calculated

by finite element model, this is due to the fact that the equivalent tank used

in ECP 201-2012 is broader which leads to a more rigid tank with the same

total mass.

For AWWA D100, unlike ECP 201-2012, the equivalent cylinder tank

methodology used generates a cylinder tank with height and radius larger

than original conical tank, thus the equivalent cylinder tank water volume

is higher than the original volume, although the impulsive mass ratio used

is higher than the ones used in ECP 201-2012 and finite element model, the

impulsive mass height is less. This leads to a base moment less than the one

calculated by finite element model and higher than the one generated by

highest value between all the methods investigated due to the high tank

144

6.4.3 Third group

displaying moment and shear at base level on vertical axis versus different

and 20m; results are shown for ECP-2012 procedure, AWWA procedure,

145

600

500

400

Q (KN)

ECP

300

FEM

200

AWWA

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-51 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

10m

7000

6000

5000

M (KN.m)

ECP 4000

FEM 3000

AWWA 2000

1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-52 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

10m

146

700

600

500

Q (KN)

ECP 400

300

FEM

200

AWWA

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-53 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

10m

9000

8000

7000

6000

M (KN.m)

ECP 5000

4000

FEM

3000

AWWA 2000

1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-54 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

10m

147

900

800

700

600

Q (KN)

ECP 500

FEM 400

300

AWWA

200

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-55 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

10m

12000

10000

8000

M (KN.m)

ECP

6000

FEM

4000

AWWA

2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-56 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank

height 10m

148

1200

1000

800

Q (KN)

ECP

600

FEM

400

AWWA

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-57 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

10m

18000

16000

14000

12000

M (KN.m)

ECP 10000

FEM 8000

6000

AWWA

4000

2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-58 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank

height 10m

149

1400

1200

1000

Q (KN)

ECP 800

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-59 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

10m

35000

30000

25000

M(KN.m)

ECP 20000

FEM 15000

AWWA 10000

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-60 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank

height 10m

150

600

500

400

Q (KN)

ECP

300

FEM

200

AWWA

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-61 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

10m

7000

6000

5000

M (KN.m)

ECP 4000

FEM 3000

AWWA 2000

1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-62 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

10m

151

700

600

500

Q (KN)

ECP 400

FEM 300

AWWA 200

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-63 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

10m

9000

8000

7000

6000

M (KN.m)

ECP 5000

4000

FEM 3000

2000

1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-64 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

10m

152

1000

900

800

700

600

Q (KN)

ECP

500

FEM 400

AWWA 300

200

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-65 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

10m

14000

12000

10000

M (KN.m)

ECP 8000

6000

FEM

4000

AWWA

2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-66 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

10m

153

1200

1000

800

Q (KN)

ECP

600

FEM

400

AWWA

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-67 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

10m

18000

16000

14000

12000

M (KN.m)

ECP 10000

8000

FEM

6000

AWWA 4000

2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-68 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

10m

154

1400

1200

1000

Q (KN)

ECP 800

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-69 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

10m

35000

30000

25000

M (KN.m)

ECP 20000

FEM 15000

AWWA 10000

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-70 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

10m

155

600

500

400

Q (KN)

ECP

300

FEM

200

AWWA

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-71 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height

10m

7000

6000

5000

M(KN.m)

ECP 4000

FEM 3000

AWWA 2000

1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-72 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height

10m

156

800

700

600

500

Q (KN)

ECP

400

FEM

300

AWWA 200

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-73 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height

10m

10000

9000

8000

7000

M (KN.m)

6000

ECP

5000

FEM 4000

AWWA 3000

2000

1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-74 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height

10m

157

1200

1000

800

Q (KN)

ECP

600

FEM

400

AWWA

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-75 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height

10m

14000

12000

10000

M (KN.m)

8000

ECP

6000

FEM

4000

AWWA 2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-76 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank

height 10m

158

1200

1000

800

Q (KN)

ECP

600

FEM

400

AWWA

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-77 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height

10m

20000

18000

16000

14000

M (KN.m)

ECP 12000

10000

FEM

8000

AWWA 6000

4000

2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-78 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank

height 10m

159

1400

1200

1000

Q (KN)

ECP 800

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-79 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height

10m

35000

30000

25000

M (KN.m)

ECP 20000

FEM 15000

AWWA 10000

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-80 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank

height 10m

160

600

500

400

Q (KN)

