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i
l Second Edition

ELECTRIC
CIRCUIT
ANAI-YSIS
David E. Johnson
Birminghadl-southem College

Johnny R. Johnson
University of North Alabama

John L. Hilburn
President, lvlicrocompuler Systems Inc

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of Prcsidential De.re€ No. 285
as anended by P-D. Nos. 400 & 1203
by

global
Publishing.
r,!i,!, ,biri!.i!.r ISBN 971_656-012_5
tr, )6r. 30r-09]1 b 13
f! rb. !0r-09r9
To the memory of our Mothers,
Bessie Morris lohnson
and
Fannie Mae Page Hilburn
11
AC Steady-State Analysis 345
11.1 Nodal Analy$is 34
ll.2 Mesh Analysis 351
11.3 Network Theo.ema 354
11.4 Phasor Diagams 360
11.5 SPICE for AC Steady-Stare Circuits 3&
11.6 Summary 366
Problems 36
Conputer ApplicatioD Problemt 375

12
AC Steady-State Power 376
12.1 Average Power 377
12.2 Superpositidn and Power 384
12.3 RMS Values 388
12.4 Pow€r Factor 390
12.5 Complex Power 394
12.6 Power Measurement 398
12.7 Sllrnnury 400
Problems ,lO0

13
Three-Phase Circuits 408
13.1 Single-Phase, Tlree-Wile Sysreo! 409
13.2 Three-Phase Y-Y Systems 414
I3.3 The Delta ConDecriotr 421
13.4 Y-A Transformations 424
lJ.5 Powet M%surement 429
t3.6 SPICE for Three-phas€ Circuit Analvsis 433
13.7 Summary 43s
Problems 436
Computer Application Problems 439

IX
Contents

Preface x l

1
lntroduction 1

1.1 Definitions and Units 2


1.2 Charge and Current 5
1.3 Voltage, Energy, atrd Power 8
1.4 Passive and Active Elements t2
1.5 Circuit Analysis t4
1.6 Summary' l5
Problems 15

')
Resistive Circuits 18
2.1 Obm's Law l9
4,2 Kirchhoff's Laws 24
2.3 Series Resistance and Voltage Division 31
2.4 Parallel Resistance ard Current Divisiol 36
2.5 Analysis Examples 42
2.6 Ammeters, Voltmeters, and Ohflneters 47
2.7 Physical Resistors 50
2.E Summary 52
Problems 53
,

Jt
Dependent Sources 59
3.1 Definitions 60
3.2 Ciicuits with Dependent Souices 62
3.3 Operational Amplifiers 63
3.4 Amplifier Circuits 6
3.5 Summary 70
'11
Prcblems

4
Analysis .Methods 77
4.1 Nodal Analysis 18
4,2 An Example a2
4.3 Circuits Containing Voltage Sources 84
4.4 Circuits ContaininC Op AmPs 89
.4.5 Mesh Analysis 9l
4.6 Circuits Containilg Curent souces 95
4.7 Dudity 98
4.8 Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis Using SPICE 101
4.9 Summary
Problems
Computrr Application Problems

)
Network Theorems 116
5.1 Linear Circuits tt7
J.2 Superposition t2t
5.3 Th6vdnin's and Nonon's Theorems I
5-4 Practical Sources 135
5.5 Maximum Power Tmnsfer 140
5.6 sPIcE and Th6venin Equivalent Circuits t42
5.7 Summary t44
hoblems t44
Computer Application Prcblems 150 |

.vt Contenls
6
lndependence of Equations 151
6.1 Graph of a Network 152
6.2 Trc€s and Cotre€s 154
6.3 Independent Voltage Equations r56
6.4 Independent Current Equations 160
6,5 A Circuit Application t64
6.6 Sutrlmary 166
Problems 166

7
Energy-Storage Elements 169
7.1 Capacitors 170
7.2 Energy SloIage in Capacitors 174
7.3 Series and Parallel Capacitors t7't
7.4 Inductors 180
7.5 Ene4y Storage in Inductors 184
7.5 Series and Parallel Inductors 186
7.7 DC Steady State 189
7.E Practical Capacitori arld Induclorc 192
7.9 Duality and Linearity 193
7.10 Singqlar Circuits 195
7.11 Surnmary 199
Problems 199

o
()
Simple RC and RL Circuits 207
t,l Source-Free RC Circuit 208
4.2 Time CoDslants 212
t,3 Source-Free iZ Ciftuit 216
4.4 Response to a Constant Forcing Function 221
t.5 The Ceneral Cas€ 225
E.6 A Shortcut hocedur€ 228
8.7 The Unit Step Functiotr 232

vlt
231
8.6 The SteP Response 242
8-9 ApDlicarion of SuP€rposition 26
t.10 SiiCE and $e Tmnsient Response A9
8.11 Summary 249
Problems 251
ComPuter APPlication Problems

o
259
Second-Order Circuits
2fi
9.1 Circuits with Two Storage Elements 263
9.2 Second-order Equations 5
9.3 The Natural ResPonse 26i1
9,4 Types of Natural Frequencies nl
9.5 The Forced Response n1
9.6 Excitatiol at a Natural FrequencY n1
9.1 The Complete Response 281
9.8 The Parallel RaC Circuit 286
9.9 The Series RLC Circuit
i.tt.rn"i""-ft{",ft"a" f"r Obtainiog fte Describing Equations
2n'
9.10 294
9.11 i"piii:i--rt-.".t nesponses o' Hi gber-order ci$uits
29E
9.12 Surnflary 298
Problems 306
Computer APplication hoblems

10
Sinusoidal Excitation 307
and Phasors
308
10.1 Properties of Sinusoids 3t3
ro.2 An Rl Circuit Example 314
ii-i a" n-r"-u,i* r-l"thod Using complex Numbers
318
10.4 ComPlexExcitatioN 321
10.5 Phasors 3U
i6,e Voftago-Cutt nt Retationships for Phasots 128
l0-7 LDDedance ad Adtnrflance
3t2
i6.i r-i,liJ"ni. u*s and lrnpedance combinatioos
336
10.9 Phasor Chcuits 339
10.10 summary 340
Problems

vnl
11
AC Steady-State Analysis 345
11.1 Nodal Analvsis 34
ll.2 Mesh Analvsis 351
11.3 Network Theorema 354
11.4 Phasor Diagrams 360
ll.5 SPICE for AC Steadv-State Circuits 3&
11.6 Summary 36
Problems 36
Cooputer ApptcatioD Problems 375

12
AC Steady-State Power 376
12.1 Average Power 377
12.2 Superpositidn ard Power 384
12.3 RMS Values 388
12.4 Pow€r Factor 390
12.5 Complex Power 394
12.6 Power M€asurement 398
D.7 Slrmmarv 400
Problems ,to0

13
Three-Phase Circuits 408
13.1 Single-Phase, Tlree-Wile Sysien!
13.2 Three-Phase Y-Y Systems
w
414
13.3 The Delta ConDectiotr 42t
13.4 Y-A Transformations 424
13.5 Power Measurement 429
13.6 SPICE for Three-Phas€ Circuit Analvsis 433
13.7 Surnmary 43s
Problems 436
Computer Application Problems 439

IX
14
Complex Frequency
and Network Functions 440
14.1 The Damped Sinusoid 441
14.2 Complex Frequercy and Generalized Phasors 444
14.3 Impedanc€ and Admittance 441.
14.4 Network FunctioDs 451
14-S Poles and ros 455
14.6 The Natural Response from the Network Function 45'l
14,7 NaturalFrequencies 460
l4,E Two-Port Networks 462
14.9 Applications of Two'Port Parameters 471
14.10 Interconnections of Two-Port Netwo*s 47.6
l4.ll Summary 482
Prcblems 442

15
Frequency Response 489
15.1 Amplitude and Phase Responses 4.
15.2 Filters 493
15.3 Resonance 497
15.4 Bandpass Functions and Qualiry Factor 499
15.5 Use of Pole-. zero Plots 502
15.6 Scaling lhe Network Function 505
15.7 The Decibel 509
15.8 Frequency Response with SPICE 5t2
15.9 Sunmary 515
Problems 515
computer Application hoblems 522

16
Transformers 524
15.1 Mutual Indactance 525
16.2 Energy Storage 534
16,3 Circuits with Linear Tmnsforme$ 537
16.4 Reflected Impcdance 541
15,5 The ldeal Transformer 543
16.6 Equivalelt Circuits 549
16.7 SPICE Analysis for TraDsfoioers 551
16.E Summary 553
Problems 554
Computer Application Prcblems 559

17
Fourier Series 560
17.1 The Trigonomenic Fouder Series 561
17.2 Symmet y hoperties 568
17.3 Response to Periodic Excitations 576
17.4 Average Power and RMS Values 582
17.5 The Expon€ntial Fourier Series 585
17.6 Frequency Spectra 589
17.7 Fourier Series and SPICE 592
f7.q Sunrnary 594
hoblems 594
Computer Application Problems 598

1B
Fourier Transforms 599
18.1 The Fouder Integral 600
18.2 Development of the Fourier TraDsform 603
18.3 Fouder Trar$form Prcperties sn6
18.4 Fourjer Transform Operations ffi
1E,5 Netwo* Functions 614
18,6 Parseral's Equation for Fourier Transforms 6t6
lE.7 Surnmary 620
hoblems 620

19
Lailace Transforms 623
19.1 Definition 624
19.2 Some Special Results Using Linearity 628
19.3 Translation Theorems 631
19.4 Convolutiotr 635

Contents xl
19.5 The Impuls€ Futrctior 639
19.6
19.7
the Ioverse Tramform ffi
Differeirtiation Theorcms 654
19,8 Applicatiors to Integodiffercntial Equatiotrs 658
19,9 Swrmary 661
Problems 6t

20
Laplace Transform
Applications 665
m.l Applicatio! to Elect ic Cilcuitr 66
2O.2 The Transformed Circuit 610
21.3 Network Functions 677
20.4 Step and Impulse Reslronses 681
20.5 Stability 688
20.6 Initial- alld Final-Value Thmrems 691
2,0.7 Steady-State Sinusoidal Response 695
20.8 Bode Plots 698
20.9 Quadratic Factors 705
Z).10 Sunmary 708
Problems 709

Appendix A Determinants and Cramer,s Rule 715


Appendix B Gaussian Elimination .
719
Appendix C Complex Numbers 722
Appendix D Euler's Formula 727
Appendix E Computer Methods 730
Appendix F Circuit Design Methodology 740
Appendix G Answers to Selected Odd-Numbered
Problems 761
lndex 769

xll
Preface

This book was writteD for a two-serrester or three-quatter cou$e in


Inear cirruit
analysis. This is a basic course h electrical engineerilg aDd is
u;ail; the;rd;;t's
firsl encounler with his or her choseD field of s;dv. t ii^p"n*, t"r-f.-, fi ri"
iextbook to coiei thorougbly tlrc futrdamo als of ttre *Uieit aaa
as easy to,understadd as possible. These wele our objecives
s;;'d_";
a:t tfre
*[oughoot the Gtini
of the book-
The book is a[ expanded teatrne of our efi\er woil., Basic Electic
.
Arutlsk-
_
and is designed primarily Jor readers desiring o ,o"re
Circuit
ot taplace translorms aDd Fourier analysis. We hope that the earlier'book
LiarJ,
"o.of"ra wil coo_
nnue to serve the needs of students wbo are prirDarily inlercsted
in nontratrsform
melhods, and fhat this book will be anractive ti tho." int"r"s"a in u
U-na".
age of operational matbemadcs methods. "o""i
Most studerts in basic circujt theory will already have sodied electricitv
and
magnetism iD a physics course. fnis bacigrouna is #lpfirt. ;;"*";;il';
prerequisil,e for reading lhe book. The maerial presented
here mav be
stood by a studenr who has had standard coursesio affie..otid "*il";;;;
_a ilr.era ;dcuiui.
The differential equalions theory requird in circuit analy.is h
tuilyA;?;p.n;'rb€
Dook and lniegmEd witb the approFiate cirujt theory opics.
-p,"a"ot"a Even delerminants, -'
Gaussian eiiminatioD. and complex nuJbber theo.V ur.
io
. I ne operatonal anphber js i_Dtroduced immedialely after "pp"nOi""il
lhe discussion of the
rcsistor, ard appears, as a natter of couse, along *itn i".irmo,
ir-
ducton. as a baric el€ment throughout the book: Likewise. O.p"nd""i "a*itoo,-*a
,o,r."", _a
lneE constructroo uslng operational arnplifers are discussed early aDd
eacountercd
muhtrely jn almost every chapter.
To help the rcader Mderstand the lexnra.l maGrial, examDles arc litrerallv
suo-
plied and numerous exercises. with a[swers. ar€ given at rt"
ira of Un""ffr'.".1,
section. Most of $e worked-out examples are cleady marked
and ou!0t .ea ior easi
relereDce. tloblems. some more dimoh and som; less difEcult
thaD the end_oi_
section exercises, are given at the end of every chapter, anal answeN
numbered problems are giveo in a! appeDdix. Most bf
t th"il-
rhe exercises anJ
rave bEen designed !o yield easier answers. such as 6 volts rather lhan 6.12? -.0r._.
volts.
without sacrificing tbei! pracrhal aspects. We hop" in tf,i, *uy to
sanly tedious ari$rletic and male the srhiect of circuit theory
.ini^lr. uoo" -
more iiteresting atrd
rewardine.

xnt
.A special effoft has be€n made to include a Nmber of probless attd exercis€,s
witb r€alistic element values. Netwo* scaling, also !rcs€ntad, can be used to mrke
aI he .erBaioirg Fobleos practical. In lhe chapte. orl amplitude and phas€ re-
sponses, problems arc given on such Factical cir€uits as elechic flters. Active
filte$, using op€rational amplifiers, as well as passive fflten, are usad as exampl€s.
Fhally, a sel€ct fow fiorcises and problems are uscd !o ertotrd tho tlrcory discussed
in tie chapters. In this way, optional material is ircluded without adding to lhe t6xt.
The fi$t nirc cbapteN of the book arc devoted to temiaology and time-domaitr
analysis and the last elever chaptqs deal with fte4uency-domain analysis. Some ma-
terial may be omitted wibout any loss in continuity. The chapoer on network lopol-
ogy, an fuieresting subject, could be covered € irely. in pan, or not at aU. Chagl€i$
l?-20 on Fourier and Laplace rnethods constirut€ a detailed matrnent of these sub-
jecb and nay bo omifted if thes€ topics arE to bo covered in a s€palate course. In
deed, one could omit the classical differential equations approach to circuit theory
and go direldy to the Laplace and Fourie! transfom methods.
For the leader interes[ed h computer solutions of circuits, the computer-aided
circuit analysis pogran SPICE is described in aq appgqdix, atrd exaoples usilg
SPICE are given itr the last sectiols of selecte-d chapteN. A s€pardte section of
computer-aided pmblems follow probl€m setl at the end of the cheter. Il this way
the compuler-aided naterial can be easily omitted if so desircd. Colcrr is used
throughout the book to highlight lhe more iflportaft equatioDs, to help clarify the
figure,s, and genenlly to make the book morc readable. Finaly, to 6ake the strbirct
of electric circuits mor€ real-ard e joyable lo the student, we have opened each
chapter with a picllle and a short biogaphy of a farnous eleakical pione€r, note.d en-
gineer, or inveotor whose wo* ha! contributed importandy to circuit theory.
ln this second edition, we have retained the basic formdt and features that have
bcen well rcceived h the past, We have made chaqes tbmughout the book to better
clarif] rhe material and have greatly expanded the number of end-of-chapter prob-
lems, which have be€n completely reds€d for this editiofl. We have also added a
summatT sectio{ at the eid of e4ch chapter, emphasizing the coacepts introduced in
ftat chapler, An appendix on design has bs.€n added for those who alo inlerosted itr
an introduction to the design of cLcuits as well as the amlysis of them. The matodal
is Fesented in an appendix so that it may be easily ooditted by those intercsted only
in analysis.
For the chapler-op€ning illustratioDs we are gmteful to the Print Collertioo,
Mniam and Ira D. Wallach DivisioD of Ai, ftirlts and Photographs, The New Yort
Public Lrbrary. Astor. knox. and Tilden Foutdations for Chapters I, 5. 6, ?. 19.
and 20; the Library of Con8rcss for Chapters 2, 3, 8, 11, and 17; lho Snithsonian
Institution lor Chapters 4,9, 12. 14, afi 18; and-the marvelous book, Dictionary of
Am?rican Pofiroits (Dove! Publications. Inc.. 1967, edited by Haywood aod
Blarche Cirker), for Chapters 15 ad 16. Th€ photogaphs for ChapteN l0 and 13
are courtesy of lhe GercIal Electdc Company, whom we also gatefirlly acknowl"
edge.
There are many people who have provided invaluable assistarce and advice
concaaing this book. We are indebM to o]ll colleagues @d our students for the
form the book has taken, add to Professo$ M. E. Van Valkenburg, A. P. Sage,
S. R. Laxpati, and S. K. Mitra, who rcviewed the fust-editio! manuscript of Bdric

xtv
Elpctric Circuit Atatysis aod made uany helpful commeDts and suggestions. we arc
also gratefrtl for the invaluable rcviews of the first e.dition of Electrk Circuit Anoly-
rir by Adce M. Davis. San Jose State University; John A. FleminS' Texas A & M
UniveNiry: Deverl Humphreys. Brigha$ Young Universiryl Tim Jordanides' Cali-
fomia State University, Irrg Beach; K. S P. Kumar, Udve$ity of Mirmesota;
Terry W, Martin, Univgrsity df Arkansas; Micha€l P. Smlth, Widener UDiversity;
J. Eldon Ste€lnan, New Mexico State Universig; James Svoboda, Cla*son Uli-
v€r$ity; and Belh L. Ko€stcr, Coocord, Massachusetts.

Dovid E. Joh$on
,Iohnhy R. Johnson
Join L. Hitbun

xv
1
lntro duction

Elect c circuil theory had ils real be- This endlcss circulation of rent electricity was arimal eleeticily
ginning on March 20, 1800, when the the electtic fuid may caused by the organisms them-
llalian physicist Alessandro Volta an- appear paradoxical, but it solves. Volta, on lhe olher hand,
nounced his invention of the electic
h no less true and real, maintainod that curent €lectricity
battery. This magnificent device al- \uas molallic electicity,lhe source of
end you ntay feel it with
low6d Volta to produce culeri elec- which was the dissimilar metal
t.icity, a steady, conlinuous llow of probes atlached to lhe frogs' legs.
elgctricity, as opposed to static elec- Alessandro Voha Bolh mgn wor€ right. There is an ani-
lriclty, producgd in bursts by pr€vi- mal olectricity, and Galvani became
ous elsclical machinos such as the lamous as a founder of nerve physi-
Leyd€n iar and Volta's own electophotus. ology. Volla's great invgntion, however, revolulionjz€d
Volta was born in the ltalian city of Como, then the use of elecldcily and gave the world one ol its
a parl of the Austrian Empire, and at age 18 he was greatesl benelits, the olectric currenl. Volla was show-
performing electrical expadments and corresponding ered with honors durinq his lifetime. Napoleon mado
with well-known Europoan elect cal investigators. ln him a senator and laler a counl in the French Empire.
1782 he became professor ol physics at the UniveF Atter Napoleon's dgleat, the Austrians allowed Volta
sity of Padua, wh€ro he became involved in contro- to return lo his llalian eslate as a citizen in good
versy with anolhef well-known electdcal plon€€r, Luigi stead. Volta was rowarded 54 years alter his dealh
Galvani, prolessor ol analomy at Bologna. Galvani's when lhg unit ot eloctromo{ve lorce was otficially
experimenls with lrogs had led him lo beli€ve lhat cur- named the voll .
E
LJlectric circuiL analyqis. in nearly every electrlcal engine€ring curriculum, is the
first course taken in the major area by an electrical engineering student. Virtually all
bmnches of electrical engineering, $rch as elechonics, power systems, communica-
tion systems, rotating machinery, aDd conool theoty, are based on circuit theory.
The orly topic in elect cal elgineering more basic than circuits is elecfomagneiic
field theory, and even there many problems are solved by means of equivalent elec-
tric circuits. Thus it is no exaggeration to say that the basic circuit tleory course a
student firut encounters in electrical engineering is the most impo ant cou$e in his
or her cu iculum.
To begin oul study of electric circrlits we need to know what an electric circuit
is, what we mean by its analysis, what quantities are associated with it, in what units
these quantities are measuled, and the basic definitions and conventions used in cir-
cuit theory. These are the topics we consider ill this chapter.
1.1
DEFINITIONS AND UNITS
An elecljic circuit, or elec*\c network, is a collection of electrical elements inter-
connected in some specified way. l,ater we shall define the electrical elements.in a
formal manner, but for the present we shall be content to represent a general tlro-
terminal element as shown in Fig. 1. 1 The terminals a and D are accessible for con-
nections with other elements. Examples with which we are all familiar, and which
we shall fdrmally consider in later sections, include resistors, inductors, capacitors,
batteries, and genemtors.

FtCURt t.r Cenemltwo terminal electricai element

More complicated circuit elements may have more than two terminals. Tmnsis_
tors and opemtional amplifiers are commor examples. Also a number of simple ele-
ments may be combined by interconnecting their terminals to form a single package
having any runrb€r of accessible terminals. We shall consider some multiterminal eI-
ements larel, but our main concern will be simple two-terminal devices.
An example of an electric circuit with six elements is shown in Fig. 1.2. Some
authors distinguish a circuit from a rctwork by requiring a circuit to contain at least
one closed path such as path abco. We sball use the terrns interchangeably, but we

Chapt€r 1 lnnoduction
flcURt 1.2 tle.ri..ir.rit

may note that without al least one closen path the circuit is of little or no practical
intere\t.
To be more specific in defining a circuil element we need to consider certain
quantitles associated with it, such as votfaS? and ctDerl. These quaDtities and oth-
eis, vhen they adse, must be catefirlly defrcd. This can be done only if we have a
standard system of units so that when a quantity is described by measuing it, we
can all agree on what the mea$uement means. Fortunately, there is such a standard
srstem of units that is used today by vntua y al the professional engineering soci-
eties and the authors ol most modem engineering textbooks. This system, which we
shall use throughout the book, is the International System of Units (abbteviated SI),
adopM in 1960 by the General Conference on Weights and Measures
There are six basic units itr the SL and all other units are derived from them.
Four of the basic units, the meter, kilogla$, second, and coulomb, are impoltant to
ctcuit theorists. and we shall c.nsider them in some detail. The remaining two ba-
sic units are the kelvin and the candela, which are important to such people as the
electron device physicist 6nd the illiminatioo engine€r.
The SI units are very precisely defined in terms of permanent and reproducible
quanlities. However. the defnilions are hiShly esoteric and in some cases ate com-
prehensible only to atomic scieDlists.r Therefore, we shall be conlent to name lhe
basic units and relalq them to the very frmiliar Britisft '']stem o/ UnitJ, which in-
cludes inches, feet, pounds, aird so on.
The basic unit of length in the SI is the neter, abbrevialed m, which is related
to the British system by the fact that I inch is 0.0254 m. The basic unit of mass is
tl:r, kiloSrarn (kg), alld the basic unit of time is the secol (s). In terms of the Biitish
units, I pound-mass is e'Jictly 0.45359237 kE, ard the second is the same in both
systems.
The fourth unit in the St is tl\e coulonb (C), which is the basic unit used to
measuIp elect c charge. We shall defer the definition of this unit until the next sec-
tion when we consider chalge and qAretrt. The nafie coulomb was chosen to honor
the French scientist, inventor, aod army engineq Charles Augustin de Coulomb

rcomot.t€ &finttiotrs of rhe basic u[r$ may be found in r oumb.r of souce\, q(h a .IEEE Rerom-
mcnd;d PBr'e for Unib in Publish.d Sci.nd6c and Tehnical Wo*." by C H Page er al. (IEEE
Sp€.rrM, J, no. l. pp. 169-171, M$cn 1966)
"ol.

Section 1.1 Definitions and Unit!


(1763-1806), who was an early pioned in the fields of friction, ele.tricity, ard
magnelism.
We might note at this point that all SI units named for famous p€ople have ab-
. heviations that are capitalized; otherwise, lowercase abbreviations are most ofteo
used. It is also worth mentioning that we could choose units other than the ones we
have selected to form the basic units. For example, instead of the coulomb lve cordd
take the ampere (A), the unit of electdc current to be conside.ed laler. h thk case
the coulomb could then be obtained as a derived urit.
There are three derived units in addition to the ampere that we shall find us€-
ful in circuit theory. They are the units used to measure force, work or energy, and
power. The fundamental unit of force is the reuon (N), which is the force required
to accelemte a l-kg mass by I meter per second per second (l m/s). Thus I N =
l kg-m/s'?. The newton is named, of cou$e, for the geat Engish scientist, as-
tronomer, and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton (1642-172?). Newton's accomplish-
ments are too numerous to be Iisteal in a mer€ chapter,
The fundamental unit of {,or* or energy is the jorre (J), named foi the British
physicist James P. Joule (1818-1889), vho shared in the discovery of the larr of
conservation of energy and helped establish the idea that heat is a form of energy, A
joule is the work done by a constant l-N forc€ applied through a l-m distadce. Thus
lJ:1N-m.
The last derived unit we shall consider is the udtt (W), which is the fundamen-
tal unit of power, the mte at which work is done o! energy is expended. Th€ watt is
defined lo be I J/s and is narned in honor ofJames Walr (1736-1819), the Scoltish
engineer whose engine design fust made steam power pmcticable.
Before we leave the subject of.units we should point out that one of the great-
est advantages the Sl has over the Blitish syslem is its incorporation of the de.imal
system to relate larger and smaller units to the basic unit. The vadous powers of 10
are denoted by standard prefixes, some of which are given, along with their abbievi-
ations, in Table l l.

. TABI-E l.l Prefixes in the 5l

Mulriple Symbol

l0' ziga G
M
ld I kilo k
l0 rnilli

As an example, a second was once thought to be a very short time, and frac-
tions such as 0.1 or 0.01 of a s€cond were unimaginably short. l.{owadays in some
applications, such as digital computers, the second is an impracticably large udit. As
a result, times such as I ftuosecond (l !s or l0_e s) are in commi}n !6e. Another
common example is I gram (g) = I0 I kg.

chapter 1 lntroduction
EXAMPLE 1.1 In the 1972 Olympics one of Mart spitz's seven gold medals was for $'inming
100 m in 51.22 s. Co[vert his average sFed to miles per hour. We begio by oot-
ing that
I
lm=oJ25i4-ln
/ t \/t fr\/ I mi\
= i"/ l.o;/\sxo r, /
\o-ozs+

1m=0.00062137mi
Therefore. the avemge speed is

#T- (#9(,*.',"lu)(,*;)
= 4.37 mph
we note that the units cancel in every step, ${ich may be used to irdicate what frc-
tors are needed in the conversion process.

EXERCISES
1.r.1 Find the number of nanoseconds in (a) 0.5 s, (b) 30 ms, and (c) 15 ps.
inswer (a) 5x 103; O) 3 x l0'; (c) 15,000
1.1.2 Find (a) the number of $econds in 22 ps, O) the number of kilometers in I milc,
and (c) the work done by a constant force of 200 pN adied to a mass of l0 g for a
distance of 50 m.
(a\ 2.2 x 10 '; (b) 1.609; (c) 10 rJ
1.1.3 ^nswer
Sebastian Coe broke three world track records in 1979 by rundng 800 meters in I
minute 42.4 seconds, the mile in 3 minutes 49.0 secodds, and 1500 meters h 3 Eh-
utes 32.1 seconds. Find his avenge speed in miles per hour for each eveot.
Answet l7.5, 15.'1. 15.8
l-t.4 Robert Hayes set a world record in 1963 by runring 100 yards in 9.1 seconds. Id tie
1988 olympics Bell Jobnson mn the lm-rneter dash in 9.79 seconds. He rras dis-
qualified ald Carl lewis declared the winner with a time of 9.92 se4onds; atr Amcr-
ican record. Find the average speeds in mph of erch ofthese thre€ ruorea!.
Answer tjayes, 22.48; Johnson, 22.85; l*wis, 22.55.

1.2
CHARGE AND CURRENT
We are hmiliar with gravitational forces of attractiod between Mies, which are tc-
sponsible for holding us on the earth and which cause ao apple dislodged ftom s Eec
to fall to the ground mther than to soar upward into the sky, There are Mi€s' ho*.

Section '1.2 Charge and Current


ever, that aifi"act eabh othgr by forces fir out of propoltion to their masses. Also,
sucb forces are observed to tre repulsive as well as attractive and are clearly not grav-
itatioDal forces.
We explain these forces by saying that they are electrical in naturo and caused
by the presence of elscfical charges. We explain th€ existence of forces of both at-
traction and repulsioo by po€tulating that there are two kinds of charges, positive
and negative, and that unlike charges attract aDd like charges repel.
As we know, according to modern theory, natter is rinde up of atoms, which
are composed of a numb6 of funda$ental particles. The most important of these
particles are protons (positive charges) and neuhons (neueal, with no charge) found
in the nucleus of the atom and electrons (negative charges) moving in orbit about the
nucleus. Normally, the atom is €lectrically neutral, the negalive charge of the elec-
troDs balaocing the positive charge of tne protons. Particles nray become positively
charged by losing electoons to other particles and become negatively charged by
gaining elecFons &om other parricles.
As an erample. we may Foduce a negative charge on a balloon by rubbing it
against our hai!. The balloon will then stick to a l,all or the ceiling, which are un-
charged. Relative to the aegativ€ly charged balloon, the neutral wall and ceiling are
opposirely charged.
We now define the cortorr, (C), discussed in the previous section, by stating
that the chaige of an election is a negative one of 1.6021 X 10 te coulomb, putting
x
it another way, a coulomb is the charge of about 6.24 10'3 electlons. These are:
of course, mind-boggling numbers. but their sizes enable us to use more manageable
numbers, such as 2 C, in the circuit theory to follow.
The symbol for charge will be taken as 0 or 4, the capital letter usually denot-
irg constant charges such as P = 4 C, and the lowercase letter indicating a tim€-
!"arying charge. In the latter case we may emphasize the time dependency by writing
{(t). This practice involving capital and lowercase letters will be carried over to the
other electrical qualtities as \rell.
Th€ prioary purpose of an elecric circuil is to move or [ansfer charges along
specified paON. This motion of charges constitutes .an electrb current, denoted by
the letters i or 1, taken from the French word "intensit6.,, Formally, curre{t is the
tirne rate of change of charge, given by

.dS
'-a ( 1.1)

I!e_ basic rltrit of cur€nt is tlrc anpere (A), mmed for Andi6 Marie Amp&e
(1?75-1836), a Rench mathematician and physicist who formulated laws of electro-
magnetics in the 1820s. Aa anpere is 1 coulomb per se.ond.
In circuit tbeory curent is genemlly thought of as the movement of positive
charges. This cotvetrtion stems from Benjamin Franklin (1706-l?90), *to guessed
lhat electricity traveled tom positive ro Degativg. We now know ,that in metal col-
ductors the curent is the moyement of elecrons that have been pulled loose ftom
the orbits of the atoms of the metal. Thus we should distinguish convearional current
(thc movement of positive charges), which is us€d in eleatric network theory, and

Chapler i lntroduclion
ekctron a$reDf' Lnless otherwise stal€d, our coltcem will be with conventional
cunent.
As an example. suppose lhe curretrr in the wire of Fig. | .3(a) is 1 = j A. Thal
is, 3 CA pass some specific poiot in the wirc. This is symbolized by the arrow ta-.
beled 3 A, whose directiotr indicates that the motioa is from teft to right. This situa_
tion is equi lent to thal depicted by Fig. 1.3(b), which indicates
-3 a/s or -3 A in
the directiotr from right to left.

rr/ -la
-../
G) . (b)
FICURE 1.3 Two representations of $e same current

Figxre |.4 represenrs a geneml circuil element wirh a currenl i flowing from
. .
the left loward the right te.minal. The loral charge entering rhe element #tween
time ,o and t is found by integnting (1.1). The result is

b:.so)-ean=[iat (1.2)

We shotrid note at this point that we ale considering ihe network


_ _
be elecrrirally neurml.
elements to
That is. no net positive or negativJcharge can accumujate in
rhe element. A posirive charge entering must be aciompanied by an equal posilive
chaqe leaving (or, equivalently, an equal negative charge entering;. Tirus rtre cur-
rent shown entering the left tenxdai in Fig. i.+ must leive the rifit terrninal.

RGURT 1.4 Cun€nt flowing in a Benerat etement

EXAMPLT 1.2 Suppose that. the current ente ng a terminal of an element is i = 4t A, The total
charge entering the terminal between t :
0 and f :
3 is given by

'J" q,a,- Bc
n-l
There are seveml types of current in common use, some of which are shown in
Fig. 1.5. A constalt cuqent, as shown in Fig, 1.5(a), will be termed a alirect cur-
rent, or &. An ahernating cwrent, ot &, is a sinusoidal curetrt. such as that of
Fig. 1.5(b). Figure 1.5(c, and (d) iuusEale. respctively. an expon?ntial c$rem and
a rawtooth ctrtent,
There ate many commerciil uses for dc, such as in flashlights and power sup_
plies for elechonic citcuits, and, of cou$e, ac is the common house current found
all over the world. E\ponential currents appear quire oflen (whether we $.anl them
or nor:r when a swilch is actualed lo close a path itr atr energized circuit. Sawloolh
waves are useful in equipmelt, such as oscilioscopes, usdd ior displaying electrical
chamcteristics on a screen

Section 1.2 Charee and Curreot


rICURE 1.5 (a) Dcj (b)ac; (c) exponential current; (d) saMooth cunent

EXERCISES
1.2.1 How many electrons are reprcsented by a charge of 0.64084 pC?
Answer 4 nillion
I.2.2 The total charge entedng a terminal of aE element is given by
o' *
Find the curent i at = o J r=:')'
An\wet 4,20 mA ^u ".
. 1.2.3 The current entering a terminal is given by
i:l+?'sin2ntA
Find the totai charge eltering the terminal between t= 0 and t= 1.5 s.
Ahs\t 2.5 C

1.3
VOITAGE, ENERGY, AND POWER
Charges in a condd,stor, exemplified by ftee electrons, may move in a mndom man-
Der. However, if we want some concerted motion on their part, Such as is the case
with an electric cu$ent, w€ must apply an exieftal or so-called eredromotire force
(EMF). Thus work is done on the chatges. We shall define ro'age "aqoss" an ele-
ment as the work done in moving a unit charge (+1 C) through the element ftom
one terminal to the othff. The unit of voltage, or potential ilifferehce, as itis sofie-
times called, is tle yolt (V), named ir honol of the Italian physicist Alessandro
Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (1745-1827), who invented the voltaic battery.
Since vohage is the number of joules of work pedormed on 1 coulomb, we
may say tlat I V is I J/C. Thus the volt is a derived SI unit, exptessible in terms of
other units.
We shall represent a voltage by o or V and use the +, polaity convention
-
shown in Fig. 1.6. That is, terminal A is r volts positive with lespect to terminal B.
Putting it another way in terms of potential differerce, l€tninal A is dt a potential ol

Chdpler I lnlroduclion
FIGURE 1.6 Voltase polarity convention

o volts higher than teminal B. I! t€nns of work, it is clear that moving a unit charge
ftom B to A requires o joules of wor*.
Some authors prefer to describe the voltage acrocs an element in terms of
voltage drops aDd rr',rer. Referring m Fig. 1.6, a voltage drop of o volts occuls itr
moving ftom A to B. In contrast, a voltage dse of o volts occus in moving from B
to A.
As examples, Fig. 1.7(a) aDd (b) are two versions of e,\actly the siune voltage.
In (a), a terminal A iS +5 V above termiml B, and in (b), terminal A is -5 V above
A (or +5 V below A).

FICURE 1,7 Two equivalent voltage representatio

We may also ]use a double-subscript notation o", to denote the potential of


point a with respect to point D. In this case we have in geneml, od = -or,. Thus in
Fig. 1.7(a), o,$ = 5 V and 0,r -.5 V.
In transferring chage through a]] element work is being done, as we have said.
Or, putting it arother way, energy is being supplied. Ib know whether energy is be-
ing supplied ro the element or ,] the element to the rest of the circuit, \re must know
nol only the polariry of the voltage across the element. but also the direclion of the
cu.rent though the element. If a positive cudent enters the positive terminal, then
an extemal force must be drivitrg the current aDd is thus supplying or dekvering e\-
ergy to the element. TtP- de'rent is absorbing energy in this case. If, on the other
hand, a positive current leaves the positive terminal (enteN the negative terminal),
then the elametrt is delivering energy to the extemal cilcuit.
As examples, in Fig. 1.8(a) the elcrlelt is absorbing energy. A positive cur-
rent enterc the positive terminal. This is also the case in Fig. 1.8(b). In Fig. 1.8(c)

fIGURE 1.8 Various voltage-current rclatiorships


24. 24
-o--:= -
I -----\*-\
sv HA
iii I
sv ffi," rul
-. ' *"
(al (bl (c) (d)

Section 1.3 voltage, Energy, and Power


and (d) a positive curreDt eoters the negative terminal,
aDd therefore tbe elemenl is
delrverrng energy in both caj€s.
ktus consider now lhe .at? at which energy is being delivered to
or bv a cir-
crrit elemenr. If lhe voltage aqoss the element iiu and a im"ff *rrg.
through. the. elemeat from the positive to the negarive terminal,
aq i. ;".d
sorbed by the elemeDt, say A!r, is given by
tdth" :;dy ;:
A}r,=aAs
Ifthe time involved is 4,/, then the mte at which the work is being done,
or the en_
ergy lr is being expended, is given by

.. Aw Aa
AFO AI . AH AT

(1.3)
7;=D;=Di
by definition the ftte ar which energy is expended is power, denoted
byp, we
;llc;e

We_might observe that (1.4) is dimensiotally conect since rhe units of


(tC)(C/s) or J/s, which is watts (W), defined eadier.
oi are

. .The gTntiri:: r, g]d i are generaly tuncdons of rime. which we may also de_
note by o(r) aDd i(t). Tberefore, p given by d.4.) is a rime_varyins
ouanrirv. It rs
somelimes called the instu)ntanaous Wwet because its value i" ti" io;., ui;" i;:
stant of time at which o and i are measured.

ftcURE r.9 Typical etement with vottage and cu.rent

Summarizing. tbe llp;cal element of fig. 1.9 ts absorbing Dower. Eiven bv


p -_ ui. If eilherrhe polariry of u or i fbu not borhr is reversed, ihin rh. .i"rn.nt j'.
detrvenng power. p -
oi. to the exlemal circuit, Of course. lo say that an element
d€livers a negativ€ power, say -10 W, is equivalent to saying that it absoOs
afosi_
tive power, in this case + l0 W.

EXAMPTE 1.3 In Fig. Ls(a) and O, lhe elemeor is absorbing power of p _ (5)(2) =
l0 W.
Lln FiB. 1..8ft, the 2 A leaves the nega!.ive rerminal. and ttrus 2 e enten *" p"r-lri".
terminal.l In Fig. 1.8(c) and (d) it is delivering tO W to tfre externat circuii, since
the 2 A leaves the positive termlnal, or, equilalently, p;*;;
terminal.
-2 A enters th"
10 Chaprer 1 lntoduction
Before ending our discussion df power and energy, let us solve (1.4) for the en-
eryy rr delivered to an element between time to and t. We have, upon integrating
both sides between t, and t,
w(t) - w(a) =
f"vi
at (1.s)

EXAMPTE 1.4 1.9 i : 2t A arld o = 6 V, the energy delivered to the element between
If in Fig.
t=0andt:2sisgivenby
t'1
w(2) - w(0, - JrI \qQI) dt = 24 t

' Since the left member of (1.5) represents ihe energy delivercd to the element
between ro and t, we may interpret w(/) as the drcrgy deliveted to the element be-
twe€n the beginning of time and / and r (to) as the energy between the beginning of
time and to. In the beginning of time, which let us say is ! o, the energy deliv-
=
ered to the element was zero; that is,
x,( @)=o
If ro : -@ in (l.5), we shall have the energy delivered to the element ftom the be-
ginning up to t, gived by

*ttt - | ."'ix (1.6)

This is consistent with (1.5) since

wttt =
l_aidt
r
= l-ti dt f^"'o' t

By (1.6) lhis may be written


w@=wA";s+ oi dt
which is (1.5).
f^

EXERCISES
1.3.1 Findl) if t = E rnA and the element is (a) absorbing power of p : 40 mw and (b)
delivering to the external circuit a power p = 16 mW.
Answet \^) 5 V: lbl
2V

EXERCISt 1.1.1

Section 1.1 VoltaEe, Energ/, and Power 11


1,3.2 Ifi = 5 Aando = 12 V in Exercise 1.3.1, find (a) the power absorbed by the ele-
ment and (b) the energy delivered to the elemeDt betwe€n 2 ard 4 s.
Arurer (a) 60 w; ft) 120 J
1.3-3 A two-terminal element absorbs an energy n as showtr. If the curent ettering the
positive terminal is
i = 100 cos 10007r mA
find the element volrage at r = I ms and at t = 4 ns.
Ansx,et -50, 5 y

txERctsE 1.3.3

1.4
PASSIVE AND ACTIVE ETEMTNTS
We may classify circuit elements into two broad categoies, p4rriye elements and dc-
tive elemens, by conside ng the energy delivered to or by them.
A circuit element is said to be pd.rriye if tle total energy delivered to it ftom
the rest of the circuit is always nonnegative. That is, refering to (1.6), for all t we
have

,(i = | : (1.7)
-p(tyat f-,,* =o
The polarities of tr.and i are as shown in Fig. 1.9. As we shall see later, e/,adples of
passive elements are resistors, capacitors, and inductors.
An dctiye element is one that is not passive, ol cou$e. That is, (1.7) does not
hold for all time. Examples of active elements are generators, batteries, and elec-
tronic devices that requhe power supplies.
We are not ready at this stage to begin a formal disculsion of the various pas-
sive elements- This will be done in later chapters. In this section ve give a brid dis-
cussion of two very important active elements, the independent voltage souce and
lhe independent currenl source.
i
A\ depeident voltage rource is a two-terminal element, such as a battery o!
a generator, that maintains a specified voltage between its terminals. The voltage is
completely independent of the curent through the element. The symbol for a
voltage source having o volts across its terminals is shown in Fig. 1.10. The polarit
is as shown, indicating that terminal d is 1, volts above terminal ,. Thus if o > 0.
terminal d is at a higher potential than terminalr. The opposite is hue, of course, if
u<0.
12 Chapte.l lnrroduction
Fig. Ll0. the voltage D may be lime !ffying, or il rnay be coD_6rant.
...",-,ln
whrch case.we woutd in
probabty tabel ir v. Another syio"r ,f,.iii.rr""
i..'l
con$ant voltage source. such as a baner] *irt y
inFig. i..tl. ln lhe case ofconstant sources we shall
"otrs
u"ror. lilt;;;i;;", "lJ
il;;;
changeably.
use figr. l.l0;;;'i.lj";;;;;:

ftGURE 1.10 lndependent voltage source F|CUREl.tt Constant voltage source


We might observ€ at lhis poinl rhal lhe polarity
, marks on Fig. L II are redun_
danr since (he potarity coutd be denned uy ,f," p".ir.".
of iiti t".^;";
lines. We shall leave the polarity marks ofl in ";i;il.";;
most cases in ,n. fu;r.". Th";;;;
jrl*?;. oo*"r"., in anal)zing circuits when it i,
""rr""i""it i.";"';,".r1;
.
An indep?ndeir (urrent ,ource is a two_terminal element
specified currenr flows. The currenl is cnmptetely
through which a
t"a
tht element. The symbol lor an independenr cunent
soutce "il;d;;;ff;g;:il;
ir shdwn in Fi. I r)
wnere I js the specified current. The direction of rhe cunent i" i"Oi.""a"Uv ifr.

