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GE0METRY, MENSURATION AND TRIGONOMETRY

Important points about triangles:

1. Sum of any 2 sides of a triangle is greater than the 3rd side and the difference of any 2
sides of a triangle is less than the 3rd side.

2. To find the lengths of the medians, we can use the Apollonius theorem.
ie If AD is a median to BC
then AB2 + AC2 = 2 (AD2 + BD2)

3. In any triangle the ratio of the sum of the squares of the sides to the sum of the
squares of the medians is 4: 3.

4. In a triangle if the angles are 300,600, 900 ie 1: 2: 3 ratio then the corresponding sides
will be in the ratio 1: √3 : 2.

5. Right angle triangle: AC2 = AB2 + BC2 (if AC is hypotenuse)


Acute angled triangle: AC2 < AB2 + BC2
Obtuse angled triangle: AC2> AB2 + BC2

Similar Triangles:

1. In two similar triangles

a. Ratio of corresponding sides = Ratio of heights = Ratio of medians = Ratio of


perimeters = Ratio of inradii = Ratio of circular radii = Ratio of the lengths of the angular
bisectors.

b. Ratio of areas = Ratio of squares of corresponding sides.

Note:

1. ABC is a right angled triangle, right angled at B. If BD is a median to AC then BD = AD =


DC

2. ABC is right angled triangle, right angled at B. If BD is an altitude to AC then the 2


small triangles ABD and BDC are similar and each inturn is similar to the original
triangle ABC.

Quadrilaterals, Circles, Arcs and Sectors:

a2 π
1. The area of an ‘n’ sided regular polygon = n. cot (n), where a is length of each side.
4

2. If a, b, c, d are the consecutive sides of a cyclic quadrilateral and d1, d2 are its
diagonals then
ac + bd = d1d2
3. The sum of all interior angles of an ’n’ sided regular polygon = (2n – 4)900 and each
(2n−4)900
interior angle = n

360
4. The sum of all exterior angles = 3600 and each exterior angle = n

n(n−3)
5. The no of diagonals of an n sided polygon = 2
6. In a circle PAB, PCD are 2 secant lines, and PT is a tangent then PA × PB = PC × PD =
PT2

7. In a circle, if AB and CD are 2 chords and they intersect at K then AK . KB = CK . KD

θ
8. Length of the arc =360 x 2Пr, where 𝜃 is the central angle and r is the radius of the
circle.

θ
9. Area of the sector =360 x Пr2

Volumes & Surface Areas of Solids:

Sl.No Solid Volume L.S.A T.S.A


1 Cube a 3
4a 2
6a 2

2 Cuboid lbh 2(l+b)xh 2(lb+bh+hl)


3 Cylinder Пr2h 2Пrh 2Пrh+ 2Пr2
1
4 Cone Пr2h Пrl Пrl+Пr2
3
4
5 Sphere Пr3 --------- 4Пr2
3
2
6 Hemisphere Пr3 2Пr2 3Пr2
3