ECP 300

FEM 200

AWWA

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-81 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

10m

7000

6000

5000

M(KN.m)

ECP 4000

FEM 3000

AWWA 2000

1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-82 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

10m

161

800

700

600

500

Q (KN)

ECP

400

FEM 300

AWWA 200

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-83 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

10m

10000

9000

8000

7000

M (KN.m)

6000

ECP 5000

4000

FEM

3000

AWWA 2000

1000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-84 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

10m

162

1200

1000

800

Q (KN)

ECP

600

FEM

400

AWWA

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-85 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

10m

16000

14000

12000

M (KN.m)

10000

ECP

8000

FEM

6000

AWWA 4000

2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-86 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

10m

163

1400

1200

1000

Q (KN)

ECP 800

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-87 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

10m

25000

20000

M (KN.m)

ECP 15000

FEM

10000

AWWA

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-88 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

10m

164

2500

2000

1500

Q (KN)

ECP

FEM 1000

AWWA 500

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-89 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

10m

45000

40000

35000

30000

M (KN.m)

ECP 25000

FEM 20000

15000

AWWA

10000

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-90 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

10m

165

920

900

880

Q (KN)

860

ECP

840

FEM

820

AWWA 800

780

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-91 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

20m

16000

14000

12000

M (KN.m)

ECP 10000

FEM 8000

6000

AWWA

4000

2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-92 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

20m

166

940

920

900

880

Q (KN)

ECP

860

FEM

840

AWWA 820

800

780

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-93 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

20m

18000

16000

14000

12000

M(KN).m

10000

ECP 8000

FEM 6000

4000

AWWA 2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-94 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

20m

167

1200

1000

800

ECP

Q (KN)

600

FEM

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-95 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

20m

25000

20000

M (KN.m)

ECP 15000

FEM

10000

AWWA

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-96 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank

height 20m

168

1400

1200

1000

ECP

Q (KN)

800

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-97 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

20m

30000

25000

20000

M (KN.m)

ECP

FEM 15000

AWWA 10000

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-98 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank

height 20m

169

1600

1400

1200

ECP 1000

Q (KN)

800

FEM

600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-99 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank height

20m

45000

40000

35000

30000

M (KN.m)

ECP 25000

FEM 20000

AWWA 15000

10000

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-100 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 1.5, and tank

height 20m

170

920

900

880

860

ECP

Q (KN)

840

FEM 820

AWWA 800

780

760

740

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-101 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

20m

16000

14000

12000

M (KN.m)

10000

ECP

8000

FEM

6000

AWWA

4000

2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-102 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

20m

171

940

920

900

ECP

Q (KN)

880

FEM 860

AWWA 840

820

800

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-103 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

20m

18000

16000

14000

12000

M (KN).m

ECP 10000

FEM 8000

AWWA 6000

4000

2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-104 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

20m

172

1200

1000

800

ECP

Q (KN)

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-105 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

20m

25000

20000

M (KN.m)

ECP 15000

FEM 10000

AWWA 5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-106 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank

height 20m

173

1400

1200

1000

Q (KN)

ECP 800

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-107 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

20m

30000

25000

20000

M (KN.m)

ECP

15000

FEM

10000

AWWA

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-108 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank

height 20m

174

1600

1400

1200

1000

Q (KN)

ECP

800

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-109 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank height

20m

50000

45000

40000

35000

M (KN.m)

30000

ECP

25000

FEM 20000

AWWA 15000

10000

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-110 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2, and tank

height 20m

175

1000

900

800

700

600

Q (KN)

ECP

500

FEM 400

AWWA 300

200

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-111 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height

20m

16000

14000

12000

M (KN).m

10000

ECP 8000

6000

FEM

4000

AWWA

2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-112 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank

height 20m

176

960

940

920

900

Q (KN)

ECP

880

FEM

860

AWWA 840

820

800

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-113 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height

20m

18000

16000

14000

12000

M (KN.m)

ECP 10000

8000

FEM

6000

AWWA 4000

2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-114 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank

height 20m

177

1400

1200

1000

Q (KN)

ECP 800

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-115 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height

20m

25000

20000

M (KN.m)

ECP 15000

FEM

10000

AWWA

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-116 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank

height 20m

178

1400

1200

1000

ECP

Q (KN)