I
t
,(r)

l
ftcuRE t.12

Independent sources are usually meant


.
and nor ro absorb ir. Thus if o is the vottage
lo deliver power ro lhe exrernal circuit
across tle source and iE current i is
directed out of tbe positive terminal- then
p- = th: J;;i' ;;";i,:' 6;;;,'**'i:,:"$::,i:"ti;H'#
tig. l': ^,9 rhe";
L l3(a) batrery is deiiverinq 24 W
:l"iliJ # :l
batlery is absorbing 24 w, il"
t1t"tnlt
:iftui t lnFiS l.libr the
as would u" ,t .t1
tr,.,o*"., Bur *" iil:ffi;;:::::,-*l,,iJ:ff
considered tarer. are ideat etemcnB. That
J,:":lln";*"",,,, o.
proximate the actual or physical elemens
is. rhey arc nariii','trii ,iliiiinii
ple. qn ideal automobile batrery supplies
only under certainconditi."r.
a consrant 12 V. no maler *f,*
;.;;r;_^[
ir,".""f
Section 1.4 Passive and Adive flements
13
(a) (b)
FIGURt 1.13 la) source-delivering and (b) source absorbing power

circuit is connected to it. since its curett is completely arbitrary, it could theoreti_
cally deliver an infinite amount of power. This, of coulse, is not possible in the case
of an actual device. A real l2-V automobile battery supplies approximately constant
voltage only as long as the current it delived is low. When the cutrelt exce€ds a
few hundred amperes, the voltage drops apPreciably from 12 V.
We shall consider pmctical sou.ces in a later chapter and see under what condi-
tions they may be apFoximated by ideal sources. Also later, we shall consider de-
pendenr sources whose voltage (or current) is confolled by another voltage o! cur-
rent somewhere else in the circuit.

EXERCISES
1.4.1 Find the power being supplied by the souces shown.
Ansver (a) 18; (b) 16; (c) -20; (d) -45 w

),n T
__l
I

EXTRC|SE 1.4.1

1.4.2 The terminal voltage of a voltage souce is u = 6 sin 2t V. If the charge leaving thp
positive terminal is q =2 cos 2r mC, find the power supptied by the source at any
time arld the energy supplied by the source between 0 and t seconds
Answer 24 sin'? 2t mW, 121 -
3 sin 4t mJ

1.5
CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
kt us now look at the words circuit analJsis, which are contained in the title of the
book, and see what they mean Cenerally, if alr electic circuit is subjected to an it-
put or excitotion in tl.P- form of, say, a voltage or a curent provided by an indepen-

14 chdpre' I nrrodu(tion
dent source, lhen an odpat or fttpor$" is produc€d. The ouFut
or resDonse maV also
0e a vo,tage or a current associated with some element in the
circuit.-There D;v be
of coirse, more than one input and Eore than oDe output.
There arc two main bmnches of circuit theoly, and they are derived
from the
followiDg rluee key words: ilput, output, and ct *i1. Th; tu;ib";;; ;.r;;";;_
yrrr, wtuch. gven the circuit and the input. is concerned with findhs
th€ outDut_
tne other branch is circuit Enth?sis. ot circuh design. which, given [e
- input ana
output. rs concemed wilh finding the circuit its€lf.
Mtwork synthesis is much more complex in general than analysis end will
probably.be encounreredby the studenr io a l;ter courie.
Circuit analysis t" ;;;
concero rn tfus book. We may be interesled only in fioding one
o! morc outouts-
such as a voftage or crmenr existing somewhere in *"
o, i" Li"rri"iiiii"
energy or power delivered lo one element or another. Or "lr"rii,
we mEf wish ro p"rtoirol
complete analysis. finding every unlno\r,I| current and voltage in tfr"
fn ao"
case- in succeeding chapters we d€v€lop slslematic mermas-of "ia"uit.
appued generaity lo any circuit of lhe type we consider. The
anatyJi;;; ;;
m€thods not onlv are
systemattc.and genelal, but are also simple ard sraightforward
to apply.
for the lnterested reader. some circuit design rheory aad exampies are siven in
Appendix_F. Hopetutty, rhese wi provide insight into the p-U..i'oi-nrilr.tt i
selecrion of rhe genemt form of thi cirorit to choosing rh!
"_lT.:j::-1 :":i,.,ft",r
lnOlvloual crrcurt elementr
1.6
SUMMARY
This chapter inuoduces us to the subject of circuit analysis and covers
the basic ter_
rnnology that we wjll need as we read lh.ough the book. We have defined
what an
ek.tti.c citcuit is, whal we mean by a two-tirminal elemrr, unt *" t
loi_ai-+
ete.d the .utrents and volrager associated with such elements. "ua abolrt
We also k|low
clr4r8€ related to a cllrrent ard tIrc energy arrrd. power associated with
ihe
hao"l""Ui"f*
ments. The SI units of ampercs, vobs, coulontbs, joules, una ,on"
ered and used to define passive and octive elenens-. Fina y. independenl
te* Ji-
lear current and volrage soarces have treen denoeA. as *eit rtr! conc iri- ^i-Lir-
,t7i*ri,
ar@/FiJ, our main corcern throughout the renainder of the "s book.
,

PROBTEMS
1 t In 1960 Don Srlron s€t a world record run^ 1980 with a time of 3 minutes 52.47 sccords_
ning the 220-yard dash in 2t.9 seconds. and in Mary Decker Slaney nn th€ mile in l9E5 in 4
the 1988 Olympics Florcnpe cdffrh Jovner set ninute$ 16.7t s€conds, Comparc tteir averarc
a world record for women running 200 meters
speeds in miles per bour.
in 21.34 seaods. Compare their averase
speds in miles per hour. lf the fumtioD /tr) is thc cuncnl iD aspcr€g
1.2 Roger Baonisrcr first broke lhe 4-minute bar-
etrtentrg the posjtive terminsl of an clerncnt ,i
rime r (secoods), fitrd (a) tll. toel charra 6rt
ri€r by runniry the mile in 3 minutes 59.4 s€c- has etrtercd berween 4 and 9 r. (b) thc -cnargc
onds in 1954. ?btyana . Kaz!trklm set a enrering al 8 s, alld (c) thc curreni at l,S, aDd
rpome!'! world's record fo! l50O rreters in 8 s. Take the cbaqe to bc 0 at , = O.

Chapter 1 Problemt
l5
1.8 If the tunction gnphed in Prob. 1.6 is the
vohage D rvol6, across an elemenr versus lhc
lime {ms,. and lhe curfent enl€ring rhe posi-
tive rerminal i\ J rnA. find rhe power deliv-
ered to ibe element at 2 ms and at 6 ms.
1.9 Tf rhe tuDcrion graphed in Prob. Lo is rhe
voltage D rvoks, across an element rersus the
time rmsr. and rhe curreDr entering rhe posi
tive terminal is

i: rc-6 P
.lt
0 .1 6 7 9 12 rG) (i in amp€res. r in volts. 1 in secondsl, 6nd lh€
PROELTM I.3 powel delivered to the element ar 1 ms and ar
7 ms.
1.4 ff/(t) in Prob. 1.3 is the charge enrering the l.l0 Find the power delivered to an element ar r =
element in coulombs and r is in seronds, find 2 ms if the charge entering the positive termi
the charge eDtering the element berween 4 and nal is
9 s, thg curent at 6.5 s, and the cunent at 8 s.
q= 10 cos 125 ?'r mC
1,5 In kob 1.3, if the voltage across the elemont
is 6 V, find the pow€r delivered to the element and the voltage is
at r = l, 5, 8, and l0 s. Repeal for prob. 1.4. 0=6sin125dV
1.6 If the vohage across an element is 8 V and the 1.11 Fird the energy delivered to the el€ment of
cunent i enl€ring the posiiive terminal is as Prob. 1.10 between 0 and 8 ms.
shown, find the power delivered to the ele_
ment ar r - 7 ms ard rhe toral charge and to- 1.72 The power delivercd ro an element is
tal enerSy d€livered to the etement t€tweeD 0 p -24e 3' mW and the charge entering the
and l0 ms positive terminal is q : 2 - 2z-a' mC. Firld
(a) the voltag€ across tlrc olement and O) the
energy delivered to the element between O ard
0.25 s.
t4 l-13 The power delivered to an €lemenr is p =
12 sin 4t W and the voltage is o = 4 sin 2r V.
IO Find the cur€nt entering the posirive terminat
and the charge delivered to the elemenr be-
tween 0 and ?7'/4 s.
1.14 Th€ power delivered to an element is
p :16e ta W, ihe curent i is nonnegative,
and the voltage is 1) : 4t (o is in volts and i is
in amperes). Find rhe voltaae and the total
0 4 lo ,{m) charge delivered to the elemenr fiom 0 to
PROBLTM I.6 r >0.
1.15 The cunent ent€ring the positive t€rminal of
l-7 If the tunction Sraphed in prob. t.6 is the an element is i = 4e-' A. Find rhe power
charge (mC) entering tho positive terminal of delivered to the element as a function of time
th€ element versls lhe lime (ms). and lhe and the energy deliver€d to the element ftom 0
voltagc is 6 V, find (a) thc powcr delivered to to t > 0 if the voltage is (a) o = 3i, (1,)
thc element at 3, 6, and 8 ms, and (b) the loral
eneryy d€livercd to the element b€iueen 0 and D:2i, and {c, o=3lidr+6. lThe
l0 ms. voltage is in volts if the currert is in amperes.)
't6 Ch.pler 1 lnrrodu.non
1.16 If rhe current entering the positive terminal of is D = ar, a > 0. taj Find rhe energy deliv.
an element is ered to the elemenr between 0 and f seconds,
i:4 sin 2rA. I > 0 (b) Fhd a dc cunent I :
b > 0 rhat detivers
the same energy as the ac current of (a) in
:0,r<0 Z= /l seconds.
fnd the power delivered to the elemenr d a
1.23 If the current entering th€ positiv€ terminal of
time r > 0 and the chaqe delivered to the el- atr elemenl is
ement bet$een 0 and 7r/4 s, if (a) i, = 2r, (b)
i = asinfr'A,, >0
, = 2fr, *a @) n : 2 !;r dr - 4 (D is in
:0,, <0
volts if i is in amperes).
1.17 If the cutent entering the positive terminal of and rhe voltage is
arr element is i = ,,1€-,
A and the vottaSe is
o = 4i V, find rhe energy delivered to th€ ele_
mert between 0 and I s. . ":u['J. ,0,,
1.18 Ifthe voltag€ whete a, b, k > 0, show rhat the €nergy de-
across an element is o= 6€-3, V
livered to rhe element between -6 and r > 0
and the current is i: Zr4e, nnd,t" po*". is
delivercd at time r and the charge delivered
ba'z
between0and4s. w = 2t? (cos ,tr - l), J
l.19 lJ a current r' -
0.4 A is entering rhe positive
rerminal of a bartery with terninal vohage and therefore lr > 0.
1) = 12 V, the battery is in the proc€ss of be_
ing cbarged. (tt is ab6orbing rarher than deiiv_
1.24 kr the current entering lhe posjtive rerminal
of an elemenl be
enng power.) Find (a) the energy supplied ro
the battery and O) the charge delivered to the i=2sin4rA,r>0
battery in 2 h (hou$). Nor€ the consistency of
theunitslV:lrC. =0,t <0
1.20 Find the curenr ne€ded in hob. l.l9 to de-
liver the same charge as iD part O) in 30 min.
(a) If the voltage is o - 3 # v, show that the
1.21 Suppos€ rhat the voltago in prob. l.l9 r"des energy delivaed to the element is non-
linearly from 6 !o 18 V as ,r"des ftom O to negtive for all ttne.
10 min. ff i = 2 A durirg tbis time, find (a) O) Repeat part (a) if o = 3 !; i dt v.
the total energy supplied and O) the total t-25 Rep€at Prob. 1.24(a) if
chage delivercd to the bartery.
1.22 A! altemating curent i=2(e-,-r\A.t>o
i=lsintrA,t >0 :O,r<O
=0,r<0 1.26 Itr Prob. 1.24(a), fnd the total charye deliv-
ered to the eleltrert at r = ?'/8 s and the
is supplyirg an element for which the voltage power absorbed by the element at r = s.
''/16

Chapter 1 Probtems
17
Resistive Circuits

On S€ptembe l l, 1820, the excning Ishall call the first ljbrary. At age 12 he was introduced
announcemenl was read to th€ "electric \ension" fvohagef to the Lyon library and becaus€ many
French Academy ol Sclences of lhe anA the second "electic ot its best math€malical works wer€
discovory by the Danish physicist in Latin, he maslgred lhat language
Hans Christian Oersted that an glec- in a tew weeks. ln spjte of lwo crush-
tric curent produces a magnetic el" Andri M.tie Ampare
ing personal tragediss-at agg 18 he
l€ct. One member of the Acad€my, witn€ssed his father's execution on
Andr6 Marie AmFdre, a French math- th€ guillotine by th€ French Rovolu-
ematics professor, was highly impressed and within lionaries and lat6r his young, b€loved wife died sud-
on€ week had ropeated oerst€d's experiment, given a d€nly aflgr only four years of maniag6--Ampdre was
mathomalical explanatio,n ol it, and-in addition- dis- a brilliant and prolilic scjgnlist. He fomulated many ol
covered that eleclric curents in parall€l wjles exert a the laws of electdcity and magnetism and vras the ta-
magnolic iorce on each oth€r. ther of eleclrodyiamics. The unit ot €lgctrb cungnt,
Amparo was bom in Lyon, France, and at an. tho amptlo, was chosen in his honor in 1 BO1 .
early age had rgad all the great
.
works in his fathe/s

18
T" si-pl".t unl *ost commonly used circuit element is the resistor. All electricat
conductors exhibit properties rehich are characteristic of a resistor. When curents
flow in conductors, electrons which make up the current collide with the tattice of
atoms in the conductor. This, of course, on the avemge, impedes or rcrisrs the mo_
. tion of elechons. The larger the number of collisions, the greater the resistance of
the conductor. We shall consider a rcs$ror to be any device which exhibits solely a
resistance. Materials which are commonly used in fabricating resistors inchide
metallic alioys and carbon compounds.
In this chapter, we first introduce the terminal relations for a rcsistor based on
Obm's law. Two laws necessary for systematic solutions of networks, known as
Kirchhoff's laws, are then examined. With these laws, we begin our study of circuit
analysis by finding solutions for ,,singleloop', and ..single_node-pair" reflrrjr,? net-
works (those with resistors) having independent sources as inputs. We conclude the
chapter trith a discussion of simple measuring instruments followed by a discussion
of praclical resistors.
2.1
OHM'S TAW
Ceorg Simon Ohm (1787-1854), a cerman physicist, is credited with formularing
the current-voltage relationship for a resistor based on experiments performed in
1826. In 1827 he published the results in a paper titled "The Galvanic Chain, Mathe-
matically T.eated." As a result of this work, the unit of resistance is called the ohm.
It is ironic, however, that HeDry Cavendish (1731-1810), aB tish chehist, discov,
ered fhe same results 46 years eariier. Had he not failed to publish his findings, the
unit of resistance might well be known as the cdver.
Ohm's law states that the voltage across a resistor is directly proportional to
the curent flowing through the resistor. The constant of proportionality is the resis-
tance value of the resistor in ohms. The circirit symbol for the resistor is shown in
Fig. 2.1. For rhe current and voltage shown, Ohm's law is

where R > 0isthe resistance.


The slmbol used to represent the ohm is the capital Creek le]ler omela lA\.
Thus by (2.1) we have R = 0/i, so rhat

1O=lV/A
Seclion 2-l Ohm's law 19
FICURI 2.1 Circuit svmbol for the resistor

In some applicadons. such as eleclronic clcuiLs. rhe ohm is all incoDvenientlv sfirall
unit and units such as kilo-ohms ot sifiply kilohms tko.t and mega-ohnls or n;BohnL,
(MO) are common.

EXAMPLE 2.I If R : 3 O and o = 6 V in Fig. 2.1, the curent is

. o 6V
i=i=jO=2A
lf R ls changed to I kO, lhe currenl is

. 6V
=ffi=ox1o-3A=6;A
' I kf)
The process is obviously shortened by noting that I V/kO = I mA. MMO :
i FA. and so on.
Since R is constant, (2.1) is the equation ofa srraight tine. For this reason, the
.
resistor is called a llnelr/ rcrr'sror. A graph of u ve{sus i is shown in Fig. 2.2, which
is a line passing through rhe origin with a slope ofR. Obviously, a stmight line is the
only gmdr possible fol which thd mtio of o ro i is constani for all i.

FICURI 2.2 Voltage curent characreristjc for a linear .esisror

Resistors whose resistances do not remain constant for different terminal cur-
rents are known as n tlineat rcsistors. For such a resistor, the rcsistance is a func_
tion of the clrrent flowing in the devic€. A simple example of a nonlineat rcsistor is
an incandescent lamp. A tFical voltage-current characteristic for this device is
shown in Fig. 2.3, wlEre we see that the gaph is no longer a straight line. Since R

20 .haprer 2 Re'i\ri!P arrcuit\


flCURt 2.3 Typical voltage currenl characterGiic for a nonlinear resistor

is not a constant, the analysis of a circuit containing nonlinear resistors is more


difncult.
ln reality, all practical resistors are nonlinear be.cause the electrical character-
istics of all conductors are affected by environmental factors such as temperature.
Many matedals, however, closely approximate an ideal linear resistor over a desired
opemling region. We shall conbentrate on these types of elements and simply refer to
them a5 resistors.
An examination of (2-1), in conjunction with Fig. 2.1, shows if i > 0 (curent
entering the upper terminal), then o > 0. Thus the culrent enters the terminal of
higher potential and exits from that of the lower potential. Next, suppose that < 0 i
(curent entering the lower terminal). Then o < 0, and the lower terminal is higher
in potential than the upper one. Once again, the current enters the torminal of higher
potential. Since charges are transported ftom a higher to a lower potential in passing
though the resistor, the energy lost by a charge q (energy = qo) is absorbed by the
resistor in the form of heat. The rate at which energy is dissipated is, by definition,
the instantaneous power

p(r) = o(r);(r) = Rtlr) = (2.2)


#
A graph of (2.2), shown in Fig. 2.4, reveals that p(r) is a parabolic,(and thus
nonlinear) function of i(t) or o(t) which is nonnegative. (The horizontal scales.are,
of course, different ir the two cases.) Thus, for a linear resistor, the instantaneous
power is nonlinear even though lhe voltage-curent relationship is linear.

FIGURE 2.4 Craph of the innanlaneous power for a resinor

Section 2.1 Ohm's Law 21


Tle condition for passivity, given in (1.7), is

1"0)
l" p(t) dt > 0

Therefore, since p(t) is nonnegative, we see that the integral above is nonnegative
and lhal lhe resi\tor is. ,ndeed. a pa\srve elerirenr.
The beginning student often encounters difficulty in determining the proper al-
gebraic sign in applying Ohm's law when the voltage assignment differs from that of
Fig. 2.1. By (2.1) th€ voltage is R times the cuffent entering the positive terminal.
Thus, if the current i enters the negative terminal as in Fig. 2.5, the current entering
the positive terminal is
i and therefore Ohm's law is o R( l), or-
o= xi
In addirion ro rrs re.i\tance. a resisrur is also charactcri/ed b) its power mting,
or hratteqe rutinq, which is the maximum power lhe resistor can dissipate without
being damaged by overheating. Thus if a resistor is to dissipate a power p its power
rating should be at least p and preferably higher. (The power used in the power rat-
i'rg is awruBe power, to be discussed in Chapter 12, but for direct currents the aver-
age and instantaneous bowe.s are the same.)

FIGURE 2.s Re, stor wiih a reveKed voltage ?\signment

Another important quantity wbich is very useful in circuit analysis is known as


, onlrcr.r,rc". dcnn(J b)

1
G= * (2.3)

The SI unit for conductance is siemens, symbolized by S and named for the brothers
Werner and William Siemens, two noted Gerrnan engineers of the late nineteeDth
I I
century. Thus S = A/V. (Another unit of conductance, widely used in the
United Statcs is tbe mho, which is "ohm" spelled backwards. The symbol for the
mho is the inverted omega (U).) Combining (2.1)-(2.3), we see that alternative ex-
pressions for Ohm's law and instantaneous power are

(2.4)

.,) Chapter 2 Resistive Circuits


and

oo):if =c,'ttl (2.5)

As a final note, the concept of resistance may be used to define two very com_
mon circuit theory terms , short circuit and open circutt . A short circuit is a; ideal
conductor between two points and thus may be thought of as a resistance of zero
ohms. It cal carry any current, depending on lhe rest of the cftcuit, but the voltage
across it is zero. AralogoBly, an open circuit is a break in the cicuit through which
no current can flow. Thus it may be considered to bd an infnite resistance, and it
may have_any voltage, again depending on tle rest of the circuit.

EXAMPTE 2-2 [,et us find the current i and the power absorbed by the l -kO resistor of Fig. 2.6.
From (2.3) and (2.4), C = # = 10 I S and i = tO 3 x t2 A = 12 mA. Also,
(2.5) yields p(r) = l0-3 x 12, W = 144 mW, which is the minimum power mring
required for the resislor.

FICURE 2.6 Curr€nt voltage example

The current in this example is a direct current since its talue does not change
._
with time. Suppos€ that we now replace the 12-V source by the time-varying voltale
D = l0 cos t V and repeat the foregoing procedure. The current is

. l0cosrV l0cosrmA
t- ,rc, =
and the instantaneous power is

P=01cos'?rW
whicb is always oonnegative. The current, in this case, is an altemating current.

EXERCISES
2.1.1 The terminal voltage of a 20-kO resistor is 100 V Find (a) the conductance, (b) rhe
terminal cu.rent, and (c) the minimum wattage of the resistor.
anrwer (a) 50 pS; (b) 5 mA; (c) 0.5 W
2.1.2 The instantaneous power absorbed by a resistor is 4 sin, 37?t W If the curent is
40 sin 377t mA. find 1, and ,R.
Answet t00 sin 37 t V, 2.5 kA
7

Seclion 2.1 Ohm's Law 23


2_1.3 Find r' and the power delivered to the resistor.
Answer -2 p,4,24 1tW

,'{i,-
EXtRCtSE 2.1.3

2.2
KIRCHHOFF'S IAWS
Thus far we have considered Ohm's law and how it may be used to find the current,
voltage, and power associated with a resistor. Hovr'€ver, Ohm's law by itself cannot
be used to anallze even the simplest circuit. In addition, we must have two laws fi.st
stated by the German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff (1824 188?) in 1847. The two
.laws are formally known as Kirchhof's curent law and Kirchhoff's voltage law.
These laws, together with the terminal characteristics for the larious circuit ele-
ments, permit systematic methods of solution for any electrical net*o!k. We shall
not attempt to prove Kirchhoff's laws here since the concepts necessary fm the
proof are developed in studies of electromagnetic field theory.
A circuit consists of two ot niore circuit elements connected by means of per-
fect conductors. Perfect conductors are zero-resistance wires which allow curent to
flow fteely but accumulate no cha.ge and no energy. In this case, the energy can be
considered to reside, or be lumped, entirely within each circuit element, and thus the
network is called. a lufiped-parameter circuit.
A point of connection of two or more circuit elements is called a node. An ex-
. ample of a circuit with three nodes is showo in Fig. 2.7(a). Node 1 consists of the
entire connection at the top of the circuit. The beginner quite often mistakes points a
and , for nodes. It should be noticed, however, that a and , are connected by a pet-
lect conductor and qan be considered electrically as being identical points. This is
readily demonshated by redrawing the circuit in the form of Fig. 2.7(b), where at
node I all connections are shown at a silgle point. Similar cornments apply for node
2. Node 3 is required for the interconnection of the independent voltage source add
' lhe resistor. With these concepts, we are now ready to discuss the all-important
la*s of Kirchhofi.
Kirchhoff' s current law (KCL) states that

The algebraic sum of th€ cur€nts entering atry node is zero.

For example, the currents entering the node of Fig. 2.8 are i, i2, ir, and ia (since
ir leaving is
t3 entering). Therefore, KCL for this case is

r,+i,+(-r3)+ta:0
24 Chapter 2 Resistive Circuits
flCURl 2.7 ,dt eF rodF. .uit .b rh.ee roo., 1,i .edrdwn

FICURE 2.8 Cuffenrs flowing into a node

Fdr the sake of argument, let us suppose that the sum is not zero. In such a
case! we would have

i+i,-i)+la=V+0
where V has units of C/s and hence must be the rate at which charges are accumu-
lated in thg node. However, a node consists of perfect conductor. a"*_
mulate charges. In addition, a basic principle of physics states that ^-nd "unnot
charges can nei_
ther be created nor destroyed (consenation of chirge). Therefore, our aiumption is
not valid, and V must be zero, demonstrating the ptausibility of KCL_
that in our example we multiply both sides of the KCL equation by
_ _Supqgse
- l. obtaininS
I irr tr i:j + rir) r(-ii)-0
From Fig. 2.8 \re see thar rhe lelt-hdnd \ide is simply ihe sum of lhe currenrs leaving
the node. This demonslrates an equivalent statement for KCL:

The algebraic sum of the currents leaving any nod€ is zero.

Let us now rearmnge the Feceaing equation in the form


i
where ir, ir, and are entering the node and ir is leaving. This forlll of th€ equation
illustrates another statement for KCL, stated as

'llre som of the currents entering any node'equalF the sum of the currents l€aving
the node,

In geneml, a mathematical expression of KCL is

S; :n (2.6)

where i, is the nth curent entering (or leaving) the nod€ and N is the number of
such t ode cudents.

EXAMPLE 2.3 As an example of KCL, let us find the current i in Fig. 2.9. Summing the currents
entering the node, we have
.
5+r (-3)-2=0
or
i= -6A.
We note that *6 A entering the node is equivalent to 6 A leaving the node. There-
fore, it is not necessary to guess the correct current direction prior to solving the
problem. We still arrive at the corect an$r'er in the end.

FIGURE 2.9 Example of KCL

We may find the curent i more directly by considering it as eDtering the node
and thus equating it to the other tkee currents leaving the node. The result is

i=-3+2+(-5) = -6A
which agrees with rhe prcvious answer.

We now move on to Kirchhoff's voltaee law (KVL), which states that

The alg€braic slm of lfie volaeges around atry closed path is zero.

26 Chapter 2 Resistive Circ!its


As an illustration, application of this statement to the closed path abcda ofFig. 2.lO
gives

-r! + 01 -q=0 (2.'7)


where the algebraic sign for each voltage has t€en taken as positive when going
ftom + to (higher to lower potential) and negative when going from to +
- -
(lower to higher potential) in taversing the element. Using this convention we are
equating the sum of the voltage drops around the loop to zero. We could use the op-
posite convention as well, in which case the sum of the voltage dse6 is zero.

FICURE 2.10 Voltages around a closed path

As in the case of KCL, we shall not attempt a proof of KVL. llowever, to il-
lustrate the plausibility of(2.7), let us assume that its right member is not zero. That
is,
-Dr - D1 - Dr=O+0
The left member of this equation is by definition the work .equired to move a unit
charge aroudd the path @dcra. A lumped-parameter circuit is a conrerydtiye system,
which means that lhe wor* r€quited to move a charge arou[d any closed path is
zero, (This is proved in a later study of electlomagtetic theory.) Thus our assurnp-
tion is not valid, and O is indeed zero.
We should point out, however, lhat all electrica.l systems are not conseffative.
In fact, electrical power g€neration, mdio *"ves, and sunlight, to mention oDly a
few, are consequences of nonconservadve systems,
The application of KVL is independent of the direction in which the path is tra-
versed. Consider, for ex^mple, the path adcba in Fig. 2.10. Summing the voltages,
we find
r-rr+or=0
which is equivalent to (2.7).
In geneml, a mathematical representation for KVL is

),,=o (2.8)

where D" is the nth voltage in a loop of N voltages. The sign of each voltage is cho'
sen as described earlier for (2.7).

.,.f
Section 2.2 Kirchhoff's Laws
EXAMPLE 2.4 As an example of the use of KVL, let us find o in Fig. 2.11. TraversiDg the circuit ir
a clockwise direction, we have

15+o+10+2=0
or o = 3 V. Suppose that we now pedorm a counterclockwise traversai. In such a
case,.
L5 2 10 D=0
or u = 3 V, which, of course, is the same result obtained for the clockwise tra-
versal.

- 2V + d
FIGURI 2.11 Circuil to illustrate

Still another version of LVL for Fig. 2.11 yields


l)+10+2=15
where lhe sum of the vollageq wilh one po)aity is equated io the sum oflhe voltages
with the opposite polarity. State-d another vay, the voltage rises equal the voltage
drops, which is another statemrcnt of KVL.
Finally, we may solve for o direcdy by noting that it is the voliage or. and thus
,
is equal to the sum of the voltages ftom to c through the other three elements.
That is, the voltage between two terminals is the same regardless of the path taken
betwe€n them. Thus in Fig. 2. I I we have

r:=15-2-10=3V
ln each ot the previous examples. KVL has been applied around conducring
paths, such as arcda above. The law, however, is valid for an) closed path. Con-
sider, for instance, the path dcdd of Fig. 2.11. We note that movement directly ftom
d to c is not along a conducting path. Applying KVL to this closed path yields
+
,.. + 10 2 = 0, where o." is the potential of point a with respect to c. Thrs
a* - 12 V. We could also have chosen the path arca, for which

-15 + r) - 0- -- -15 + 3 - o". = 0


Therefore, o- = - 12 v, which demonstates the use of different closed palhs to ob-
tain the same result.

EXAMPTE 2.5 Consider finding a, and u, in the network of Fig. 2.12. Summing the curents enter-
r, -i'
ing node a gives -4 + 1 + tr = 0, or ir = 3 A. At node - : + 2 i2 0 or
iz: I A. At node c, i2+L-3= 0, or i3=4 A. Therefore, at node d,
28 Chaprer ? Resistive Circuits
FICURI 2.I2 Network tor example of KCL and KVL

-t - 1 -
r': 0, or r, =
- -5 A.
Next, KVL about the path drcdd gives
-10 a oz rr" = 0. From Ohm's ld,$ t2= 5i2 = -5 V. Therefore,
- -15 V. o,:
Before concluding our discussion of Kirchhoff's laws, consider the rctwork of
Fig. 2.13, in which seveml elements are shown within a closed surface S. We recall
that the current entering each element equals lhat leaving the device so that each ele-
ment stores zero net charge. ThereforeJ the total net charge stored within the surface
is zero. requiring that

tr+i+t3+ta=0

s.

This result illustrates a generalization of KCL, which states

The alg€braic sum of the currents enlering any closed sllrface is zem.r

To illustrate the plausibility of the generalized KCL, let us writer KCL equations at
nodes a, b, c, and d of Fig. 2.13. The results are

'The suh.e cmot pass rbmugh an el€m€nt, \drich is comidered to be concentmred ar a point in
lump€d-paraneter circuils.

Section 2.2 Kir.hholf's Laws to


i,=i5-i"
n--n-i.-,,-no
,]3=-i+rs+tro
' i4 = tu + ri + re

Adding these equarions yielG


ir +rr -ir-ta=0
as noted previously.
From the general;zed KCL. we se€ immediately in Fig. 2.12 for a surbce en-
. closing points a, b, c, d that 4 + 2 3 0, or i, = -5 A.
-i, - - -
^id

EXERCISES
2.2.i Find i a\d o*.
Answer -l A,62\

t4o

Find 1) and i.
Answet l'1 V,3 A,

EXERCTSE 2.2.2

30 Chapl€.2 Resistive Circuits

I
2.3
SERIES RESISTANCE AND VOLTAGE DIVISION
Now lhat the iaws of Ohm ,n.l Kirchhoff hare been introduced. we are prepared to
anallze resistive circuirs. We begin with a rjmp,fe cir.ril. which we define as one
rhat can be completely described by a single equation. One t'?e, which we shall
consider in this section, is a circuit consisting of a single closed path, or loop, of ele-
,
llents. By KCL each element has a comm6n .uy i. Then Ohm,s law and
KVL. applied around the loop yield a single equation"orren'i,in i that completely
describes
the circuir.
Elements are said to be coonected in series when rhey all cary the same cua_
rent. Clearly, the networks of this section consisl entirely of elements connected in
s€ries. An impoitant circuit of this type, consisting of two resistors and at1 indepen-
dent.voltage source, provides an excellent starting point. We shall first analyzjthis
special case and then develop the more geneml case.
A singleloop cilcuit having two.resistots and an independent voltage source is
shown in Fig. 2-14(a). The first step in the analysis procedure is the assignment of
. curents and voltages to all elements in the network. In this circuit, it is obvious
from KCL $at all elemenls carry the same currcAt. We may arbitrarily call this cur_
rent i in the direcrion shown Ci*t*i..j. iirr. ,."r".'"ii"" ii
guo,,r,"
true current direction in rMking assignments. The corect assignment "ii.ip',i is not neces_
sary, as we will see, and usually is nol possible. even for the e,\p€rt.) We next make
the voltage aslignments ior Rr and R2 as or and o?, respectivel',. These assignments
. are also aibit€ry but in the figure have been chosen to satisfy Ohm's law fd a posi-
live algebraic sign.

flCUXt 2.14 (a) Sin8le,joop circuit; (b) equivatent circuit

The second step in the analysis is the applicatio4,of KVL, which


ields
D=U!+D)
where, from Ohm's law,

tr = Rti
(2.9\
az = Rzi
Combining lhes€ equarions. we find

o=Rti+Rzi
Section 2.3 series Reshtance and VolraSc Division 31
and

, ol , Rt
P,= R,= tR=E o'
respectively. The total power absorbed is

Rt+R, =,C---J =,'


The power delivered by the source also equals oi, indicating tlat the power delivered
by the source equals that absorbed by ltr and Rz. This result is known as cozser'oo -
tion of power ,sometifies also referred to as Tellegen's theoreml. a property which is
oflen useful in circuit analysis.

EXAMPTE 2.7 Suppose that o = 120 sin r V and or = 48 sin r V in Fig. 2.15. IJt us Dow deter-
mine Rr, &, i, and the instantaneous powe! associa&d with each element. By KVL,
u2 = r l,r = 72 sin I V, and by (2.131.

?2 sin r= -29 t2o s;n r


90+R,
which yields Rr - 60 O. Hence .lR": R, + n, = 150 O, and, ftom (2.10),
t:(120sbt)/150:0.8sintA. The instantaneous power to Rr and R, is
h: Rri'1= 38.4 sin'?tW and p, = R i2 = 51.6 sin'?rW. Thus the power deliv-
ered by the source is 96 sin'? , W. The power absorbed by lR, is n,i'1 = 96 si r W,
which of course is the power delivered by the soulce-

FICURE 2.15 Single-loop circuit

f,et us now extend our analysis to include the series colnection ofN resistoN
and an independent voltag€ source, as shown in Fig. 2.16. This is a voltage divider
with N voltages. KvL gives

l)=t)r+02+.

Seclron 2.1 Series Rerisrance and Volt.Be Division 33


FlGUnt 2,16 Single-loop circuit with N series rcsislors

in which

or Rri
=
a, = Rzi
(2.r4)

tr'v = &i
Thergfore,

a-Rri*Rzi+' ..+nNt
Solving this equation lor i yields

.,
" Rr+&+...+R, (2.15)

i!
I2t us Do\r select n" the.ciicuit of Fig. 2.14(b) so that (2.11) is satisfred.
Equivalence of (2.11) and (2.15) requires that

(2.16)

Thercfore, the equivaleot r€sistance of lV series Esistors is simply the sum of the h-
dividual resistances.
Substitutiry (2.15) and (2.16) into (2.14), ve find

34 Chapter 2 Resistive Circuils


R,
R.
R?

(2.t7\

R"
o':&o

which are the equations describing the voltage division property


for y'{ series resis-
tors. Again, we see rhar rhe vokage divjdes; direct pro;o;do;to
rhe resistance.
The instantaneous power delivered to the serie; c;bination, ftom (2.2)
and
(2.17), is

^-Dl+oi..-."i
'hRzR*
=H,* -fr*- -*!;,'
=ftr="
This power is equal to that^dejivered by the souce, verirying
conseFEtion of power
for rhe series connection of /V resistors

EXAMPLE 2.8 In Fig. 2.16, ler us find or and i if/V = 10, R,


= 60 O, the other nine resistances
are each 10 0, and o.= 75 V. The equi lent resistance is X,
150 ft, and by voltage divisio&
= 60 + 9(10) =
m
ur =
lso(75)
- l0 v
B) ohm's law we have
.D'15
r-E=150=0.5A

EXERCISES
2,3.1 Find (a) the equivalent iesistanc€ seen by the soutce, (b) the curetrt i, (c)
the power
delivered by the source, (d) or, (e) oz, and (f) the minirnum wattage re4riiJ
for the
6-(} resistor.
Answa (a) U O; b) 0.5 A; (c) 6 W (d) 5 V; (e) -4 V; (f) 1.5 w

Section 2.3 Seriet Resistan.e and votiaEe Divisjon


-tt
-r- 0Ir r0r}

8J)

EXERCtSt 2.3.1

2-3-2 In Fig. 2.14(a), o= l6e'V,...2=4e'V, and&=24 O. Find (a) n,, G) the


instantaneous power delivered to Rr, and (c) the curent i.
Aa\wer (a) 8 O; {b) 2e ,,W (c.) 0.5e ,A
2.3.3 A resistive load2 requires 4 V and dissipates 2 W. A 12-V storage battery is available
to opemte the load- Referring to Fig. 2.14(^), il R, represents the load and o the
l2-V battery, find (a) the culrenr i, (b) the necessary resistance Rr, and (c) the
minimum wattage of Rr.
AA'wet lat 0.5 Ai (b) t6 Or (c) 4 W
.2.3.4 ln rhe voltage divid€r sho*n. the power delivered by lhe rource is 9 mW and
D = D/4. Find R, o, r ,, and i.
Answer 9 kA, t2 V, 3 V, 0.75 mA

--i* l ko

4r(o

EXtRCTST 2.3.4

2.4
---- PARALLEL RESISTANCE AND CURRTNT DIVISION
Another important simple circuit is lhe single-node-pair resistive circuit. ln anahz-
ing these networks. we shall first examine a special case and lhen develop the m;re
general case, as was doDe for the single-loop network.
Elements are connecled h Waltel when the same vohage is corunon lo each
of them. The single-node-pair circuit shown in Fig. 2.1?(a) is a pamllel condection
of two resisto$ and aD independent curent source sjnce by KVL all three elements
have the same voltage o.

'zA bar' is an elencnt or coliecdon of el€menb connecred b€tw@n the ourpur termimts. tn rhis case lh€

36 Chapre, ? R;sisnve Ci(uils


(a) O)
FIGURE 2.17 (a) Single-node-pair circuit; (b) equivalent circuit

Applying KCL at the upper node lelds


i=it+i2
where, ftom Ohm's law,

(2.18)
L= Gza

Combining lhese equations gives


' i:G1o+Gzt)
and solvilg for o, i{e find
i (2.19)
" Gt+G2
In the chcuit of Fig. 2.17(b), if Gp is selected such that

D":
i (2.20)
^ =t)
' lrp
then the network is an equivalent circuit to that of Fig. 2.17(a). Comparing (2.19)
and (2.20). we see that

Go=Gt+Gz (2.2t)
Clearly, Gp is the equivalent conductance of the two par"allel conductances. In telms
of rcsistances, (2.21) becomes
111
GP
R, Rl R,

R,R,
RP: (2.22)
R, + R,,...

Therefore, the equi\ale[t resistance of two resisto$ connected in paiallel is equal to


the product of their resistalces divided by their sum. It is interesting to note that G,
is geater thaD either Gr or Gr; therefore, & is less than either Rr or R2. From this re-

Section 2.4 Pahllel Resistance and Curent Division 37


sult, we see that connecting resistors in pamllel reduces the ovemll resistance. In the
special case R2 :
fir, we see from (2.22\ that Rp = &/2.
Substiruring f2.19) inro (2.18) givas

tt.6=
cn Grt
.Gz Q.23\

The clrrent of the sourc€ i divides between conductances Gr and G in dtect pro-
portion to thei conductaDces, demonstmting ttrf, principle of current dir:ision. The
circuit, of course, is a arrent diaider. Ilis cortuion pmctice to give the rcsistor !al-
ues in circuit diagrams in ohms (resistance) and oot siem€ns (conductarce). In tems
of resistance lues, (2.23) becomes

. ?R:
' i, +R,
(2.24\
RI
- RI+R'

Therefore, the curent divides in irverse porpottion to the resistances. We see that
the larger curent flows through the smaller resistance. The power abso6ed by the
pamllel combination is

b+p,-Rti?+R?i7
Rit P) i'z
- (R, r 6zf R, t 14, -
RrRr., ^yn,
=
R' + R'?-I- = ',r

which equals that delivered to the rctwork by the current source.

EXAMPLE 2.9 Suppose in Fig. 2.l7{a) rhat R


=3O,nr-6O.andi=3A.Then.from(2.22).
Rp = (3)(6)/(3 + 6):2 -
O. Fitotrl. (2.24), t, = 3(3) 2 A, and i, =;(3) = I A.
:
The voltage a = R1L R2tr: (3)(2) = 6 V. The current of the source flows
tbrough an equivalent resistance of Rp. Hence the voltage is also given by
D: R,i = (2)(3\ = 6V.
I-€t us now consider the more geneml currett divider of N parallel conduc-
tances and an independent curent source, as shown in Fig. 2.18. KCL gives
i=L+i2.+...+iN

38 Chapter 2 Resistiv€ Circlits


for which
L=Gto
?:.G*
(2.25)

iN : GNo
Therefore, we have
i=Gp+G2aI'..iGxo
ftom which

(2.26)
G+ G1 +-.'+GN

FICURE 2.18 single node pair crrcuit l^rth N pdrallel conductan(c,

Il we now select cp in Fig. 2.1?O) such that (2.20) is satisfied, then (2.26) re-
quires that

Gp=6+G.+.. + CN:>Gi Q.27)

In terms of resistances, this equation becomqs

I l l I {r (2.28)
RP Rt R, n* *u' R'
Hence the reciprocal of the equivaletrt relistance is simply the sum of the reciprocals
of the nsistanceq

Seclion 2.4 Parallel Resistance and Curent Division 39


Combining (2.25)-(2.28), we find

, =4,=\,
G" Rr

. G1. R,,

(2.29)

G^ R^
G, RV

Again the currents divide in inverse proportion to the resistances.

TXAMPLE 2.10 \rye observe in (2.28) that for N > 2 an expression for Rp is more complicated than
(2.22). Formulas could be obtained, of course, for 1V : 3, 4, and so on, but it is
usually easier to (2.28) direcdy. As an example, suppose for N = 3 that
&:4o",R2 = 12^Wly O, and Rr = 6 f,I. Then
rl1ll
Ro4t262
and Rp = 2O.