800

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-117 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height

20m

35000

30000

25000

M (KN.m)

ECP 20000

FEM 15000

AWWA 10000

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-118 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank

height 20m

179

1600

1400

1200

1000

Q (KN)

ECP 800

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-119 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank height

20m

50000

45000

40000

35000

M (KN.m)

ECP 30000

25000

FEM 20000

AWWA 15000

10000

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-120 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 2.5, and tank

height 20m

180

1000

900

800

700

600

Q (KN)

ECP

500

FEM 400

AWWA 300

200

100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-121 Base shear for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

20m

16000

14000

12000

M (KN.m)

10000

ECP

8000

FEM 6000

AWWA 4000

2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-122 Base moment for volume 250 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

20m

181

960

940

920

900

Q (KN)

ECP 880

860

FEM

840

AWWA 820

800

780

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-123 Base shear for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

20m

20000

18000

16000

14000

M (KN.m)

12000

ECP 10000

FEM 8000

6000

AWWA 4000

2000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-124 Base moment for volume 500 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

20m

182

1400

1200

1000

Q (KN)

ECP 800

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-125 Base shear for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

20m

30000

25000

20000

M(KN.m)

ECP

15000

FEM

AWWA 10000

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-126 Base moment for volume 1000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank

height 20m

183

1400

1200

1000

Q (KN)

ECP 800

FEM 600

AWWA 400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-127 Base shear for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

20m

35000

30000

25000

M (KN.m)

ECP 20000

FEM 15000

AWWA 10000

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-128 Base moment for volume 2000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank

height 20m

184

1600

1400

1200

ECP 1000

Q (KN)

800

FEM

600

AWWA

400

200

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-129 Base shear for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank height

20m

50000

45000

40000

35000

M (KN.m)

ECP 30000

25000

FEM 20000

AWWA 15000

10000

5000

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ɵv

Figure 6-130 Base moment for volume 4000 m3, hw/Rb = 3, and tank

height 20m

As shown in figs (6-51) to (6-130), For ECP 201 – 2012, the equivalent

cylinder tank methodology used generates a broad tank which has a height

of liquid less than the one in the conical tank, it is also noted that broad

tanks have equivalent impulsive heights less than narrow tanks. This leads

185

to base moment less than the one calculated by finite element model that

represent the real conical tank which means that ECP 201 – 2012

equivalent cylinder tank is less conservative and doesn`t represent the real

seismic response of conical tanks. On the other hand, base shear calculated

element model, this is due to the fact that equivalent masses ratio are

almost the same for the equivalent cylinder tank in ECP 201 2012 and the

equivalent conical tank used in the finite element model, and the slight

difference in base shear- if any- are only due to the difference in the

rigidity between the two tanks due to the geometric difference between

them.

For AWWA D100, unlike ECP 201-2012, the equivalent cylinder tank

methodology used generates a cylinder tank with height and radius larger

than original conical tank, thus the equivalent cylinder tank volume is

higher than the original volume, although the impulsive mass ratio used is

higher than the ones used in ECP 201-2012 and finite element model, the

impulsive mass height is less. This leads to a base moment less than the one

calculated by finite element model and higher than the one generated by

between all the methods investigated due to the high tank volume used

186

except that in conical tank volume of 4000 m3 where finite element model

base shear exceeds the one calculated by AWWA D100 due to the very

high volume used in the equivalent tank AWWA D100 which leads to

much more flexible tank, thus the base shear of that equivalent tank

Correction factors may be used to adopt the equivalent cylinder tank used

chapter through calculating the average ratio between finite element results

and design codes results in each (Ɵv) values tanks for each volume

separately (i.e. 5o, 10o, 15o, 20o, 25o, 30o ). As explained before, base shear

is almost the same as the finite element model in case of ECP 201-2012

calculating base shear and so correction factor is required for base shear

different colors.