EXAMPTE 2.11 Let us now find the equirale t resisfance R* of the network of Fig. 2.19(a), as
viewed ftom terminals x-y. Such reductions are very helpfirl in analyzing many t]?es
of circuits, as we shall see in the next section. The process is carried out by succes-
sive combinations of parallel and series conn€cted resistors. In Fig. 2.19(a), the stu-
dent often errs in takir4 combinations sucb as the 7- and 12-O resistors to be in se-
des. we see, however, that at nod€ a, a cuffent in the 7-O resistor would divide
betwe€n the l- and 12-O resistors; hence they cannot be in series. The l- and 5-O
rcsistod, however, would carry the same current. Therefme they are in series, hav-
ing an equivalent resistance of 6 f} as shown in Fig. 2.19(b). we now obserye tlat
the same voltage would occur aoross the 6- and l2-O resistors. indicaling a parallel
connection having an equivalent resistance of (6)(12)16 + 12) : 4 C), as shown in,
Fig. 2.19(c). It is apparent that the ?- and 4-() resistors of this network are in series,
yielding an equivalert resistance for the entire network of ll O [Fig- 2.19(d)].
Therefore, from terminals r-], the network could be rcplaced by a single resistor of
1l O. This is useful in determining, for inslance, the power delivered by a sourco
connected to terminals.rt. Suppose that a 22-V source is applied. Then the cunent
flowing ftom the source is i: i = 2 A, which gives an instantaneous power
p(t) = (22\(2, - 44 W delivered to ttre resistor network.

40 c!apter2 Re5ielive ( rr.urts


FICURt 2.19 Steps in determining the equivaleni resistance of a network

EXERCISES
2.4,1 Find the equi lent resistance seen by the souce ard use the result to lind
and o.
Answer 8 Q,6 A, 5 A, 30 V
_i-- 3f,,

2,4.2 If i = 9 A and ,; = 6 A h Fig. 2.1?(a), find the ratio RzlRr.


arsr", I
2.4.3 A load requires 3 A and absorbs 48 W. If only a 5-A curent souce is available, find
the required resistance to place in parallel with rhe load.
easqcr 8 O
2.4.4 In Fig.2.l8, if ,V = 3, Rr:9O, R2=12o", and o:12sinrV'and the in_
stantaneous power delivered by the curdnt souc€ is 24 sin, , W, find (a) Rr, (b) ,,
and (c) rr.
Answt (^) 24 A. @) 2 sin r A; (c) 0.5 sin r A
2.4.5 Find the equi%lent resistarce seeD by the source and the curent i.
answer 10 Q,2 A

Section 2-4 Parallel Resisrance and Crirrenr Division 41


2.5
ANATYSIS EXAMPLES
In'this section we analyze s€veral circuits to illustrate tho analysis techniques we
have considered so hr

EXAMPII 2.12 Let us find i, or, and o", in the circuit of Fig. 2.20(a) KVL and Ohm'slaw give
30+mi+30t+20+50t=0
FIcURE 2.20 rarsingle-loop(ir(uitilb)equivalentcrrcu,t: r.r anolher equi\,alcnt (ircurt
__i*

42 Chapt€r 2 Resistive Circuits


which simplifies to rhe reduced equation

-tb + rooi=o
Therefore, we hav€ i = 0.1 A and or = 30i = 3 V, The circuir of Fig. 2,20(b) is
equivalent to that of Fig. 2.20(a) as far as the curent j is concemed siice lottr cir-
cuits are described by tle reduced equation. ln fact, Fig. 2.20(b) rnay be obtained
directly ftom Fig. 2.20(a) since in the latter all rhe elefients cary the same cudent
i and thus are in series. Adding the three resistances yields the equil"lent resistance
oi 100 O, and adding the source voltages algebraically gives the equiralent source
of 10 V. This may be easier to see in Fig. 2.20(c), where the 20-V souce has b€en
mored nexl lo rhe Jo-V soulce.
To find o", we apply KVL in Fig. 2.20(a) to the loop consisting of the direct
path rd, the ?0-O rcsistor, and the 30-V soulce. This yields

-xab 20t + 30 = 0
ftom which D", - 28 V.

EXAMPLE 2.I3 l,et us show that conservation of power holds for the circuit of Fig. 2.20(a). Since by
Example 2.12 we have i = 0.1 A, the powers absotbed by the resisto$ are

Pmo = 20(0 1)z = 0.2 w


Pro = 30(0 1)'? = 0.3 W
aDd

P:oo = 50(0 1)? - 0.5 w


The 20-V source is also absorbing power since the current enters its positive termi-
nal. This power is given by

Pzov=2ni=2W
The l0-V source delivers power given by

P3ov=30i=3W
Since 3 - 2 + 0.2 + 0.3 + 0.5, the delivered power equals the absorbed power
and thus conservation of power holds.

EXAMPLE 2.14 l,et us 6nd i and o a[d show that conservation of power holds for the ciroir of Fig.
2.21,1a *lnd\ tkee conductances and two independent curent sources ate con-
Dected i! pamllel. Applying KCL to tle upper node yields

10 sin ?r, - 0.01o - 0.02o - 5 - 0.07o = 0

(10 sin zr - 5) - 0.1o - 0

Section 2.5 Analysis Exampt€s 43


t) vlo.ors io.o2s {)'n

FICURE 2.21 Single-node-pair circuit

It isapparent ftom this result that a current so&c€ of (10 sin ,., 5) A connected -
to a conductanceof 0.1 S (a l0-O resistor).would be an equiralent circuit as frr as i)
is concerned lse€ Fig. 2.17{b)'l.
Solving for o and subsequently for i, we have
1)=l00siD'rt-50v
i = o.o2t = 0.02(100 sin - 50) : 2 ,in tt, IA
''t
Now let us consider coDservation of power for the circuit of Fig. 2.21. The to-
tal power absorbed by the conductances i5

px = Got:z = 0.1(100 sin zr - 50)'


= 1000 sin'?zr 1000 sin 'rt + 250 W
The power delivered by the lellmost source is
p, = l0 sin rt(100 sin zt - 50) W

Similarly. the 5-A soutce delivers


P, = 5(10J sin 7t - 50) W

Thus the total power delivered by these souces is


pd.t: h + P2 = 1000 sin'? tt - 1000 sin tt + 250 W
which equals thal absorbed by the conductances.

IXAMPIE 2.15 t€t us find i, o, and the power delivered by the source in the circuit of Fig. 2.22(a).
We begin by obtaining successive combinations of paiallel and sedes resistor con-
. nectiom. The 4- and 8-() resistances (in series) add to give 12 O. These 12 O are in
parallel with the 6-() resistor, giving atr equivalent \rdlue of (12X6)/(l? + 6) = 4 O
[Fig. 2.22(b)). We now add the 12- and 4-() re,sistances, which are in pamllel with
the 16 o, giving (16X16)/(16 + 16) = 8 0, as shown in Fig. 2.22(c). This is the
equivalent resistance as seen looking into the circuit at terminals a-r. The equivalent
resistance seen by the source, ftoh Fig. 2.22(c) is n* = 2 + 8 :
10 O, so that the
curent ir is

ir=roa-3A
Therefore. the power delivered by the source is

a = (30)(3) : e0 w

44 Chapt€r 2 Resistive Cncuits


FICUR[ 2.22 Circuit for analvsis example u5ing voltage division

By voltage division we see in Fig. 2.22(c) that

/8\
''=(2*r-:J:o=:+v
which is the voltage across points 4-, in the circuit. Pioceeding to F19 2.22(b), we
see that or is the voltage across the series combination of the 12- and 4-f,) resistors;
hence, again using voltage division, we fiod

/a\
o,=l
' \12'4l lt -6v
which is the voltage acloss points c-d in the circuit. In Fig. 2 22(a), 02 is the voltage
across the series connection of the 4- and 8-() resistors Therefore, voltaSe division
yields
/B\ 4v
" l- o/"
Finally, by current divisiot in Fig. 2.22(b), 'xe h^'te

' i=jir=lsA

EXAMPLE 2.15 kt us find the cunent i in Fig 2.23(a) We note that the two 6-() resisto$ on the
right of Fig. 2.23(a) are equivalett to 12 O, which is in parallel with the 4-O resis-
tor. This parallel combination is equivalent to (4)(12)/(4 + 12) = 3 O as shown in
Fig. 2.23ab). If we now leplace the two series lesistors to the right of points r-j' and

Section 2-s Analysh Examples 4s


FICURE 2.23 Circuit for analysis example usinS current division

the parallel 3- and 6-cl .e.sistors to the left of t-) by their respective series and paral-
lel equilelents, we obtain the circuit of Fig. 2.23(c). Using current division, ry€ 6nd
/'\
r=[t-eJx12=34
A second application of current division to Fig. 2.2314) ylelds

,=l o
' \4t6'6,/ \i,-/l)"r=lo
\4/ 4

EXERCISES
2.5,1 Find o", and the power delivered by the 5-V sourc€.
Aasner 5 V, 0-5 W

. 30O , 40O
EXERCISE 2 5 1

Find n and colstruct an equilalent circuit having orle curent solllce and a silgte
rpsistor.
Answu R= 20Q, t= 3 sh tA directed upw.rd, 10O

46 Chapler 2 ResGlive Ckcuits -


rooa {rrn ( l)r",,o
"
EXERCtST 2.5.2

2.5.3 Find t' and t.


Aruper 0.8,0.7 A

txfRclst 2.5,3

2,5,4 Find o and the power delivered by the souce.


Arsr er 4 V,864 W

28O 4(}

EXtRCtSt 2.5-4

2.6
AMMETTRS, VOTTMETERS, AND OHMMETERS
A good example of the useftilness of curent add voltage division is demonstrated in
the design of simple two-terminal measuring instruments, such as a$meter$, volt-
mete$, and obmm€te$. An idaal ainneter frrcasules the curent flowing thaough its
terminals and has zero voltage across its terminals. In contrast, Nt ideal voh cter
measures the voltage aooss it! terminals and has a teaminal cunent of z€ro. An
tdeal ohmmeter measres the lesistaDce connected betwe€n its teminals and delivers
zero power to the resistance.
The Factical measuring inst uments that we shall consider only approximate
tle ideal devices. The ammelers, for instance, will not have zero terminal voltages_
Similarly, tbe voltmeters will not have zero terminal currents, and the obrDmeters
will not have zero power delivered from their termiDals.
A popular type of artunetet consists of a mechanical movement ktown as a
D'Arsolval meter. This device is constructed by suspending an electrical coil be-

Section 2.6 Ammeter!, Voltmete6, and Ohmmete6 47


tween thc poles of a permarent maglet. A & cur!€nt passing through the coil causes
a rotation;f thc coil, as a result of magnetic forces, that is proportional to the cu.-
rent. A pohter is attached to the coil so that the lotation' m meter deflection, can b€
visually observe-d. D'Arsonral meteas arc characte zed by therJ fltll'scale current,
which is the current that will cause the meter to read its gleatest ralue Meter move_
ment! are conunon having hrll_scale curretlts ftom l0 /,A to l0 ltlA.
An e4uivalent circuit for th€ D'ArsoNal meter consists of an ideal atrljneter in
series withl rcsistance Rir, as shoen in Fig. 2.24. In this circuit' nM reprcsents the
resistance of the electrical coil. Cleady, a voltage appears across the atnmete. telmi-
nals as a result of the current i iowi!8 through ft|'. Rll is usually a few oluns, and
the terminal voltage for a full-scale curent is nominally ftom 20 to 200 mV.

FICURE 2.24 Equivalent circuit for a D'Arsonval nreter

The D'Arsonral meter of Fig. 2.24 is an armeter which is suitable for mea-
suriru & curents not greater than the full_scalc curent lFs Sup-pose, however, that
we *Ish to me""ue a i*rent which exceeds IFs. It is apparent that we trIust not al-
low a cGrent greater than IFs to ffow through the device. A ciicuit to accomplish this
is showl in Fig. 2.25, *ttere & is a pamllel resistanae that reduces the culrent
iowinS throueh the meter coil.

FICUnE 2,25 Ammeter circuit

From curretrt division we se€ that

r^ =
*f ur*
(Clearly; this is
where iFs is tbe current which produces lns in the D'ArsoNtsl meter'
the maximum culrent the amlneter can measute) Solving for Re, we have

, RrlFs (2.J0)

A dc voltsneler can be constructed using the basic D'Arson\al meter by placing


a resistance R, in series with the device. as shown in Fig 2 26 lt is obvious that the

48 Chapler 2 Resistive Circuits


,'

^ FIGURE 2.26 Vok;eter circuit

full-scale voltage, o = oFs, occlEs when the mdter cudent is 16. Therefore, fiom
KVL,
' -DFs + R"IFS + R/1Fs - 0
ftom which

n:5 - n. (2.31)

The current sensitivity of a voltmeter, e\pressed in ohms per volt, is the value
obtain€d by dividhg the resistance of the voltmerer by irs firll-scale voltage. There-
fore.

R'
o/v raring - L-l-4" = (2 J2)

(I|ote. "-"
means apFoximately equal to.)
A
simple ohrnmeter circuil emploing a D,Arson\,al meter lor measuinp an
unlnown resistance & is shown in Fig. 2.27. ln this circuit the batrery E cauis a
cuffent i to fow when R. is connected into the circuit. Applying KVL, we have
' -E + (R, + R',. + R)r = 0
ftom *{rich

a,={-1n,+n;

section 2-6 Ammete.s, Vokmeterc, and Ohmmeters 49

t
We select E and R, such that for & = 0, i = IFs. The.efore,
,E
'*-i'-R"
Combiniog ttre las two €quations, we find

*.= (ls -,),^.


\r 'J'"n '- (2.33)
",r '
A very popular genonl-purpos€ meter *ftich combine'e the thre€ pr€viously de-
scribed circuits is the yOM (volhleter-ohnlrneter-millialnmeter). In the VOM, pro-
visions are made for changing n
and & so that a wide dynamic range of operation is
provided.

EXERCISES
2.6.1 A D'ANotrval meter has lFs : I nA and R|/ : 50 O. Determine lte in Fig. 2.25 so
that tFs is (a) 1.0 mA, (b) l0 mA, and (c) 100 mA
A'r,er (a) I!finite; (b) 51556 O; (c) 0.505 O
2,6,2 In Fig. 2.26, determine R" and the O/V rating for a voltmeter to have a full-scale
voltage of 100 V usirg a D'ArsoN"l meter with (a) Rv : 100 O and,aFs = 50 }tA
and O) nv = 50 O and 1Fs : I dA.
Answer ({ 2MA,20 kO/V; (b) 100 kO, I k0/v
2.6.3 what voltage would each meter d€sign of Exelcise 2.6.2 measure in the ckcuit
shown? why are the two measuements differcnt?
Answer 99.5 Y, .9 \

EXtRCtSE 2.6.3

2.6.4 The metq movement of Exercise 2.6.1 is used to form the ohmmetq circuit of Fig.
t
2.27. Determine R" and so that i = 1Fs/2 lnA when & = l0 kO
Allr)ral 9.95 kO, l0 V

2.7
PHYSICAT RESISTORS
Resiston are manufacurred from a \adety of materials and are a!"ilable in dany
sizes and values. Their chancteristics include a rcminal resistarce value, an accu_
racy with which the actual resislatce aPproximaie'! the nomioal value {ktrown as tor-

50 Chapter 2 Resillive Circuits


e/ar.e), a power dissipation, and a stabilily a5 a function of temperature, humidity,
and other enviroDfiental factors.
Th€ oost common t)rpe of resistd found in electrical circuit! is the carbon
compo6ition or carbol 6lm r€sistor. The composition t]?e is made of hot-pressed
carbon granules. The carbon filln device consists of carbon powdet which is de-
posited on an insulathg substrate. A tt?ical resisto. of this type is shown in Fig.
2.2E. Multic.olored baads, shown as c, b, c, a\d % loleratrc'-, are paidted on the re-
sistor lrcdy to hdicate the nominal value of the resistance. The color code for the
bands is given in Table 2.1.

tll
FICURE 2.28 Ca6on resistor

Bands, a. D, and c give the nomi0al resislance of the resistor. and lhe tolerance
band give€ the percentage by which the resistance may deviate from its nominal
%lue. Referring to Fig. 2.28. the resistance is
n = (10d+ r)l0t % tolerance (2.34)
by which we mean that the % tole.ance of the nominal resistarce is to be added or
subtracted to give the r:anga in which the resistance lies.

ffi? coro, coau ror carbon Resisrors

SilY€r* -2
Gold* -l 5
Bla.k 0 BIU€ 6
I '|
Red z G",y 8
Otuge 3 9
% Tolennc€ Band
Gold !5%
Silve.

.*flFF @l@ ady ro b.rd. oly

EXAMPLI 2.17 Suppose that we have a resistor with band colors of yellow, violet, red, and silver.
The r€sistor will have a value given by
R:(4x10+j\xtO,!tO%
4700 ! 470 A
Therefore the resistance value lie,s between 4230 and 5170 O.

seclion 2.7 Ph)5i@l Reirrors 51

I
Values of carbon resistors range from 2.7 to 2 2 x 107 O, with lEttages ftom
+ w. For resistance \alues less than l0 O, we see ftom (2.34) rhat rhe-thitd bad-
to 2
must be gold or silver. Cafton tesisto$ are inexpensrve but have lhe disadvatrtage of
a rclatively high variation ol resistance with tempemture.
Another resistor type which is commonly used in adicatioos requidng a high
i)wer dissipation is the wire-\dound r€sistot. This device coosisB of a metallic wire,
usualty a nickel-chromium alloy, wormd on a ceramic corc. Irw-tempemufe_
coefficient wire permits the hhicatioo of resistors that are very paecise and stable,
having accuracy and stability of the order of 1l% to !0-0/]1
The metal film resistor is arother valuable and useful resistor type. Thes€ resis-
tors are made by vacuum deposition of a thin layer on a low-thermal-expaNion sub-
strate. The resistance is then adjusted by etching or grinding a p*tern though the
filIn. Accuracy and stability for tbese re6istors approaches that of wire-wound types,
and high resistanc€ values arc much €asier to attain.
In the futwe, the reader may be more likely to encounter resistors io it teSr4ted
cr'rcairs, which were developed in the late 1950s and came hto their own in the
1960s. An integrated circuit is a single monbllthi. cbip of sefiicdtductor (firte'iil
with conducting properties between tho€e of a conductor and an insulator) in which
active and passive elements are hbricated by difrision aDd deposition proc€sses. ln-
legrated circuils containing hundreds of elements arc a
ilable on chip€ about i i!.
square. An integrated-circuit resistor has the tyPical structure thowtr in Fig. 2.29.

FIGURE 2.29 lntegrated-ciicuit retiator

EXERCISE
2.7.1 Find the resistance mnge of catbon tesistors having color bands of (a) brown' black'
red, silvei: (b) red, violet, yellow, silver: and (c) blue, gray, gold, gold.
.rmwar (a) 900-1100 O; (b) 243-291 kA,, @) 6.46-7.t4 O

2.8
SUMMARY
This chapter has b€en devoted to the /esistor, the simplest of the two-terminal ele-
ments. We have considercd the resistance afld conductance of a resistot, their uDits
(ohms arld siemens) , some examples of rerirdye ctlcuitr (those made uP of resis-
^nd

52' Chapter 2 Reshtive Circuits


tors and sources). We have covered Olrn's lltw, o = Ri, the most basic Fitrciple of
circuit thmry, and the relation p = Ri'?for tbe power dissipated by a resistor.
We now know aboul Klrchhofr's cwrent and ,oltage lnws ard how to apply
them to anallze resistive circuits. We have considered r€n€r and pararl€, re€istq
connections and the concepts of roltage a d currerd division to simplify tlrc analysis
by obtaining equivalent circaitr. We have also learned of metering devicns-arntne-
ters, vohmeters, and ohmneters-whiclt may be used to measure currents, voltages,
and resistances in actual circuits. Finally, we have briefly considered physical resi$-
tors and the color code for reading their resistance values in the cas€ of caaboo
resistors,
As we will see in Chaptq 4, the conc€pts of this chapter are vital to the analy- .
sis of general resisrive circuits.

PROBTEMS
2.1 A l-ko r€sistor is cormected to a battery and hot wllen i! calries a current. If a to€sEa is
6 trrA flow. What curent will flow if the bal dissipqting 9@ W at a voltage of tm V fnd
tery is connecaed to a 30-O resistor? Wllat is its current aJd its re9islgrce.
the terminal voltage of the battery? 2.4 Find tbe energy used by a rdster witb a rrsis-
2.2. A 6-V bxttery is connected to the eods of a taDce of 12 O, which is openled ar 120 V for
1000-ft length of conducting wire and a l2-mA 10 s.
curent flows. wllat is the resistance per foot 2.5 Find i and od.
of the wre?
2.6 Find i', r,, and od.
2.3 A toaster is essentially a rcsistor that becomes

PROBTEM 2.S

PtoEt-EM 2.6

Chapter 2 Problem! 53
Find ir, i,, and o.
2.4 Find o.
2.9 Find i atrd R.
2,10 Find i, o"r, and an equii'atent cncuit fori con-
taininS a single source and a single resistor.
2-tt A lo-V souice in series with several resistors
carries a cufrent of 50 mA, what resistance
must b€ conrccted in seri€s with the source
and the resistors to timit the curr€nt to 20 mA?
?ROBLf,M 2.7
2-12 . A 50.V source and lwo resisrors, nr and R,,
ar€ comect€d in s€ries. trfnz = 4n,. find the
voltages across the two resistors.

PROf,ttM 2.A

PROATEM 2.9

2-13. A l2-V source in series with a r€sistive load R


caries a cur:rent of 60 mA. If a resistor Rr is
added in series with lhe source and load, find
Rr so thal the voltage across il is 8 V
2.14 Design a voltag€ divider to provide 4, 10, and
20 V, all with a conrmon negative terminal,
ftom a 25-V source. The source is to deliver
25 mw of power.
2-ts Design a voltage divider to provide 2, 6, 10,
PROBIIM 2.10 U, 14 V, all with a common negFtiv€
^nd

54 Chapler 2 Resistive Circuits

I
telminal, ftom a 50-V source, which delivers 2-22 A current divider consists of l0 resistors in
100 mW of power. paiallel. Nine of them have equal resistances
2.16 A voltage divider is to be constructed with a of 60 kO and the tenth is a 20-kO resistor.
60-V source and a number of 10-kO resistors. Find the equil"l€nr resisrance of the divide.,
Find the minimum number of resistors and, if th€ total current entering the divider is
required if the output voltage is (a) 40 V and 40 mA, find the currenl in the tenth resistor.
(b) 30 v. 2-23 Find n and j1.

2.17 Find all the possible output vohag€s less than


14 V that can be obtained by construcling
vokage dividers with a l4-V source in series
with tbree resistors of 2, 4, and 8 O, respec-
tively.
-lL 6(} 480
2.18 Find t and the power delivered to the 4-O r€-
,'l
2.19 Find o.
2.20 A 20-O l0-O resisror, and a resis-
re,sisror, a
24V ),n 30r) 4EO

tor R are comected in parall€l 1o form an


equivalenl resistance of 4 O. Find R and the
cunenl il cames lf a 6-A cuffenr souce is PROBTEM 2.23
connected to the combination.
2.21 A current divider consists of the parallel con- LU F]JJd x a'rd i.
nection of a 20-, a 40-, a 60-, and a 120 kO
resistor. Find the equivalent resistanc€ of the 2,25 Find t, ir, and.,.
divider, and if the total current entermg 2.2q Find all the possible values of equivalent rcsis,
the divider is 120 niA, find the cunent in the tance tfiat can be obtained by someone baving
2O-kO resistor- thee 6-r) resistors.

PROSIEM 2.18

PROBIIM 2,19

.Chapter 2 Problemt 55

I
I
I
t
I
l6lr'i

I'
12 to

PROBTEM 2.24

PROBTEM 2.25

' PROBLE|i 2.28

2-27 Tbo 2 kO resistors are in series. Whcn a rc-


sistor lQ is connected in parallel with one 'of ,
'

tllem- the re\istance of lhe comhnalion is


2.100 O, Find R and the cu[ent it canies if
the combinition is connected across the temi-
nals of a l2-V battery. 60 v
2.2E Find i, and i.
2.29. Find /.
2.30 Find, and i.
2.3r Find i and R.
2-32 Find i PROBLTM 2.29

.56 Chapter 2 Resistive Circuits

N
3f,

a t24a \ l,r2A ,
+t I

PROEIIM 2.30
PROBTEM 2.33

2.35 Fird rhe power ab.orbed by the 6-Q resislor.


2i36 Find R and o using curent and voltage divi-
sion.
. 2.J7 Find i and ,.
2.38 Find ir and t .
PROBLEM 2.3.I . 2.39 ,Find j,, jz, and r.
2.33 (a) Find the equivalent resistance looking in 2.,10 A D'Arsonval rneter has a full-scale qment of
rerminals a-, if terminais c-d arc ope+ and tl I rnq and a r€sistance of 4.9 O. If a 0.1-O
terminals c-d are sho.ted together. (b) Find
panllei resistor is used in Fig. 2.25, what is
lFs? What voltage occurs across the meter?
the €quivalent resistance looking in terminals
c-d if terminals a-b arc open, and if terminals 2.41 A n.oiD}-A/V voltmeter has a tult scale
d-, are shoited together. voltage of 120 V What curent ffows in the
2-34 Find i, ol, and o,. meter when measuring 90 V?
2.42 T$o lo-kf) resistors are connecred iD sefles
across a 100-V souice. What voltage will the
voltmeter of Prob. 2.41 measure across one of

I the lO-kQ resisrors? Repeat for two 1-MO re


sistors in series.
rov <a2a
2.43 TIe D'Arson}?l meter of Prob. 2.40 is use{t
for the ohmmeter of Fig. 2.27. W}lat vatue of
series fesistance is required if E - 1.5 V2
What value of untnown resistance will cause a
PROSLIM 2.32 one-quarter fu ll-scale defl e€tion?

i 2()

PROBttM 2.34

Chaprer 2 Problems 57
I
I

I
I

I
2,214 Determine the color codes for resistors having
tt\e following resistanc€ nng€s: (a) 4.23-
5.1? O. (b) M60-7140 O, and tc) 3.135--
1.465 MO.

PROBLTM 2.37

2ka

PROBLEM 2.38

PROBTEM 2,39

5B Chapter 2 Resistive Circuits


Dependent Sources

The most basic and most widely used I hcrewith present to the first of several modest, loFpaying
ot all the laws ot electriiity, Ohm's public a theory of galvanic mathematics teaching positions. To
law, was published in 1a27 by lhe electricity lOhm's Lawl. improve his lot, he thrcw himself into
German physicisl Georg.Simon ohm Georg Simon Ohm his electical research at every oppor-
in his great wotk, The Galvanic tunity allowed by his heavy teaching
Chain, M athematic ally Tteated. with- duties, and. his efforts culminated in
out Ohm's law we could nol analyze his lamous law- Despite the mis-
the simplest galvanic chain (electric circuit), bui at the placed crilicisms of his tvork, dudng his lifelime Ohm
time of its publication, Ohm's work was deno{rnced by recoived the fame thal was due him. Tho Royal Soci-
critics as'a'web ol naked tancies," the."sole etforr of ety ol London awarded him the Copley Medal in 1841,
which was 'to detract from the dignrty ol naiure." and the Universily of Munich gave him its Pro{essor ol
Ohm was bom in Erlangen, Bavaria, the oldesl Phyiics chair in 1849. He was also honored atter his
ol seven children in a middle-class-to-poor family. He dealh when ihe ohm was chosen as lhe unit of electri-
was an early dropout at the University of Erlangen but cal resislance. .
returned in 1811 and earned his doclorale and lhe

59
he voltage and curent sources of Chapters I and 2 are independent sources, as
defined in Sec. 1.4. We may also have leperrdent sources, which are very important
in circuit theory, particularly in electro4ic circuits. In this chapter we define depen-
dent sources and consider an additional circuit element, the opemtional amPlifier,
which may be used to obtain dependent soulces.
We shall also analyzf, a feer sirple circuits containing resistors and soutces,
both independent and dependent. As we shall see, the analysis is very similar to that
performed in Chapter 2, and the results may be used to conshuct a number of impor_
tant circuits, such as amplifiers and inverters, which are defined in the chapter.

3.1
DEFINITIONS
A dependent ot controlled voltage source is o e whose terminal voltage depends on,
or is controlled by, a voltage or a cufient existing at some other place in the circuit.
A, voLtage-co trolled roltage source (VCVS) is a voltage soruce controlled by a
voltage, atd a cutrent-controlled voltuBe sourc? (CCVS) is one controlled by a cur-
rent. The symbol for a dependent voltage souce with terminal voltage o is shown in
Fig.3.1(a).

A
'\,/

I + {b)
FICURE 3.1 (a) Dependent voltage source; (b) dependent current soLrrce

A dependent, or controlled current source, symbolized by Fig. 3.1(b), is one


whose curent is dependent on a voltage or a currcnt existing elsewhere in the cir_
crlt. A vohage-controlled curreq tource (VCCS) is controlled by a voltage, and a
curren controlled current rotlce (CCCS) is conholled by a curent.

60 chapter 3 Dependent sources


Figure 3.2 illustrates the four types of controlled sources and shows the
voltage or current on which they are dependent. The quantities p and B are dimen-
sionless constants, commonly refered to as the voltage and current g@!n, respec-
tively. The constants r and g have units of ohms and siemens, respectively.

I
I

(c)

FICURT 3.2 (a) VCVS; (bl CCVS, (c) VCCS; (d) CCC5

As an example, in the circuit of Fig. 3.3 we have an indep€ndent source, a de-


pendent source, and t\ro resistors. The dependent source is a voltage soutce con-
trolled by the curent ir. The value of / for tle dependent source is 0.5 V/A.

ll,
t) 0.5t1

FICURI 3.3 Circuit containing a dependent source

Dependent sources are essential components it ompLifer circuits (those for


which the magnitude of the output is greater than that of the inpuO. They also serve
many other functions, such as isolating a desired portion of a circuit from the rest of
the circuit, or providing negative resistance. As we know from Chapter 2, the resis-
tor is a passive element with positive resistance. However, by means of dependent
sources we may fab cate negative resistance, as we shall see later (Exercises 3.2.2
and 3.2.3, for example).

Se.tion3.1 Definitions 61

t
I
3.2
CIRCUITS WITH DEPENDENT SOURCTS
Circuits cortaining dependent sources are analyzed in the same manner as those
withoui dependenl source(. Thar is. Ohm's law for resistors and Kirchhotr,; volta;;
and currenl laws apply. as well as the concepts o[ equiwlent resislance
il
and curent division- ""ii;;;
EXAMPLE 3.1 L,et us find the curent i in the circuil of Fig. 3.4. The dependenr source
is a voltase
sotlfce- conrrolled by the voltage Dr a! shown. Applying Kirchhoff.s
around the circuit, we have
voltage lir
-u'+31)r+6i-6 (3.1)
and by Ohm's law we have

(3.2)
Using (3.2), we may eliminate o, in (3.1), which results in

2(-2i)+6i=6
or i = 3 A-. Thus the dep€ndent source has complicaled marters only to the
extent of
requiring the extra equation (3.2).

flCURt 3.4 Dependent source example

EXAMPTE 3.2 I-Bt us find the voltage o in Fig. 3.5. Applying Kirchhoff,s current law to
the cur_
rcnts leaving the top node, we have

(3.3)

FICURt 3.s
.,'lll
Another depandent source erample

r)" 6() l),',

62 Chapler 3 Dependent Sources


Also, by Ohm's law we have

(3.4)

Substituting (3.4) into (3.3) yields

' 4- 62
oro = 12V

EXERCISES
3.2.1 In the circuit of Fig. 3.4, rcplace the 2-f,1 resistor by a l-(} resistor and find i, Dr,
and the resistance seen by the souce (i.e., R : 6/i).
Arswer 1.5 A, 1.5 V,4 O
Repeat Exercise 3.2.1 if the 2-O resistor is replaced by a 4-O resistor. (Note that a
negative resistance is possible when a dependent source is present.)
Answer -3 A, 12 V, -2 A
3.2.3 In Fig. 3.3, find the resistance seen by the source (i.e., looking in terminals o-r) if
the voltage on the CCVS is changed flom 0.5ir to 5tr, nr = 2 O, and (a) R? = 4 O
and(b)R,=2o
ezsrr,er (a) 8 O; (b) -4 O
3.2.4 Find rl and i;.
Answs 24 Y' 2 A

fxtRcrst 3.2.4
8()

3.3
OPERATIONAT AMPTIFIERS
A logical question at this point might be: How do we obtain dependent sources? One
answer is that they aise as parts of equivalent circuits of electronic devices oper'atiog
under certain conditions. Another answer is that they can be deliberately constructed
by means of certain electronic devices in conjunction with passive elements.

Sectionl.3 OperationalAmplifiers 63

r '-
We shall not be interested here in undertaking a study of electronic devices,
since the reader will have a detailed encounter with them later in standard electon
ics courses, However, there is one such device that is extremelv useful in the con-
srruclion or dependenl \ource\ dnd *ho\e ideal marhemaucal mode. i! bolh.imple
and elegant. Thts ts the operational amplifer, or op amp, the ideal model of which
we shall consider in this section.
The symbol that we shall use for an operational amplificr is shown in Fig. 3.6.
The op amp is a multiterminal device, but for simplicity we shall show only the
three terminals indicated. Terminal I (marked -) is the im,erting input teminal,
terminal 2 (marked +) ts the noninyefting input terminaL and terminal 3 is the ord-
put terminal. The puryoses of the terminals that are not shown include, in general.
dc power supply connections, frequency compensation terminals, and offset null ter-
minals- We shall not discuss these othei terminals here. but the inlerested shrdenr
may 6nd their pu+oses and how they are used in any op amp user's manual.

TICURE 3.6 Operational ampJifier eymbol


ffi
HGURE 3.7 Dual in-Jine package

Operational amplifiers are commonly available in integrated circuit form and


are normally labricated in packages having 8 to 14 terminals and containing I to
4 op amps. A typical integrated circuit lrd1ir-line packtrge (DIP) \ ith eight termi
nals is shown in Fig. 3.7.
The operational amplifier has many characteristics that are important to de-
signers, but the ideal model of the op amp has only two properties that the circuit
analyst needs to know: that the currents jnto both input terminals a.e zero and that
the voltage between the input terminals is zero.
It should be pointed out that rhe generalization of KCL do€s not hold for the op
amp of Fig. 3-6. That is, the input curents being zero does not mean that the output
current is zero. This may be seen mor€ clearly in Fig. 3.8, where the power supply
leads are shown. Indeed, KCI- cannot be applied at terminal 3 of Fig. 3.6 since, be-
cause of thb unshown terminals, we cannot know the oulput current.

FIGURI 3.8 Op amp with power supply ]eads shown

64 Chapler 3 D€pendent Sources


I

EXAMPTE 3.3 As an example of a circuit with an operational amplifier, let us consider Fig. 3.9. It
is desired to nnd the current i and the voltage or, considering oR to be a known gen-
emtor voltage. The symbol attached to nod€ c is the grorud (discussed more thor-
oughly in Chapter 4), an arbitrary point to which the unshown power supplies iue
also connected. Thus there should be no temptation to apply KCL at node c because
the currents into the ground ttlough the unshow, elements are not known. If the
ground symbol is not shown, it will generally be understood to be connected to the
negative terminal of the voltage source.

FICURE 3.9 Circuit containing an op amp

kt
us waite KVL around the loop drca through the souce. Since the voltage
,
actoss terminals d and is zero, we have
Or-r'rr:0 (3.5)

or ,r : Ds. Applying KCL at node D and noting that the current into the negative
terminal of the op amp is zero, we have

'tt'2*9. g (3.6)

or 1)2 = -2q: 2os. Next, KVL around loop cDdc through the 9-O resistor yields
Dr+1D+or=0
ol
a3=at-1l)2:3pc (l.i)
Finally, Ohm's law ields
. rJ3 3a" a,
'993
I
Thus, 10t V, for example, we have i = 4 cos 10t A.
if o, = l2 cos
As a t
by-product of this example, let us note that = 0 (the curent into an in-
put lead of the op amp) and or :
3o" from (3-7). Thus we may draw an equivalent
circuit, insohi as o", ix, or, and i are concerned, as shown in Fig 3 l0. Analysis of

Section 3.3 Operalional Amplifie6 65

r
FIGURE 3,1O Circuir equivalent to thar of Fig. 3.9

the equivalent circuit yields exactly the same ,3 and i for the same Ds and is as in the
case ofFig. 3.9. Thus the op amp has been used to obtain a controlled source with a
gain of 3. (ln this case the controlled source is a VCVS, in which os controls Dr.)
Before we leave this section, let us observe that the op amp in Fig. 3.9 is being
/
o@tated in a feedback mode. That is, the output t)3 at node is fed back to the in-
verting input terminai through the 2-O resisror. A practical op amp is a very high-
gain device and is genemlly never used without feedback. In cases when the feed-
back is to one input terminal rather than to both, it is always to the inverting
terminal, for the simple reason that otherwise the op amp will not work. We are not
interested here in the reason for this, which is a consequence of the op amp's design.
The interested student, in all probability, will have occasion ro study op amps and
their conshuction thoroughly in a later course in electronic devices.

3.4
AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS
Equations (3.6) and (3.7), which were the basis for the VCVS circuit of Fig. 3.10,
are independent of the curert i in the 9-(} load of Fig. 3.9. This is true in general
of VCVS circuits of this type. To see rhis, let us consider the citcuit of Fig. 3.11.
The voltage D, is the output voltage of the op amp and, as we shall see, is a function
only of lhe input voltage ,r and the iwo resistors.

FICURE 3,1T VCVS

66 chaprer 3 Dependent Sources


Since there is no voltage across the input terminals of the op ampj we have
or, : or. Also, KVL around the loop arca containing t.L yields

-oba+ob.+a2=0
ot

Ob=Dh-Az:Dt-Dz

Therefore. applying KCL at node , resulE in

Or lrr A1 -
R, R,
Solving for 0r, we have

a2 = pa' (3.8)

R.
(3.e)

Figure 3. I I is tberefore a VCVS with gairl p. Since it is a thee-terminal net-


work (the outpr.it and irput sharc a common terminal) and the cunents are zero into
the input leads -of the op alnp, an equivalent circuit may be d€wn as in Fig. 3.12.
We note that since Rr and R2 are nonnegative, we have ,, > l

fICURE 3.12 Circuit equivalent to Fig. 3.11

A special case of Fig. 3.I I is the case R, = 0 (short circuit) and Rr = @ {open
circuit), shown in Fig. 3.13. This circuit has p - 1, or D? = or, and is called a
vohage follower; that is, azfolbws ot. It is also called a der anplifier be.awe it
may be used to isolate, or rul/er, one circuit fiom another. (The voltages at the two
pairs of terminals are the same, but no curent can flow ftom one paft to the other.)
An example of buffering is given in Ex. 3.4.3.

Section 3.4 Amplitier Circuits b/


FIGURE 3.'13 Voltage follower

[€t us consider next the circuit of Fig. 3.14. Applying KCL at the inverting in-
put lerminal of the op amp, we have

R, R,

R,
(3.10)
RI

(Recall that tle voltage across and the currents into the input terminals of the op
amp are zero.)

. ftGURE 3.14 lnverler

This circuit is called an irv?rtel because the polarity of o, is opposite that of


or, as seen in (3-10). lt is also a VCVS, but in this case the input cunenl ir is not
zero, being given by

(3.11)

An equivalent circuit is showl in Fig. 3.15.


By (3.11) or = Rrir, and thus we may eliminate or in Fig. 3.15, resulting in
another equi lent circuit, shown in Fig. 3.16. This circuit is evidently a CCVS,
since the voltage o, is controlled by the cirrlent ir.
_
We may also obtain dependent current sources ftom Fig. 3.14, which we re-
draw as shown in Fig. 3.17. Since there is no current into the op amp terminek, we

68 Chapler 3 Dependenl Sources

r
.FIGURT 3.15 Equivalent circuit of the invefter

FIGURE 3.16 CCVS

rICURE 3.17 lnverter circuit redtawn '

have
:.F;. ' tr3.t2)
"
Insohr as lerminals l. 2. 3. ad 4 are concerne-d, an equi\alent circuil is lhen that of
Fig. idich is a CCCS with a gair of l. "
- 3.18,
Finilln substituting for tr in i3.12), we nuy rednw Fig. 3,18 as a vccs,
.'

shown i! Fig. L19. ln lhis case.8 -- l/Rr.

FIGURE.3.10 CCCS .

Section 3.4 Amplifier Circuits 69


FIGURE 3.19 VCCS

EXERCISES
3.4.1 InFig.3.ll, let or =2V andRz= 16 kO. If a load resistor R = 5 k0 is con-
nected across the terminals of o), find Rr so that resistor R carries a curent of 2 lDA.
Answei 4 kA
J.4.2 In the inverter of Fig. 3.14, let o' = 2 V Find Rr and R, so rhat ir = 1 mA and
' o)=-8V
,44rwf,2ko,8ko
3,4.3 Find or and or. Note how the bufrer amplifier holds o, to or/2 while the 3-kO resis-
tor "loads down" $e output Dr.
Answer a"/4. a"/2

fxERctsr 3.4,3

----LI- SUMMARY
In this chapter we have considered dependent or controlled sortces, as-well as their
' construction using operuiotal amplifers lop anps). We have seen that circuits with
controlled sources are no more difficult to anallze than those withoul such souces,
and that the op amp is a mulrirerminal device ;hich in its ideal state has no volrage
across and no current into its two input terminals. Fina y, we have considered the
constructian, using op amps and resistors, of cmp lifers, ilverters, vohaTe followers,
c rrentcontrolled voltaqe sources (CCVS), t,oltqge-controlled voh^ge sources
(VCVS), cwrcnt-controlled c fient sources (CCCS\, and voltage-controlled current
solrlc€r (VCCS). As we shall see throughout the book, these ire exremely im;nr-
tant electric circuit components.

70 cnaprer { Dependenr sources


PROBLEMS
3.t Find or and fte power deliv€red to the lO-O 3.5 Find t if (a) R : 6 O and (b)i : 4.5 O.

3r1 V

PXOaIEM 3.5

PROBLIM 3.I 3.6 Find R in Prob. 3.5 so that i : 3 A.


3.7 Find ir and o if(arR - 4 O and (b)R = t2t|.
3-2 Find 1)r and i.
4sl
."- .ll"
R

3V
8V

PROBTEM 3.7
PROBLIM 3.2
3.8 l-ind t, and D.
3.9 Find i and the resistanc€ seen by the indep€n-
3.3 Find ir.
denl cunent source if (a) R = 6 O and (b)
3.4 Find t, if(a)R = l OandO)R:9O. R=lO.
v,

PROBTTM 3.3

I
If):,,,r {:otl'
3

PROATEM 3,4
I

Chapler I Problems 71

t-
I
8f,,
lir
I
3s2

PROETEM 3,8

4ft

6tv

PROBTTM 3.9

PROBLTM 3.1O

?ROBLIM 3.11

3.10 Find i.
3.11 Find o.
3-12 Fifld i
3.t3 Find D.

3.14 Show that


IDI D?\
,,=_""\r,*E/
(ThiS aircuit is called a ri.nttrr, since tbe out-
put voltage is the negalive of a weight€d sum
of th€ inpul voltag€s. Mle that the result is in-
dependenr of the outpul conneclions al reimi-
. nals a'b.) PROALEM 3.I2

Chapter 3 Dependenl Sources


3,16 Show thal regardless of the load at termimls
' c-d, $/e have
or=lD

t =Eh
3.17 In tho 6gure for Prob. 3.16, let ftr = R, and
conneet a resistor n behre€n termindls c-d.
Show that the resistance seen at input termi-
PROBLTM 3.T3 trals a., is R", -- -/R. (The 6gure for Prob.
3.16lhus converts posirive resisLaDce to nega-
tive rcsibtance.)
3.18 Use the rn€thod of Prob. 3.17 to consiruct a
negtrve resislance of -6 o where the power
dissipated in Rr is 2 W $'hen 0, = 6 V
3,19 Find l,.
3,20 Find i,
3.21 Find n so thar i = 0.1 A,
3.22 Find oo.
PROETEM 3.14
3.23 Find t.
3.15 (a) InthefigureforPfob. 3.14,letRo : lOkO 3,24 Find i.
and find Rr add R, so that th€ magnitude of the J.25 Find i.
output voltage l)3 is the avemge of the inF{
voltages o, and (}. (b) Find Rr if Ro = 2 kO,
3.26 Find o.
Rz : 4kO, ur : 6 V, D' : 8 V and theout- 3.2? Fiod i.
Pritis to be l)3 = -16 V 3.2a Fbd o and ,.