187

3.40

3.20

3.00

Ɵv = 5 2.80

2.60

Correction

Ɵv = 10

2.40

Ɵv = 15 2.20

2.00

Ɵv = 20 1.80

1.60

Ɵv = 25 1.40

1.20

Ɵv = 30 1.00

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

Volume (m3)

Figure 6-131 Correction factor for base moment of ECP in ground conical

tanks

1.90

1.80

1.70

Ɵv = 5

1.60

Correction

Ɵv = 10

1.50

Ɵv = 15 1.40

Ɵv = 20 1.30

Ɵv = 25 1.20

Ɵv = 30 1.10

1.00

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

Volume (m3)

conical tanks

188

2.00

1.90

Ɵv = 5 1.80

1.70

Ɵv = 10

Correction

1.60

Ɵv = 15

1.50

Ɵv = 20 1.40

Ɵv = 25 1.30

Ɵv = 30 1.20

1.10

1.00

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

Volume (m3)

Figure 6-133 Correction factor for base moment of ECP in elevated conical

tanks

1.80

1.70

1.60

Ɵv = 5

Correction

Ɵv = 10 1.50

Ɵv = 15 1.40

Ɵv = 20 1.30

Ɵv = 25 1.20

Ɵv = 30 1.10

1.00

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Volume (m3)

conical tanks

The finite element modeling procedure used in this study and explained in

chapter (3) is limited to conical vessel geometry where the effective heights

189

inclination angle. Also the correction factors provided in this chapter is

applicable for pure conical tanks that have hw/Rb ratios range from 1.5 to 3

provided correction factors, some tanks with volume larger than those

compared with those estimated from correction factors; tables 6-2 shows

results of the finite element model and those obtained using correction

Height of Volume

hw/Rb Ɵv FEM ECP*Correction AWWA*Correction

tank (m3)

0 (ground) 3 10 4500 61500 51100*1.2= 61320 42300*1.5= 63450

20 m

2 20 4500 42455 24651*1.74 = 42892 25276*1.5= 44990

(elevated)

20 m

1.5 10 5000 38335 25592*1.49 = 38132 24465*1.45= 35474

(elevated)

20 m

2.5 15 5500 44153 26769*1.7 = 45507 32654*1.4= 45715

(elevated)

190

7 Chapter (7)

Summary and Conclusions

7.1 Summary

A study on the seismic response of pure conical tank was conducted. Finite

element method was used to investigate the seismic response of pure

conical tanks. Three dimensional models using SAP 2000 V 15.1.0

analyses software were used to simulate the studied tanks. Seismic

response of conical tank is different from cylindrical tanks due to the

vertical resultant of the hydrodynamic pressure in conical tanks,

accordingly in order to represent fluid structure interaction, added mass

approach was utilized using mechanical analog developed by El Damatty

and Sweedan (2006). A comparison of the seismic response of pure

conical tanks between the finite element model results, American Water

Works Association- D100 (2005), and Egyptian code-201 (ECP-201-2012)

was performed.

change the geometric characteristics of the conical vessel. The effect of

changing geometric characteristics of the conical vessels was assessed and

seismic response was evaluated using base reactions. A comparison

between results of the finite element models and design codes procedures

was performed in order to evaluate the equivalent cylinder tank approach

used in design codes. Finally, correction factors for base moment resulted

from design codes procedure was introduced to make it more conservative.

191

7.2 Conclusion

(1) Three dimensional finite element models using added mass approach

may be used to model dynamic response of tanks efficiently using

modeling procedure introduced in this research.

(2) Design codes equivalent cylinder tank method used is less conservative

in estimating dynamic response of conical tanks as base moment

estimated is less than the one estimated by finite element model.

(3) For ground tanks, difference in base moment between conical tank

model and equivalent cylinder tank procedure by ECP-201-2012

doesn`t depend on liquid height to vessel`s base radius ratio of conical

tank (hw/Rb) and depends primarily on vertical inclination angle of the

conical vessel`s walls (Ɵv) and liquid volume, while difference in base

moment between conical tank model and equivalent cylinder tank

procedure by AWWA-D100 (2005) depends slightly on only vertical

inclination angle of the conical vessel`s walls (Ɵv).

(4) For elevated tanks, difference in base moment between conical tank

model and equivalent cylinder tank procedure by both ECP-201-2012

and AWWA-D100 (2005) doesn`t depend on liquid height to vessel`s

base radius ratio (hw/Rb) of conical tank and depends primarily on

vertical inclination angle of the conical vessel`s walls (Ɵv) and liquid

volume.

one used in AWWA-D100 (2005).

192

(6) For the same volume and liquid height to vessel`s base radius ratio

(hw/Rb), vertical inclination angle of conical vessel`s walls Ɵv) of 15o

is the angle which gives the least moments on vessel`s walls.