PROALEM 3.16

PnoE[EM 3.19

Chapter 3 Problemg 73
PROBLTM 3.20

PROsLTM 3.21

PtoBLtM 3.22

PROOLEM 3.23
PROBTEM 3.24

PnoS[EM 3.25

PROIUM 3.27

PnoB[rM 3.28
3-29 The summer of Prob. 3.14 is an inae ing higher-lo3 or more- [A morc sophisticated
summer sirce the output voltage is the ,,egd- model has a resistor bet\reen terminals I and 2
troe of the weighted sum of the input voltages. in O), so that the input currents are not quite
(a) Show that the given ct cuit is a notrintert- zero. This rcsistance is so large (ld to
irg summer (he output sign is not changed), 1015O), however, that wp will represont it by
with output voltage an open circuit.l Finally, since or = oo/A and
A is e,\tlemely large. oi is almost zero. ln the
/R,D, + R,r,\
'l (A+@) 0,:0,
'
ba=Ll'
\ /r, + R, /
ideal case as we know. (a)
Show that for the nonideal op amp, th€
voltage follower ofFig. 3.13 has output
R,
tt=t++ Aol
a: 1+ A
O) Use the result in (a) to lind o0 if u, = 3 Y
t),=2 y, h:4 ko, R2=3 ko, Rr= anal thus for the ideal case, o, = o,. 6) Find
6kO,andR=lkO. ,, for the cases A : Iff, l0o, and l.
3.30 If nr= R, = I kO in the circuit of Prob. 3.32 ff the op amp in the inverter of Fig. 3.14 is
3.29, fmd the other rcsistance \."lues so that noddeal, as in Prob. 3.31, show that
io = ot + .,2. (Note that the result is true in p,
general if R: Rr = R, = Rr.) _ A(R /Rt)
lJ, A + 1t (RrlR,)
3.31 A no"tdedl op amp lshown in (a)] can be rep-
resented by the model of (b), where .4 is a and thus in the ideal case (A+o), we have
very high gain, in the neighborhood of 1Cr5. (3.10). Find 0zl1,, if R,/R' : 2 and A : lff,
For higher-quality op amps, it is n4c, 100, dnd l.

PROATEM 3.29

(a)
PROBTEM 3.31

76 Chaple' I Dependent 5ources


\
Analysis Methods

Ohm's law is fundamenlal ljo eleclric There must be a fundtt- Kdnigsb€rg d age 18 and graduated
circuits, bul to analyze even lhe sim- mental story here fon his
wilh his doctorate live years later.
plest circuil rdquires two additional Upon graduation in 1847 he manied
reseqrch with Bunsenf.
laivs tormulated in 1847 by the cer: the daughter ol Friedrich Richelot,
Gustav Robert Ktchho.ff one ol his famous mathematics
man physicist Guslav Bobert Kirch-
hoff. These laws-Kkchhotf 's current teachers, and al the sam€ lime re'
law and Kiichhofl's vollage law-arc ceived a rare travel giant for turther
the more remarkable when we consider lhat Kirch- stldy in Paris. The political unrest thal led to the 1848
hofi's pincipal intercst was in his pioneoring wo* in wave.of revolutions in Europe torcdd him to change
spectrosclcpy with the noted German chemisl Boberl his plans, and he became a leclurer in Berlin. Two
Bunsen, to whom we owe the Bunsen burner. ln thal years later he ftet Buns€n and lhe two began their fa_
field there is anolher law ol Kirchhofl: Kirchhotf's law mous collaboration. Kirchhoff's great success in spec_
of €dialion. troscopy drew attenlion away trom his conlributions in
Kirchhoft was born in Kiinigsberg, East PaFsia, other branches of physics, but withoul his €loctdcal
the son ol a lawyer. He entered the University ol laws there ivould be no aircuit theory. r

77
n Chapter 2 we considered methods of anallzing simple circuits, which we recall
are those that may be described completely by a single equation. The analysis of
more general circuits entails the solution of a set of simultaneous equations, as we
shall see in this chapter. As an exadrple, thb reader may have noticed that Prcb.
2.37 required ffio equations in its solution. Also, most of the circuits of Chapter 3
genelally involved more than one equation, but the equations were of a t''pe that
were easily solved.
In this chapter we consider systematic ways of formulating and solving the
equations that arise in the analysis of more complicated circuits. We consider two
general methods. one based primarily on Kirchhoff's current law and one on Kirch
hoff's voltage law. As we shall see, KCL generally leads to equations in which the
unknowns are voltages, whereas KVL leads to equations in which the uDknowns are
currents.
It should be evident ftom our work in previous chapters that a complete analy-
sis of a circuit can be performed by finding a relatively few key voltages and/or cur-
rents. For example, in a simple circuit consisting of a single loop, a key lariable is
the current, for if we know the qultent, we may fird every voltage around the loop,
and, of course, the curent around the loop is the curent in every element.
In Sec. 4.1 we discuss fhe case whgre the selected unknowns are voltages.
Quile natumlly, oul choice of voltages should lead to a set of independent equations.
This technique will be refefied to as nodal analysis. In Sec. 4.5 we consider meJr
analysis, in which lhe .Jnknowns are currents.
In this chapter we discuss the tecbniques for selecting the voltages or currents
to be found and the formulation of the circuit equations. The justification of the
methods in the geneml case is left fo. Chapter 6.

4.1
NODAT ANALYSrS.
In rhis section we consider methods of circuil analysis in which vohages are lhe un
k owns to be found. A convenient choice of voltages for many networks is the set of
ode voLages. Since a voltage is defined as existing between two nodes, it is conve-
nient to select one node ir tle network to be a reference node ot datum node and
then associate a voltage or a potential with e'dch of the other nodes. The voltage of
each of the nonrefeience nodes with respect to the reference node is'defined to be a
node roltage.It is common practice to select polarities so that the node voltages are
positive relative to the reference node. For a circuit containing N nodes, there will

78 Chapter 4 Analysis Methods

I
be N - I node voltages, some of which may be known, of cou$e, if voltage
sources ale preselt.
Frequendy, the reference trode is chosen to be the node to which the largest
number of bmnches are conqected. Many practical circuits are built on a meta]lic
base or chassis, and usually there are a number of elements connected ro the chassis.
\ahich is a logical choice for the relerence node. ln many cases, such as in eleclric
power systems, the chassis is the earth itself. For lhis reason. the reference node is
frequently refened to as ground. The reference node is thus at ground potential or
zero.potential, and the other nodes may be considered fo be at some potential above

Since the circuit unknowns are to be voltages, the describing equations are ob-
tain€d bJ applying KCL at the nodes. The currents in the elemenis are proportional
to the element voltages, which are thomselves either a node voltage (ifbne element
node is:ground) or the difference of two node voltages. For example, in Fig. 4.1 the
.eference node is node 3 with zero or ground potentiat. The symbol show; attached
ro node J is Lhe standard symbol for ground. as previously nnted in Chapler 3. The
nonrelerence nodes I and 2 ha\e node vollages t. and D.. Thus the elemenr roltage
r/ with rhe polarity shown is
'
Dr2 = Dr Dz

The other element vollages shown are

oB=t,r-0=or
and
azt:ax-O-a7
The\e equarions mny be e\rabli\hed by applying KVL around the loops treal or
imagined). Evtdenlly. it \ae know all the node voltages. we rnay 6nd a t'he elemenr
voltages and lhus all rhe element currents.

a2

,L_'
ttcURt 4.1 RFte,en.e dnd ron'erp'e4(e nndc.

Tbe application of KCL at a node rgsults in a ll oak equation, that is, an equa-
tion relating node voltages. Clearly, simplifcation in writing the resulting equations
is possible when the reference node is chosen fo be a node with a large-number of
elements connected to it. As we shall see, however, this is not the only criterion for
salecting the reference node, but it is frequently the overriding one.
Since we are going to apply KCL, it seems that the simplest networks to con_
sider are those whose only sources are independent current sources. This is not al_

Seclion 4.1 Nodal Analysis 79


ways true, as we shall see, but we shall begin with an example of this type. ln the
network shown in Fig.4.2(a), there are tbree nodes, dashed and numbered as
showfl. lThis is easier to see in lhe redrawn version ol Fig. 4.2fb,.j Since there are
four elements connected to node 3, we select it as the rcference node, identifying it
by the ground connection shown.

(a) ib)
FICURE 4,2 Circuit containing independeni curent sources

Belore writrng the node equations. consider the element shown in Fig. 4.3.
where or and r)2 are node voltages. The element voltage D is given by
A:l)t-D)
and thus b) Ohm \ law we have

'R
br
i=c(oi-a,)
where C = l/R
is the conductance. That is, the cuftent from node I to node 2 is the
I
difference of the fiole yoltage at node and the node voltage at node 2 dfuided by
the resistance R, or multiplied by the conductance G. This relation will allow us to
rapidly write the node equations by inspection directly in terns of lhe node voltages.

u,
'l

J
fICUR[ 4.3 Single element

Now returning !o tie circuil ofFig. 4.2, the sum of the cFtents leaving node 1

must be zero, and this results in the equation

n+tz-ter-0
ln terms of the node voltages, this equation bebomes

Gpr+Gzk:t-o)-;,,=9
80 Chapter 4 Analysis Methods

i
We could have obtained this equation directly using the procedue of the previous
pamgraph. Applying KCL ar node 2 in a similar manner, we obtain

-r;+13+is,=0
or
Gr(az-o)+Gro:+isr=0
Again, the G's are the conductances (reciprocals of the R's).
We could have equated the sum of currents leaving the node to the sum of cur
rents entering the node. Had we done so, the terms isr and i3, would have appeared
on the right-hand side:
. Gzbt a,) = r,,
Gtat +
Glq ai - G tz -iet
Rearranging these lwo equations results in
(c,+ctD, - Gzor: ir (4.1)

-Gror + (G + G)t:z = e (4.2)


These equations exhibit a symmetry that may be used to write the equations in
the reatmnged form by inspection. In (4.1) the coefficien! of or is the sum of con-
ductances of the el€ments connected to node l, while the coefficient of o, is the neg_
ative of the conductance of the element connecting node I to node 2. The sa;
statement holds for (4.2) i.f the numbers 1 and 2 are interchanged. Thus node 2 plays
the role in (4.2) of node I in (4.1). That is, it isihe node at which KCL is applied.
In each equation the right-hand side is the current from a cunent souce which Jnters
the corresponding node.
.In general, in networks containing only conductances and current sources,
KCL applied at the krh node, wirh node voltag€ or, may be written as follows. In the
left member the coefficient of o* is the sum of the conductances connected to node t,
and the coefficients of the other node voltages are the negatives of the conductances
between those nodes and node t. The right member of the equation consists of the
net current flowing il}to node & due to current sources.
To illustrate the process, consider Fig. 4.4, which is a portion of a circuit. Tbe
dashed lines indicate connections to nodes other than node 2 (labeled rJ. At node 2
we have. usinB Lhe shortcut procedure.

Grar + (Gr + Cz + G3)b Gpt - Gtt>t : i"t - i,z (4.3)


This may be checked by applying KCL in rhe usual way, equaiing cJrents leaving
node 2 to those entering node 2. The result is
c,(u. o') + G,(q a) + Gj(D, a4) + i", = i"j
Rearmnging this result leads to (4.3).
ln geneml, if there are N I unknown node voltages, we need
- lV
I equa-
tions, which may be written at any N
I nodes in the circuit. In a circuit like that
of Fig. 4.2 we could even use the datum oode for one of the equations. This is be-
cause the datum Dode was chosen arbitrarily and there is no .urrent into the ground.
(There is no rcturn path from Bround, so there can be no current.)

5e(tion 4.1 Nodal Antrlvsir 81

I
I

t
4.2
AN EXAMPLE

TXAMPLE 4.1 To illustrate the method o[ nodaL analysis. let us consider the circuit of Fig. 4.5. We
have take! the referelce node as shown and labeled the noffeference nodes as or,
or, and or. We note that the conductances are specified for the resisto.s.
-

FICURI 4.5 Example of a circuit

Since there are tbree nonreference nodes, there will be three eqjations. At
node l)1, using the shortcut method, we have
4x'-a=2 (4.4)
The sum of the conductances at node or is 3 + 1 = 4, the conductance between
nodes I and 2 is l, the conductance between nodes 1 and 3 is 0, and the net current
into lhe node through the sources is ? - 5 = 2. lf we bad used the conventional
KCL method at t] , we \ ould have obrained
l(or -a)+3at+5:7
which is equivalent to (4.4).
At noder , . and ,. we have
'
rt+6a2 2a7= 5
(4.5)
2a2+'lif.=l"l
Chapler 4 Analys6 Melhods
We may solve (4.4) and (4.5) for the node voltages using any one of a variety
of methods for solving simultaneous equations. Two such methods are Cramei's
rule, which employs determinants, and Caussian elimination. For the reade|who is
not familiar with these two ilethods, a complete discussion is given in Appendic€s A
and B at the end of the book.
Using Crarner's rule, we first find the coefficient determinant, given by

I 4
o=l' -1o
ol
zl = r+s
I o -: ;l
Then we have

l: -r ol
| . o -rl
In -t rl ros
"' l4s t45

| + s2 ol
l-r -217l
._1017
"'- r45 --290_,.,
r45

and

| + -r zl
I r o sl
-
I o -.2 rzl 4r5
145 145

Now that lve have the node vollages we may completely analyze the circuit.
For example, if we want the current i in the 2-S element, it is given by

,i:2(q al=2(2- 3)= -2A


Equations (4.4) and (4.5) are $rmmetrical in a way that facilitates the writing
oi the cquations. This symmerry also i. pre\ent in lhe general case. For example. the
coefficient of o, in the first equatioi is the same as that of rr in the second equation.
Also, the coefficient of 1,3 in the first equation is that of ol in the third equation. Fi-
nally, the coefficielt of t)3 in the second equation is that of o, in the third equation.
These results follow from the fact ihat the conductance between nodes I and 2 is that
between 2 and 1, lhe conductance between nodes I and 3 is that between 3 and 1,
and so on.
This symmetry shows up also in the coefficient determinant A. Its diagonal el,
ements, 4, 6, and 7, are thd sums of the conddctances connected to the three nonref-
erence nodes. and rhe off-diaSonal elements are symmerrical about the diagonal.
Tle latter elements are. ol course. the negalives of the conductarices between nodes.

section 4.2 An ExamDle 83


EXERCISES
4.2.1 Using nodal analysis, find or and oz in Fig. 4.2(a) if R, = 8 O, R, : 8 O, R1 :
16 O, t'r = 1 A, and ts, = -2 A.
Ansrer 14,2O v
4.2.2 U.sing nodal analysis, find or, o,, and I
Answer 4 Y,36Y,4 A

EXERCTSE 4.2.2

4.2.3 Using nodal analysis, find or, rrr, and or.


Answer M, -4,2n Y

txtRclsE 4.2.3

4.3
ctRcutTs coNrAtNtNc votTAcE souRcrs
At 6rst glance it may seem that the presence of vohage sources in a circuit compli-
cates the nodal analysis. We can no longer write the equations using the shortcut
method because we do not know thg curents through the voltage sources. However,
nodal analysis is no more complicated and in many cases is even easier to apply
when voltage sources are present, as we shall see.

EXAMPLE 4.2 L€t us consider the circuit of Fig. 4.6. We have labeled the nonreference nodes as
Dt, D2, 1D3. lu4, and D5 and have taken the sixth node as reference, as indicated.
Again, the resistors are labeled by their conductances-

84 chapler 4 Analysis Methods


FICURE 4.6 Circuit coniaining vollage sources

Since there are hve noreference nodes, we need five equations. Without writ-
ing any KCL equations we may note that we have, by inspection,
Or = Dar
(4 b)
". "^ ":,,
We thus need only three KCL equations. Tti be systematic ard at the same time elim-
inate the need to know the currents in the voltage souces, let us enclose the voltage
souces by dashed lires as shown in Fig. 4.6. We may think of these surfaces as 8€rr-
eralized nodes ot, as some autho$ prefer, rrpa nodes. We recall that KCL holds for
such a genemlized node as well as for an ordinary node. We have, therefore, two
genemlized nodes and two regular nodes, label€d D, and 1)3, a total of four nodes.
Thus we need only three KCL equations, \rhich together with (4.6) constitute the re-
quired set o[ five equalions in the node vohage5.
To complete the formulation of the nodal equations, let us apply KCL at nodes
o2 and or and the generalized node containing os?, The fi$t two are obtained as be-
fore. resultjng in
(cr + c, + Go)a, - G,a' - Gzot - Gtas = 0 (4.7)
(G2 + & + Gs\a - G"a. - Gor:0
Finally, equating to zero the curents leaving the generalized node, we have
' Gt(as- u\ + G'(a4 -of + G6o5 =0 (4.8)

The circuit is anallzed by simultaneously solving (4.6), (4.7), and (4.8).

EXAMPLI 4.3 Let us hnd D rn the cucult ol Frg. 4. /{al. lhe bollom node is raken as the reference
and the nonreference nodes are labeled o, Dr, and D2, as shown in Fig.4.?(b). By
inspection we see that or': o + 3 and o, :
20, as indicated. That is, node or is 3 V
above node o and node t} is 20 V above the grpund. Enclosing the two voltage
sources by genemlized nodes, shown dashed, we see that there are two "nodes" and

section 4.3 circuits coniaining Voltage Soorces 85


i
I

L----
I
FICURE 4.7 ra, ( rrcuir conlaininB voltaSe and currcnr sources; lbJ rcdrawn circuir
ro \how the node voltage\

thus we need wrire only one Dode equation tat eilher genemlized node). This js pre-
cisely enough since there is only one unknown:the node voltage D. The node equa-
tion for the lop genemlized node is
r,+3-20 + 0+3 +4=6
--G- 2
where if, is in volts, every term haslhe unit of milliamperes. Solving the equation
yieldst,=8V

EXAMPLE 4:4 f€l us consider the circuit of Fig. 4.8. which contains an independenl voltage sourc€
and a dependent current source. Anticipating that the.Fesence of the voltage souce
reduces the number of unknowns by one, we have labelqd the node at the top left or,
the reference node being chosen as indicated. Tbe unknown node voltages arc or,
or, and Dr. Applying KCL at lhese nodes, we have
(G' + G, + G)xt - Gzoz - G3u - cpe = o

-Gzat + {Gz + cJ0, + B(0r - o, = 0


-Gtor + (Gz + Ge)q = g(or - o)
These equarions may now be soived for rhe unknown node vokages {os is con-
sidered to be kno\{n). We note that the presence of the dependent source has de-
stroyed the symmetry that was present in the equations of the previous examples:
This is true in the general case involving dependent sourcqs.

86 chap'e,4 {nd\i" Merhodr


flcuRE.4.a Circult with independent and dependebt sources

EXAMPLE 4.5 I-et us frnd all the unknown voltages a d curents in the circuit of Fig. +.S, *t i"tt
contains independ€nt and dependent curent and voltage sources. To simplify mat-
ters, \re have chosen the reference node as shown ard labeled the nomeference
nodes or, o?,,o3, and 04. Before writing any dodal equations we noie ftom tirc circuit
that

Dt=2
a2-a3=3it'
At-Aa:o'
and bv Ofun's law.

fICURE 4.9 Morc complex circuit

Sectio. 4.3 Circuii! Containirig Voltag€ Sourc€s 87


From these results we have
at=2
oz = -2iy
a3 = D2 3i) = -5i)

D4:1tr- o'=2 ax
and thus the node voltages may be expressed in tefns of only the two unknowns o.
and i/. We therefote need only two more equations. Since we have three nodes, the
regular node and the two generalized nodes, shown dashed, two independelt nodal
equations are preci$ely what we have. At node oa we have

:l9+ _ 0
I
and at the genemlized node containing the dependeDt voltage source we have

D2 - Dt ,,_zo,+ Ur - ra
_U
| I
Substituting for the node voltages these become

g er2-0'-i-5i)-o
t"
2
-2\ -|-zD\- -5i,-(2-o.) U
| I
These equations simplily to
-iD, - r.i, 22

-r,- Ai,=+
which ha\e the solulion
t-l,=4Y r,= -lA
We may now nnd all tle cunents and voltages in the circuit.

EXERCISES
4.3,1 Using nodal analysis, find D if element .x is a 2,V independent voltage source with
the positive terminal at the top.
Answet I0 V
4.3.2 Find r.r in Exercise 4.3.1 if element 'r is a 7-A independent current souce directed
upw?rd.
Answer 25 y
4.3.3 Find o in Exercise 4.3.1 if element r is a dependent voltage source of 4i V with the
positive terminal at the top.
Answer l0!
88 chapter 4 Analysis Methods

I
15v

txtRctst 4,3,1

4.4
CIRCUITS CONTAINING OP AMPS
Nodal analysis very often is the best method of analysis vhen a citcuil contains Op
amps, beaausg in electrodc circuits the reference node ii usually shown as grounded
and all other elements connected to the refetence node are often shown individually
gromded, Thus the rcdes are easily identified for the nodal method, but fhe loops
ar9 not so easily visualized. Therefore, a method.based on loops, such as the one we
' consider in the next section, is not so easy to apply. Also, quite often only a rela-
tively lew nodal equations are required.

EXAMPI-E 4.6 Iat w consider the VCVS of Fig. 3.11, redrawn as shotrn in Fig. 4.10. The refer-
ence node is shown as grounded, so that the voltages 1')r and oi of Fig. 3.1[ are oow
node voltages, as shown. Since the voltage is zerp betwqen the inplt terminals of
the op alhp and thg currents are zero into the irput terminals. we see that r! : Dr
and that the node equation writteD at node t! is
'=O
-+
R, ,t, (4.e)
From this we find
*=('**)',=-, (4.10)

RCUXE 4.10 VCVS

Section 4,4 Circuits Containing OP Arnps 89


EXAMPTT 4.7 Let us consider the circuit of Fig. 4.11. We shall take the ground to be the zero
voltage reference point so that the inverting irput terminal of the oq amp is also at
zero potential, as labeled. We consider the voltage or to t€ a known input voltage
and solve for the output voltage or. At node or, KCL yields
(6' + G, + G3 + cJor - cro' G"o: = 0
using the shortcut procedure of Sec. 4.1. The sum of the currents entering the in-
verting input node of the op amp is given by
G:o:*Gso:=0
flirnjnatinB u. from the\e r\ro equarion\ results in

(Gt _ G. / (;.,,\
, C, , C.){ _=::l _ Gra Got 0

hom which we have


GG3ot
- C.(C' + Gt + G. - G) 4 G,Gt

FIGUR[ 4.1r Circuit containing ao op amp

It is always liuitful to write nodal equations aa the inverting input nodes of the
op amps, as we have done in this example. However, one generally avoids writing
nodal equations at output nodes of op amps because it is difficult to find the current
out of an op amp. There is no curent into the input terminals, but because there are
other terminals not shown, the output terminal ca(ies a curlent. Also, as noted in
Chapter 3, when op amps arc present the ground node is not arbitrary, and because
of the unshown termfuals there may be currents inlo the ground. Thus we should
also avoid writing a node equation at the ground node.

EXERCISES
4.4,1 Flnd i.
Arrrpr 4 cos 4r rnA
4.4.2 Find oo in terms of the node voltages or, 02, and or and rhe rcsistances. (This circuit
is a summer, like that of Prob. 3.14, with an additional voltage source.)
Ansn,et -RobJ& + a,/Rz + u/R)
90 Chapter 4 Analysis Meihods
L
i'
2ko

txERclsE 4.4.I

EXERCISE 4.4.2

4.4,3 Find o if o" = 4 cos 2t y. (suggestion Note rhat the input op amp terminals have the
same node vollage u|. as indicated.,
Answer 1.5 cos 2t Y
lo

IXERC|SE 4.4.3

MESH ANATYSIS
In the nodal analysis of the previous sections we applied KCL at the nonreference
rodes of the circuit. We shall now conside/ a method, known as rnesft aralysis, or
laop aiallsis, in which KVL is applied around aertain clOsed parths in the circui!. As
we shall see, in this chse the unknowns generally will be currerlts-
We restlict ourselvei in this chapter to plater circuits, by which we mean cir-
cuits that can be drawn on a plane surhce in a way lhat no element crosses any other
elemeni. In this case, the plane is divided by the elements into distinct areasr in the

Section 4.5 Mesh Analysis 91


same way that the wooden or metal pi[titions in a window distinguish the window
panes. The closed boundary of each area is called a medr of the circuit. Thus a mesh
is a special case of a ,oop, which we consider to be a closed path of elements in the
circuit passing through no node or element more than once. In other words. a mesh
is a loop tbat contains no elements within it.

EXAMPT-I 4.8 The ctcuit of Fig. 4.12 is planar and contains three meshes, idertified by the ar-
rowS. Mesh I contains the elements Rr, Rr, Rr, and o.sr; mesh 2 contains Rr, Ra,
osr, and R5; and mesh 3 conaains R5, osr, R6, and R3-

a
FIGURI 4.12 Planai circuit with rhr€e meshes

ln the case oI nonplaoar circuils ti.e.. those thal are not plaoar). we cafiot
define meshes. Thus in the analysis using KVL, the closed paths are loops. The pro_
cedure is the same, of course, but the equations are not as easily fc,rmulated._We
consider this more genenl case in detail in Chapter 6.

TXAMPLE 4.9 As an example in which KVL is applied. lel us consjder the rwo-mesh circuir of Fig.
4.13. The element cuffents are 1r, 12, and 1r. Applying KVL around the first meih
(containing orr), we have

nri+nj13=rjsr (4.11)
Similarly, around the other mesh we have

RzIz - RzIz= -oe2 (4.12)

FIGURI 4.13 Circuit with two meshes

!- ^'
tl ,,

92 Chapter 4 Analyrs Merhodt

[-
We define a mesh currer-t as the current that flows around a mesh, The mesh
curtent may constitute the entire curent in an element of the mesh, or it may be
only a portion of the element cufient. For example, in Fig. 4.13 the cunents ir and
i2 are rnesh currents, with the directions as shown. The element cunent is the mesh
current id iRr and R2, but the element current in lRr is the composite of two mesh clrr-
rents,
In general, element cunents are algebmic sums of mesh curents. This is illus-
hated in Fig. 4.13 since the element current in Rr is
It:h
that in I, is
t, - i,
and that in R3, by KCL, is
tt t, I)-it it
Using these results, we may rewrite (4.11) and (4.12) as

R,r, + Rdn
-,,) = os, (.r.13)
R,i,-Rdn-t,)=-o".
The\e are rhe m?rh pquationt ol the circlltt.
There is also a shortcul method of writing mesh equations which is similar to
the shortcut nodal method of Sec. 4.1. Rearran8ing (4.13) in the forn
(R1 +Rti, - n,t?:0s,
-R:r, + (n: + Rtj, = -os,
we note lhat in the firsl equatron. corresponding to lhe fir\l mesh. rhe coefficienl o[
the first currenl is the \um o[ the resi\lanccs in the first mesh.'and lhe coefficienl of
any other mesh current is the negative of the resistance common to that mesh and
the first mesh- The ght member of the first equation is the algebraic sum of the
voltage sources driving the first mesh current in its assumed diiection. Replacing the
wordJtrs, by the word second everywhere it appears in these last tlvo sentences will
describe the second equation, and so on. This shortcut procedure is a consequence of
seiecting all lhe rnesh curents in the same direction (clock$ise in Fi8. 4.13) and
wrirrng KVL as rhe meshe\ are rraverscd in the directions of lhe currenl(. Of
course, the method applies only when no sources ire present except independent
voltage sources.

EXAMPII 4.10 Let us return to Fig. 4.12 and define ir, lz, and ,3 as the mesh currents shown in
meshes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Then applying the shortcut method to mesh 1, we
have
(R, + R2 + Rr)tr Rziz &i! = ldpt
This result may be checked by applying KVL to mesh 1, iesulting in
R,i I R (ir /.i + R.{r'r - i., 0r.

The two results ar9 evidently the same.

Seciion 4.5 Mesh Analysis 93

I
Applying KVL to meshes 2 and 3 yields, in the same manner.

-R,n + (R, + R4 + R)i, - R5L = -xs?


-R!i, R5t, + (n3 + Rr + R6)i1 = r:."1
The analysis is completed by solving the three mesh equations for the mesh currents.
The sa e syrnmetry is present in the mesh equations as was noted in the nodal
equalions. Tf Cmmer'( rule is lo be used for qolving lor the currenls, the coefficjenl
determinant to be calculated is

lR+R,rR, -Rt R, I

A-i -Rt R, iR4-R, R.


I
I

Rr R: R:+R, rn.i
The diagonal elements are the surns of the resistances in the meshes. and the off_
diagonal elements are the negatives of the resistances common to the meshes coEe_
sponding to the row and column of the determinant. That is. ft2 in row 1. column
2 or in .o\r 2, column I ic lhe negative of rhe resisrance common to meshes I and 2
etc. Thus rhe determinant is symmebic about ils diagonal. This slmmetry is nor pre_
served, of course, if there are dependent sources present,

EXERCISES
4.5.1 Using mesh analysis, find i, and ,; in Fig. 4.13 if nr = 3 O. R, = 12O,lRr = 6O,
t:4 = 12 !, and o,2 = -6 V.
Answer2A,t A
4.5.2 Repeat Exercise 4.5.1 with R, = 3 O, R, = 6 O, Rs = t2 e, rs, : 2l V, and
us, = 0. Check by using equivalent resistance and curent division.
Answer 3 A,2 A.
4.5.3 Using mesh analysis, find ir and D if element r is a 6,V independent voltage source
with the positive terminal at the top.
Answet2A,tA

3l)

txtRctsE 4.5.3

4.5.4 Repear E(ercice 4.5.J it element r rs a dependenl voftage source of 6ir V with the
positrve lerminal al lhe bultom.
Ansrer5A,6A

194
I

Chapter 4 Analysis Merhods


I
I

I
I

t-
I
4.6
CIRCUITS CONTAINING CURRENT SOURCES
As in the case of nodal analysis of circuits with voltage sources, mesh analysis is
easier if there are current sources ptesent. To illustrate this point, let us consider the
circuit of Fig. 4.14(a), which has two cufient souces and a voltage soulce. With
the mesh currents ir, ir, dhd ir chosen as shown, it is clear that we ne€d three inde,
pendent equations. Not all of these, however, have to be mesh equations. The pres-
ence of the two cr[rent sources provides us with two consfaints which we may ob-
tain by inspection:

(4.r4)

We need, therefore, dlily one more equation. Since it will have to come from KVL,
we need lo selecl a closed parh in which all rhe loltages are easily obtained. That
is, we need to avoid the current sources since their voltages are not readily obtained.

r}
^,)*,

(a) O)
FICURE 4.14 Circuits with two current sources and one voltage source

If we imagine for a moment that the two curent souces are removed, that is,
opened, then, we shall have two less meshes. But we al.eady have two equations so
there will still be enough meshes left for the required numbff of equations. Morc-
over, the loops left (they may not be meshes) will have only resistoN and voltage
souces in them, and therefore KVL is easily applied. We must stress that we are not
taking the current sources out. We are only imagining them out for a moment in or-
der to locate tle loops around which KVL is to be applied.
Returning to Fig. 4.14(a) and imagining rhe cunent souces open fol a mo-
ment, we see that we have only one loop left, namely, the loop containing orr, Rr,

SecrioD 4.6 Cir.uits Containing Cunent Sources 95

I
nz, and Rr. Applying KVL to this loop, we have our tlird equation,
Rr(n - r) + nz(i: - iz) + n.i, = o, (4.l5)
The analysis of the circuit can now be completed by solving (4.14) and (4.15).

EXAMPLE 4.' 1 I-et us complete the analysis of Fig. 4.14(a) if iRr : I


4 O, lR, = O, Rr : 3 O,
iet = 2 A, icz = 5 A, and os3 = 38 V Equations (4.14) and (4.15) become

b= -2

4(' - i,) + 1(r3 - i') +3h=38


which yield ir = I, i1 : 2, and i3 = 6 A.
In this example we may simplify the process by.using loop currents mther than
mesh curents. Suppose that the problem is to find the current downward in iRr,
which is evidently rj = 6 A. kt us use ioop curents i, ir, aDd ,;, as in Fig.
4.14(b), where i. is now the desired current downward in Rr = 3 f,). In choosing the
curents we have been careful to place only one loop current through a current
source. By inspection we have
i,=2
tb=5
and by KVL around the loop of ,",
4\i. - ih + i) + 1(i + t) + 3t. = 38
or
4(2 s+ i) + l(2 + t) + 3t = 38
Solving this equation we have i. = 6 A; as befori.

EXAMPTE 4.12 t-et us apply loop analysis to the circuit of Fig. 4.9, which was analyzed previously
by the nodal method. The circuit is redrawil in Fig. 4.15. Th,.re are four meshes and
two constraints to be satisfied by the controlling variables D, and i,,. We therefore
need six equations.
We may choose mesh currents and obtain their relations to the two current
sources as we did earlier in Fig. 4 l4(a). However, to further illustrate the use of
loop currents and to simplify the resulting equations, we have chosen lt, i2, L, ia
^nd
as the unknow! currents, as shown in the circuit. This selection results in a single-
_current
loop through the current sources and through the element whose current
controls a dependent source. Thus the constmints are simple equations. Before ap-
plying KVL. we may write- by inspeclion of the circuil,

tr=il
2(t, + r.) =o,
96 Chapter 4 Anal)ns Methods
I

F|CURt 4.15 More complicated circuit

From lhese results we may express all the loop cufients in terms of D, and r",
The result is

(4.16)

,, ,:_q
1
As yet we have not written a single loop equation. We need two more equa-
tions since ther€ are basically two unknowns, o, ard i.
By imagining for the mo-
ment the curent sources as op€n, we see ihe two loops to which :I/e shall apply
KvL. They Are abcda and qjfeda. The respective loop equations are
o, + 1(i) - + l(i + 13 + ,4) :0
3r"

2+2 + l(iz + tr + 14):0


Substituting (4.16) into these equations, we have
40'-2i'=18
)tr'
Z '' 'li,-7
The solution is given by
o,=4V, i=-lA
which checks with the resuft obtained earlier in Sec. 4.1.
The loop curents may now be found from (4:16), completing the analysis.
Any other cuftent or voltage iII the circuit may be readily obtained also,

Section 4.6 Circuits Containing Current Sources 97

t-
ln general. before analyzing any circuit. one should nole how many equalions
are required in nodal analysis and in loop analysis, and use the simpler method.
Clearly, in Example 4.12 the nodal analysis performed eatlier was simpler.

EXERCISES
4,6,1 Using mesh analysis, find i.
Ansver 4 A
i 5()

,ni ,6{]* 6
[xERCISE 4.6.1

4.6.2 Usin8 mesh analysis, find 1)r.

EXERCISE 4.6.2

4.6.3 In Fig. 4.14(a), let R' = 4 O, R, = 6 O, & - 2 O, Lr:4 A, rs, = 6 A, and


a/,: 52 y. Irave i, and i3 as shown atrd change ir to a loop cuEent clockwise
through Rr,'Rr, R3, and o!3, and Lrse loop analysis to find the power delivercd to Rr.
(Note that in this case the curent through R3 is ir + ,3.)
Aasqa. 18 W

4.7
DUALITY
The reader may have noticed a similarity in certain pai$ of network equatidns that
we have considered so far. For example, Ohm's law may be stated as

o = .lti (4.17)
or
i=Go (4.18)

98 Chapter4 AnalysisMethods
In the second casc we have solved for i, of course, and used the definition G = l/R.
Another way of looking at these equations is to note that the second nlay be obtained
fiom the nrst by replacing o by I, i by t), and n by 6. ln like manner, rhe firsr may
be obtaincd from the second by replacing i by o, t, by i, and c by R.
Similarly, iD the case of reli?,r resistances, Rr, Rz, . . . R,, the equivalcnt re-
sistance was shown in Sec. 2.3 to be

& = Rr + n2.+ . . . + R, (4.19.)


and fot parallel condwtances, Gr, G?, . . . , G", we saw in Sec. 2.4 that the equiva-
lent conductance was
Cp:G\+Gl+...+G. 14.20)
It is cleat tha! one of these equations
may be obtained from the other by interchang-
ing resistances and conductances and the subscripts r and p (i.e., series and par-
allel).
There is thus a defrnite dualiJ between resistance and conductance. curent
and voltage, and se es and pamllel. We acknowledge this by defining these quanti-
ties as drah of each other. Thar is, R is the dual of G, i is the dual of D, series is the
dual of parallel, and vice versa in each case.
Another simple case of dual equations is
l,:0 (4.21)
and its dual

i:0 (4.22)
ln the general case, an elem€nt described by (4.21) is a short circuit, and one de-
scribed by (4.22) is an open circuit. Thus short circuits and open circuits are duals..
There are.also other dual quantities, as we shall see later.

EXAMPTE 4.13 Every equation in circuit theory has a dual, obtained by replacing each quantity in
the equation by its duai quantity. If ooe equation describes a planar circuit, then the
other equation describes the dual of the circuit, or the dral circuir- (As the reader
may see i[a later course, nonplanar circuits do not have duals.) For example, con-
sider the circuit of Fig. 4.16. The mesh equatioqf are given by

rR, + R,lt, R,i, = t:-


(4.23)
-ft,r,+(R,+Rti=0

FIGURE 4.16 Two-mesh circuit

sedion 4.7 Duality 99

L.
I
L

r
To obtain the dual of (4.23), we sinlply replace the R's by C's, the i,s by o,s.
_
and 1r by i. The result is

(ct + Gz)at _ Go: i


ttlt\
Grr, l\G- -C)D-=O
These are the nodal equations of a circuit having two nonreferencc node voltages, ol
and or, three conductances, and an independent current source is. From our sh'ortcut
procedure for nodal equations we see that Gr and G2 are connected to the 6rst node.
G. is conrmon to lhe two nodes. G) ijnd C, are connecred to lhe \econd node. and i"
eniers the first node. Since Gr and is are no! connected to the second node and G. ii
nol connected ro lhe hr\l node. these element\ are connerled ru the reterence node
Such a circuit is sbown in Fig. 4.17 and is a dual of Fig. 4.16.
Figure 4.16 may be described as Ds in series with Rr and the parallel combina
tion of R2 and R1. Replacing the quantities in this stalement by th;ir duals, we see
corectly thar Fig. 4.17, a duai circuit, may be described as /, in parallel with Gr and
the series combination of G: and Gr.

FtcURE 4.17 Duat ot Fjg. 4.16


ln this example we note that nodes ate duals of meshes, and vice versa. This is
true in general because of the duatity between the mesh currenm and the nqnrcfer_
ence node voltages. The reference node is the dual of the boundary of the region
outs[de the cil:ct)it, or what we might call the out?r mesh.
This last duality (between nodes and mesles) gives us a proaedure for finding a
dual of a given circuit. We may place one node of the dual network to be obtain;d
inside each mesh, thereby assu ng us of the correspondence between each nonrefer-
ence node and a mesh. Then we may place the refercnce node outsiale the circuit
(corresponding to the outer mesh). Connecting these nodes together by elements
drawn through the elements of the original circuit assures us of correspondence be_
lween elements. If these last elements dmwn are the duals of those they cross, the
circuit obtained is a dual of the o ginal circuit.
As an_ example, the circuit of Fig. 4.16 is redrawn using solid lines in Fi8.
_ _-
4.18. The dash€d circuit, superimposed in accordance with the dual circuit proci_
due, is its dual. It should be clear thar the latter circuit is rhe same as that ;f Fig.
4.17
In the case of independent or dependent sources, the polarity of the dual
source is specified when the dual circuit is obtained from the dual equations, as was
the case in Fig- 4.17. However, in the geometric method of Fig. 4.ig, the polarity
af is cannot be determined since the mesh current directions aie not shown and thui
are completely arbit ary.

100 Chapter 4 Andlysir Method5


f
J ?^:
I I

.o.
--\_-/
TICURE 4.18 Two dual circuits

If the mesh currents or node voltages arc shown in the original circuit, the po-
larity ofa source oblained in rhe dual clcuit may be delermined liom the concept of
driuing a rmde or a mesh. We shall say rhat a mesh is drlven by a source in it if the
polarity of the source is such as to drive the current in the direction of the mesh cur-
i
rent. A node is d ven by a sourc€ connected to it if the polarity of the soulce is such
as to apply voltage to the node (i.e., send curreDt toward tire node). Thus the dual
i source will drive or not drive a mesh or a node in accordance with whether the
souce iL crosse\ in rhe original circLlit drives or does nol drive rhe corresponding
I
I node or fiesh. This is consistent, as it must be, with the two sets of dual equations
of the circuits.
I
In geneml, when we have anallzed one citcuit, the numerical values of its
I
voltages and curents ate the sarne as those of rheir duals in the dual circuit. When
we solve one chcuit, therefore, we have really solved two. As an illus&atiol, the nu-
merical values of ir and i, in Fig. 4.16 are, respectively, the same as those of rr and
L2 n Frg. 4.17.

I
As a nnal note in this chapter, we shall not attempt to give a dual of an op
amp. We may, of course, obtain duals of circuits containing dependent souces
which are equivalent to cftcuits with op amps.
I

EXERCISE
4.7.1 Find the dual of the circuit in Fig. 4.14(a).

I 4.8
I
COMPUTER-AIDED CIRCUIT ANALYSIS USINC SPICE
Numerous computer-aided circuit analysis gograms are arailable fff solving electric
circuits on virtually all digital computers, ftom large mainftame to the smaler (in
size) personal computers. Although computer prognms ale very usefirl and some-
times necessary ior solving complicated networks, they are in no way a substitute for

Section 4-8 computer Aided Circuit Anallsis Using SPICE 101


a thorough understanding of the rudiments of basic circuit theory. The student
should keep in mind that output fiom these programs is based totalli on user jnput.
This requires a thorough knowledge of basic principles for data input and atso for
lalld interpretation of the computed results.
SPICE, developed at the Universily of California ar Berkeley, is a powerful
_
progmm that has become the de facto standard for analog circuit simulation. pspice,
a version of SPICE executable on personal computers such as th€ IBM pC famiiy, is
used for iilustration in this book. A descdprion of rhe standard commands of SpiCE
used in our study is given in Appendix E and should be reviewed before continuing
in this sectio,n. Of particular importance for the dc examples are the E, F, C, H, I:
R, V, and X data statements, as well as the .DC, .END, .ENDS, .LIB, .Op,
.PRINT, .SUBCKT, and .TF commands.

EXAMPLE 4.,I4 Conside^r the simple circuit of Fig. 4.19, where the node designations have been en_
circled for clarity_ The procedure for a simulation requires tlie following -
steps:
f. 9r:1!" ," inpv frie or citcuit rtk usins an ASCII text ediror (e.g., EDLrN of MS
DOS).
2. Run the simulator.
3. Examin€ the ourpur file.

From Appendix E. we see that lhe creation of a circuit 6le for our \imDle dc
circuit example. in general. involves (1, title and commenr slatemenb, (2; dara
statementJ, (3) solution control statements, (4) output control statements, and (5) an
end statement. A circuit file, saved as say EX4-19.CIR, that gives a solution is
SIMPI,E DC SOL('TION FOE EXAMPLE OF FIC. 4.I9 (TITLE SI'ATEMNNT)
rDara sLarebahts Cor cooponenl \dlues
I1 o1DClM
vl 20Dc6v
RI 1 O 1KOHM
F,2t22K
F.LI03K
*Solution cobtrol statenert to print atl current,s dd oover
+dissrpalion for all vottage sources. rNote. .op rs rhe
+default used if no control statehe.t included. )

*output cohtrol stat.enen! lor node voltages 1 ed 2,


{Optional
*in this case since.op sives ar1 node vottages od cur;ents
*tlEough voltage souces autoDai,icaity. )
. PRrNT DC V(1) V(2)

'End sta rehent


. END

Running the simulation (srep 2) will depend on the hatdwarc configuration be_
.
ilg employed. In rhe case of an IBM pC with a hard disk, the following-enry is all
that is required:
PSPTCE EX4-19. CrR

The output is saved on the hard disk as EX4-I9.OUT.

102 Chapier 4 Analysis Methods

i
RL = 3ka

FICUnE 4.19 Circuit for SPICE example

Examinarion of the results (step 3) is easily pedormed by iNpecting the output


file using DOS commands TYPE or COPY for viewidg on rhe video monitor, or
printing on the rystem printer. A solution in this case appears as follows:
NODE VOLTACE NODE VOLTACE
( 1) 2. 1818 { 2) 6.0000
VOLTACE SOURCE CIJRREMfS
MME C'IJRRENA
v1 -1.909E 03
TOTiI, POI{ER DISSIPATION 1,15E_O2 WATTS

EXAMPLE 4.,I5 Consider the circuit of Fig. 4.20(al. which illusrrares an oddilj of SPICE. To use rhe
curent in a bmnch, such as 1, of the currcnlcontrolled curent source (CCCS) ir, a
dummy voltage souce such as yd must be inserted, as shown in Fig. 4.201b). A cir-
cuit file for the node voltages I and 2, the voltage between nodes 2 and 3, and the
current i0 Rr is

CIRCUIT FILE FOR DC SOLUTION OF FIG. 4,20


'Data statedenLs
vl loDc4v
vD 1000Dc0
FII 3 2 \,D 4
R1 1 2 20Htl
R2 21llr)4
R3 237
FL 303
_sorution conrrol stateEent lor dc solutron *ith Vl 4 V.
.DC V1 4 4 1
*output control statenent
PEINT DC V'l' V{2 V'2.3r trRt-,

The output file for the solution yields


vl Vrl V{2/ Vl2,B, lrRl-r
4.OOOE OO 4 oOOE OO J.333E Ol 3.?33ErO1 A OOOF,OO

Se€tion 4.8 Computer-Aid€d Cn uitAnalysis Using sPtCC 103


R, :3fi

Rz =3(l

_ (b)
flGURt 4.20 ral Cir(uil conrdinins a CCCSj (bl redrawn fo' a SPtCE simularion
wrth Vd included for use of l.

EXAMPII 4.16 kt us consider a circuit conlaining an op amp. A simple VCVS model of a Faclical
op amp is shown h Fi&
4.21. In this model, nh lepresents the input resistance of
the op amp and ,, the gain. This model can be used for simulating the op amp in the
simple inverter circuit of FiE. 4.22(a\. Nominal lues of nr,, = l0ro ohms and ,,t =
106 have been us€d to approximate an ideal device. A circuit file for the solution is I

OP AMP ITWERTER OF FIG, 4 22


.Dara ststeoents
vl 100Dco5v
Rr lo I IoK
R2 r 3 1o0X
R3 20tOK
RtN 1 2 tE+10
EVO O312iE+6
rsolutiob control ststedents Io! vt o.5 v ed Lrdsfer

104 Chapl€r 4 Analysis Methods


*fDction for v(3)/vI, input &.t output resistdce.
,DC VI 0.5 0.5 1

*Oulput.control statenent
. PRr\"r DC V(1) V(2) V(3) I(81)

*End statenent
. END

The .TF (transfer frrnction) solution control statEment added to the circuit file
causes the mtio of y{3)/yr. the curreDl in y,. the bput resisrance as seen by yr. and

@ @ o
o Y(a,b,

o;
(a) O)
.FICURE 4.21 (a) Op amp symbol; (b) simple VCVS equivalenr circuit

FICURE 4.22 {a) lnverter; (b) VCVS equivalent


Rr = l00k0

R, = 100k0

(b)

Section 4.8 ComiureFAided Circ!it Anatysis Using SptCE 10s


the output rcsistance of the op amp seen looking into the output terminals to be
printed. A formal discussion of the tmnsfei function is deferred unril Chapter 14.
The result of the simulalion i\
vr v(1) v(2) v(3) r (Rll
5.000E-01 5.0008-06 5.000E-12 -5.0008+00 5_oooE-os
V13 /\l = l.00OE 0l
tNPUf &EsrSTAi\CE AT Vr : 1. OOOE+o4
otn PL"T RESTSTA CE AT ! .3 0. OOOE.OO

A powertul featurc of SPICE is the ability to define subcircuits that can be ref,
grcnced in a data statement. Suppose, for ex,ample, that we desire to store the equiv-
alent circuit for the op amp used in Example 4.16 and rccall it whenever needed in a
solution. This can be done by generating a file such as OPAMP.CKT contaifling the
circuit definition desired for the op amp and then calling it using a data statement
within a circuit file employing the X command (subcircuit call). Irl us begin by us-
ing the subcircuit definition featue for file OPAMP.CKT, which can be w tten as
. SUBCKT OPAJ]'P 12 3
*1 DENMES IJ\{EETING INPI'T NODE
*2 DENOIES NONIMIER?INC INPUT NODE
.3 DFNOTES OITPUT NODE
RINI 2 lE IIO
EVOO3I2tE,6
EI\'DS

The circuit file of Example 4.16, using the subcircuit definition, can now be written
as
OP AMP IMIERT TT OF FIC. 4.22.
xData statedents
vt to o Dc o5 v
R1 10 110K
Ru 13IOOK
R3 2 010K
XAAIPT]23OPAMP
, +Define file where OPAIIP subcircuii located
. LIB OPA P. CKT
*Solu!ion control statenents
.DC\1 0.505 r
IF V(31 VT
"oul pu I .onl.o.l sratenenr

PRINT Dc Vr' V'2 V'3r lrRIt


rEod stateoent

EXERCISES
4.8.1 Write a circuit file for determining o in Fig. 4.7.
4.8.2 Write a circuit file for finding the node voltages in Fig. 4.9.

106 ( hapiclr Analyls Mcrhods


4.t.3 F1jd a", aJa,, the input resistance, and the output resistance.
wter -3 Y, -10, 20 kO, 1.1 mO

1=03v

txERCtsE 4.8.3

4.9
SUMMARY
In this chapter we have considered nodol arDlysis and loop or mer,ir analysis, the two
classical general methods of solving elect c circuits. In the process we have denned
nodes, node robaqes, loops, meshes, and loop and mesh cunertr. We have seen that
nodal analysis js the application of Kirchhoff's cufteht lale atthe nonrefercr.? nodes
and loop analysis is the application of Kilcrlol/'s yoltage law atc,fr1d, closed paths.
We also have considered lrdlil) and presented an introducrion to computer-
aided circuit drrdlFrr using the SP/CE program. We use nodal and loop analysis
throughout the book, and use SPICE as an option in mosl ofthe remaining chapters.

PROBLEMS
4.1 Using nodal analysis, find or and or.

f-/
, 2Lo

),'^ 3ko rko u -o(


PROBLEM 4.1

4.2 Using nodal aJ|alysis, find i.


PROBTEM 4.2
4.3 Using nodal analysis, find ir and t,-
2 4.4 Using nodal analysis, find t and i, .
Find the powe! deiivered to lhe 2-O resislor
4.5 Using nodal analysis, find ir. using nodal analysis.

Chapter 4 Problems 107


t,
4A

PROBIEM 4,3

PROBTTM 4.4

l\

ui 40f}
ti (
2oo
t ),n
inosr l.s'

2(}

PROEIEM 4.6

108 Chapler 4 Analysis Melhods

i-
4-1 Find i using nodal analysis- 4.9 Usjng nodal analysis, 6nd i.
l2 [] 4.10 Find t using nodal analysis.
. 4.1i Uslng nodal analysis, find 0.
.4.12 Using nodal analysis, find
".
4.13 Uslng nodal analysis, find the power delivered
to the 4-f,1 resistor. '
4.14 Using nodal anaiysis, find L
4.rS Using nodal anaiysis, find r and o,.
4.16 Using nodal analysis, find i,.
4.17 Using nodal analysis, find o.
4.18 Find o if Dj - 8 sin 6t V
4.19 Find r if o,: 4 cos 3r V. (tinrr Note thar
PNOBTEM 4.7
at = r/P, vtherc r! = 2 is the gain of ihe
VCVS,)
Find l) and i using nodal analysis. 4.20 Find D if os : 4 cos 6t V.
-4.8
4V
4.21 Find R so ihar o, - gos.
4a j 4.22 I ind , iI r" - 4 cos l00r v.
^
4.23 Solve Prob. 4.2 using mesh analysis.
I .4.24 Sotve Prob. 4.3 using mesh aftiysis.
l4v 2Q 4a 4.25 Using mesh or loop analysis, find the power
'<l2O delivered to the 8.O resistor
Find a
-4-26
PROJTIM 4.8

8r) i 8(,
^o

a t
,.
80 8f:} ( 8V

PROBLTM 4.9

PROBIIM 4.10

Chapter 4 Problems 109

I
'"'----v
i2 ksl

tj
u'o(
l PRQBIIM 4.11
"l

2fl

Pf,OBIEM 4.13

110
PROS| tM 4,1s

PROBTEM 4.16

PROBLEM 4.18

1,!1

I
I
I

i--
PROaIEM 4.19

PROBIIM 4.22
PROBttM 4.2'l

PROE|-[M 4.2s PROBIIM 4,26

112 Chapter 4 Analysis Melhods

t
4.27 Solve Prob. 4.26 if tle 2-A, 3-A, and 7-A - 4.30 Find D using the method (loop or nodal) that
currert sources are replac€d by l?'V, 4-V, and requires rhe fewer equations.
l6-V voltage sources, resp€ctively, with the
positive terminal at the top in each case.
Find i using both nodal and loop analysis.

PROSLTM 4.30

4,31 Find the power delivered by the 10-V source,


using both nodal and loop analysis.
PROBLTM 4.28

Fiod ,1 and ,; using loop or mesh analysis.

PROELEM 4.31

PROSTtM 4.29 -4.32 End o, in te{ms of R and 1s, and show that if
R - l0 kO, then
,r--5x1041;

Chapter a P,oblems 113


4.3J Fiad or / 4.36 Frll.d the input resistance Rb, in terms of the
other resistances. L€t Rr =.R3 = 2 kO and
find R? sp that (a) ni = 6 kO and O)
Rh = -l kO.

4.34 Find i.

6f,}

PROEIIM 4.34

Find i if t), = 3 cos 1000. V

i,
lko

PROEIEM 4.35

114 Chaot€r 4 Analvsis Merhods


z 4.37 DIan a ciIcttit and its dual if the mesh equa- -4.38 Draw the dual of the circuit of Prob. 4.26.
tions of the circuit are given by Identify , in the dual circuit corresponding to o
in the o ginal circuit and show ihat they have
10jl-2i,=4 the same numerical values,
-2r+8i'-i3=0 , 4.39 Repeat Prob. 4.38 for the circuit of Prob.

I
-i+l1ir=-6 4.28. solvins for t), lhe dual of i.

COMPUTER APPTICATION PROBTEMS


4.,10 Use SPICE to find (a),rin Prob. 4.2, (b) i, in Prob. 4.5; (c) iln Prob. 4 9, and (d) o in Prob.
4.15.
4.41 Use SPICE to find o in PIob. 4.18 ifos = 0.5 V
4.42 Us€ SPICE to find ihe inPut resistance, output resislanc€, o/os, and t)' if os : 5 V in Prob'
4.t9.
4.43 Use SPICE to find the currcnt flowing to the dght in lhe 5-kO resistor of Prob 4 35 if
o,-lv.
4.44 Use the .DC €ommand to find or in Pmb. 4.33 for the 16-V independent voltage source b€ing
varied from 0 !o 16 V in 2-V increments.

Chapter 4 Problems 115


Network Theorems

The person many think was responsi- The force offalling water oldesi of six children ol August Helm-
ble lor Th6venin's theorem. @nsid- cai onlt fow downlrom hollz and Caroline Penne Helmhollz,
ered in this chapter, was Hemann the hills u/hen rain and a descendanl of William Penn, the
Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, a snow bring it to thern. founder of Pennsylvania. He serued
physicist, physician, physiologist, and years as an army doctor to pay
Hernann wm Helnholtz €ight
Germany's grealgsl sciertist of the hii obliOalions for his medical schol-
nineleenth century. He helped prove arship during his studenl years at lhe
the law of conservation ol energi, in- Frird*Jr Wlhelm lnstilute. His main
vented the ophthalmoscope, constructed a general- ir er€st, ll(w€ver, was physics, in which he gained his
ized torm o{ electrodynamics, and foresaw lhe atomic greabst lame. His 7Oh birlhday was an occasion for
struclure of eleclricity. His anticipalion ol lhe exis- nalionwide celobratiorF ill Gemany, Three years laler
tence of radio waves was later proven when they were he ded, haling raised German science to.the great
discoverod by one ol his studgnts, Heinrich HerE. be(l|!s io rvhictr his,lanous @ntemporary, Otlo von
Helmhollz was bom in Potsdam, Gemany, lhe Bisrnarclq had rais€d lhe German nation. r

.116
T
ln the previous chapters we have considere.d fairly straightforward methods of ana-
lyzin8 circuits. Hos,ever, in many cases the analysis can be shortened considerably
by the use of certain n€twork theorems- For example, if we are interested only in
what happens ao one paiticular element in a circuit, it may be possible by means of
a network iheorem to replace the rest of the circuit by an equivalent and simpler
circuit.
In this chapter we htroduce a number of netwolt theorerns and illustrate their
use in simplifying the analysis of certain circuits. The theorems are applicable, in
geneml, to circuits dvrt are lircal, a te.m we also discuss.
Finally, we use the network theoiems as a motivatiot for introducing practical
sources, as distinguished from the ideal sources considered thus far- As we would
expect, pracdcal sour@s are capable of delivering only a finite amount of power,
and we devote a section to determining the maximum power that can be delivered
by a grven sowce.
5.1
TINTAR CIRCUITS
In Chapter 2 we defned a linear resistor as one that satisfied Ohm's law
c=Ri
and qre considersl circuits that were made up of linear resistors and independent
sources, We defined dependent sources in Chapter 3 and analyzed cilcuits containing
both independeDt and &pendent souces in Chapter 4. The dependent souces that
we considered all had descaibing relations of the form
r = kx (5.1)

)
where * is a constant and the variables .r and were either voltages or currents.
Clearly, OhD's law is a sp€cial case of (5.1).
In (5.1) tbe variable ,]r' is proportional to the variable,!, and the graph of) ver-
sus r is a straight line passitrg through the origin. For this reason, some authors refet
to elements which are cbaracterized by (5.1) as ,irear elements.
For our purpoee,s *e defne a linear element in a more general way, which in-
cludes (5.1) as a special cale. lfr and ) arc variables, such as voltages and currents,
associaM with a fwo-terminal element, then we shall say that the element is linedr
(
if multiplyiry .r by a consrant resulls in lhe mulliplication of ) by lhe same con-
(5.1) since
Kt = k\Kx)

Section 5-1 tinear Circuits 117


Thus nol only is an element described by (5.1) linear, but, in addition, elements de-
scribed by aelations of the forms

dy
--:ax.l=o- .dx (5.2)
dt'Jt
are also linear if a and b are nonzero constants,
The ideal op amp is a multiterminal element and is described bv more than one
equarion. Howe\er. we shall use the op amp only in a leedback mode. as stated in
Chapter 3, and iD this case the equivalent circuits which result consist of linear ele
ments with describing relations like (5.1). Therefore, we may add the ideal op amp
to our list of linear elements.
We dehne a linear aircuit as one containing only independent sources and/or
linear elements. As examples, all the circuits we have considered thus far are linear
circuits
The describing equarions of a linear circuit are obtained by applying KVL and
KCL, and therefore they contain sums of multiples of vottages or cuir"nt . For e*_
ample, a loop equation is of the form
atDt + a2D2+ . +a"a.= f (s.l)
where /
is the algebraic sum of the voltages of the independent sources in rhe loop,
the o's are the voltages of the remaining loop elemerts, and the d,s are 0 or tl.
TXAMPLE 5.-l KVL around the loop shown in rhe circuit of Fig. 5.1 yields
Dt+ x2 aJ=ast - De2
In this case, at = a2*-.1 a3 = -l; the other a's, if any, ate all zero; andJ.=
r.r - us.. We also have

D'=2r, az= 5iz, q= 3i6


where L rs a current elsewhere in the circuit.

2a r:l
5f,

FICURI 5.1 Loop of a linear circuit

The proportionality prope y of a single linear ilement also holds for a linear
circuit in the sense that if all the indirpendent sources of the circuit are multiplied by
a constant f, then all the cuffents and voltages of the remaining elements are multi-
118 (hapler 5 Thcoremr
^erwork
plied by this same constant K. This is easily seen in (5.3), which mulriplied through
by K becomes
alKx\+a2Kq+ " +a"Ka.= Kf
The right membe. is the consequence of multiplying the independent sources by K,
and for equality to still hold all the o's aI€ multiplied by K. Since the elements are
linear, multiplying their voltages by K muitiplies their currents by f.
EXAMPLE 5.2 t€tus find the current i in Fig. 5.2. Since by KCL the current to the right in the
2-O resistor is i isr, KVL around rhe left mesh yields
2(i-i',)+4i-a,' (s.4)
from which
_ D,, i,,
'=?'J (5.5)

IfDrr = 18 Vandi"? - 3A.lheni J I | =4A. Ifwedoublers, to 36 V and


i*, to 6 A, then i is doubled to 8 A.

2j:)

I lu
+
1) on' (1 i,

FICURE 5.2 Linear circuii with iwo sources

EXAMPLE 5.3 kt us illustmte another use of the plopo ionality relarion by finqing or in the circuit
ofFig. 5.3. Such a circuit, because it resembles a ladder, is sometimes called a lad-
der network_

-
I

flCURt 5.3 Ladder network

We could writb mesh or nodal equalions, but to illustmte proportionality we


shall introduce an alternative method. Irt us simply .6run? a solution,
or=1V
Section 5-1 tinear Circuirs :l 19
and see where lt leads us. Refening to the figl,rc, this assumption on ur gives ir =
2 A and i1 = 1 A. and therefore
L:i,+i,:34.
Proceeding down the ladder toward the source, we have, by Ohm's law, KVL, and
KCL.

r)r:or+or=l0V

)
i5=i.+i=54
oa= l(D:sV
and linally, if the guess that or =I V is correct,
ts=o'+o.=15V
Our guess was not conect, since actually os = 45 V, but in view of the laws of
probability this should not surprise us. However, by the proportionality relation, if a
l5-V source gives an output or = 1 V, ollr 45-V source will give three times as
much, so that the correct answer is
' oI:3V
This method of assuming an answer for the output, working backward to ob-
tain the corresponding input, and adjusting thc assumed output to be consistelt with
the actual input, by means of the prqrortionality r€lation, is particularly easy to ap-
ply to the ladder network- There are other circuits to which it also applies, but the
ladder network is one of the most-often-e[countered circuits, and the method is
worthwhile for it alone.
A nonlinear circuit is, of couse, one that is not linear. That is, it has at least
one element whose terminal relation is not of the form (5.1) or (5.2). An example is
given in Exercise 5. 1.4, for which it is s€en that the proportionality prop€rty does
nor apply.

EXERCISES
5.1,1 Find rr, 02, and 03 with (a) the souIce ialues as shown, (b) lhe source values di-
vided by 2, and (c) the souce valu€s multiplied by 2. Note how rhe principle of pro-
- portionality applies in (b) and (c).
Answer (a) 4,8, 28 V; (b) 2, 4, 14 V; (c) 8, 16, 56 V
5.1.2 Find t,, a2,i,a',aa, and i5 inFig.5.3.
Answer 6 A,27 Y 9 A, 30 V, 15 V, 15 A
5.1.3 Find o and i using the principle of proportionality.
Answer 4Y,3 A

120 chrprer 5 Neiworl lheorems

I
txERctst 5.1.1

r 1-l- 20 i&"
+
,n{ cu
1.
r2o 2Q
'I
txrRctsE 5.1.3

5.1.4 A circuit is made up of a voltage so[ce os, a 2-() linear resistor, and a nonlinear
resistor in s€rie6. The loDlinear resistor is described by

a:i,
whele , is the voltage across the resistor and i, which is constnined to be nonrcga-
tive, is the @rreot flowing into the positive terminal. Fird the current flowing out of
the positive terminal of the souce if (a) os = 8 V and (b) us = 16 V. Note that the
proportionality Fqerty does not apply.
A,rw.. (a) 2 A; O) 3.123 A

5.2
SUPERPOSITION
In this s€ction we consider linear cicuits with more than ine input. The linearity
property makeg it pocsible, as we shali see, to obtain the responses in these circuits
by anal)zitrg only siqle-input circuits.

EXAMPLE 5.4 I,et us first consider the circuit of Fig. 5.2, which was analyzed in the preceding sec-
tion. The output i 6atisfied the circuit equation (5.4), which we repeat as

2li is,l + 4i - 1)st (5.6)

Sect'on5.2 slperposilio 121

I
From the solution,

(s.1)
6u
also given earlier, we see that i is made up of two components, one due to each
inpul.
If ir is the component of i due to Dsr alone (i.e., wirh rs, = 0), then by (5.6)

2(', 0) + 4i1 - e,1 (5.8)


Similarly, if r, is the component of i due to ie, alone (i.e., with osr = 0), then by
(5.6) we have
2(i, i) + 4i, = o (5.e)
Adding (5.8) and (5.9), we have
2(t, - 0) + 4it + 2(i,- ts, + 4r, = osr + 0
oi
2[(it + i) - ir!] + 4(i + iz) = acl (5. r 0)

Comparing this result with (5'.6), we see that


i=r+iz
Also solving (5.8) and (5.9), we have

o
(5.11)
tr=ti
which check with the two components given in (5.7).
Alternatively, we may obtain the components of i directly from the circuit of
Fig. 5.2. To fnd ir we need to make the current source .;? zero. Sirc€ is2 = 0 is the
equation df an open circuit, this is accomplished by replacing the current source in
the circuit by an opeD cAcuit. This operation of making a source zero is sometirnes
referred to, mther g rnly, as "killing" the source, or making the solrce "dead." The
resulting circuit, in this case, is shown in Fig. 5.4(a), from which it is easily seen,
using Ohm's law, that ir, the cgmponent of i due to osr alone, is glven by rhe first
e4ualion of t5.l lr.
. j To find i,tle component of i due to is2 alone, we must have osr = 0, the
FICURE 5.4 Circuit of Fig. 5.2 with (a) the current source dead; (b) the volrage source dead
29

I
4'} (l Itt

122 Chapler s Network Theorems


equation of a short circuit. Thus, to kill a voltage souce such as osr, we replace it
by a short circuit, as shown i4 Fig. 5.4O). Usirg curent division it is easy to see
i
that is given by the sepond equation of (5.11).
.The method we have illustrated with this example is called supe,'poritlo , be-
caluse wehaye stqreiposed, or algebraically added, the components due to each inde-
pendent source acting alone to obtain the total response. The principle of superposi-
tion applies to any linear circuit with two or more sources, because the circuit
equations are linedr equations (fust-degree equations in the unknowns). This may be
seen ftom (5.3) and the natu.e of theo i relations for the linear elements. ln partic-
ular, in the case of resistive circuits, the response may be found using Crarner's rule
and is clearly a sum of components, one due to each independent source alone. (Ex-
panding the numemtor determinant by cofacto.s ol the column containing the
sources clearly reveals this.)
The linearity of the circuit equations enables us to add (5.8) and (5.9) and to
see in (5- l0) that the response was the sum of the individual responses. For example,
\ e are able ro sa) thal
zit+2i"=2(i+i)
b€cause these expressions are iinear. However, we cannot say that
, 2(' + i,), :2i1 + 2i1
because these are quadmtrc and not linear expressions,
Superposition allows us to analyze linear citcuits with more than one indepen-
dent source by anallzing separately only single-input circuits. This is quite often ad-
vantageous since we can use network reduction properties, such as equivalent resis-
tance aDd voltage division, in analyzing single-itput circuits.
Formally, we state the principle of superposirion as follows:

In any linear resistive circuit containing two or more independent sources, any circuit
voltage (or current) may be calculated as rhe algebmic sum of all the individual
voltages (or curents) caused by each independent source acring alone (i.e., with all
orher independenr sources deadl.

[-erui find the rolrage o in lhe circuit wilh lhree independenl sources, shown in Fig.
5.5. To illustrate the garlier statement that the response is a sum of components,
each due solely to an independent souce, we shall first solve the circuit by conven-
tional means. Then to contrast the methods we shall use superposition.
To illustmte the role each source plays in the response we label the sources as

o3r:6V
(s. l2)
o'3:18V
Taking d as the reference node, the node voltage at, is us3, that at c is osr u, and -
that at .r is osr o + 1,sr. The nodal equation at the generalized node is theD
-
0,r-iJ+Drr -u+ uar 9 (5.13)
ozJ ^- -=-I'2=u

se€tion5.2 Supeeosition 123


FICURT 5.5 Circuii with three sources

&om which we bave

a = ?xd - h2 + 2o,:, (5.14)


Thus.we see that o is a su of compoDents due to the individual sourc€s. Finally,
substituting {5. 12, into (5.14) we have

o=4_2+3=sv (5.15)
Solving for i, now by the method of superposition, we may write

o = a, + o2 + o! (5.16)
where ur is the component due to the 6-V sourc€ alone (the 2-A and lg-V soulrss
dead). u, is lhe componenr due ro the 2-A souce alone (the rwo vollage sources
dead), aad q is the component due to the l8-V source alone (the 6-i and 2-A
souces dead). The clcuits showing or. u2, and v, are given in Fig. 5.6(a).
O), and
(c)tJesryclivety. In Fig. 5.6(a), killiDg the l8-V source ties nodes I ana a togettre.;
in Fig. 5.6ft), killing the two voltages ties nodes a and c together and anj d toj,
gelher: and so on.

IIGURE 5,6 Circuit oi lig. 5.5 wirh vaiious sources ti ed


5(l

3A
6'l

(a) oi (c)

124 Chapter 5 Netwo* Theorems

t
ftom Fig. 5.6 it is almost trivial to obtain
or = 4V
a2=-2y
or=3V
$hich are the value. gi\en in r5 l5).

sorrce present lel us consider


EXAMPLE 5.6 to illu\(rate superposilion when there i( a deDeodent
io find the power delivered to the 3-[]
rhc circuit ol l-ig. 5 7. where rl rs I equred
*. *e it povtet is no! a linear combination
ri,'ii,. ot J"t", )hould make clear lharr
t ln the case we are considering' we have
"i""iog.".i "ut.""o
\
i -i
"3
I
I' shichisaquadrallc,andnotalitedr'e:\pressionTherefore'superpositionwillflor
ro each in-
!r ::"i"':;#;;"; ;;;;r directtv rhat i'. ue c''nol find rhe power duepower' How-
i::ft;;"il.I i";i";
"r1""
ina
"aa
rhe resulrs to ob*in the rotal
obtain p'
l ;;:. ;;.r, o b\ sLrperposil,on
hnd and subsequenlly

12 V

FICURI 5.7 Circuil sith a dep€ndent so'rrce

qource is acling alone [Fig


l,etting o' be the componenl of l. wheD tbe ]2-V
alone [Fig 5 8rb)] we
5 8,"il;; ; ;" .omponent ol t' due to the 6-A source

have. as b€fore,
'o=or+,:
also has components' which
We note that the curent i driving the dep€ndeDt souce
solving for or in Fig 5 8(a) and
*" 1t""" i"il"J
i, iz, due to-each source atone
o: in Fi8.5.8(b), ""a
we have
or=6V' nz=9Y
anal therefore o = 15 V The power is then given by
(t )l_
P=7=1sw
Al leasl lhree things ate illustmled by Example
5 Frst as6 dt:{l--T::
we may use lt Io
,ionaa. *. ut" .uferposition directly to calculate power' bul
"unnot
125
seciion5.2 StPerPosnion
l

I'I
'.r...-

!r S3o
lQ -l (l

tb)
FIGURE s.8 r ir(url o, lig. 5.7 with la) the currenr sour.e kil.ed;
(b) the independent voltage source killed

get cunent or voltage, fiom which power is thcn found. Second, in applying $rper-
position, onr] the independent sources are killed, na,er the dependenf sources- fi
nally, superposition is often a poor Detbod for solving circuits with depeDdent
sources, because each of the individual single-input citcuits frequently is alrnost as
difficult to ana\ze as the original cirqrit_ F6 example, there are two meshes in Fig.
5.7, the original circuit, and one mesh cment is known. Therefme only one appti-
cation of KVL is needed, around the left mesh, to solve for the curent in fhel--O
rcsistor. This is also exactly rhe cale itr th€ circuit of Fig. 5.8O).
{
i
EXERCISES
:
5.2.1 Solve Exercise 4.2.3 usirg superposition_
5.2.2 Solve Prob. 3.14 using superyosition. il
5,2.3 Find the power delivered to the 3-() resist@s in Fig. 5.8(a) and (b) and show that
their sum is n , equal to the tolal power delivered to the 3-O resistor in Fig. 5.7.
Answer 12, 21 W

5.3
THEVENIN'S AND NORTON'S THEOREMS
In the preceding s€ction we saw that the analysis of some sircuits could be gearly
simplified by applying the principle of superposifion. However, as we saw in ExiEn-
ple 5.6, supelposition alone may not reduce the cosplexity of the Foblems, but its

126 Chaprer 5 Nerwork Theorems


use may lead to additional work. In this section \qe consider Thiwnin, s and Norton's
theorems, which wtll in many cases be applicable to and greatly simplify the circuit
to be anallzed. As we will see, the use of either of these theorems enables us to re-
place an intire circuit seen at a pai of terminals by an equivalent circuit made up of
a single resistor and a source- Thus we may determine the voltage or curent of a
single element of a relatively complex circuit by replacing the rest of the circuit by
an equivalent resistor and source and analyzing the resulting, exceedingly simple
circuit.
We assume that the circuit to be considered can be sepatated into two parts, as
shown in Fig. 5.9. The pait denoted as cilcuit A is a linear circuit containing resis-
to$, dependent sources, or independent sources. Crcuit B may contain nonlinear el-
ements. We also add the constmint that any dependent source in either circuit must
have its controlling element in the same circuit. That is, no dependent source in cir-
cuitA can be controlled by a voltage or curent assmiated with an element in circuit
B, and vice versa. The reason for tlis will become clear in the development that
follows.

FIGURE 5.9 Panitioned cir.uir

We shall show that we can replace circuit A by an equivalent cvcluit containiag


a source and a resistor in such a way that the voltage-curent relations at terminals
a-, remain the same. Since oul aim is to naintain the same terminal relations at
a-b, clearly, from the standpoint of circuit A, we may obtain the same effect if we
rellace circuit B by a voltage source of D volts with the proper polarity, as shown in
Fig. 5.10. Insolar as circuit A is concerned, it has the same terminal voltage, aod
since circuit A itself is unchanged, the same terminal curent must ffow. We have
now obtained a linear circuit and can consequently make use of all the properties we
have esrablished for such circuirs.

FIGURE
ffip
5.10 Replacement of circuil

In particular, applying superposition to the linear


I by a voltage source

cicuit which we have now


obtained, we see that the current i will be given by
j=j,+L (5.17)

Seclron r,] lhevenin s and Norron's lheorem\ 127


where ir is produced by the voltage source o with the net\r'ork A dead (all its inde-
pendent sources kill€d) and i* is the short-circuit cutent produced by any sources
inside circuit A with |J killed (replaced by a short circuit). These two cases are
shown in Fig. 5.I L

(a)
ffir o)
' FICURE 5.rl Circuits obtained for applyiog supeposition

Since the independent sources are dead in circuit A [Fig. 5.ll(a)], from the
terminals of the source D we see only a resistive circuit, the equivalent resistance of
I which we shall call Rh. By Ohm's law, we therefore have

I n=-ll (s. r8)

By (5.1?) the expression for the curert i is then

i=-9+i- (s. r e)

Since (5.19) describes network A in the general case, it must hold for any con-
dition at the terminals. Suppose that the terminals are open. In this case, I = 0, and
we shall denote the voltage by o = o-, th' open-citcuit voltage. Substituting these
values into (5.19), we have

o:-ff+r*

(s.20)

Eliminating,:. in (5.19) and (5.20), we have


(s.2t)
The relations given in (5.19) and (5.21) mai be used to obtain two very useful
circuits which are equivalent to circuit A, Historically, the first of these was
Th6ve in's equivalent citcuit, na'J.ed in honor of the French telegraph engineel
Charles kon Th€venir (185? 1926), who published his results in 1883. [The ctucuit
might have been more appropriately Damed for the great German physicist H. L. F.
von Helmholtz (1821-1894), who gave a restricted cas€ of it in 1853.]

12A Chapter s Network Theorems


The Thevenin equivalenr circuit is simpiy one which is desa.ibed by (5.21)
with terminal voltage o and terminal clrrent i, oriented as in Fig. 5.9. (For conve
nience we will drop the accent mark in Th€venin's name.) To draw the circuit we
note that -. is the sum of two terms, which therefore rnust represent two elements in
series whose terminal voltages add up to o. The first term evidently corresponds to a
resi\rance RD. called the Thevenin rcsistance. and rhe (cond rerm coiresponds Lo a
voltage source with terminal voltage o*. The result is shown in Fig. 5.12, where the
dashed lines represent the comections to the external circuit B of Fig. 5.9. Analysis
of the ctcuit will show that (5.21) is satisfied. The statement rhar Fig. 5.12 is equiv-
alent at the terminals to Fig. 5.9 is known as Thevenin's theorlm.

flGURt 5.12 Thevenin equivalent circuit of circuit A of Fig. 5.9

Another chcuit that is equi lent to circuit A of Fig. 5.9 is obtaited ftom
(5.19). This circuit is the dual of the Thevenin circuit and is called the Norrof €qr.,iy-
alent tirc it in honor of the American engineet E. L. Norton (1898- ), whose
work was published some 50 years after Thevenin's. From (5.19) we see that j is the
sum of two terms, which must then reprcsent two parallel elements whose curents
add up to i. The first term evidently arises from the Thevenin resistance R,h, and the
second,term corresponds to a current source L. The result is shown in Fig. 5.13,
aod the statement of equivalerce of Figs. 5.9 and 5.13 is Noror's theorem. Ag in,
the dashed lines represent the connections to the external circuit B.

FICURI 5.t3 Norton equivalent circuit of fig. 5.9

EXAMPLE 5.7 tet us find lbe TheveDin and l\torton equivaleDt circuils for lhe network to the left of
termimls a-, itr Fig. 5.14. Then, using the results, let us obtain the cu:rent i, as
shown, in terms of the load rcsistarce R.
To obtaiD the Thevenin circuit $/e ne€d to lind R6 and o*. The Thevenin resis-
tance R6 is lound from the dead circuit (the two independent sources made zero),

Seclion 5.3 Th6venin's and Nonon's Theorems 129


l'
R

FICURE 5.14 Circuit with a variable load resistor

shown in Fig. 5.l5(a,. from which we ha\e


rrx6] _
Rs-2+ir6 o
a -.

The open-circuit voltage o- is obtained f.om Fig. 5.15(b). Since the rerminalr
d-, are open, the voltage oe is aqoss the 3-f,! resistor. Labeling the nodes a
,
shown, with node as reference, and wdting a nodal equation at ihe generalize
node, shown dashed. we have

o*- 6
6 3 -'

(a) (b)
FICURE 5.15 CrrcuirJ for obtaining the Thevcnin cir.uit ot Frg. 5.14

The Thevenin equi lent circuit, witl the load R connected, is shown in Fig. 5. 16. h.
,i
We note that the polarity for o- = 6 V is such that the correct voltage pola ty re-
sults at terminals d-, when they are opened.
The curent i in Fig. 5.14 is the same as rhat'of Fig. 5.16, which in the laue!
case is readily seen to be

6-
',: R+4
We may use this resull to find the load current for any load R lhal we choose-

130 Chapter s Neh4ork Theor€ns


t
Lli

I
I
j

FlcURf 5.t6 Loaded Thevenin equivalent of the citcuit of Fig. 5 14

EXAMPLE 5.8 To.obtain the Norton equivalent ci.cuit we use Rd = 4 O, as before, and calculate
i*. We may shon rerminals d and b and calculate i- from the resuiting circuit. or we
may use the tr6 we already have and get i* from (5.20). In the latter case we have

.6
i*=;= l5A
The Norton equilalent circuil, with rhe load R connecled. is shown in Fig. 5.17.
Using cunent division, we have, as before,
/L\A
; l-lil 5) =
'-\n++/"'' n++
--
The direction of the 1.5-A source is such that when n is replaced by a short,
1". =
1.5 A has the correct direction. In this case and in the Thevenin case of Fig.
5.16, it is a simple matter to place the sourc€s coEectly, but in a complex example
some care needs to be exercised so lhat the polarities are correct.

I
lc

rICURE 5.I7 Loaded No.ton equivalent of the circuit of Fig. 5.14

EXAMPLT 5.9 l€t us now consider an example cantaining a depelrdent source, such as the circuit of
Fie. 5.18(a). Suppose that we want the Norton equi\alent circuit at terminals a-b.
We shall need, in this case, Rd, defined for the dead circuit of Fig. 5.18(b) and i-
shown in Frg. 5. l8(c).,
we may find i* ftom Fig. 5.18(c) by noticing that
i,-10-ir-i"
and wriling the two mesh equalions,

-4(10 - t, - i*)-2i,+6i=o
i -6tr+3t*:0
Section 5.3 Th6ieoin's and Norton's Theorems 131

.-
(b )

(c)
FICURI S-18 (a) Circuit to be analyzed; (b) with its source killed;
(c) with its terminals shortdrcuited

Eliminating ir, we have


t*:5A (s.22)
We cannot frd R'n fiom Fig. 5.180) simply by calculating equivalent resis-
tance, because of the depend€nt source. Howevei, we could excite the circuit with a
voltage o (or a curent at its termir4s and calculate the rcsulting i (or o). Then
t
R,h : o/i. Altematively, we could find o-, as for the Thevenin circuit, and obtain
Rr ftom (5.20). This is the method we shall use.
To find o- we refer to Fig. 5-19, where we have
o- : 6ir
and arcund the center mesh,

-4(lo - n) -2it+6^=o
132 Chapter 5 Network Thsrems
flcuRf, 5.19 Circu;t of Fig. 5-10(a) with irs terminals opened

From these equations we find o- : 30 Vj atrd thus

-oclo
i"5-=:6O

EXAMPIE 5.10 Irt us find the Thevedtr €quivalent of the circuit pf Fig. 5.20. To begin with, we se€
by inspection that sinc€ thele is no independert soltrce present, we must have
' , o-:t:0 (s.23)
Also, the dead circuit is the given circuit itself, so that the lRu, is simply the 1esis.
tance leen at the terminals of Fig. 5.20. In view of (5.23), we cannot use
o- = R,hj. !o get fi,b, as we did in ExaDple 5.9. Tbe only recourse we have is to
bxcite the circuit at its termiDals ald calci ale Rd, ftom the results.

fICURE 5.2O Circuit with a dependent source

For example, supl,o6e that we excite the circuit with a l-A cui.rent source, as
shown in Fig. 5.21. Then we have .

,. Rh=+=o
I

where D is ihe rcsulting termitral vottage. Takhg the bonom Dode as reference, lhe
nonreference node voltages are as shown. A rDdal amlysis yields

D-4,
I
46
where
-*-:
o:6ir
se(r'on s.l lhdvenin's and Norton's lheorems 133,
FlcURt 5.21 Circuit of Fig. 5.20 e\cited by a curent source

From lhese equations we have o = 3 V and thus nd = 3 n. The Thevenin equiva-


lent (as well as the Norron equivalent) is show\ in FtE. 5.22.

FICURE 5.22 Thevenin eouivalentof Fig. 5.20

EXERCISES
5.3.1 Replace the ndtwork to the left of terminals a-b by is Thevenin equivalenr circuit
and use lhe result lo find i-
Auwer a* = 9 V,Rn = 3O, t : I A

. EXtRCtSt 5.3.1

5.3.2 Replace ererything in rhe circuit of Exercise 5.3.1 €xcept the l-A source by its
Thevenin equivalent circuit and use the result to find or .
Answer on :
4V,R$ = 2O, or = 6V
5.3.3 Replace everything in rhe circuit of Exercise 5.3.1 except the 4-() resistor by its
Norlon equivalent circuitjtrd us€ the result to fhd 02.
Attsnet i* : -l A, Rd : 4 A, ot = -2Y

134 Chapier 5 Network fh€orems

l.-
5.4
PRACTICAI SOURCES
In Chapter I we defined independent sources and pointed out that they were ideal el_
ements. An ideai l2-V battery, for example, supplies 12 V between its terminals re-
gardless of rhe load connected ro the lernrinals. However. a real. ot practi(al,
12-V battery supplies 12 V when its terminals are open circuited and supplies lesi
than 12 V as cunent is drawn through the terminals. A practical voltage source thus
appdars to have an intemal drop in voltabe when curent flows through its terminals,
and this internal &op diminishes the voltage at the terminals.
We may represent a practical source by the mathemalical model of Fig. 5 21,
consisting of an ideal source or in series wilh an inr./rrdl resisrance R". The voltape
u seen at the lerminais of lhe souce now depend\ on the currenl i draun ftom t;e
source. The relationship is easily seen to be

1):rs-&i (s.24)
Thus under open-circuit conditions (i : 0), we have o = os, and under short-circuit
conditions (o = 0), we have i = os/Rs. ffRs > 0, as it is for a practical souce, rhe
source can never deliver an infinite current, ds.an ideal source can.

FTCURE 5.23 Pracrical volrase source connected to a load Rr

For a given practical vohage source tfixed values of D, and ns in Fig. 5.2J).
. .
the load resistance Rr determines lhe current drawn from thi terminals. F6r exam_
ple, in Fig. 5.23 the load current is

(s.2s)
'-R,+&
Also, by voltage division we have
Rta.
(5.26)
&+R.
Therefore. as we vary Rr both i and D vary. A sketch of D versus R. is shown in Fis.
5.24. along wilh rhe ideal case. which is dashed. For large values ol R, relative io
&, o is very nearly.equal to the ideal !6lue of or. (ffR! is infinite, colresponding to
an open circuit. then 0 is oi.,

Seclion 5.4 Practical Sources 135


'0,cr
FICUnE 5.24 Practical and ideal voltage source chardclerietics
We may replace the p.actical voltage souce of Fig- 5.23 by a practical current
source by rcwriting (5.24) as

'R,&
which if we deline

"R"
,:i,n
A circuit described by this equation with voltage u and curent i is.shown in the
shaded rectangle of Fig. 5.25. The circ{it is thus a practical current source and is
seen to consist of an ideal cqrrent source in parallel with an internal resistance.