(7) For the same volume and vertical inclination angle of conical vessel`s

walls, as liquid height to vessel`s base radius ratio (hw/Rb) increases,

the base moment increases.

(1) The dynamic response of pure conical tanks may be investigated under

vertical seismic excitation.

investigated.

(3) The conclusion of this study may be checked and reviewed by other

finite element modeling technique rather than added mass approach.

(4) The dynamic behavior of elevated conical tanks may be studied under

wind loads.

be investigated. Also other supporting conditions may be studied.

193

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ذغرخذً اىخضاّاخ ف ٜاّظَح ذ٘صٝغ اىَٞآ ٗف ٜاىصْاػاخ ىرخض ِٝع٘ائو ٍرؼذدج ماىقاتيح ىالشرؼاه،

مَا اُ ذ٘صٝغ اىَٞآ ٝؼرثش ٍَٖح ؼٝ٘ٞح الؼر٘اء اىؽشائق اىر ٜقذ ذؽذز اشْاء اىضالصه ٍغثثح دٍاس

ٗخغائش ف ٜاالسٗاغ ،ىٖزا التذ ٍِ ٍؽاٗىح االتقاء ػي ٜاىخضاّاخ ف ٜؼاىح ذشغٞيٞح ظٞذج تؼذ ؼذٗز

اىضالصه .ذغرخذً اىخضاّاخ راخ اىشنو اىَخشٗغ ٜاىَقي٘ب ف ٜذ٘صٝغ ٗذخض ِٝاىَ٘اد ٗذغرخذً

اٝعا ىغٖ٘ىح صشف اىَ٘اد ٍْٖا ٗذْظٞفٖا.

ّظشا ىَٞو ؼ٘ائػ اىخضاّاخ اىَخشٗغٞحٝ ،ؼرثش ذأشٞش أؼَاه اىضالصه ػيٖٞا ٍخريف ػِ اىخضاّاخ

االعط٘اّٞح اىر ٜذٌ دساعح ذأشٞش اىضالصه ػيٖٞا تص٘سج ٍغرفاظح.

غثقا الغية ام٘اد اىرصَ ٌٞفئُ اىرؼاٍو ٍغ اىخضاّاخ اىَخشٗغٞح ٝرٌ ٍِ خاله ذؽ٘ٝيٖا اى ٜخضاُ

اعط٘اٍّ ٜنافٜءٗ ،تاىشغٌ ٍِ ٍؽذٗدٝح دساعح اىخضاّاخ اىَخشٗغٞح اال أّ ٍِ اقذً اىذساعاخ

ػي ٜذيل اىخضاّاخ ماّد ) .El Damatty et al. (1997اٝعا قاً Sweedan and El

) Damatty (2002تؼَو ذعاسب ٍؼَيٞح تٖذف فؽص اىخصائص اىذْٝاٍٞنٞح ىيخضاّاخ

اىَخشٗغٞح El Damatty and Sweedan (2006) .قاٍا تاعرْراض َّ٘رض ٍٞناّٞنٝ ٜرٌ

اعرخذأٍ ىرؽيٞو اىخضاّاخ اىَخشٗغٞح ذؽد ذأشٞش اؼَاه اىضالصه االفقٞح.

ٖٝذف ٕزا اىثؽس إى ٚدساعح ذأشٞش أؼَاه اىضالصه ػي ٜاىخضاّاخ اىَخشٗغٞح اىراٍح اىْاقصح ٍغ

األخز ف ٜاإلػرثاس اىرفاػو اىذْٝاٍٞن ٜت ِٞاىخضاُ ٍٗا ٝؽرٍ٘٘ ٍِ ٔٝائغ ػِ غشٝق اىرؽيٞو اإلّشائٜ

تطشٝقح اىرعاٗب اىطٞف ٜاىَشُ تئعرخذاً تشّاٍط ذؽيٞو إّشائ SAP2000 V15.1.0 ٜاىزٝ ٛؼَو

تطشٝقح اىؼْاصش اىَؽذدج ٍٗقاسّح اىْرائط تطشٝقح اىن٘د األٍشٝن)AWWA- D100-2005 ( ٜ

ٗغشٝقح اىن٘د اىَصش ٛىألؼَاه ) ٗ ، (ECP 201-2012ذٌ ػَو دساعح تاساٍرشٝح ىذساعح ذأشٞش

ذغٞش ؼعٌ ٗأتؼاد اىخضاُ ٍٗقاسّح اىْرائط تاألم٘اد اىغاتقح ٍِ خاله ذغٞٞش اىخصائص اىْٖذعٞح

ىيخضاُ مضاٗٝح ٍٞو ؼائػ اىخضاُ ٗاسذفاع اىخضاُ ٗاىغائو اىَؽر٘ٗ ٛقطش اىخضاُ ٗاسذفاع اىخضاُ

ٍِ عطػ األسض.