FIGU*I 5.25 Practical current source connected to a load RL

Figures 5.23 and 5.25 arc equivaletrt al the terminals if Rs is the same in both
cases and if (5.27) holds. This equivalence is valid, moreover, if the ideal sources
are independelt or dependent sou$es. In the case of indepeDdent sotrrces the two
pmctical souces are simply the Thevetritr and the Norton equivalents of the same
circuit.
By current division, we ind, in Fig. 5.25,
. Ri, (5.28)
'-n+R.
136 Chapter s Nebvork Theorens
Therefore, for a given current source (fixed values of L and Rs), the load current de-
pends on lRr, A sketch of i versus R. is shown in Fig. 5.26, along with the ideal
case, whieh is dashed.

nCURE 5.26 Practical and ideal current source characterisrics

EXAMPLE 5.11 Very often network analysis can be gearly simplifi€d by changing practical voltage
sources to pmctical current sources, and vice versa, by the use of Fig. 5_23 and
5.25, or equivalently. by means of Norlon's and Thevenin s theorems. For example.
suppose that we wish to find the current i shown in Fig. 5.27. We could solve the
problem in a number of wzys, such as replacing everytbing except the 4 O resistor
by its Thevenin equitalent and rhen frnding i. However, we illushate instead the
method of successive traDsformation of sourses.

FICURI 5-27 Cjrcuit with tuo practical sou.ces

Let us begin by replachg the 32V source and inlemal 3-O resistancc by a
praclical cuffenl source of a 3-O internal resistance and a +-A ideal source. Then
Iet us replace the 4-A source and the intemal 2-(! resistance by a voltage source of
2(4) = 8 V and a 2-O intemal reisrance. We are applying, respectively, Norton,s
and Theverin's theotems, or equivaleDtly, (5.27). The results of these two source
transfomations arc shown in Fig. 5.28.
We may now combine the paralel 3- alld 6-(} resistances and the series l- and
2-O resistances, as shown fu Fig. 5.29(a), a rcp€at the souce tansformation pro-
cedure. Contfuting the Focess, as shown in Fig. 5.29(b), (c), and (d), we finatty
arrive at an equiulent circuit (itrsofa. as t is concerned) which can be analyzed by
inspection. In this case, ftom Fig. 5.29(d), the answer is
!4,!g
i ;!oi=ze
Section5,4 Practiolsources 137
IICURE 5.28 Result of two transfomations applied to Figj 5.27

' FIGURE 5.29 Step6 in obhinins i in FiE. 5.28


This Focedure may seem unduly 1() g, but it should be obseryed that most of the
steps may be caried out mentally.

EXAMPTE 5.12 We often combine sources as we do resistors to obtain equivalent sources. For exam-
ple, if we are interested only in i in Fig. 5.29(d), we may combine the three series
resistors, as we know, but we may also combine the sedes sources, as.we did in Sec.
2.5. They leprcsent a net source of$ -f
= 16 V with a poladty like that of the
larger source- Thus an equivalenl circuit insofar as i is concened is that of Fig.
5.30. Similarly, we may combine parallel curent sources to obtain an equivalent
source,

r6v(l) f-*-l
L,l |

FICURI 5.30 Circuit equivalent to Fjg. 5.29 tor finding i

EXERCISES
5.4.1 Solve Exercise 5.3.1 by using source transformations.
5.4.2 By source transformations, replace the entire cfcuit except for the 16-0 resistor by
an equivalent ciruit with a single source and a single resistance R. Using the result,
find o.
A swet R-24f),a=201,1

rzJ) 16(}

rxrRctst s.4.2

5.4-3 Convert all the souces in the frgure for Exercise 4.2.3 to voltage sources ard
find or.
Alswer 20 y

Se.ri6n s 4 Pr..ri.al Soxr.er 139


5.5
MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER
There are many applications in circuit theory where it is desirable to obtain the mdx-
imum possible power that a given practical source can deliver. It is very easy, usilg
Thevenin's theorem, to see what fivximum power a source is capable of delive ng
and how to load the source so as to obtain this maximum power. That is the subject
of this section.
I-et us begin with the practical voltage source shown eadier in Fig. 5.23 with a
load resistance lRz . The power pr delivered to the resistor R. is given by

P. = (5.29)
\&; &/ R.
and it is this quantity that we wish to maxirnrze.
Since the source is assumed to be given, os and Rs are fixed, and thus p. is a
function ofRr. To maximize p. we can make dpL/dRz: 0 and solve forR.. From
(5.29) we obtain
dp, t';L
,l(& + Rr, - 2(R- + R.)&l
d& = (R" + Rrv l (5.30)

which results in

(5.3 r )

It may be readily shown that

a'p:l
,;l p, =_-9i.n
d&-I R, 8R;
and therefore (5.31) is the condition that maximizes p.. We see, therefore, that the
maximum power is delivered by a given practical source when the Ioad Rz is equal
to the intemal resistance of the source. This statement is sometimes called the maxi-
mum power transfer theorem. We have developed it for a voltage source, but in view
of Norton's theorem it also holds for a practical current source.
The maximum power that the pmctical voltage souce is capable of delivering
to the load is given by (5.29) and (5.31) to be

ol
(5.32)

140 Chapter 5 Network Theorems


In the case of the practical current source, the maximum deliverable power is

This may be seen Aom Fig. 5.25 and {5.J1) or by 15.32, and Norgn's theorem.
We may extend the maximum power tlansfer. theorem to a linear ciicuit mther
than a single source by means of thevenia's theorem: That is, the maximum power
is obtained ftom a lirear ciruit at a given pair of terminals when the teminals are
Ioaded by the Thevenin re,.istance of the circuit. This is obviously hue since by
Thevenin's theorem the cftqrit is equi\,alent to a practical voltage souce with inter-
nal rcsistarce iR,i .

EXAMPLE 5.13 Wq rnay draw the maximum power ftom the circuit of Fig. 5.18(a) if we load termi-
nals d-, with the Thevenin resistaoce.

n.=R,i=6O
Since L :5 A by (5.22), we may draw the Nortdn equil"lent circuit with the re-
quired R, as shown in Fig. 5.31. The power supplied to lbe load is given by

which for &- : 6 vields


p* = 37.5 w
Any other lalue of R, will result in a lowgr value of p. For e"xample, if & = 5 O,
then we have p = 37.19 W aad for Rr = 7 (1, we havep = 37,28 W.

EXERCISES
5.5.1 Find the power delivercd Io R when (a) lt =
12 O, (b) R - 4 O. and (c) when R
receives the maximum power.
An'wet tal 4.32rvi (6) 4 Wi (c) 4.5 W (when R = 8 O)

S€ction 5.5 Maimum PNe. Transter 141


FXtRCtSE 5-5.1

5.5.2 Show that the two networks are equivalent at terminals d-, and find the power dissi-
pated in the 4-f,) resistor in each case.
easwer (a) 9 w; (b) 1 w

txtRclsE 5.5.2

Find the maximum power delivered to the load R, in Fig. 5.23 if os and Rr. ) 0 are
fixed and ?R, is uriable.
A s$,er a?/RLWhenRs = O

5.6
SPICE AN D THEVENIN CQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
SPICE can be used direcdy for determining the Thevenin equi leDt for conplex cir-
cuits using the .TF command. These equivalent circirits are very useful in determin-
in8 load conditioos for maximum power tmnsfer, as discussed in the preceding sec-
tion.

EXAMPLE 5.14 As an example of the utility of SPICE, consider finding the Thevenin equivalent cir-
cuit to the left of R, in Fig. 5.32(a). Since the open-circuit voltage at terminals a-,
is equal to the voltage across the 6-() resistor (no current flows in the 4-O resistor),
we need only to apply a SPICE simulation to the circuit of Fig. 5.32(b) and add the
4 ,f) to the output resistance found for the open-circuited terminals. lt should be
noted that a dummy voltage source rd = 0 has been insert€d to provide the required
current i, definirion for the CCVS rr. A circuit file for this circuit is
I'IE\,ENIN EQUIVAIEIIT CIRCUIT FOR FIC. 5.32(b)
r2 0tDc10

142 Chdpre' 5 \elworl lheorems

I
l-
I

I
t E2 236
i
lr \lD 30DCO
.lF v(2) . r2
. END
I

The solulion for thjs program is


NODE VOL?AGE NODE VOLTACE NODE VOLTAGE
i. ( 1) 20.0000 ( 2J 30.0000 ( 3) b. oooo
. VOLTACE $OURCE CT'RRENIS
NAIIE C'IMRENA
I r,'D 5 0008 00
TOTAI Porr^jliti DISSIPAI]ION 0. O0E+00 $AATS
**** snrlLLrSICNA! CIIARAC1ERISTICS
v(2) /r2 = 3: O00E+0O
INPUT RESIS'IANCE AT I2 = 2,OOOE+OO
ot{Ptrt RESISTANCS A1 v(2) = 3.000E+o0.
FIGURE 5.32 Circuits for obtainin8 the Theven'n equjvalent using SPICI
li, v

i= lo

G)

Section 5.6 SalCE and Th6v;nin tquiv:lent Circuits 143


The open-circuit voltage is v(2) :30 V, and the output resistance is 3 f,).
Therefore, the total Thevenin resistance is 3 + 4 ='7 A. The resulting Thevenin
equiwlent circuit is shown in Fig. 5.32(c). Thus maximum power fiansfer occurs
when R = 7 O and the maximum power is (30 / 14\'z x 1 :
32.14 W.

EXERCISE
5.6.1 Using SPICE, determine the Theveniir equivalent circuit to the left of terminals a-r.
Find the wlue of n for maximum power tmnsfer and the vaiue of the maximum
power.
,answer 12 V, 4 kO, 4 kO, 9 m'rV

EXERCTSE 5.6.1

5.,/
SUMMARY
We have considered in this chapter what liredl circuits and linedr elements are, and
ho\r't superposition may be applied to analyze such circuits with more than one source
by analyzing single-source circuits and combining the tesults. The concept of super-
position leads to frevenin' s and Norton's theorems, which allow us to replgce com-
plicated circuits by simpleThevenin and Norton equi)aleht circuits containing only a
resistance (the Thevenin resistance) and a single sou,tce. Pracical so /ces, made up
of id?dl souces and an intenwl resistance, were considercd and shown to delivet a
tnximum power wlrcn loaded with a resistance equal to their intemal resistance. Fi-
nally, SPICE was shown to be an exhemely useful tool for the topics of this chapter
because of the ease rrith which it can be used to calculate the open-citclit yoltages
and short-circuit currertr needed in the Thevenin and Notton circuits, respectively.

PROBTEMS
5.1 Solve Prob. 2.34 using the property of propoF Solve Exercise 4.4.1 using the piop€ y of
tionality. f,.oportionality.
5.2 Solve PIob. 2.38 using the property ofpropor- Solye Prob. 4.32 using the property of propor-
rion lity. (Suggestion: Let i: I mA, and tionality.
work tol'"Id the source.) Use the property of proportionality to find l' .

144 Chapter5 Nei.lvorkTheorems


PROALIM 5.5
5,6 Solve Prob. 4.34 using the pioperty gfpropor, 5.12 Find o using superposition if R : 2 O.
tionaliiy. (SuSgertou: trt i = cos 2r A.) 5.13 Using superposition, find the power delivered
5.7 Solve Ererclse 4.b.1 usrng superposilion. to the 4 f,) resistor in the circuit ofprob. 4.30.
5.t Solve Prob.4.S using superposition. 5.14 Find r using supeposirion
5.9 Solve Hob.4.l0 using superposition.. 5.15 Find t using superposition. (Sr8g"rrion: Find t,
5.10 Solle Prob.4.26 using superposition.
5.ll Find o using sup€rposition. 12 v

PROATEM s-r2

4fl 6(,,

l) ,l'"" (l),^ (

PROBTIM 5.14 PROBLTM 5-I5

Chapter s Problems 145


5,16 Replace the network to lhe lefl of lerminals d s.20 Find tbe Norton equivalent of lhe circuit to
b by its Thevenin equivalent and use lhe result the lefi of teminais d-r. and use the result to

:0c}
4!) a i -

PROBLTM 5.16 PROBttM 5_20

5.17 Find the Thevenin equivalent ofeverything ex- 5.21- Find i by rcpiacing the network to the left of
cept the 4-() res;stor in the clrcuil of Prob. terminals d-, by its Norlon equivaleot.
5.16 and use the result to lind the power deliv,
ered to the 4 () rcs:stor.
2()
5,18 Find r b) replacinS everyrhing rn rhe cir(uir
e{cefl rhe 4 Q resistor by itq Thelenin equi!-

6
l)o^
8Q
.^ft PROBTIM 5.21
| )rs n 2c,
In Prob 5,21, replace the network to the right
PROBLEM 5.T8 of terminals c-d by its Thevenin equil"lent
and use lhe r€sult to find o.

5.19 Find the Norton equivalent of rhe circuit to 5.23 Replace the circuit to the left of terminals a-,
tbe left of terminah d-r, and use the result to by its Thevenin equivalent. and use the result
find ,. to find o.
s,24 Replaae'the circuit to the left of terminals
20() a-, by its Thevenin equivalent and use the re-
sult to find t).
5-25 Find the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit ex-
ternal.to the 4-O resistor and use the resuk to
find t.
l' 5.26 Find the Noron equivalent of the circuit to the
4Q ,
left of terminah a and use the result to find
the power delivered to th€ 6-kO resistor.
s,21 Replace everything except the resistor R =
2 kO by its Thevenin equivalent, and use lhe
PROBIIM 5.19 resuh ro find i.

't46 Chaprer 5 NeMork Theoreme


'1,

PROBttM 5-23

PROBIIM 5.24 PROE|-[M 5.25

PXOBIIM 5,26

PROaIM 5.27

Chapter s Problems 147


5.28 Replace everything except the 4-O resistor by 5.3t Find i by using source transformations to ob
its Thevenin equivalenr circuit and use rhe re- tain an equivalent circuit insofar as rhe 2-ko
suft to find i. resistor is concerned, containing only one
5.29 'In the circuit of Prob. 5.16, find source and one resistor. in addition lo the 2
the power de-
livered to the 4-O resistor by using successive kO resistor.
source lmrlsformations to obtain the Thevenin 5.32 Solve Prob.5.16 using source lransforma-
equivalent of everything etcept the 4 O resis,
1or. 5.33 Solve Prob.5.17 usirg source Fansforma:
5.30 Use successive source transfo nations to ob- iions.
tain the Thevenin equinlent of the circuit 5.34 Find ahe maximum power that can be deliv-
to the left of terminals d-r. From th€ result- ered to resistor R iD the circuit of Prob. 5 12
find r.
32r)

*
PROBTEM 5.28

RROOLTM 5.30

PROAGM 5.31

144
5.35 Find the maximum power that can be deliv' 5:38 Find the maximum power thar can b€ deliv-
ered ro resisror R and rhe value of R for ma\i. e.edtoR if (a)R, = 12Oand(b)Rr = 30O
mum power in lhe circuit of Prob. 5.27.
5.36 Find the value of R thal will draw rhe rna\i.
mum power ffom the rest of the circuit. Also
6nd the maximum power.

i 0 0v
PnoBtEM 5.38

PROSIEM 5.36 5.39 Find the l"lue of R that will dmw the maxi-
mum power ftom the rest of the chcuit. Also
find the rnaximum po\rer.
5.37 Find a resistaoce 4 to be placed between ter- 5.40 Find the value of n that wil drare tle rnaxi-
mirals d-, to dlaw the maximum power. AIso mum power ftom the rest of the circuit. Also
find the maximum power. find tho maximtm power drawn by n.

PROBTEM 5.37

j-* oo

PNOBLTM 5.39

Chapter s 119
6
lndependence
of Equations

,t

The appljcation of Kirchhoff's laws to Euler calculated w ithout a clergyman: He graduated fom the
a circuit ol many nodes and loops apparent effofi, as me Universily of Basel in 1724 and
can bg oxtremoly ditticuli, unless we brcathe, or as eaglbs joined lhe Russian Academy of Sci-
uso a branch ol malhemallcs known ences rn satnt PercrsDurg tn I /2/ on
sustain themselves in the
as grcph theory, which we introduce
vtind.
lhe invitation of Cathe ne He l.
in this chapter. (A circuil with only 10 ' seNed in a similar capacity at the
Domi ique Arago German Academy of Sciences at the
nodes and no parallel elements, lor
example, could have as many as 103 request ol Frededck lhe Great in
loops.) The falher of graph lheory 1741. He ',tas pefiaps lhe most
was lhe great Swiss mathematician Leonhard Eulor, prolific mathematician ol all lime, even continuing lo
whose farious 1736 paper, "The Seven Bridges ot dictate books and papers After he became blind in
Kdnigsberg," was the lirsl treatise on lhe subjeet. He 1766. He slilltound lime lor 13 children aM 2 wives,
also made original important conkibutions to every ihe second of whom he took when he was 69 years
branch of the mathematics ol his day, and Eule/s loF' old. Swiss mathematicians are slill publishing his pa-
mula is lhe basis of lhe phasor molhod of solving ac pers, and it is estimaled that his works will eventually
circuits discussed in Chapler 10. lill 60 ro 80 large volumes..
Euler was born in Basel, Switzerland, lhe son ot

151
,( ln elecfxic network is determined by the tlpe of elements it contains and the
manner in which the elements arc connected. We have spent considemble time in the
pievious chapters considering the elements themselve! and thek volt-ampere charac-
teristics. ln this chapter we consider the manner in which the network elements are
connected, or, as it is sometimes called, the network topology. As we shall see, a
study of the lopology of the network ptovides us with a systematic way of determin-
ing how many equations are required in the aoalysis, which on€s are independent,
and rhe best set of equations to select for the most straightfor$ard analysis.
6.1
GRAPH OF A NETWORK
' To illustrate the problems involved in the analysis of more comptcated oetworks, let
us consider the circuit of Fig. 6.1. The resistors are numbered l,2,. . . ,9, vtith
values of resistance, say Rr, Rr, . . . , Re. Suppose that we arc required to perform
a loop analysis, in which case we ireed to w te a set of independetrt KVL equations.
(We note that the circuit is nonplanar, and thus we cannot perform a mesh analysis_
Anyone doubting this is welcome to tly redmwing the circuit in a planar frshion.)
Th6.e a.e 15 loops in the circuit, as may be verified by sevedl means, one of
which is ftial atd efior (much trial and more error). For the curious leader the 15
loops are (1, 3, 4, s), (t,3,'7,9), (2,3, 5, 6), (t,2,8,9\. (1,2, 4,6), (4, 5,'t , g),

FICURt 6.1 Nonplanar circuit

152 Chapter 6 lndependence ol fquations


(2,3, 4, s,8,9), (1,2, 5, 6, 7, 9), (1, 3, 5, 6,8,9\, (2,3,7,8), (2,3, 4,6,7, e),
(4, 6, 8, 9), (5, 6, 7, 8\, (l,3, 4,6,7,8),
and (l, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8). That is, rcsistors I,
3,4, and 5 form a loop; l,
3, 7, and 9 (with the source Ds) form a loop; and so on.
To undertake a loop analysis of Fig. 6. I we need to know which of these loops
are independent and how many are required. To ansrwer these questions we need
consider only how the elements are connected; it is unimportant what kird of ele-
ments are involved. To facilitate matters, then, we may retain the nodes of the nel
work and, replace its elements by lines. The network topology thus is preserved in a
much simpler configumtion.
The configuration of lines and nodes obtained by replacing the elements of a
network by lines is called the 8/apft of the netwod(. The lines of the graph are called
its bmnches, aad the nodes of the Sraph are, of course, the nodes of the network. As
an exrmple, the gmph of the network of Fig. 6.1 is shown in Fig. 6.2. lt has nine
branches and six nodes. (We could consider a node between resistor 9 and os, but
irasmuch as this will not affect the number of loqps, we have chosen to consider
these two seri€s elements as one element, namely, a nonideal voltage source.)

FIGURf 6.2 Graph of a network

We say that a graph is connected i,f tlrcte is a path of one or more branches be-
tween any two nodes. The graph of Fig. 6.2 is eviden y connected. An examplg of
a graph that is not connected is shown in Fig. 6.3, There is, for instance, no path
between nodes r and d. For the present we consider only connected graphs.

FICURE 6.3 Unconnected graph

A,,"\
d

()

section 6.1
/ \"Y
C.aph ot a Network
/ \

153
EXERCISES
6.1,1 Show that the gaph is planar.

.IXERC|SE 6,1.r

txrRcrst 5.r.2

6.2
TREES AND COTREES
We define a te? of a gmph as a connected portion, or subgiaph, of the gaph that
contains all the trodes but no loops. As an example, Fig. 6.4(b) is a tree of the graph
oflig. 6.4(a). The ftee is connecred, has no loops, and co[tains all the nodes of the
graph.
Generally, a graph has many trees. The configuation of Fig. 6.4(c) is evi-
' dently another tree of the graph of Fig. 6.4(a), silce it satisfies all the requirements.
I

154 Chapter6 lndependenceof Equations

I
G) (b) (c)
FICURE 6.4 Graph and two of ih trees

This particular graph has 24 tIees, which the reader may wish to try to discover. lt
will help in enumerating the trees to notice that each one has exactly tkee bmnches,
since it takes at Ieast three lines to connect four nodes and more tha! three lines will
form a loop. There are 35 ways to select seven branches three at a time, but 11 of
these combinations are not trees.
The bmnches of the graph which are not in the chosen tree arc called lirLi, and
together rvith their nodes form the cotle€ coresponding to the tree. Thus the tree of
Fig. 6.4(b) has the cotree of links 4, 5, 6, and 7.
In the geneml case, Iet B be the number of branches and N be the number of
nodes in a given graph. Then any tree of the graph contains N nodes and N - I
branches. The number of nodes follows fiom the dennidon of a tree. and the number
of tree branches may be established by the following constructio[ argument. lrt
us
build tle tlee starting with one branch and the two nodes to which it is connected.
Each additional bGnch connected to build the tree adds one additional node. The
number of nodes is, therefore, one more than the numter of b€nches, and since
there are N nodes, there mDst be N -
1 branches- The number of links in any cotre€
is tlereforeB - (1{ - l) orA N + l.
-

EXAMPTE 6.1 As ar example, the graph of Fig. 6.4(a) has /V = 4, and thus the number of tree
blaoches in both Figs. 6.4(b) and (c) is N I = 3- The selectioq of the tree, of
-
coulse, determines the cotree. The tree of Fig. 6.4(b) is redrawn in Fig- 6.5, with
the tree bmnches shown as solid lines and the links of the cotlee as dashed lines.
The number of links in this case, since B = 7, is 7 4 + = 4.
- |
FIGURE 6.5 Tree branches and links of a graph

Se.rion 6.2 Trees and Cotrees 155

t-
I
EXAMPLE 5,2 The graph of Fig. 6.6 has tree branch voltages or , 02, and q, irdicated by the solid
lines. Tle dashed lines are the links whose voltages are 01, and If the link
's,
labeted oa is added to the tree, the circuit of 02, or, oa is formed By KVL a'ound
'6
this circuit, we may obtain
aa=Dt-t2
ln like inaDner, adding link os to the tree yields
as=Dt-D2
and adding link o6 to the tree yields
1,6=1)r-u3
Thus the link voltages may be found fiom the tree bmnch voltages.

FIGURE 6.6 Tr€e and lihk voltages

A systematic way of writing equations involving tree branch voltages is to


imagine opening a tree branch, noting that this sepamtes the tree itrto two parts.
Cu ents flow beiween the two parts through the tree braDch imagined to be open
and through links. Thus by KCL the aigebraic sum of these currents in a given di-
rection is zero. This procedue may then be repeated for the other hee b€nches.

EXAMPLE 6.3 l€t us consider the circuit in Fig. 6.7(a). A gaph of the circuit is shown in Fig.
6.7(b) with the tree branches shown as solid lines and the lints as dashed lines
Since the tree bmnch voltages are independent, we have included in the tree the
20-V source. Thus the number of unknowns is rcduced by one. By KVL we may find
the link voltages in terms of the ftee voltages, with the results shown in Fig. 6.7(b):
If we imagine the tree bianch (d, ,) labeled ul as open, then the tree is sepa-
rated into two parts. These two parts are connected by branch (d, ,) and links
(a, i), (b, d), and (d, c), as indicated by the line marked I summing the curents
across the line in the direction of the arorv, we have
n 1=o
ot+b+at -_2t
z

Repeating the procedure for tree bmnch (b, c), labeled or, leads to line lI and the
equation
-(or + oJ 2a2+ Il=0

Se.tion 6.3 independenl voltage Equalions 157


I
I

.'

.a
..,i.
20
!
-) ,

G)-(b)
tlcuRt 6,7 CircLrir and i|\ Sraph

Solving these equations-, we have or :


8 V and ou :
I V A[ the link voltages, and'
coDsequently all the link and trer curr€nts. may now be found.

A cut set o{ a graph is a minimum set of elements which when l./r, or re-
moved. sepamtes th€ graph into two parti. Tte set of elemens we have been dis-
cussing - a ree branch. which when cut separates the tree inlo two pafls, and the
lioks bgtween thgse two parts-is an example of a cut se1, The.two parts oia gr4ph .
detemined by a cut set will either be nodes or suDernodes and lhus bv KCL the al-
gebraic suln of the currents leaving eitherpar! is zero. That is. the aljebraic sum of
the currents i! a cui set is zero.

EXAMPLE 6.4 . kt us sup;rose that the gaph -of Fig. 6.8ia) has cunens ih the directio{ of the ar-
rows shown oq th9 el€rneirts, Selecting the Eee i, i;, i6, i7, shown by the sold
branches of Fig. 6.8(b). we have the links ii, r:, rj, shdwtr dashed. itriting tree
braDch i ftom rlrc g.aph curs rhe tree into two.lqrts (braqch i, is one part and ir, in
is the other part). Therefore, 6nrch 4 and li;.i; i", ii", i5 (betweerthd rro t e".
parts) conslirute the cut sel CS as shown. KCL for this cul sel is

frcURE 6.8 (a) Craph.of a circuiti 6) die of its cut sets; (c) otber cut sets

. Chapter 6 lndepCndence of Equatiors


which is also KCL for the supeffode co[tdining i6. Cut sets coffesponding to tree
branches ir, ia, and i6 are shown in Fig. 6.8(c), with KCL given.by

L-iz=O
i4+ i5- L+ i2:O
t2- h+ i6:o
respectNely. A cut set nor based on the given tree is ir. i,. i.. L. consisling of the
elements connected to, ot incident to, node a in Fig. 6.8(a). Such a cut set is called
afi incidence cut set (e)emetrts incident to a node), and its KCL equation,

tr-t,+t5+t:0
is simply the nodal equation al node d.

In any circuit analysis procedure where the unknowns are voltages, we need to
find only the,ry - I tree bmnch voltages which constitute aD independent set. This
means thal only N I independent voltage equations are rcquired in the analysis.
Since dnJ independent set of equations will suffice, then ary independent set of
lV - I rohages consrirutes a solution.
Anolher independent sel of N - I
vohages. othel than lhe tlee branch
voltages, is the set of nondatum node voltages, considered itr the nodal method of
Chapter 4. Ib see this, we note that any nondatum node is in the tree and is con,
nected tbrough tree branches to the datum node. Thus evcly nondatum node voltage
is an algebraic sum.of tree bmnch voltages (the tree bmnches between the nondatum
and datum nodes). On the other hand, evety tree bratch voltage is the difference be-
tween its two node voltages. In summary, the node voltages may be determined
from the tree voltages and vice versa. Thus the noodatum node voltages me also an
independent set. (Of course, writing KCL at a node is the same as equating to zerc
the aigebmic sum of the currents in the incidellt cut set for that node.)

EXAMPLT 6.5 I
ln lhe example of FiB. 6.7 we see thal if i( rhe datum node. lhen the nondatum
node voltages o", or, and o. are related to the tree voltages or, or, and 20 by

u" 2O
ab=20-]l!
n.: m - q a2

Conversely, we have

' 02: ob- ac

20- D,

The nodal merhod, in many cases, is easier to apply than the loop method be-
cause the nodes arc €asyto find. In the loop method, as exemplified by the example

Se.tion 6.3 lndependent Voltage Eguations 159


of Fig. 6.1, the appropriate loops may be difficult to identify. In the next section we
consider a method based on gpph theory of finding sets of independent loop equa-

EXERCISES
6.3.1 In the daph of the cicuit of Prob. 4.8, select the tlee of the voltage souces and the
l2-O rcsistor. Using the method of this section, write one KCL equation and deter-
mine D,
Answ bV
6.3.2 Select the hee of the voltage source, and the 6- and l2-f,1 resistors, and use the
merhod of rhis seclion ro find r'.
AnJq pr 18 V

EXtRCISE 6.3,2

6.3.3 Using an apprcpriate tree and the methods of this section, find o in PIob. 4.27.
(Not?. The tree should contain the voltage o alrd the three sources as well as one
other branch. )

6.4
INDEPENDENT CURRENT EQUATIONS
As we have seen in the example ofFig. 6.1, it is not always eary to ideDtify the in-
dependent loops for a loop analysis of a cLcuir. To develop a systematic means of
wdtilg loop equations, let us consider a geneml network with B branches and N
nodes. Corresponding to a given tree there are B - N + I links.
suppose that all the link currents are made zero by open-circuiting the links
(replacing the links by open ckcuits). Since the tree contains no loops, then all the
tlee bratrch curents ille zero also. The tree cunents thus depend on the link cur-
rerts; thlat is, they may be expressed in terms of the link curf;nts, for if a tree cur-
rent were independent of the link currents it could not be forced to zerc by open:
cicuiting thc links. Moreoven, if one link is not open-circuited, a loop is left in the
gaph, and a cuftent will flow in the link. A link curreDt thus is not dependent on

150 chapler 6 lndependence oi Equations

F
the other link culrents. In summary, the B N + I link curents are an indepen-
-
dent set, and the loop analysis of the cfucuit requires B N + I independent equa-
-
tions.
One systematic way to find B -N + t independent loops is to start with the
tlee and add one of the links. This determines the loop containing that link, since
adding the link to the tree closes a loop. Remove this link and add another link to
the tree, determining a second loop. ContiDue the process until the B N + I ,
loops are found. The set is independent because each loop contains a different link.

EXAMPLE 6.5 I€t Fig. 6.1. One tree consists of branches 1, 5, 7, 8,


us reconsider the circuit of
and 9, with conesponding links 2, 3,4, and 6, as shown in Fig. 6.9. Closing the
links one at a time results in the four independent loops I, II, III, and IV shown.
Loop I contfis ltuk 2 and ree branches 8, 9, and l: loop II contains 3, 'l, g, and,l:
loop III contains 4, 5, 7, and 9; and loop IV contaiis 6, 5, 7, and 8. These four
loops are sufncient fm performing a loop analysis.

i,\
h__, -!

FICUXI 6.9 toops of Fig. 6.1

EXAMPLE 6.7 To illustraE lhe use of link currents in circuil analysis, let us retum to the examDle
of Fi8. 6.7(a,. The graph is redrawn m Fig. 6. t0. showinS the link turrents i,,l.r,
and 11 A. We have.chosen the current soruce as a liak beciuse the link currents are
an independent set. This reduces the number of unknowns by one. Genemlly, for
this reason, one should place voltage souces in the tree anal current sources in the
links.
The tree bmnch currents, as in the geneml case, may be found fiom the liok
currents, as shown in Fig. 6.10. Closing the links labeted jr and ,:, forms loop6 I aDd
2, as indicated. Applying KVL to these loops yields, from Figs. 6.7(a) andt.l0.
2i' 20+, rr+11 =0
1l - i,
t ----i, +i,- -0
the solution of which is ir = 6 A and i? = 9 A.
5eclron 6,4 lndependenr Curen( Equatrons 161

I
FICURT 6.10 Craph of Fis. 6.7(a)

Since the link currenr I I A is known. we needed only t!.ro loops involving link
culrents ir and ir. Incidentally, in this simple example the links were chosen so that
the link curredts are also mesh culrents. This is, of cowse, not the case in geneml.

The results obtained thus far in this chapter ate valid for general netwol*s,
which may be either planar or nonplanar. ln the special case of planar networks, as
we saw in Chapter 4, a mesh analysis is possible. In the circuils of that chapter the
mesh cunents were indepefident and were sufficient in number to perform the analy-
sis. We shall now show that this is the case in geneml for planar;etwo.ks.
Irt us begin by taking apart the planar circuit with M meshes and reconstruct-
ing it one mesh at a time. The first mesh in the recoNtruction has.the same numbr,
say kr, of nodes and bmnches, for the first branch has two nodes, each additional
branch adds one n€w iode, and the last branch iidds lro nodes since it is tied back to
a node of the first bmnch. This is illustrated by the graph of four meshes in Fig.
6.11(a). The first mesh constructed, shown in Fig. 6.11(b); has the same number of
branches and nodes, namely four in this case-
After the Iist mesh, each subsequent mesh is formed by connecting brarches
and nodes to previous meshes. Each time the number of nodes added is one less than
the number of bmnches, trecause each added branch adds one node, except for the
last branch, which is connected to a node of a previously added mesh. This process
is illustmted in Fig. 6.11(b), (d), ard (e).
Thus, if the second mesh adds tr branches, it adds only &, -
1 nodes. Simi-
larl). the third mesh adds k. branches and k, I nodes. and so on. The lasr mesh.
-
the Mth, adds kr bnnches and &M I nodes. If in the completed gaph the number
-
I
of branches is and the number of nodes is N. we have
k,+k1+...+k =B (6.1)

. k, + (t, - t)+...+(t,- 1)=N (6.2)


The latter equation may be written
k'+k2+ ..+k"-(M-t} = 1'1

which by (6.1) becomes


R - \M l) = N

162 chapte.6 lndepencjehceof tquations


{
\

,/9
1 f
) )

(d) . G)
FICURI 6.'l I Planar circuit and its meshes

Solving for the number of meshes, we have

M=B - N +I (6.31

which is also the +umber of links in &e graph.


The rn€sh currenls lberefore constirute an appropriale set of curreirts to com-
pletely descdbe a planar network. They are the same in number as the independent
set of link currents, and they are independent since each new mesh contains at least
one bGnch not in the previous meshes.

Select an applopriate tre€ and use the method of this section to find i in tho cicuit of
Exercise 6.3.2.
Answet 2 A

Section 6.4 lndependent Current [quations 163


t-

6.5
A CIRCUIT APPTICATION

EXAMPI-E 6.8 As a final illustmtion in this chapter we analyze a modemtely complicated circuit,
shorrn in Fig. 6.12(a). Its graph is shown in Fig. 6.12(b), where we have selected a
. tree shown by the solid lines- Note that voltage sources and voltages driving depen,
dent sources are placed in the tr€e and cutent sources are ilaced in the cotree. Cur-
rents driving dependent sources would also be placed in the cotree, if possible.

(bl
FICURI 6,12 Network and its graph

From the graph we see ihat lhere are lour ree branches labeled ur. o,. J1,,.
and 10. Thus if the tree bmnch voltage method is used, there will be only two un-
knowns, or and o?, requking two equations, There are five link currents in the
graph, one of which is knowri (the 6-,4 source) and another, the 2or source, which
may be expressed in terms of the trce bratrch curent ie, and subsequently io terms
of other link curents. Thus if the link curr€nt method is used, we must have three
equations. Accordingly, we shall aralyze the circuit using bmnch voltages.

164 Chapter 6 lndependence of aqualions


The two necessary equations are (CL fot sets I and II shown in Fig
"ut(a, d), respectively. These are
6.12(b), based on tree branch (r, e) and tree branch

| +\ + zw, + 6 + 30". = o (6.4)

Zat-2ar+3az:0 (6.5)

Inspection of the graph shows that


ae = a, 3r1
Dtu=at-2oz-lO
l),.=1)'-10
Substituting these values into (6.4) and (6.5) and solving for the tree branch
voltages, we have
o'=-11V, az=-2nV
\e ma] note that nodal analysis is equally eary to apply. The node vollages
may be expressed in terms of the two unknowns or and o?, and thus.only two nodal
equations are required. We leave the details to the problems (Prob. 6.4).

EXERCISES
6.5.1 Write one KVL equation and find i, using the m€thod of Sec. 6.4.
An,wer I A

EXERCTSE 6.5.1

6.5.2 Using an appropriate tree for the graph of Prob. 4.26, find the current i flowing to
the right in the 4-fl rqsistor. (An appropriate tree should n t contain the current
sources or the curent i. Thus, using the methods of Sec. 6.4, only one K\rL equa-
tion is required.)
Answer 6.5 A

Section 6.5 A Circuit Appli.atior! 165


6.5.3 Using the method of Sec. 6.4, {ind the power delivered to the 8'f,) resislor
Aruwer 8 W

EXERCTSE 6.5.3

6.6
SUMMARY
In this chapter we have defined a planar circuit and lls graph, corsisting of the ,o/es
of the circuit and lines, ot branclks, which replace the elements of the circuit. We
have considered a tree of lhe graph (a set of connected bnnches containing all lhe
nodes but no loops) and a coar€? (the rest of the graph after the tree is removed).
The branches of a tree are, of course, tree bmnches, and those of the cotree aie
called link. We have seen that the tree branch voltages form an independent set of
voltages and the link currents form an independent set of currents- Other indepen
dent currents arc those of a cut set, which is a minimum number of graph branches
whose removal cuts the gnph into two parts: These facts enable us to write KVL or
KCL for an independent set of voltages or of currents, and thus readily find a set of
describing equations, no matter how complicated the circuit.

PROBTEMS
6.1 Find a tree, if possible, that contains all ahe
voltage sources and lhe branches whos€
voltages control dependenl souces but does
not contain orrent sources or ttrnnches whose
currents control dependent sources. use this
tree with an appropriate graph theory mothod
toJind 0r.
6.2 Select a tree as described in Prob. 6.1 and use
an appropriate.gmph theory method to find o, .
6.3 Solve Prcb. 4.16 selecting an appropdate tree
and using gaph theory methods.
6.4 Find 01 and o, in Fig. 6.12 using nodal ana- PROBLEM 6.I
lysis.
6.5 Select the tree ofthe 8-O resistor and ahe 4-O 6'6 Use tlrc cut set method to solve for t in Prob-
resistor with voltage o,, :ind use lhe cut set 4.14.
method to find 0. 6.7 Solve Prob. 4.15 using cut seis.

166 Chapier 6 l.dependence of Equations

I
PROELEM 6.?

PROBLEM 6.8

6.10 The figure for Exerc'(e 6.2.2 and fisures (a)


and rb) shown here aJe e),amptes of graph\ ot
ladder nerworks. There is a theolem that srdte\
b
PROSLTM 6,5
that the number of trees in a ladder graph
of tr branches is the Fibona\i nunbet a".
All
defrned by do a.
:
-- t, a) - aa t at - 2.
6.8
I
the resisrances are 1 O, €lement l, is also a
O resttor. et€menls r and ) are indepfndenl
a! at + a2 = 3, a4 - a2 + a. : 5. and so
on. That i:. excepr for do and each Fi.
l-A curfent source\ drrected upward, and ele_ ",, rhe pre-
bonacci number is obrained by addjng
men( - L an rnd€pendent 3.A current sourcc vious two. V€rify that the rheorem holds for
directed ro rhe left Setecting an appropriare the ladder gBphs shoMr and also for ihe graph
rree dnd using Brrph rheory merhods, 6nd i. in the figur€ for Exercise 6.2.2.
lNore rhat lhA ci,cuiL is simitar to lhat ot Fig.
6-lr The gmphs shown in rar and (b) are two basic
6.1 and i' lhus nonptdnar Howe"er. onlr onc
nonplanar graphs tthe one rn (b) i5 Lhar in rhe
loop equation is required in this case.)
figure for Prob. 6.8 redmwnl. Branch a,b in
6.9 frnd , in Prob. o I u\ing graph rheor) meth- (a) is an ideil 6V voltage source wrrh its Dosi-
ods il elernent r is d 5 V sou'ce w h positive live lerminal at lhe rop and in (b) is a 4-A
lermirulal rhe top. v is a J-V source $ilh po,s ideal currenr source djrecled upward. AIt lhe
rlrre rerminal at the bo om. : is a l7-V source olher bmnche\ in borh hgures are t.O reJis-
wilh poerive terminal al the lefl. and D is a lors. Find i shown rn each figure osing graph
7-V source with positive aerminal ar the lefi. theory methods.

PROaUM 5_rO

chapter 6 Problems 167


b '-t
(a) (b)
PROBI FM 6.11

6.12 Solvb Prob. 4.25 using the cut set metiod. 6.16 Solve Prob. 4.25 using the link current
6.13 Find o in the circuit of Prob. 4.17 using the method.
Iint currenr merhod. 6,17 Solve Prob. 4.26 nsing graph tieory methods.
6.14 Find rr and o, in Fig. 6.12(a) using link clrr- 6.18 Solve ftob- 4.29 using graph theory neihods.
renls as the unlnowns. 6.19 Solve Prob. 4-2 using graph thaory methods.
6:15 Find o and t)r inProb.4.15 using the'link€ur- 6.20 Solve Prob. 4.3 using graph themy methods.
renr melhod.

158 chapte.5 lodependenaeof Equaiions


Energy-storage Elements

On August 29, 1831, Michael Fara- My greatest discovery was dream by becoming assistanl al the
day, the greal English chemist and Michael Faraday. Royal lnstiiution to his jdol, the greal
physicisi, discovered electromagnelic chemist Sir Humphry DaW. He re-
Sir H mphry Dary
induclion, when he lound that movinq majned at the lnstitution for 54 yearc,
a magnel through a coil of copper taking over Davy's position when
wire caused an ele:tric currenl lo Davy .elired. Faraday was perhaps
flow in lhe wire. Since the eleclic motor and genera- lhe greatest experimentalist who ever lived, with
tor are based on lhis principle. Faraday s discovery achievements lo hjs credit in nearly all the areas ol
profoundly changed the course of world hlslory. When physical science under investiqation in his tim€. To
asked by lhe British prime minister years later what describe the phenofiena he investigated, he and a
use could be made of his discoveries, Faraday science-philosopher friend invented new words, such
quipped, "Some day il miqht be possible io tax ihem." as eleclrolysis, eleclroMe, ion, anode, and calhode.
Faraday, one ot 10 children ot a blacksmilh, To honor him, the unit ot capacitance is named lhe
was bern near London. He was first apprentic€d to a larad. t
bookbinde., but d age 22 he realized his boyhood

169
UO ro no* *" huu" considered otly resistive circuits, that is, circuits containing
.esistorc and sources. The terminal chamcteristics of these elements are simple alSe_
braic equations which lead to circuit equations that are algebmic ln this chapter we
shall inffoduce two important dynamic circuit elerrents, the capacitor and the induc-
tor, whose termiial equations me differential mther than algebraic equations. These
elements are rcferred to as dJnamic L'''cavse, in the ideal case, they store energy
which can be retrieved at some later time. Another term which is us9d, foi this rea_
son; is storaSe elements.
We first describe the property of capacitance and discuss the mathematical
model of an ideal device. The terminal characteristics and energy relations will then
be given, followed by derivations for parallel and sedes connections of two or more
capacitors. We then repeat this procedu.e for the inductor. The chapter concludes
with a drscussion of pnctical capacitors and inductors and their equivalent circuits
7.1
CAPACITORS
- A capacitor is atwo-terminal alevice tbat consists of two conducting bodies that are
sepamted by a nonconducting material. Such a nonconducting material is known as
an insulator or a dielearnc. Because of the dielecffic, charges cannot move ftom on€
conducting body to the other within the device. They must therefore b€ transported
between the conducling bodies via extemal circuitry connected to the teminals of
the capacitor. One very simple t'?e, called a parallel_plate capacitor, is shown it
Fig. 7. l. The conducting bodies are flat, rectangtlar conductors that are sepamted
by the dielectric material.
To describe the charge-voltage .elationship for the device, let us transfer
charge from one plate to the other. Suppose, for instance, that by means of some ex_

FIGURE 7.1 Parallel'plate capacitor

170 Chapter 7 Energy Stoege Elemenls

t-
te al circuit, we take a small charge, say 44, from the lower plate to the upper
plate. This. of course. deposits a char8e of Ag on the lop plale and leares a charge
of -A4 on the bottom plate. Since moving these charges requires the separation of
unlike charges (recall that unlike charges atffact one another), a small amount of
work is performed, and the top plate is mised to a potential of say Ao with respect to
lhe bofiom plate.
Each increment of charge Aq that we transfer inqeases the potential difference
between the plates by Ao. Therefore, the potential difference between the plates is
proportional to the charge being tmnsferred. This suggests that a change in the ter-
minal vollage by an amount Ao causes a corresponding change in the charge on the
upper plate by an amount &. Thus the charge is proportional to the potential differ-
ence. That is, if a terminal voltage o corresponds to a charge 4 on the capacitor (+q
on the top plate and -4 on the bottom plate), then the capacitor has been charged to
the voltage o, which is proportional to the charge 4. We thus may wtite

q=CD (7.l)

where C is the constant of proportionaiity, knoli'n as the capacitance of the device,


in coulombs per volt. The unit of capacitance is known as the /d/dd (F), named for
the famous Bdtish physicist Michael Faraday (1791-1867). Capacitors that satisfy
('l.I) arc ca1led ltueat carycitorursince thek charge-voltage relationship is the equa-
tion of a straight line having a slope of C.
It is interesting to note in the example above that the net charge within the ca-
pacitor is always zero. Charges removed from one plate always appear on the other
so that the total charge remains zero. We should also observe that charges leaving
one terminal enter the other. This fact is consistent with the requirement that current
entering one terminal must exit the other in a two-terminal devic€.
Since the current is defined as the mte of change of charge, differentiating
(?.1), we find that

i: C:dt (1 .2)

which is the curent-voltage telation for a capaciror.