ٗقذ ذٌ ٍقاسّح ّرائط اىرؽيٞو اإلّشائ ٍِ ٜخاله ػضًٗ اإلّقالب ٗق٘ ٛاىقص األفقٞح ػْذ ٍْغ٘ب

األعاعاخ ىنو خضاُ ذٌ دساعرٔ .

ذٌ اىر٘صو اى ٜتؼط اإلعرْراظاخ ؼٞس أُ األم٘اد اىَخريفح ذغرخذً غشٝقح ٍقشتح ترؽ٘ٝو اىخضاُ

اىَخشٗغ ٜاى ٜخضاُ اعط٘اّٗ ٜتاىَقاسّح تْرائط اىَْ٘رض االّشائ ٜاىَؽيو تطشٝقح اىؼْاصش

اىَؽذدج ،ذٌ اىر٘صو اى ٜأُ غشٝقح األم٘اد غشٝقح ذقشٝثٞح ٝؤد ٛإعرخذاٍٖا إىّ ٜرائط أقو ٍِ اىْرائط

اىصؽٞؽح ٍَا ٝؤد ٛإى ٜذصَ ٌٞغٞش أٍِ ،مَا ذٌ اىر٘صو إى ٜإٍناّٞح اى٘ص٘ه اىّ ٜفظ ؼعٌ

اىخضاُ اىَخشٗغ ٜاىَشغ٘ب فٍ ٔٞغ اى٘ص٘ه اى ٜاظٖاداخ أقو ػِ غشٝق ظؼو صاٗٝح ٍٞو ؼائػ

اىخضاُ اىشأعٞح تقَٞح 15درجة.

شكر و تقذير

تذاٝح أؼَذ هللا ذؼاىٗ ٜأشنشٓ ػي ٜفعئ ّٗؼَائٔ ػي ٜف ٜمو شئ ٗف ٜذ٘فٞقٔ إٝا ٛفٕ ٜزا اىؼَو.

ٗأذ٘ظٔ تاىشنش ٗاالٍرْاُ ألٍٗ ٜأتٗ ٜاخ٘ذ ٜػي ٜذشعٞؼٌٖ ىٗ ٜدػ٘اذٌٖ ىٗ ،ٜاذ٘ظٔ تنو اىؽة

ٗاىرقذٝش تاىشنش ىضٗظر ٜػي ٜصثشٕا ٗذشعٞؼٖا ٗذؽَيٖا ىنو األٝاً ٗاىيٞاى ٜاىصؼثح اىَصاؼثح

ىٖزا اىؼَو ٍٗا شنئ ٍِ ذؽذٗ ٛاقرطاع ىي٘قد ٗاىَعٖ٘د .

أذ٘ظٔ تاالٍرْاُ ٗ االؼرشاً ىَششف ٗ ٚأعرار ٙاىذمر٘س ظَاه ؼغ ِٞأعرار ٍغاػذ تقغٌ اىْٖذعح

اىَذّٞح ميٞح–

اىْٖذعح ظاٍؼح ػ ِٞشَظ ٗرىل ىذػَٔ ٗ ٍغاػذذٔ ى ٜخاله فرشج ٕزا اىثؽس .مَا اذ٘ظٔ

تاىشنشىيذمر٘س ّصش

ػٞذٍ -ذسط تقغٌ اىْٖذعح اىَذّٞح ميٞح اىْٖذعح ظاٍؼح ػ ِٞشَظٗ -رىل ىَغاػذذٔ ٗذؼاّٗٔ ٍؼٚ

فٕ ٚزا اىثؽس.

مَا أذ٘ظٔ تاىشنش ىيذمر٘س أٍعذ غيؼدٍ -ذسط تقغٌ اىْٖذعح اىَذّٞح ميٞح اىْٖذعح ظاٍؼح ػِٞ

شَظ .