The circuit qimbol for the capacitor and the current-voltage convention which
satisfies (7.2) are shown in FrE. '7.2. lt is apparent tlat moving a charge of A4 in
Fig. 7- 1 ftom the lower to the ul4)er corducto. represents a cuffent flowing into the
upper terminal. The movement of this charg€ causes the uppq terminal to become
more positive than the lowet one by an amount Ar. Hence the currert voltage con-
vention of Fig. 7.2 is satisfed. If either the voltage polarity or the curent direction
is reversed, then the current enteling the positive terminal is -i and (7.2) becomes

,
.
aa
^dt)

We recall that for this case a minus sign was also required in Ohm's law.

Section 7.1 Capacitors 171


FICURE 7.2 Ci.cuir symbol for a capacitor

EXAMPLE 7.1 Suppose thar the voh4ge on a I -,,F capaciror is

t) : 6 cos 2000, V
Then the cur.ent is
dD
i = ci lo 6r- l2.ooo sin 2ooor) A

=- t2 sin 2000, mA

In (7.2) we see that if o is constant, the curent i is zero. Therefore, a capaci-


tor acts like an open circuit to a dc voltage. One the other hand, the more mpially o
chalges, the larger is the current flowing though its teminals. Considet, for exam-
ple, a voltage that increases linearly from 0 to d t s, given by
Mn
o=0, t<0
= at. 0=t<4-t
- l, t>a I

lflhis voltage is applied ro rhe terminals of a l -F capacitor (an unusually large value
which is convenient for illustrative purposes), the resulting current is
t=0, r <0
:a, 0<t<d-r
=0, t>a1
Plots of o and i are shown in Fig. 7.3. We see that i is zero when o is constant
and that it is equal to d when o indeases linearly. If a is made larger, then o changes

tlGURt 7.J Voltdgc and cu ent wdvdorms fora tJ.dpa(itor

172 Chapter T tner8y-Storage Elemenls


more rapidly and i increases. It is apparent that if d I = 0 (.r is infinite), o changes
abruptly (in zero time) from 0 to i V.
In geneml, any abrupt oI instantaneous changes in voltage, such as in Example
7.1, require that an infinite curent flow through the capacitor. An infinite curlent,
ho*ever, requircs that an infinite power exist at the capacitor terminals, which is a
pl,Flcal impossibility. Thus abtupt or instantaneous changes in the voltage across a
capacitor are rrt possible, and the voltage is coaltinuous even though the cu[ent
may be discontinuous. ([t is possible, of course, io dmw on paper circuits that con-
ffadict this statement. These circuits are mathematical models that do not describe
the entAe physical picture suffciently, as we shall see in Sec. 7.10.) An altemative
statement concerning abrupt changes in voltages in circuits containing more than
one capacitor is that ,,ire total charge connot change instunatneousl, (conse ation of
charge).
Irt us now find D(r) in terms of i(,) by integrating both sides of (7.2) between
!ime\ /o and /. The resuh is

+,tt,s (7.3\
"<tl=lf,iar
where r-r(ro) = 4(t6)/C is the voltage on C at time ro. In this equarion, the integral
term rcpresents the voltage that accumulates on the capacitor in the intenal ftom to
to ,, whereas o(tir) is that which accumulates fiom € to to. The voltage o(-o), of
course, is taken to b€ zero. Thus an alternative form of (7.3) is

d(t) =
il-,*
EXAMPTT 7.2 ln applying the resultjusf described, we obviously are obtaining the area associated
with a plot of i Iiom -- to t. In Fig. 7.3, for example, since o(-@) = 0 and C =
I F, we have
tl'
., ;ltl {01 d/ D( d) -0. ,<0
Theretore. D(0) = 0. and

u-l['oa,
1J.
, ,rpt at, 0<t<a'
'fhercfore, a(l/a) = 1, so that

, =l
l,',,.,o,
0,. ,0 : ', t>at
which agrees with D in Fig. 7.3.

In Example 7.2 we see that o and i do no1 necessarily have the same shape.
Specifcally, the inaximum and minimum valles of o and i do not necessarily occlrr

Section 7.1 Capacitors 173


at the same time, unlike the case for the resistor. In fact, inspection of Fig. 7.3 re
veals that the curent can be discontinuous even though the voltage is continuous, as
stated previously.

EXERCISES
7,1.1 A 1-F,F capacitor has a voltage of
'J
= l0 cos 1000t V. Find its cunent.
A,?rwe. 10 sit 1000t mA
?.1.2 A conslant current of 20 mA is charging a lo-/,F capacitor (entering its positive
voltage terminal). If the capacitor was initially charged to l0 V, find the charge and
vollage on ir after l0 mi.
ar'wri 0.3 mC, J0 V
7.1.3 A 0.4-pF capacitor has a voltage o as shown. Find the current at I = -9, -6, -2,
l.and6ms.
Ansl,et I,O. -0.5. -2.0.5 mA

EXtRCtSt 7.1,3

7.1.4 Let the graph of Exercise 7.1.3 be the graph of i (rnA) versus r (rns) in a ]-1.rF capac-
itor. Find the voltage at t = -9, -6,1, and l0 ms.
Answer 5, ffi, 130, -60 V

7.2
ENERCY STORACE IN CAPACITORS
The terminal voltage across a capacitor is accompanied by a separation of cha.ges
between the capacitor plates. These charges have elect ical fo.ces acting on them.
An electric fieu, a basic quantity in electromagnetic theory, is denned as the force
acting on a unit positive charye. Thus the forces acting on the charges within the ca-
pacitor can be considered to result from all electric field. It is for this reason that the
energy stored or accumulated in a capacitor is said to be stored in the electric field.
The energy stored in a capacitor, ftom (1.6) and (7.2), is given by

*.{t=f-,iat=1.'(r#)"
=c|_,a,=.j-'ol'-
174 Chapler 7 EnerSy StoraSe Elemenls
Since D(--) = 0, we may write

*,(o =:c,.(0 I (.1 .4)

From this result we see that lr.(r)


= 0. Therefore, from (1.?), the capacitor is
a passive circuit €lement- In terms of the charge on the device, (7.1) and (?.4) vield

I a'1ltt
..(t) (7.s)
2C"
The ideal capacitor, unlike the resistor, cannot dissip te any energy. The energy
which is stored in the device can thus be recovered
Consider, for instance, a I,F capacitor which has a voltage of l0 V. The en-
ergy stored is

wc=;CD,=50J
Suppose that the capacitor is not connected in a circuit; then no current can
flow, and the charge, voltage, and energy remain constant. If we now connect a re_
qistor across the capacitor, a current flows untit all the energy (50 J) is absorbed as
heat by the resistor and the voltage across the combination is zero. Such a network is
anallzed in Chapter 8.
As has been pointed out earlier, the voltage on a capacitor is a continuous
function. Thus by (7.4) we see that the energy stored in a capacitor is also continu_
ous. This is not slrprising since otherwise energy would have to be tmnsported fiom
one place to another in zero rime, which is an impossibility.
To illustrate continuity of capacitor voltage, let us consider Fig. 7.4, whicb
contains a switch that is opened at t = 0, as indicated. (Ideally, a swilch transforms
a pair of terminals fiom an open circuit to a shott circuit, or vice versa. in zero
time.l To discuss the eflecr ol rhe suilching acrion \re first need to consider tno dif
ferent types of time r = 0. We denote t = 0
as the time just before the srritching
action and 1 0' a) lhe lime jusl alter rhe switching action. Theoreticall\. o]
-
course. no lime has elapsed bel$een 0
and O'. but the lwo times represent mdically
different srares of the circuit. Thus oc(o ) is the voltage on the capicitorjust befori

FICURE 7.4 Circuit illustrating continuity of capacitor volta8e

Se.tion 7.2 tnergy Storage in Capacitors 175


the switch is moved and o.(0+) is the voltage immediately after switching. Mathe-
matically, t . (0 ) is the limit of (l ) as t approaches zero through negative (t < 0)
".
values and !.(0-) is the limit as I approaches zero tbrough positive (t > 0) values.
The same notation applies to or across the rcsistor R!.

TXAMPTE 7.3 Suppose that in l.rg. /.4 \Ie have y = O V and o,r0, = 4 V. Just prior ro rhe
switching action (t :0-) wehave or(0 ) = V
o.(0 ) = 2 V Immediately after
the switch is opened we have or (0.) = 0, since no cunent is flowing in R'. How-
ever, srnce r, is conlinuous we have

' oc(0-):0c(0-) =av


Thus the voltagg on the resistor Rr has changed abruptly, but that on the capacitor
las noi. The vo,tage on R, is the same as the capacitor voltage and thus has not
changed either.

Obviously, ooe could consider circuits on paper in which capacitor voltages are
forced to change abruptly. For example, if two capacitors having different voltages
are suddenly connected in parallel by a switching action, their resulting common
voltage cannot be the same as both their preyious, different voltages. We consider
such ringilliTr circuits in Sec. 7.10, where we shall see that stored energy has ap-
peared to ehange abruptty. The apparent change cannot be accounted io. in the
lumped circuit models we are using, but it is a remarkable fact that the lumped mod-
els are valid before and after (though not during) the srwitching action. Physical cir-
cuits, however, have resistance associated witl the capaciror (such as in the leads
and the dielectric) which precludes the infinite currents that must accompany discon-
tinuous capacitd voltages. These are the tlpes of circuits we shall be conceoed
with. in general.

EXERCISES
7.2.1 A 0.2-ttF capacitor has a chaqe of 20 pC. Find the voltage and enelgy.
Anth", l00 V l mJ
7,2.2 II the eneqy stored in a *-F capacit$ is 25 J, find the voltage and charge.
aa\wq 20 V,2.5 C
7.2.3 h Fig. 7 .4, let C : I F, l?r = R, = 4 O, and V = 20 V If the current in R2 at
I : 0- is 2 A directeqdownward, find at , = 0 and at r = 0* (a) the charge on the
capacitor, (b) the curlent in Rr directed to the right, (c) the current in C directed
downward. and (dl .1D. .
/r-
Antws (a) 2,2 C; (b) 3, 0 A; (c) 1, -2 A; (d) 4, -8 V^

176 Chapter 7 tne€y-slorag€ tlements


7.3
SERIES AN D PARAI.TET CAPACITORS
In this section we determine the equivalent capacitance for seies and parallel con-
nections of capacitors. As we shall see, equivalent capacitance is in direct analogy
with equivalent conductance.
Ift us first consider the series connection cf N capacitors, as shown in Fig.
- 7.5(a). Appliing KVL, we find
D=Dr+rz+. +t)t (7.6)
From (7-3), this equation can be w tten
trrt=)lrJr[ iar t n.,a, | q,J,o
: [',o,tuu^,- *]C"l.[,0,-",u",
= (*-oa- -*) +,,Qi+oz(ro)+.. +o"(,0)
l,"tat
or, by (7.6),
,,,, = 1i -Ll r
, ,,t J,", o' - , ,'o,
=,
ln Fig. ?.5(b, we see that

. rJ ,,, lr.[, , o, - u,^,


whete ofro) is the vohag€ on C. ar I = ao.

Wrc
flcURt 7.5
(.) (b)
(a) Series connection of N capaciro.s; (b) equivalent circujt

Suppose we require that the circuit of Fig. 7.5(b) be an equivalent circuit for
that of Fig. 7.5(a). Comparing the last two e uations, we see that

I 1 r r .\r
c, c, c1 c" ='c" ('7 .7)

from which we may find the equivalent capacitance C,.

\ei non -.J \enp, dnd Pdrrttet (dpaciioh '177


ln the case of two series capacitors Cl and Cr, (7.7) may bc simplified to

^
.,
c,al
C,, iG

In other words, the equiv?rlent capacitanc€ is the product over the silm of the two in-
dividual capacitances. This is directly analogous to the equivalence ol tv,to parallel
resistances.

EXAMPLE 7.4 As an example of the utility of (7.6) and (7.7), considgr the series connection of
1- and j -F capacitors having initial voltages of 4 and 6 V, respectively. Then

1:'r
or
C" = 0.25 F
and

o(t6)=416:1gY
Let us now consider the parallel connection of N capacirors. as shown in Fig.
7.6(a). Application of KCL gives
i=i,+ir+'..+i'
Substituting from (7.2), we have

i:c,9+c,4+...+c,4
dt .u 4t

=(c,!c,....*c;fr:(!,c ada
In the circuit of Fig. ?.6(b), the current is

' dt)
' ^
'P d1

FICURE 7.6 (a) Parallel conneclion of N capacitorsj (b) equivalent circuit

178 , Chapter z tne€y Storage Elements


Ifwe now require that this circuir be an equivalenr circuir for that of Fig. 7.6(a), rhe
equalion( above gi\ e

cP= ct + c|+ ...+ c" = > c' (?.8)

Thus the equivalent capacitance of N pamllel capacitors is simply the sum of the in-
dividual capacitances- An initial voltage, of course, would be equal to that which is
presenr acro\s rhe parallel combinatron.
It is interesting to notice that the equivalent capacitance of series and pamllel
capacitors is analogous !o the equi\?lent conductance of sedes and parallel conduc-

EXERCISES
7.3.1 Find lhe maximum and minimum values of capacitance that can be obtained ftom
. ten l-lrF capacitors.
A,rwsl l0 rrF, 0.1 pF
7,J.2 Find the equiralent capacitance.
Anr'€/ l0 ! F

60

EXERCISt 7.3.2

7.3,3 Derive an equation for current division between two paftllel capacito$ by finding ir
andt.
A,,** C' , C' ,
c,rc, c, +c,'

fxtRcrsE 7.3.3

Seclion z-3 Series and Parallel Capacitors 179


?.3.4 Derive an equation for voltage division between two uncharged series capacitors by
finding 1lr and 0z-
, C: C,
a, + c,--c, cr-

txERctsE 7.3.4

7.4
INDUCTORS
In the p.evious sections we folmd that the electdcal chamcteristics of the capilcitor
ale the result of forces that exist between electric charges. Just as static charges exert
forces upon one another, it is fourd that moving charges, or. currents, also influence
one another. The foice which is experienced by two neighboring ctment-carrying
wiies was experimentally determined by Ampdre in the early nineteenth century.
These forces can be chamcterized by the existeice of a nagnetic feld. The magnetic
field, in turn, can be thought of in terms ol a magnetic fux that forms closed loops
about electric currents. The origin of the flux, of course, is the electric culrents. The
study of magnetic fields, like that of electric fields, comes io a later course on elec-
ftomagnetic theory.
An inductor is a two-terminal device that consists of a coiled conducting wire.
A current flowing tfuough the device produces a magnetic flux d which forms closed
loops encircling the coils making up the indrctor, as shown by the simple model of
Fig. 7.7. Suppose that the coil contains N tums aDd that the flux d passes through
each tuft. In this case, the total flux linked by the N tums ofthe coil, denoted by,{,
is

^-N4
This total flux is commonly refered to as theJfur liriage. The unit of magnetic ffux
is the werer (Wb), named for the German physicist Wilhelm Weber (1804,1891).
In a linear inductor, the ffux linkage is directly proportional to the current
flowing though the device. Therefore, we may \r'rite
I= Li (i.9)
where t,the constant of proportionality, is the ifiductance in webers per ampere.
The unit of I Wb,A rs known as the h"nry (H). named for the American physicist
Joseph Henry (l?97- 1878).

180 ChapterT tner8y-StorageEleinents


FIGURE 7,7 Simple model of an inductor

In (7.9) we see that an inqease in i produces a corresponding increase in l.


This increase in ,\ Foduces a voltage in the l{-tuln coil. The fact that voltages occur
with changiq magaetic flux was fi$t discovered by Henry. Heffy, however, repeat-
ing the mistake of Cavendish with the resistor, failed to publish his findings. As a
result, Fa.aday is credited with discovedng the law of elecromagnetic induction.
This law states that the voltage is equal to fhe dme mte of change of the total mag-
netic flux. h rnathematical form. the law is

dA

which with (7.9) yields

.di (7.10)

Clearly, as i inqeases, a voltage is develop€d actoss the terminals of the in-


ductor; the polarity of which is show! in Fig. 7.?. This voltage apposes an itrcte.ise
in i, for if this were not the case, that is, if the polarity were reversed, the hduced
voltage would "aid" the current. Physically, this cannot be tnte, because the culrcnt
would increase indef nitely.
The circuit syEbol and the curent-voltage convention for the inductor are
shown io Fig. 7.8. Just as iD the cases of the rcsistor artd the capacitor, if either the
curent directiotr or the voltage assignment, but not both, ate tevelsed, a negative
sigd must be us€d in the right-hand side of (7.10).
From (7.10), if i is consta0t, the voltage o is zero. Thercfore, an inductor acts
like a sho.t circuit to a alc cu$ent. On the other hand, the more rapidly i changes,
the greafer is the vok4ge that appears across its terminals.

Section 7,4 lnductoE ,181


FICURE 7.8 Circuir symbol for an inducror

EXAMPLE 7.5 Consider a current that decreases linearly from I to 0 A h ,-t s, defined by
a<0
=l-bt, 0=t=bl
t>h\
A l-H inductor having this terminal curent has a iermfual voltage given by
o=0, r<0
--b, 0<r<bl
=0. t>b-l
Plots of i and o for this case are shown in Fig. 7.9. We see that D is zero when
i is constant and is equal to -, when i deoeases linearly. If, is rDade larger, i
changes more iapidly and o becomes more negative. Clearly, if D-l : 0 (, iofnite),
then ; changes abrupdy ftom I to 0 A, and r becomes infinite.

flCURt 7,9 Current and volrage waveforms for a I H inducror

ln geneml. abrupt changes jn the curreDt, as in Example 7.5, require thal aD


infinite voltage appear aqoss the terminals of the inductor. As describ€d id the cas€
of the capacitor. lhis requtes that an infnite power exist al the terminals of the in-
ductor, a lfiysical impossitility. Thirs instantaneous changes in the cunent thrcugh
an inductor are not p6ssible. We observe that the curreDt is contitruous even though
I
the voltage may be discontinuous.
I An altemative statement conceming abrupt chatrges in the culae[ts flowitrg in
circuits containing more than otre inductor is that the total flt
linkage catuot

I 142 Chaprer / tne€y-srorage llemcnc

I
chanqe instantoneously. That is, for a circuit containing inductors Lr, Lr, . . . , LN,
the sum + +ir . + lr'canllot change instantaneously. If we compare (7.1)
i, .
and (7.9), we see that the flux linkage in an inductor is analogous to the charge on a
capacitor. Thus the sum of thg flux linkages given above (conservation of flux link-
age) is analogous to conservation of charge. An example employing the conservation
of flux linkage is given in Sec. 7.10.
t;t
lrs now find the current i(,) in te.ms of rhe voltage o (r). Integmting (7.l0)
from time to to t and solving for l(l), we have

u,, =
lf,"^,, o, * ,u", (7.1r)

In lhis equation the integml term represents the current buildup fiom time to to I,
whereas i(t) is the cudent at ro. Obviously, i(ro) is rhe current which accumulates
from t : @.to to, where t( €) : 0. Thus an altemative expression is

,rt=ll_"toa'

EXAMPLE 7.6 In the application of (7.11), we are obtaining rhe net area under the graph of D from
l- to t, since i(t0) represents the area fiom -o
to to. In Fig. 7.9, lor instance,
since i(0) :
1, we have, for = I H,I
ilj=ll"r-ttar rr{0r -r,+ t. o.ir =b,
Thus i(l/r) = 0, and
.. 1t' (0) dr+il:l=0.
t(r)=.1 /r\
b-t=t
L J,n \r/
In Example 7.6 we see that o and i, just as in the case of the capacitor, do not
necessarily have the same vadation in time. Inspection of Fig. 7.9, for exalnple,
shows that the voltage can be discontinuous even though the current is continuous,
as mentioned previously.

EXERCISES
7.4.1 A l0-rnll inductor has a cu.rent of 50 cos 1000r nrA. Find its voltage and its flux
linkaSe.
A'r'e?r 0.5 sin 1000r V, 0.5 cos 1000r mwb
7.4.2 Find the cunent t(a) for r > 0 in a 20-mH inducror having a voltage of 4 sin 10r V
if i(0) =
26 a I

Answer 20 cos lot A

Section 7.4 lnductors 183 l

I I

t
7.4.3 Find the current in a0.5-H inductor, for0 < t< 2J, ifi(o):0andthevoltageis
as shown.
Answer l}t A, 0<r <1
t0(2 - r) A, l =t =2
, (v)

-5

/.5
TNERGY STORACE IN INDUCTORS
A current i flowing though arl inductor caus€s a total flux linkage l to be produced
that passes through the tums of the coils aking up the device. Just as work was
performed in moving charges between the plat€,s of a capacitor, a similar work is
necessary to establish the flux d in the inductor. The work or energy required in this
case is said to be stored in the magletic field.
The energy stored in an inductor, employing (1.6) and (7.10), is given by

w,rrt=l
- I
aidt=f'(t4\,*
I \ dtl
f'tl'
.
=r J-I idi _;Li,@l
- t,__q
Recalling that i(-@) = 0, we have

,,,1t1 = lLi'1t1 t (7.t2)

Inspection of this equation reveals thanv.(t) > 0. Therefore, ftom (1.7), we see that
the induclor is a parsive crrcuil element.
The ideal inductor, like the ideal capacitor, does not dissipate any power.
Therefore, the energy stored in the inductor can be recovered. Consider, for exam-
ple, a 2-H inductor rhat is carrying a current of 5 A. The energy sto.ed is
wL:trLi,:2st

144 Chapter 7 Energy-sto.age flements


ind&tor is connected in parallel with a resistor by means of
Suppose that the
an exlemal circuit. ln this case. a cwrent flows lkough lhe inductor-resistor combi-
nation until all the energy previously stored in the inductor (25 J) is absolbed by the
resistor abd the curretrt is zero. Solutions of choits of this type are presented in
Chapter 8.

EXAMPLT 7,7 Since inductor curerts are contirlous, it follows that the enetgy stored in an induc-
tor, like in a capacitor, is also continuous. To illustrate this, let us con-
ahat stored
sider the circuit of Fig. 7.10, which contains a slvitch that is closed at r = 0, as indi-
cated. Suppose that i"(O 2 AandI = 3 A. Then by KCL, n(0 ) = 3 2=
)= -
:
I A. After the switch ia closed (t 0*), we have ir(o*) = 0 since a short circuit is
placed across Rr. However. we have

t(0+) = t(0-) = 2A
Thus the resistor currenl has changed abruplly bur the inducror cunenl has not.

:0 fa
ir

FICURI 7,10 Circuit illustkiing continuity of inductor current

Ln exaJD.ple of a singular cicuit for which inductor currents appeol to be dis-


coDtinuous is given in Sec. 7.10. As jn lhe case of singular capachive circujls. the
apparent discontinuiqi in tbe energy storcd in the inductors cannot be accounted for
in the lumped circuit model. However, lumped circuit theory is valid before and af-
ter (thor€h not during) the swirching action. Physical circuits having inductors con-
tain associaM redistance which does not permit the infinite inductor voltages that
must accompany abrupl changes in inductor curents. We shall be concerned primar-
ily wirh circuits of lhis type.

EXERCISES
7.5.1 Derive an expression for the energy stored in an inductor in terms of the flux linkago.
land tbe inductance L.
Answer l'z/2L
7.5.2 A 40-mH hductor has a current i: 100 cos l0rr rnA. Find the flux linkage and
the energy al I = jL s.
Aaswer 2 mWb. 50 pJ

Section 7-5 Energy StoraSe in lnductors 18s


7.5.3 A 2-mH inductor has a voltage D - 4 sin 2000, V wirh l(0) : 1.5 A. Fitrd the en-
ergy stored in the inductot t : r f6 fis.
Answer 4 mI ^t
7.5.4, InFig.7.l0,let/= 5A,n' = 6O,R! = 4O,Z = 2H, aDd i,(0-) = 2 A. ff the
switch is open at r : 0-, find tz(0-), t (0+), i1(O.\, ana dir@")/dt.
Answer 3 A, I A, 0, -6 A/s

7.6
SERIES AND PARALLEL INDUCTORS
In this section we determine the equivalent inductatce for series and pa€llel con--
nections of inductors. I-et us first consid€r a sedes connection of N indrctors, as
shown in Fig. 7,11(a). Apptyitrg KVL, w€ see that

a=at+02+" +ox
from which we rlay write

,=t,4*r,4*-..*u4
at dt dt

=(1,+1,+-..+t;fi

Ir
u= r,.4

FtcuRt 7.11 (a) Series. connection of N ;nductors; (b) equivajent circuit

t*

I
I
(a) O)

I 185 Chapter 7 Energy-Storage Elementi

I
ll we now require that this circuir be an equivalent circuit for rhe series connection,
the equations above yield

L"= Ll + L2+.., + LN:>L. (7.13)

Therefore, the equivalent inductance of N sedes inductors is simply the sum of the
individual inductances. In addition, an initial cunent would clearly be equal to that
flowing in the series connection.
[-el us no\^ consider the parallel connection ofN inducrors, as shown in Fig.
7.12(a). Application of KCL gives
i=ir+ir+...+rrv ('7.r4)

(a) G)
FIGURt 7.12 (a) Parallel connection ol N inductors; (b) equivalent circuit

Subsliruting from (7.I L. we have

irn -!t'Io[ uat + i,(,0, + I,J<t[' adt t izrrot +... + tn.l Iua,.*ua
Jn

!\1," "' i i.r,.r.t i,r', +... -


\1,*tz,*
=(t , h (ro.,
L,) J,."
or, by (7.14),

t(,)=l).ll L^,/ Ddr + i(k)


\^=t J

In Fie. 7.12{bl we se€ thal

tl,
ik\--lDdt+iho\
where i(to) is the culrent n Lp at t = ro. If this circuit is an 6qui lent network for
the pamllel connection, the equations above require that the equivalent parallel in-
ductance be given by

Section i.6 Series and Parallel lnductors 187


r l l 1 {t (7.15)
L, LL L2 L r\Ln

In the case of two pamllel inductors ar and ,r, (7.15) may be simplified to

, LtL,
' Lt+ L2

which is directly analogous to the equivalence of two pamllel resistances.

EXAMPLT 7.8 Suppose that we have lwo parallel inductors of 6 and J H carrying initial currents of
2 and 1 A, respectively. The parallel combination .ould be replaced by a single in-
ductance,

L, ;i6^\ 2H

carrying an initial curent of


t(to)=2+l=3A
ln the ca5e of inductors. it ls interestjng to ob\erve that the equi%lent induc:
tance for series and parallel connections is analogous to the equivalent i:sistance of
series and panllel resistors.

EXERCISES
7,6.1 Find the maximum and minimum values of inductance that can be oblained using
ten 10-mH inductors.
Arsper 100 mH. I mH
7.6,2 Fird the equivalent inductance. (Indubtor values are in mH.)
,aaswe. l0 rnH

EXERCtSt 7.6.2

7.6.3 Derive aD equarion for voltage division between two series inductors by finding l,r
and Dz,

Answer
Lt + LjD. Lt + L)D

188 Chapter 7 Energy-StoraSe tlements


rxERCtsE 7.6.3

7.6.4 Derive an equation for current division between two barallel inductors with no initial
currenr by finding ir and ir.
An\wPt
L,L
- i i
L,+LJ'L,+L'

txtRcrsE 7.6.4

DC STEADY STATE
If the only independent sources in a circuit are dc (constant) sources, such as batter-
ies or constant curent souces, then as time passes, all the cunents and voltages in
the circuit settle down to constant values. This is b€cause constant sources continu-
ously and relentlessly exert steadying influences on the circuit which in the absence
of any other forces eventually prevail. When all the currents and voltages have
reached eonstant values, we say that the circuit is 1n a dc steadt state.ln Sec. 8.4 we
will see how the dc steady staie is established whetr a switch has been opened or
closed fot a long time in the presence of dc souces, and we will also se€ that typi-
cally a "long time" is a mattgr of a few seconds.
Evidently, in the dc steady state, capacito$ are like open circuits (their cur-
rents are zero) and inductor! arc like short circuits (their voltages are zero). Thus
the Foblem of finditg the currents and voltages in dc steady state is rhat ol solying
resistive circuits with constant sources. To atal'ze a circuit for t > 0, as we will see
in Chapter 8, we need certain initial conditions (values of certain cuments and
voltages, as well as their derilatives, at r = 0*), which may be found ftom the dc
sleady state condirion!.
r-_r
IXAMPI-E 7.9 I,,et us consider the RaC circuit
of Fig. 7.13(a), which is in dc steady state when the
switch is opened at t = 0. At a =0
, just prior to the switching action, the circuit is
shown in Fig. 7.13(b), where the srritch is closed, the capacitor is an open circuit,

Section 2,7 OC Steadv State 189


-#dxff')":.
I

FICUIE 7.13 (a) RtC circuir, ibl circuit at t = 0-; (c) circuir ar t = 01

and the jdductor iia short circuit. From this circuit we have r(0-) l0/5 = 2A
l0r :
and o(0-) = 3i(0-) -6 V The circuir at r = 0* (jusr after rhe swilch is op€n€d) is
is-opengit)
<h^rh i^ Fig.
show! in Fi. ? lt^\
7.13(c), -,h-"-
where
u(0*):o(0-)=0v

I
EXERCISES
7,?.1 Thecircuitisinadcsteadystateatr=0.Find(a)ir,(brt?,(c)ir,(d)ic,and(e)
r.atr-0 andalt=0
Answer (z) 2, 8 A; (b) 2, -4 A; (c) 2, 24; (d) 0, -6 A; (e) 12, 12 v

j]- :o 13- :n 6rl

\ .{ , ;l;. li3

IXERC|SE 7.7.1

7.7.2 ff the circuit is indc steady stare ar I :0 , find (a) ir, (b) i., and (c.l ,. at r = 0-
andatr-0-.
Answ$ ta) 4. -2 Ai ft) 2. 2 A; (c) 0. -36 V

txtRctsE 7-7-2

7.7.r The circuit is in dc steady slate al r = 0 . Find (a) oc. ft) rL. {c) i. and (d) rr at
t=0 andatr = 0-.
tnswer (a) 8, 8 V; (b) 4, 4 A; (c) 4, 4 Ai (d) l, -4 A

it +H

I8V:I
,ru 1 2a {'
T1
,(, I
r.0
t'
txtRctst 7.7.3

DC Steady State 191

.t
I

r
7.8
PRACTICAT CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS
Commercially available capacitors are manufaptured in a wide variety of types, val_
ues, and voltage mtings. The capaciror type is g€nera y classified by the kind of
dielectric used, and ils capacirance is determin€d by rhe rype of dielectric and the
physical g€omefty of the device. The voltage miing, or workinS yolta!4 is the max-
imum voltage that can safely be applied to the capacitor. Voltages exceeding this
value may peroEnendy damage the device by destroying or breaking down the
. dielectric.
. Simple capacitors are often constructed employing two sheDts of metal foil tliat
arc separated by a dielectric material. The foil and dieleatric are pressed together
into a laminar form and are then rdlled or folded into a compact pa&age. ElJtrical
conductois ,ffrched to each melal-foil sheet constitute the termhals of the capacitor.
' Practical capacitors, unlike ideal capacitors, genemlly dissipate a sma[;Eourit
' of power. This is due primarily to leakage c,rftents that occur within the dielectric
material in the device. Pmctical dielechics have a nonzero conductance which al-
lows an oftmic curent to flow between the capacitor plates. This current is easily in-
cluded in an equivalent circuit for the device by placing a resistance id parallel with
an ideal capacitance, as shown in Fig.7.14. In this figure, R. represonts the ohmic
losses of the dieleatic and C the capacitarce. The leakage resistance R. is inversely
proportional to the capacitance C. Therefore. rhe Foduct of the leakage resistanci
and capdcitance R"C, a quantity often given by manufactureN, is useful in specify-
ing the capacitor loss.

nCURf 7.14 Simple equivalent circuit for a practical capacilor

Common types of capacilors include ceramic (barium lilanare). Mylar. Teflon,


and polystyrene. These types are avaitable in capacitance values ranging typically
, ftom 100 pF to 1 pF having tolerances 6 3, 10, aJtd m%. Resistance-capacitance
products for these types lange ftom lCP O-F (ceramic) to 2 x 106 O+ (Teflo[).
Anothei type of capacitor which gives larger values of C is the electrolytic ca-
pacitor. This capacitor is constructed ofpolarized layers ol aluminum oxide ot tanta-
lum oxide and has lalues of I to 100,000 pF. ResistaDce-capacitance products,
however, mnge ftom l0 to 103 O-F, which indicates that eiectrolytics are more roJJ)
than nonelectrolytic types. Also, since electrolytic capacitors are poladzed, they
, must be connected into a circuit with the p.ope! voltage potarity. If the incofiect
poladty is used, the oxide will be reduced, and heavy condrrction will occur between
the plates.

792 Chapt€r 7 Ene.8y-stonge Elements


Practical inductors, like practical capacitors, usually dissipate a small amount
of power. This dissipation results from olmic losses associated with the wire mak-
ing up the inductor coil and care losses due to rnduc€d cunents adsing in the core on
which the coil is wouDd. An equivalent circuit for arl inductor can be realized by
placing a resistance in series with an ideal inductor, as shown in Fig. 7.15, where Rr
represents the ohmic losses andl the. inductance

FICUII 7.fS Simple equivalent circuit for a pradical inductor

Inductors are a
ilable {ith values mnging fton less than 1 pH to 100 H.
l-arge inductance lalue,s are obtained by employirg mally turrF and ferrous (iion)
core materials; hence a6 the inductance increases, the series resistance genemlly in-
cre:tses,
Like the resistor atrd the operational amplifier, the capacitor can be frbdcated
in integrated-circuit form. However, attempts at integrating' the inductor have not
been very successhrl because of geomety constraints and kcause semicondrctors
do not exhibit the necessary rnagnetic properties. For this reason, in many applica-
tions, ciicuits arc desigoed using only reEistors, capacitors, and electronic devices,
such as op amps.

EXERCISE
7.8.1 Mylar capacitors have a resistance-capacitance product of 105 O-F. Find lhe equiva-
lent parallel resistor in Fig. 7.14 for the following capacitors:'(a) 100 pF, O)
0.1 pF, and (c) 1pF.
Aruwer (a) l0r5 O; (b) l0'? O; (c) 10r' O

7.9
DUALITY AND TINEARITY
I kt us rlow determile the dual relationshiF for the capacitor and the inductor. This
I is easily done by considering the current-voltage relations of (7.2) and (7.l0) for the
I elements. Repeating th€se equations for convenience, we have
i

-da (7.t6)
and
('t.17)

Section 2.9 Duality and tineaity 193


Comparing the equations, we see that replacing i by D, o by i, and C by l, iD th€ fust
oquation-yields the second equation. Therefore, it is clearihat the cap;tor.ind rhe
inductor are dual elements and lhat C and L ar€ dual quantities. A similar compari-
son ol the equations for charge and flui, given by (?.1) and (7.9), shows tliat these
arc also dual quantities. A summary Of the dual quantities that we considei in the
book is given in Tbble 7. |.

TAAIE 7-1 Dual Quantities

ChaBe FIux

Meih

Urk*
&ries
KCL KVL
r ftc btuh aid tink see @'dcrcd in
Clraprs 6, which th. rqdd may n;rc
onilred, ald iErFd.* ,trd adEina@
ffi coBidered ir Chlph I L

tlCURt 7.16 rd) Iwo mesh network; rb) dLal ne&ort

(a)

194 Chapte. T Energy-Stonge Element!


EXAMPLE 7.10 We are now able to construct dual circuits for networks containing the dual quanti-
ties listed in Table 7.1. Consider, for example, the two-mesh network of Fig.
7.16(a). Using the geometric method of Sec. 4.7, the dual circuit is shown dashed in
Fig.7.16(a) and is redmwn in Fie.7.l6(b). The solutions for the curents and
voltages in networks including combinations of resistors, capacitors, and induclo
are considered iD succeeding chapters,

[€t us now consider the property of linearity for capacitors and inductors.
Comparing their terminal relations (7.16) and (?.1?), respectively, wirh (5.2), we
see that these elements satisfy the proportionality property and that they are, thete-
fore, lineal elements. Thus circuits containing any combination of independent
sources, and linear dependent sources, resistoft, capacitors, and inductors are linear,
and superposition and Thevenin's or Norton's theorems ate applicable. These topics
are considered in later chaptefs.

EXERCISE
7.9.1 Construct dual circuits for the networks of (a) Fig. 7.4, (b) Fig. 7.1O, and (c) Fig.
7.12(a).

7.10
SINCUTAR CIRCUITS
I
A circuit in which , switching action takes place that aryears to prod\tce discontinu-
itics in capacitor voltages or inductor currents is sometimes called a sri gular circlitt.
In this section we consider two such citcuits, one conlaining capacitors and one con-
raining inductoh.

EXAMPTE 7.11 Let us consider first Fig. 7.17, where the l-F capacitors Cr and C, have voltages of I
and 0 Y respectively, pdor to the closing of the switch. That is, or(0-) = I V and
or(0-) = 0 V We shall now determine q(0+) and ll2(0*), the energies stored in Ci
and Cz at t : 0*.
The energy srorcd prior ro clositg the s\ritch is
l'l(0 ):;c,o?(0-)=iJ
FICURE 7.17 Cjrcuit contain'ng rwo capacrtors which are swrrched at time t = O
r=0

Section 7.10 SinEUlar Circuils 195


and

li(o ) = 1oo3(0 ) = oi
so that the tolal stoted energy in the circuil is
l'(0-) : w,(0 ) + w,(0 ) =;J (7.18)
The current out of a genemlized node at the top enclosing tlle switch is given
by

.u t cd?'
c,4- tlt
-o
which integrated ftom t = 0 tot:0* yields

I G,da t C?dor) = C,t',(0-t- o,r0 rl r Cr[rzr0 I L,:{0 )l

=0 (7.19)
Substituting for Cr, Cz, or(0-), and or(0 ), we have
t,,(0.) + ,,(0*) = 1 (7 .20)
For t> 0 we see that 1,r = u2. and thus

D,(0-) = ,,(0-)
which wilh f7.20r gives

o'(0.) =r:z(0-) =*V


Therefore. the lotal energy stored at I= 0 is

u,(0-) = jc,o?(0-) + ]c,u3(0*) = i + * = ir


which by (?.I8) compares with I J stored at r : 0 ..

. We know lhat capacitor\ do not dissipate power. What. then. has happened lo
lhe.lJ from r - 0 tor = 0 ? Looling back over our work. we se€ rhal l,r changes
abruptly from I to I V at r = 0. As painted out in Sec. 7.1, instantaneous changes
in the voltage are not possible. Therefore, during the infinitesifial time from r 0 :
to t = 0+, our mathematical model is not valid. In reality, what has happened is the
following. When the switch closes at time r :0,
a large curent is produced as
charges are tmnsferred from Cr to c,. This rapidly changing current gives rise to an
electromagnetic wave which radiates I I of energy. The voltage or changes in a
short, but nonzero, time ftom I to; V. Our network during this interval does not be-
have as a lumped-parameter circuit, and concepts from electomagnetic theory (a
later course) are required for the solution we have described.
Ahhough our circuit model is not valid ar lhe inslant lhe swilch closes. the so-
Iutions for the voltages and energies trefore and after the closing of the s$r'itch are
correct. This is due entirely to the hct that the total charge did not change during
this time inteft"l. This may be seen flom (7.19), written in tie form
C'o,(0 )+ C,a.(o )= Crur(0-) + czoz(o.)
196 Chapler 7 Energy'Slorage tlements
or. €quivalently.
qr(o-) + qz(o-) = s'(0-) + qz(o+)
This, of course, is the statement of conser tion of charge. (The total chaage rc-
mains constant dunng the swirching itrstant.)
As pointed olrt earlier, most circuit models do not permit an infinite current itr
a capacitor. Physical circuits normally have 6 finite value of resistance aod iodrc-
tance which limit snch currents. As a rerult, the capacitor voltages and energies sre
continuous firnctions. If, for example, a series resiscor is included in the circuit of
Fig. 7.17, the voltage on each capacitor is continuous. That is,
or(0-) = q(0*)
and

o:(0 ) = oz(0r)
Analyses for circuits of this t)?e a.e given io Chapier 8.