ٗاخٞشا إٔذٕ ٛزا اىثؽس اى ٜصذٝقٍ ٜؽَذ ٕشاً اىزٗ ٛافرٔ اىَْٞح ذاسما قي٘تْا داٍؼحٗ ،اعأه هللا

اُ ٝرغَذٓ تشؼَرٔ .

اقرار

ٕزٓ اىشعاىح ٍقذٍح ف ٜظاٍؼح ػ ِٞشَظ ميٞح اىْٖذعح قغٌ اىْٖذعح اىَذّٞح ىيؽص٘ه ػي ٚدسظح

اىَاظغرٞش.

اُ اىؼَو اىز ٛذؽرٕ٘ ٔٝزٓ اىشعاىح ذٌ اّعاصٓ تَؼشفح اىثاؼس عْح. 2018

ٕزا ٗ ٝقش اىثاؼس أُ اىؼَو اىَقذً ٕ٘ خالصح تؽصٔ اىشخص ٗ ٜأّ قذ اذثغ االعي٘ب اىؼيَ ٜاىغيٌٞ

فٜ

االشاسج اى ٜاىَ٘اد اىَؤخ٘رج ٍِ اىَشاظغ اىؼيَٞح مو فٍ ٜنأّ فٍ ٜخريف اظضاء اىشعاىح.

˓˓˓ٗ ٕزا اقشاس ٍْ ٜتزىل

اىر٘قٞغ:

اىثاؼس :أؼَذ ػَشٗ فؤاد ساشذ

اىراسٝخ :

جامعة عين شمس

كلية الهندسة

قسم الهندسة اإلنشائية

االسى :أؼَذ ػَشٗ فؤاد ساشذ

تاريخ انًيالد 11/8/1990 :

يحم انًيالد :اىقإشج

انذرجة انعهًية االونى :تناى٘س٘ٝط اىْٖذعح اىَذّٞح

انتخصص :اّشاءاخ

انجهة انًاَحة :ميٞح اىْٖذعح ظاٍؼح ػ ِٞشَظ

تاريخ انًُح 2012 :

جامعة عين شمس

كلية الهندسة

قسم الهندسة اإلنشائية

ػْ٘اُ اىشعاىح :اىرؽيٞو االّشائ ٜىيخضاّاخ اىَخشٗغٞح اىراٍح اىؼاىٞح ذؽد ذأشٞش اؼَاه اىضالصه ٍغ

دساعح اىرفاػو اىَشرشك ت ِٞاىغائو ٗاىخضاُ

اىذسظح اىؼيَٞحٍ :قذٍح ىيؽص٘ه ػيٍ ٜاظغرٞش اىؼيً٘ ف ٜاىْٖذعح اىَذّٞح قغٌ اّشاءاخ

نجُة انحكى

االيضاء االسى

أعرار اىرؽيٞو االّشائٗ ٜاىَٞناّٞنا

ميٞح اىْٖذعح

ظاٍؼح اىضقاصٝق

أعرار اىْٖذعح االّشائٞح

ميٞح اىْٖذعح

ظاٍؼح ػ ِٞشَظ

أعرار اىْٖذعح االّشائٞح

ميٞح اىْٖذعح

ظاٍؼح ػ ِٞشَظ

اىراسٝخ:

جامعة عين شمس

كلية الهندسة

قسم الهندسة اإلنشائية

التحليل االنشائي للخزانات المخروطية التامة العالية تحت تأثير احمال الزالزل

ف ٜاىْٖذعح اىَذّٞح

اىرخصص اّشاءاخ

اػذاد

أحًذ عًرو فؤاد راشذ

ميٞح اىْٖذعح -ظاٍؼح ػ ِٞشَظ

انًشرفىٌ

أ.د .جًال حسيٍ يحًىد

أعرار اىْٖذعح اإلّشائٞح

ميٞح اىْٖذعح -ظاٍؼح ػ ِٞشَظ

ٍذسط تقغٌ اىْٖذعح اإلّشائٞح

ميٞح اىْٖذعح -ظاٍؼح ػ ِٞشَظ

د َ.صرعيذ َصر

ٍذسط تقغٌ اىْٖذعح اإلّشائٞح

ميٞح اىْٖذعح -ظاٍؼح ػ ِٞشَظ

اىقإشج

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