EXAMPLE.7.12 Consider rhe circuil of Fig. 7.18. The 2- and I-H inductors Lr and L! have currctrts
of I and 0 A, respectively, before the switch is opened at time t : O. (We are as-
suming that the extemal circuit causing the initial curreots js switched out at, = 0,)
Therefore ir(o ) :
I A and r'r(0-) :0
A. We shall now determine }"r(0*) and
la)(oo), the energy stored in the inductors at t = 0+.

tr(r) Ir-2H { 1:=lH


i,,"
FIGURE 7.18 Circuit containing two inductoB which are twitched at time-l = 0

The energy stored prior to the opening of the ssr'itch is

. w'(0-) = +z,ti(0-) = 1J
and

xr(o ) = ll,t3(0') = 0J
so that the total energy is
y(0-) = wr(o-) + w,(0-) = I J

The flux linkage of each inductor at this til'|e is


,\,(0 )=L,r,(o-)-2wb
and
I,(0 )=L,t(0-)=Ov/b
Section 7.10 Singular Circuits 197
so that the toral flux linkage is

r(0-) =.rr(0 ) + 1,,,;(0 ) = 2wb


lsince ffux linlage Li is the inlegral ot the \ohage Ltdr/d . rhe signs on lhe terms
in the total flux linkage are the same as those on voltages used in kVL around the
Ioops.l
After the switch is opened, by duality with conservation of charge for a capaci-
lor we see from KCL that

n (0.) = rz(0*)
Also, when the switch is opened, conservation of flhx linkage requires that the total
flux remain constant; hence
Lrij(0 )+ L.ir{o ) = t.i,t0 r - L,irro )

= (Lr + Ltn(0-)

2(l)+1(0)=3n(0.)
Therefore.
lr(0+) = i(0*) = .? A
Thus lhe energy stored in each inducror at r = 0- is
l')(0.) : ].,i?(o+i = ,! J
and

w(o+t=+r4ii@-)=ar
If we now compare the total eneriy stored in the network, we see at t = 0- that
pr(0)+pz(O-):lJ
atrd at t = 0+ that
,,(0+) + n,(0*) = 4J
which indicates.that + J has be€n lost by th€ circuit even though ideal inducto$ can
dissipate no power.
. a. atI-ooking back ovel the problem, we sed that ir (r) changes abruptly from 1 to
I I - 0. We know, however, that abrupt changes in thJcurrent ari not possi-
ble. Therefore during the irfinitesimal time from t : 0 to t = 0*, our mathemati-
cal model is oDce again not lid. As pointed out pteviously, a rapidly changing cur-
rent gives rise to a[ electromagnetic wave which radiates energy. In this casd I is
mdiated, and the current changes from I !o : A in a short, but nonzero. time. Out
circuit. of couse. does not tehave as a lumped-parameter network during rhis inter-
val of time.

As in the case of a capacitive circult having innnite currents, mo$ inductive


circuit models do not permit iufinite voltages to occur across an inductor as a result
of abrupt curents. As discussed in the case of the capacitor, physical circuits having

198 ( hapler 7 tnergy slord8e Elements


inductors contain a finite value of resistanc€ and capacitance which limit such
voltages. The curents and energies in these circuits are continuous functions. If, for
instance, a parallel resistance is included in Fig. 7.18, the currents are continuous at
r = 0. Circuits of this type are studied in Chapter 8.

EXERCISES
7.10.1 InFigT.lTletct=+F,C, = t F, or(0-) : 10 Y oz(0 ) = +V, and find or(Ot),
or(0*), and the total energy stored in the circuit al r : 0- and at r : 0*.
A swet 6 V,6 V,33 1,27 I
7,1n,2 h Fis.7.18 letL = 4H, t4:2H,i'(o-\ = 3 A, and a(0 ):6A, and find
n(0-), tr(o.), and the total energy stored in the circuit ar r = 0- and at r : 0+.
Auwer 4 A.4 4.,54 t, 48 J

7.11
SUMMARY
In this chapter we have co[sidercd capocitors alld inductors, two elements capable
of rtoring enetgy to be retrieved at a late! time. For a capacitor the current is pro-
portional to the mte of change of the volrage and for an inductor the voltage is pro-
portional to the rate of change of the curent. The constatrts of proportionality are,
respectively, ttte capacitance C of tl.'e capacitor and the ind4c tance L of tt]f- 'tndw-
tor. We have developed formulas for the er€ryy stored in cap.,i,itots and inductors
and consideted their reries and pamllel connectiots. la the dc steady state we have
seen that capacitors are like open circuits aDd inductors are like short cirauits.
We have seen that capacitod and i[ducto$ are rirear elementt and that calxai-
tances and inductances arc dualt of each other. Inductor arrents allld carycitor
voltages are continuous qtrar'tities, a fact dlat enables us to esllblish initial conlitiotts
in RC and lRt circuits. An exception occtts in singul4r circuits, in which a switching
action may suddenly open ciicuit an inductor oI stort circuit a capacitor. Along witi
resistors, inductors and capacitors are the most common of the two-terminal ele-
ments and will play a major role in the circuit theory to follow.

PROBLEMS
7.1 The voltage across a 0.2-pF capacitor is the
triangular wave shown. Find the cunent and "N)
powerforo<t < 3s..
5
7.2 . What constant cunent is required to aleliver a
charye of40 pC to a l-/,F capacitor in 4 ms?
7.3 How long will it take for a constant 20-mA
curent to deliver a charge of 80 pC to a l-l!F
capacitor? If the same charge rcsides on a o
20-pF capacitor, what is the voltage?

Chapter 7 Problems
7-4 Find t,j if ,. = 25 V 7.11 Find i3 if 1J : l0e-a' V
"-'o
/

l) 5a;"

PROBIIM 7.11
PROBTEM 7.4

7.12 in a 0.25 F capacilor is i :


The current
7.5 Fjnd the curent flowing in a 2'pF capacitor 2t 4 A and initially tbe voltage is o(0i :
having terminal voltage (a) 100 V, O) 20 V. (a) Find the mininum stored energy and
10(l , v, (c) s(l e-2) v, and (d) the time at which it occurs. (b) Determine the
15 sin 100t V. initial voltage so that the minimum stored en-
7.6 The initial voltage (at I :0) on a 0.25-F ca- ergy is zero.
pacitor is 5 V. Find the capacitor voltage for 7.13. ,1 i(o ) = 2 A, find wc(o ), xt(o.), and
t > 0 if ihe cunent is (a) 2 A, (b) 4t A, (c) ,/ i.to t
2d "A, and (d) 5 cos 4/ A.
7-7 A voliage of 8" " V appears across a parallel
combination of a 2-O resistor and a ] -F capac.
itor. Find the power ab,sorbed by the parallel
combination.
7.8 The curent tkough a 0.01-F capacitor is
5 cos 25t A. Find the voltage tJ and the power
p for t > 0 if o(0) - 0. Find lhe maximum
value ofp and the smallest value of t for which

7.9 Th€ current in a 0.25-F capacitor is i= PAOBLEM 7 .13/


4 sin 2r A. The initial voltage is 4 v. Find
the
maxinum and rninimum Elues of the stored
energy and the smallest time at which each oc- ?.r4 Ii o(0-) : 72 Y find t', i,, k, t,., and , at
/ 1=0-andatt=0+.
1-tal The current ttuough a 0.01-F capacitor is as 7y'5 lI itto r= + A. 6nd i,. n. i.. and '. al
shown. Find the voltage o and the power al t:0*.
t = l0 ms and at t = 40 ns ifo(O) : 0. 7.16 Find the equivalent capacitance seen at telmi
nals a , if the capacitances are all in ttF.
7.17 The capacitances shown ale all in pF Find
the equivalent capacitance seen at terminals
a-b.
7.18 The capacitances shown are all in pF Find
ihe equivalent capacitance seen at terminals

7.19 Find the voltage across a 10-mH inductor at


t : l0 ms, 30 ms, and 60 ms if the current is
pRoBttM 7.10 as shown.

200 Chapter T Ene€y'Storage tlements '


I

I PROSLIM 7.14

PROBIEM 7.15

PROBLEM 7,16

t-
I
A

7.20 Find the terminal vohage of a 10-nH inductor 7.24 tr a(o-): 50 V, frnd i(0.) and o(0+).
if A, O) 20t A, (c)'
the current is (a) 2 ,1,(0 I
l0 srn lm/ A. and (d) l0(l ?-') A. 7zI5 tf t (0 )- 2.5 V, find i{0') afld . .

?.21 The cu[ent through a 0.1 H itrductor is 7. If a(0 ) :


0, find i(0.) and o(0+).
i: 10 cos 10t mA. Find (a) the termtuat
voltage, (b) the power, (c) the stored €nergy, 1.21 lf n(O ) = 9 V, i(0 ) = 1 A, and the switch
and (d) the rnaximum lalue of the power be- is opened atr = 0, find i(0*) and di(0.)/dr.
ing abdorbed. 7.28 The inductances shown are aI in mH. Find
7.22 lf i(O\ = 0 is tle initial cu.retrt in a l-n*I in- lhe equi!alenL rnduclance seen ar lerminal\
ductor, find the cunent for I > 0 lor the two
cases of inductor voltag€s shown. 1.29 fi the inductances are all in n*I. find the
equivalent inductance seen at terminals a-r.
viv) 7.30 Find aq if aI the induclances are in ml{.
5 7,31 (a) Find the raximum and minimum values of
inductance that can be obtained fioln ten
5-mH inducron. (b) Find a connecrion us'ns
0 a1l ten inductors that lelds an equivalent in-
t0 30
ductance of 20 rnH-
*5 7,32 The circuit is in dc steady stare at ,=0 . Find
di, di,
r, i,. r,. and at / : 0'.
-.dl -dt
7.33 ff the circuit is in dc steady state at t =0 ,
find r, and r, at, = 0 andatr=0+.
7.34 Find o(0-1, t'(0.), and di(o+)/dt if
t(0 ) = 2 A and the switch is op€ned at
r-0.
7.35 If the circuit is in steady stat€ at t = 0-, find
.:andjarr=0t.
' (b) ?.36 If the circuit is in sieady state at t : 0-, find
PROBLEM 7.22
da dA^ttdi : U-.
dta
7.23 For tbe cncuit shown in (a), the source voltage 7.37 A 400- and a 600-pF c€mmic capacitor are
is siven in (b)- Find the qtrrent t if coMected in parallel. The &sistance-
t(0) = -t -q for (a) 0<t < I s ad (b) capacitance product for a ceramic capacitor is
1<r<2s. lCP O-F. What is the equi lent capacitance
and palallel resbtance for the combination?

(a)

202 Chapter T tneBy-Storage Elemenrs


PROBLTM 7.24'

PROEIEM 7,25

. PROBLEMZ.2T

Chapler 7 Problms 203


PROBLTM 7.29

l2 ,5
_,'._l I
24
i
lo:
I 9 rnl

PROaIEM 7.30

2{t r=o tr 2H 4tl

204
PROBLTM 7.33

PnoE[M 7.34

8A

PROBLEM 7.35

I'
]H

PROALEM 7.36

Chapter 7 Problems 205


?.38 Determine a dual circuir for the network of (a) 7.4O If in Fig. 7.18; i, is reversed jn direction, fnd
Fig. 7.14. {b) the figure for PIob. 7.17, and n(0-) and n(0') if ir(o- I = 9 A. i,{o-) =
(c) the figure for Prob. 7.30. 3 A. Lt ' 2 H, and L, = 4 H. Also 6nd lhe
7-39 In the circuit of Fig. 7.17, if or(0-) = 6 V ercrgy radiated by rhe swirching acriotr.
and 4 J ofenergy is Iadiate-d by the switching,
acrion- find 0,f0 )

206 Chapter 7 tn€rgy-5ro68e tlements

tt
', r]
B
Simple RC and RL Circuits

Michael Faraday's great discovery in Blot out these bvo nunes Henry was born near Albany,
1831 ol electromagnetic ihduction Henry and Michael New York, and his early ybars were
[Joseph
was being jndependontly dufricated Faradayl and the spenl in poverty. His ambition was to
at about the same time by an Ameri- be@me an acler until by chance al
civilization of the present
can physicist Joseph Henry, but age 16 he happened upon a book of
Faraday was crodited wilh the dis- world would become
science, which caused him to devote
@very because his results were pub- impossibk. his lile to the acquisition of knowl-
lished tirsl. Henry became famous, H. S. Cafiart edge. He enrolled in the Albany
however, as lhe discoverer ol the in- Academy and upon graduation be-
ductance (called self-inductance) ol a. came a leacher there. ln 1832 he
coil and as the developer of powerfll electromagnets joined the faculty of the College of New Jersey, now
capablo of lifting thousands of pounds ol weight. He Princeton, and in 1846 joined the Smilhsonian lnslitu-
was also America's foremost nineleenlh-century lion. ln his honor the unit ol ihductanc€ was giyen the
physicisl and the first secretary of the newly formed name henry 12 years afler his dealh..
Smithsonian lnstitu{on.

207

t
T
ln this chapter we consider.imple circurts containing resistorq and capacirors or
resisto$ and inductors, which we refer to for brevity as RC or RL circuits, respec-
tively. The application of Kirchhoff's laws to these networks gives rise ro drfi?ren-
tial eq ations lhat, h general, are more diffrcult to solve than the algebmic equations
encountered in the previous chapters. Several methods of solving these equations
will be presented.
We concern ouselves fi$t with souce-ftee RC RL circuits, so-called
because they contain no independent sources. As we shall ^ndsee, the soulce-ftee re-
sponses result from energies stored in the dynamic citcuit elements and arc charac-
terized by the natu.e of the ciicuit itself. For this reason the response is known as
the natual response of the circuit.
Following our study of soulce-ftee cLcuits, we consider driven RC and lRt cir-
cuits in which the forcing or driviig functions are constant independent souces thal
are suddenly applied to the networks. We shall find that the responses in these ne!
works consist of trro parts, a natuml response, similar in form to that of the soulce-
ftee case, and a forced response, chamcte zed by ttre forcing function.
8.1
SOURCE-FREE RC CIRCUIT
We begin oul study of a source-ftee network by co4sideiing the series connection of
a capacitor and a resistor, as shown in Fig. 8. 1 We shall assume that the capacitor is
charged to a voltage of % at an initial time, which we shall take as r :0. Since
there are no current or voltag€ sources in the network, the circuit response (o or i) is
due enttuely 10 the energy which is stored initially in the capacitor. The energy in
this case, at time r = 0, is
w(0\ = +Cva (8.1)

FICURt 8.1 Source-free RC circuit


(r)

208 Chapter S Simple RC and Rl Ci,cuns


Let us now determine r)(t) and i(t) for t> 0. Applying KCL at the top node,
we find that
c9+!=o
OI
dnl 0 (82)
-dr --:D
RC- -
\'ttuch is a frst-ord{ differenlral equation. tThe ordpr of a differential equation ;s
the order of the highest-order de vative in the equation.)
_
Numerous methods are a%ilable for solving differcntial equatioDs of the form
of (8.2). One straightforward method is to rearmnge the terms in ihe equation so as
to sepamte tl]d v^ri,,bles D and t. Then simply inte$ating the result leads to the solu-
tion. In (8.2) the vadables may be sepanted by first writing
dal
at=-ncu
from which we oblain

4!=
,nC-Lo,
(8.3)

Taking tlre indefinite integal of each side, we have


f a" I I
J;=-*cJ*
OI

tn,,=-1+r
RC

where 1( is a constant of inlegralion.


For the solution to be valid for t > 0, we se€ that K must be selected such that
the initial condition of o(0) -- yo is satisfied. Therefo.e, at t :
0, we have
lnu(0)=lnYo=K
Substihrting this value of K into the solution yields
t) I
lnD-lnY = m v" = -nc
'
which is equivalenl lo

-
t/o

(8.4)

section 8,1 source-Free RC Circuit 209


In Fig. 8.1 we see thal lhis is the voltage acro\s R; rherefore. rhe currenl is

;1ry=f;=Y""-*'
Another method of solving the sepamted equation (8.3) is to integare each side
of the equation between appropriate limits. In our case D has a value of Vo at time 0,
and thus

f'au t f',,
J""; - Rc J""' (8.5)

where the integ'a.ls in this e{uation are definite rJrteg:Ials. Performing the illtegra-
tions, we have

lno-ln%= _t
RC

which is equivaleot to (8.4).


A graph of (8.4) is shown in Fig- 8.2. We see that the voltage is initially yo
and that it decays exponentially toward zero as t becomes large. The rate at which
the voltage decays is determined solely by tle product of the resistance and the ca-
pacitance ofthe network. Since the response is chamcterizei by the cirauit eleme[ts
and not by an extelnal voltage or curent source, the response is called the natural
rdspol,re of the circuit.

(t
va

0t
fICURE 8.2 Craph of the voltage response in the simple RC circuit of Fj8. 8.1

The energy stored in the network at, :


0 is given in (8.1). As time increases,
the voltage across the capacitor, and hence the energy stored in the capacitor, de-
creases. From a physical standpoint, it is apparent that all the energy storad in the
capacitor at t = 0 must be dissipated by the resistor as time becomes infrnite. The
inslartaneous power absorbed by rhe resistor is

t,ttt Vl
PE(n=: _ R "- z,.nc

210 Chapter 8 Simple AC and Rl Circuits


Therefore, the energy abso6€d by the resistor as time becomes infinite is

wlrl) - I PPul dt
J.

--{f'!-!.-"'*
n' o,

=- +CvEe-'z'/Rcl6
= +cv&

which is, indeed, equal to the energy initially stored in the netwotk.

EXAMPLE 8.1 t l us find lhe voltage u for r )0 in the cjrcuit of Fig. 8.1 if R-100kO.
C = 0.01 pF, and o(0) = 6 V. We note in this case that RC : (1d)(10 3) = 10-r.
Therefore. we have

a = 6e-'/to
1=
6e 'm V
As a final nole in this seation on the RC ciruit, we observe lhat if rhe inilial
time is some t : to rather than t = 0 [i.e., u(to) = yo] the lower limit in the right
memb€r of (8.5) js ,0. As tbe reader may verify, this yields the more general result,

o(t) : Yo" t' a1lP t >ta (8.6)

txERctsEs
8.1.1 InFig- 8.1, let ro = 0, yo: l0V,R = lkO, andC = I pF. Find o, i, andr'.ar
,=1m5,
Atawet 3.68 Y,3.68 mA, 6.8 pJ
t.t.2 If the circuit is in dc steady state at r = 0-, fnd o for r> 0.
ANet 25e tu V

t{tRcsE a.r.2

I
I Sectioo 8.1 Source'Free RC Cir.uil 211
&r.3 If the circuit is in steady state at r = 0-, find i fo! , > 0. (S!ga€rr'orr.. Fid the
equivalent resistance seen by the capacitor.)

4Q

,l r=o__X < 30o


$n

txtRctst 8.1.3

_-r 8.2
TIME CONSTANTS
In networks that contain energy-storage elements it is very usefirl to charactedze
wilh a siDgle number the rapidity with which the Datuml response decreases. To de_
scribe such a number. Iet us consider the network of Fig. 8.1 atrd the vohage re_
sponse,

' o=Voet/Rc
where is the voltage at t = 0.
Yo
Graphs of o for RC = ,t :
a conslant, RC = 2t, and lC = 3t are shown il
Fig. 8.3. We see that lhe srnaller rhe RC prodlrt. the more rapidly tbe e\.ponential
tunctron- o{r, decreases. ln fact. the vollage for RC = I deaa}s to a specific value in
one-half the time of that required for nC = 2t and in one-thid the time of that re_
quired for]?C = 3k. It is also clear that the voltage response remains unchanged ifR
is increased and C is decrea:ed, or vice versa, srrch thtt the product RC is thi same.
For instance, if we double R and halve C, the voltage response is unchanged.

FICURE 8.3 Craph of v for various values of RC

212 Chapte. S Simple RC and Rr Circuirs


The culrenr in the network of Fig. 8 1 is
.Va
i = -: ea/Rc

Clearly, the current decreases in the same maoIIeI as the voltage. It should be no-
ticed that changing n and C such that the Foduct of RC remains conslant causes-a
change in the initial current %/R The current response, however, still decreases in
the same &shion because e '/xc is unchanged.
The time required for the natuml response to decay by a factoi of l/e is defined
as the time constant of a circuit, which we shall denote by r. In our case, this le-
qlircs that
Vo" ' r'R'
--v'! e t Rt = V',e 441 R'

which yields

r:RC

The units of r are O-F = (V/AXC/V) = (C/A) : s. In telms of the time constant,
the voltage response is

(8.7)

The response at the end of one time constant is r€duced to e-r = 0.368 of its
^At 2
initial ulue. the end of two time constants it is equal to € = 0 135 of its initial
value, anal at the end ol five time constants it has become e-5 = 0.0067 of its initial
lue. Therefore, after four or five time constants, the response is essentially zero'
An interesting propety of exponential tunctions is shown in Fig. 8.4. A tan-
gent to the culve ait = 0 intersects the time axis at t = r. This is easily veiifred by
ionsidering the equation of a straight line tangent to the curve at t = 0' given by
ar:tutlVo
FICURE 8.4 Craph illusvatinS the relation betwe€n a line tangent to v at t = 0 and t

sedion 8.2 Time Constanls 213


where ,i is the slope of the liDe. Differentiating ?,, we have

Therefore,

dul %
^=al'"=;
and
,,--httvo
The line intersects the time axis at rr :
0, which requires that t :
r. It can also be
i
shown that a tangent to the culve at a time tr inters€cts the time axis al tt + 6ee
Prob. 8.9). This fact is often useful in sketching the exlrodential fudction. From Fig.
8.4 we see that an akemative definition for the time cotrstant is the tise required f;r
_ the natuml response to become zero if it decreases at a constant rate equal 6 the ini-
t'al rate of de4ay.
Knowledge of the time constant allows us to predict the geteml form of the
response (8.7), but to complete rhe solution we must fiod the initial voltage
o(0*) = yo. For a capacitor, o(0") = o(0 ), so we may often fad Vo from rhe cii_
cuit al r : :
0 , just prior to the actuating of the switch at , 0. This is relatively
eary if at r = 0
the circuit is in a dc steady-state condition, as we will see in thL
following example.

EXAMPLE 8.2 L€t us find the capacitor voltage o(l) in Fig. g.5(a), given thar the circuit was irt dc
steady $tatejust before th€ opening of the switch. Thus ar 1 = 0 , the $vitch is still
closed, th€ capacitor is an open circuit to steady_state dc, and so fh€ circuit is as
shown in Fig. 8.5(b). The resistance seetr by the capacitor to the left of its termiDals
is given bY

3q+4)
' t r+(ul=loo
R-=8
and by voltage division we have, from Fig. 8.5(b),

u(O)=gxl0O=,()V
l0+15
Therefore. Yo = 0(0-i = D(0-, = 40 V.

. For I
> 0 the battery is swirched out of the chcuit, as shown in Fig. g.5(c),
resislors to the lefl of the capacitor have been replaced by their equiilent R*.
.wlere
'The time constanr for rhe
netwotk is simply the product of th; ceacitance and the
')qurvalent resislance. giren by

'=RaC:l0s

214 ahaprer s Simple RCand R/ Circuirs


HCURE a.5 (a) More general RC circuit; (b) its equ;v;lent at t= 0 ; ic) its equivalent
fo( t> 0

Therefore, by (8.7) the voltage is l

o(r) = 46e-'rro Y I

If ve $,ant q in Fig. 8.5(a), we may fnd it ftom o using voltage divisioD.


since or is acroos the equialeot resistatrcr of 6(3)^6 + 3) = 2 O, theo
2
r.ll
2+a = 8?-'llo V
- :_i_;o l

EXERCISES
8.2.1 In a series XC circuit, determioe (a) tfoJR = 5 kO ad C =2lLF, (b) C fq
,R = l0 kO and r = 20 ps, and (o) n foi o(t) on a 2-rrF capacitor to halve evcry
20 ms.
An$rer (a) 10 Ds; (b) 2 nF; (c) 14.43 kO

' S€ction 8.2 Time constants 215

I
4.2.2 A series RC circuit consists of a 20-kO resistor and a 0.05-pF capacitd. It is desired
to decrease the curent in the netiork by a factor of 5 without changing the capaci-
toi voltage. Find the necessary lues ofR and C.
,,rwe. 100 kO, 0.01 AF
4.2.3 The circuit is in steady state al r = 0 and the switch is moved ftom position I ro
position 2 att:0. Find o for t >0.

29

EXERCtSt 8.2.3

8.2,4 Findifort > 0 ifthe circuit is in steady state at t=0 .


Answer O.25e-" A

EXERCTSt 8.2.4

_I
8.3
SOURCE.FREE RI CIRCUIT
In this section we study the se es connection of a! inductor and a resistor, as shown
in Fig. 8.6. We assume that the iDductor is canying a curent Ic at time t : 0. As in
the case of the source-free RC cicuit, there are no cunent oi voltage sources in the
network, and the current and voltage lesponses are due entirely to the energy stored
in the inductor. The stored energy at t = 0 is given by
wt@) = iua (8.8)

Surnning the voltages arouDd the circuit, we have


.ti
Ldt+ Ri=0

&R (8.e)
A+ Li=t)

216 Chapter B simple RC and Rr Crrcurts


FICURE 8,6 Soutcejree Rl circuit

This equation is of the same form as that of (8.2) for the nC ctcuit. We may
therefore solve it by separating the \ariables. Instead, however, let us introduce a
s€cond, very powerful method, which we generalize in Chapter 9. The method con-
sists of assuminS or guessing (a perfectly legitimate mathematical technique) a gen-
eral form of the solution based on an inspection of the equation to be solved. In
guessing e solution, we shall include s€veral unknown constants and determine
iheir values so that our assumed solution satisfies the differential equation and the
iDitial conditiors for the network.
As seen ftom (8.9), i must be a function that does not change its form upon
i
differentiation; that is, dt/dt is a muhiple of The only function that satisfies this
requirement is an exponential function of t, such as
i(t) = Ae" (8.1o)

We thus will take this function as our guess, whele A and r ale constants to be deter_
mined. Substituting the solution into (8.9), we obtain

(,*f)o""=o
ftom which we se€ that our solution is valid if Ae" = 0 or if s = -iR/,. The first
case is disregaded since, by (8.10), it results ir i = 0 foi all t and cannot satisry
i(0) : Io. Thus we take the case s = -n/r, and (E.10) becomes
i(t) : Ae R'/L

The constant A can now be determined ftom the initial condition t(0) = 10. This
condition requAes that
i(0)=70=^
Therefore, the solution becomes

(8. 1 l)

Sinc€ the solution is an exponential function, as in the RC case, it also has a


time constant r. In terms of 7 we may *.rite the currCnt in the geneml form

s€ction 0.3 Source-fr€e Rt Circuit 217


,where by comparison with (8.1l) we s€e that. = L/R. Evidendy,6€ u aof rare
ItO: (V-S/A)/(V/A) = s. Increasing t, like incressitrg C h 6e lC cilsuit, itr-
crcases th€ time constaDt. However, an incl€ale in R, iD coDtrait to lhe iC circuit,
lowers the value of the time consta . A graph of a q?ical curtctt r€spoffe is shoivn
in Fis. 8.7.

The instantaneous power delivered to the resisror i! Fig. 8.6 is


p(t\=Ri1(r)=N2oc1t/L
Therefor€, the energy absorbed by the .esistor as time be.omes itrflite is giveo by

wl-\ = J"I pTdt

= |t- NAe-'1RtL d!

= 4Lr6
Comparing this result with (8.8), we s€e that the energy initially stored ir the hduc-
tor is dissipated by the resistor, as expect€d.
Suppose that \re had chosen to'6nd the inductor voltage o in thg circuit itrsrosd
of the cwrent i. Applying KCL. we fnd
t['
*=-; j" odt+i@):o
which is an irt?8?uJ equation. Difrereotiati.og this e-quatiotr witb respoct to timr, we
ser that
ldo I
Rdr L

daR
-+-D=ll
dtL

218 chapter I simple RC and Rt circuits


This equation is a ditrerential €quation that we can solve using one of the methods
discussed previously. It is also interesting to note that if we replace o by iR, we have
diR
dtL
=+-i=0
which is (8.9), obtained using KVL. Ftom these last two results rii/e see that o and i
satisfy the same e4uation and thus have the same form.

EXAMPIE 8.3 [,er us now determine i and o in lhe more general RL circuir of Fig. 8.8. which we
assume is ir a dc steady-state condition at t = 0-. Therefore, recalling that an in-
ductor is 4 short circuit to dc, we have
i(o-):g=2A
Since the current in the inductor is continuous at ,= 0, we have
r(0")=r(o):2A
r=O

FICURE 8.8 More seneral Rl circuit

The time constant for the network for t > 0 is clearly the ratio of the induc-
tance and the equivalent lesistance as se€n ftom the termitrals of the inductor. The
equi lent rcsistarce is
(Q1!!0-
Re = 5o + - roo o
and hence the time constant is

"=!=6.1"
Therefore, since 10 : i(0*) = 2 A, we have
i(t\ = 2-rw o
Sununidg the voltages of the ilductor and the 50-O resistor, the volrage o(r) is
given by

u(r) = l0;+ 50i

= -100e.te V

se.rion 8.3 Source-free Rl Circuit 219


TXAMPLE 8.4 Consider the network of Fig. 8.9, which contain$ a dependent voltage source. The
initial curent is t(0) = 10. Summing the vollages around rhe loop, w€ find that
,.li
Z- tRi+ki=0
or
di /R+k\
a*\ t )i=o
Comparing this equation to (8.9), we see thar the equations arc identical ifR in (9.9)
is replaced byR + t. Thus from (8.11) we have

i\t) = Ioe t''r'' L

The time constant in this case, which is modified by the presence of the dependent
soulce, is given by

-L
' n{t
This is not surprising since in this case the dependent soarce b€haves like a rt-O
resistor.

i()

FICURI 8.9 RL circujt contajning a dependent voltage source

EXERCISES
8,3.1 In the series Ra circuit of Fig. 8.6, determine (a) the inductor voltage for R :
25OA,L = 50 rrlH, and 10 = 16 mA, 0) f ifR = l0kOand r: 10ps, and (c)
R for the inductor curent in a 0.01-H in&rctu to halve every l0O ps.
answer @) 4e '* Y O) 0.1 H; (c) 69.3 O
8.3.2 A series RL ciJcuit has a l-H inductor. Deterftine the lue of lR for the stored en-
ergy to halve every 10 ms.
tnswer 50 ln 2 = 34.(6 Q
8.3.3 The circuit is in steady state at r = 0-. Fitd i and o for r > 0.
Answer 3e-a A. -6e y
2,

220 Chapter S Simple RCand Rl Circuirs


EXERCtSt ai.3
t.3,4 The circuit is in steady state at t = 0-. Find o for t > 0.
Answet -be "''! Y

EXtRCtSt 8.3.4

8.4
RESPONSE TO A CONSTANT FORCING FUNCTION
In the preceding sections we have considered soulc€_ftee circuits whode responses
have been the risult of initial energies stored i! caiacitors and inductors. AI inde- '

pend€nt eullent or voltage sources were removed or srtitched ou1 of the circuits
pdor to finding the natural lespons€s. It was shown that these lesponses, when aris-
ing in circuits containilrg a single capacitor or inductor aDd an equivalent resistor,
die out with increasing time.
In this section we examine circuits which, in addition to havitrg initial stoted
energies, arc d ven by constant hdependent curent or voltage sources' orjforcinS
funcn:o.rs. For these circuits we shall obtain solulions which are the result of iosert-
ing or switching sources into the nelworks We shall find lhat the responses in lhese
caies, ualike those of soufce_ftee circuits, consist of two parts, one of which is al-
ways a constanl,
L€t us begin by considering the circuit of Fig 8.10. The network comists of
the parallel connection of a constant current source and a resistor which is switched
at time t - 0 asoss a capacitor having a voltage o(0-) : % v. Fot t > 0, the
swirch is closed and a nodal equation at the upper lode is given by

r4i+!=n
-dt R

Section 8.4 Response to a Constant Forcing Fundion


221
FIGURE 8.lO Driven RC netwo*

dallo
(8.12)
dt RC' C
Equations of this tt?e that have constant forcing tunctions (1o in this case) can
be solved by the method of sepamtiot of ttriables. We may first write (8.12) in the
form
da=_o-RIo
dt RC
Mdtiplyirg both sid€s by dt/(o - N6) ar]d forming itrd€finite integrals, we have

Iau tt
J t. -
Rto -rtJ*
or

ln (o - Rr6) = -#* *
wherc tr is a constant of iltegration- This result can be *,ritten as

a - RIo= ?-r/R't'r
or, solving for t,, we find
o= Ae-4Rc + RIo (8.1.1)
where we hav€ takenA : ex, a constant to be determined bv the initial condition of
the circuit.
kom (8.13) we set that the geneml solution for the voltagg response consists
of two parts, atr exponential frrnctiol and a cobstant functioD. The exponential func-
tion is of the identical form as that of the natuml tesponse in a source-free circuit
composed ofi and C. Since this part of rhe solution is chamctedzed entirely by the
nC tiDe constant, we shall refer to it as the r4tural response a, of the driven circuit.
As h the case of $e source-&ee circuit. this response approaches zero as time in-
cteas€s.
The second part of the solution, given by R/o, beam a close resemblance to the
forcing function 10. In fact, as time increases, the natural response disappears, and
the solution is simply Rio. This compon€nt is due entitely to the forcinC fuoction,
and we shall call it the/orcel response al of the dtiven circuit. A reader who has had
a course in diferential equations will, of course, recognize the natural restrnnse o,

222 Chapter 8 Simple fiC and Rt Circuils


and the forced respons€ ol as the homogeneous response o,, and the particular re-
sponse De.
IJt
us now eyaluate tlrc constant A in (8.13). As in the case of the souc€-ftee
circuit, its value must be selected so that the initial voltage condition is satisfied. At
t = 0*, we se€ that
t,(0*)-o(0)=Yo
Th€rcforc, at t = 0*, (8.13) r€quires that

Vo=.4+RIo
or

. A=Vo-'Jo
Subsdruling this value of A back into our solution yields
a(t) = PJo+ (Vo- RIo\e"rRc (8.14)
We should observe in this solution that the constant A is now determined aot only by
the initial voltage (o. energy) on the capacitor but also by the forcing function 10.
Craphs of o,, or, aDd u a.e showll in Fig. 8.11(a) and (b). Ii (a) the natual
rcsponse D" for yo RJo - > 0 and the forced r€sponse o, are. shown. In (b) the com-
plete response is shown.

FICURE 8.ll Craphs of voltaSe response for the driven RC network of Fig. 8.10:
(a) natural and forced respons€s; (b) complete respons€

vo - Rto

Section 8.4 Respons€ to a Constant Forcint Function 223


The current ir the capaciior fort > 0 is
.,, = L^drt= _ __T_?
Vo - RIo ,-
,t,.
,tt
whereas the cu.rlent in the resistor is

iR=k- i(=6+b--E!r","
R-
It is interesting to note that the resisto! voltage has changed abrupdy ftom RIo
at , = 0 ro vo at t : O* . The capacitor voltage, as pohted out previously, is con-
rinuous,
The solutions that we have encountered so fir ro this chapter are often teferred
to in othe! more descdptiv€ tems. Two such ternrs that are very popular are the
transient response alfr tbe steady-state r.sponse. T'trc tmnsient respolse is the tradsi_
tory portion of the complete response which approaches zero as time increises. The
steady-state lespons€, otr the other hand, is that part of the complete response ,rdich
rcmains after the tmnsient response has become rcro. In the case of dc sotnces, the
steady-state response is constant atrd is the dc steady state discussed itr Sec. 7.7.
In our example we see that the transient response and the natural response are
identical, as arc those fff the source-ftee circuits of the previous se-ctions. The
steadylstate response is therefore identical to the forced respoos€. In our example
these responses Ne a = RIo, ic :
0, and tx = 10, & lalues that constitute the dc
steady-state condition.
We should not conclude from the discussion above that the natutal ard folced
responses arc always the tra{si€nt and steady-state responses. If the forcing functioD
is a transitory firnction, for instance, the steady-state rcsponse is zero, as we shall
see in Chapter 9. In this case th€ complete rcsponse is tbe traDsient response.

EXERCISES
E.4,1 Find D for t > 0 if the ctcuit is in steady state at r : 0-.
tntwer I0 - 6e 5u \l

l0 v -:-

txtRclst 8,4.1

8.4,2 The circuit is in steady state at t = 0-. Find i for t > 0.


Answer 3 - e a'A

224 Chapter S Simple RCand Ra Cicuits


I'
2H

txERctsE 8.4.2

8.4.3 Find u for t > 0 if the circuit is in steady state at t = 0 .


Answer 24 - 8e-3' \

txERctst 8.4.3

8.5
THE GENERAL CASE
The equations describing the networks of the previous sections are all speaial cases
of a general expression given by

flt,,:a (8.15)

ll.here is the uDknown variable, such as o or i, and P and C are constants. If, for
]
instanc€, we compare this equation to that of (8.2) for the source-free circuit of Sec.
8.1, we see that 1 = a, P = I/RC, ar]d Q = 0. The same relations are valid for the
forced ltc circuit of Sec. 8.4 except thal Q = Io/C.
A solution of (8.15) for P and C constant can be found by separation of !"ri-
ables. However, let us introduce another method which also is applicable when O is
a firlction of time, an important case in later chapters. This method, known as the
integraling faclor method, consists of multiplying the equation by a hctor that makes
its left+and side a perfect derivative and simply integating both sides.

Section a.5 The General Case 225


IJt us begin by considering the deri\ttive of a Foduct, given by
d ye^t__dtd]"", * r,""
;tt

= (! * ,r\""
Frcm this result we see that if we multiply both sides of (8.15) by eP', we have

d.
j,r r*t-. = q'e"

Iniegrating both sldes of the equation, we find

je,,=[q".**o
'J
where A is a constant of integratiotr. Solving for ), we have

v="-olQ"*at+*o (8..16)

which is valid, of coulse, if C is a function of time or a constant. If 0 is dot a con-


stant, we must carry out the integration to find y. Examples of this twe are given in
Exercises 8.5.2 and 8.5.4.
In the important dc case wheie q is a constant, (8.16) becomes
n
) = Ae-P1 l=
(8 17)
=t,+vr
where ), = Ae P' and, y1:0/P are the natural and forced responses. We obsefle
that y, has th9 same mathematical form as the soulce-ftee natural rcsponse and that
' yl is always a constant which is Foportional to 0. In addition, l/P is the time co!-
stant in the natuml rcsponse.

EXAMPTE 8.5 [.et us find i, for t > 0 in the ckcuit of Fig. 8.12, given that i(0) = 1 A. Althougb
the circuit is a somewhat complex combinatioD of elements, the solutio! of (8.17) is
valid since the network contains a constant forcing function and d single enetgy-
storage element (the inductor). The loop e-quations for the circuit are
Str-4L:10
-ai,+L2iz't*=o
tlt
Elimimring lr ftom these equations, we find that

**t0,,=t
dt

226 chapier s simple Rc and Ri (tr(u'tc


I
a

t
. rTCUXE 8.12 Driven RL circuir t

Comparing this e4uation with (8.15), we se€ that P = l0 and O = 5. Henco (8.17)
yields

i,=Aetb+l
Adying the initial coudiriotr, we hove

i,(o)=A+.+=r
Therefore. ,4 =I atrd rhe solution is giveD by

. h =+€_,0,++A
We nay also obtain (8.17) for the case C constatrt by obeerviry (8.15) and
(8.16). Making Q = 0 in (8.16) yields the latrrral reqlonse.) = y" = Ae-P', which
then must be the solutio! of. (8.15) when O = 0. Thst is, the natutal response
sarisfies

ff*et=o
and may be found as in Sec. 8.3by tryin|

r. = Af"
wbich results in
s+p=0
Thus we have r = -P, which yields y, = Ae-"', as befote. The forccd respon$e ),
may be'found by ,iling in (8.15) a furction like O. Sioce O is cotrstant in this cas€,
Lhe t
al solution is thed a constalt. That is. we try
' Yt= K
which subsliruled inlo {8.15) eives

0 +pK=e.
or

o
h= K=-P I

as belme.
l

Sedion 8.5 The CenehlCas€ 227


l

I
EXERCISES
8.5.1 Findofor, >0if t(0) = l Aandos = 50V.
Awwer 2O * l5e-3' Y
i tso

I
10c,
t8

rxERctst 8.s.1
8,5.2 : 30e ' V
Solve Exercise 8.5.1 if o,
-
Ahrwer 33e-3' l&e s'v
8.5.3 Findifort >0if t(0) = 4AandL - 8A.
Ancwer 2 't 2e 3' A
6ct

l'
1) ,t; ril

rxERctsE 8.5.3
8.5.4 Solve Exercise 8.5.3 if i, = 13 cos t A.
Answer 0.4(8 cos t+ sin t + 2-&) A

8.5
A SHORTCUT PROCTDURE
kt us now introduce a shortcut procedure that is very useful for finding the currents
and voltages iD circuits with dc sources. The technique irvolves fomulatirg the so-
lution by melely inspecting the circuit.

EXAMPIE 8,5 Consider Example 8.5, especialy Fig. 8.12. We know that

i,=i,+i,,
where i2" and irr are the natuml and forced responses, resp€ctively. Since iz" has the,
. same form as the source-fiee response, we can look at tie network in the abserce of
the forcing function (i.e., make the lo-V source zero by replacing it by a short cir-
cuit), as shown in Fig. 8.13(a). The natural response is then
td
iz, = Ae
228 chapter 8 simple Rcand Rr cncuirs
{t

bo

""* D "."611;-l
tr"l
(r)
G) (b)
FICURI a.l3 Circuits for finding the response of Fig. 8.12: (a) circuit for finding
(b) circuit for findins i,i
i.;

The forced response is constant; therefore,. insohr as the forced response is


concefied, it does not matter at what time we look at the circuit. We may choose
then to look at the circuit in the stE dy state when i?" is zelo. At this time the induc-
tor is a short circuit, as shown in Fig. 8.13(b), from which it follows that

Therefore,
4=i
i2= Ae-N'+l
The constant A is now determined as before from the initial condition, rr(0) = t.
A word of caution is appropriate at this point. When evaluating the constant A,
the initial condition should always be applied to the complete response-never to
the natuml rcsponse alone-because the initial condition is always given for the cur-
rent. not for a part of it.

EXAMPLE 8.7 [,et us fi nd i for r. 0 in Fig. 8. 14. given u{0, = 24 V. The currenl is given by
i:i"+v
To obtain i, we note that it has the same/orm as o", the natuml response of the
capacitor voltage. In fact, the natural response of erery cunent or voltage iII the cir.
cuit has tle same form as p,. This is true because all the other curents and voltages
in the soulce-ftee circuit may be obtained ftom o. by applying one or more of the
opeiations of addition, subtraction (in KCL and KVL), differentiation, and integra-
tion, none of which changes the nature of the exponeotial e-'l'. Examining the
souce-free circuit (the current souce open circuited), we se-e that thp time constant
for the capacitor voltage is r :
0.2 s. Therefore,
i': 4"-s'

FTGURE 8.14 Driven RC circuit


rto

se.rion 8.6 A Shoncut Proc€dure 229

i
I
F
3

In the steady state the capacitor is an open circuit, and the forced response is,
by inspecrion
tt= 1 A'

Therefore,
i(t\=Ae-3'+l
To €rduate A, we must find the value of t(0*). Since D(0) = o(0*) : 24 V, sum-
ming the voltages around the right-hand mesh, for t = 0*, we have
4i(0)+6[l - ,(0'J] + 24 = 0
OI

= 3
'(0.)
Substituting this initial curent into our solution, we find that
3=A+I
Thercfore,A=2and
i=l+2e-5'A.

EXAMPLT 8.8 Before concluding this section, let us d€termine i aDd o in the circuit of Fig. 8.15(a).
The network is in a dc steady-state condition at , = 0- with the switch open; there-
fore, the iriductor atrd capacitor aie a short circuit ard atr open circuit, resFctively,
at this time. The capacitor voltage is equal to the voltage that appea$ acroes the
20-() resistor, and the indrctor curreDt is €qual to the curent in the l5-O .esistor.
By cudent divisiotr, the currents in the 15- aod m-O lesistors are easily shown to be
2 and I A. resp€ctively. Thus

i(o-) = 2 A
and

o(0)=60V
When the siwitch closes al t = 0, we observe thal nodes a and, are short-
circuited together, and we can redmw the network as shown ia Fig. 8.15(b). It
should be noticed that the 30-f,) !€sistor ne€d not b€ included in this circuit be-
cause the s,titch is a short circuit across ia terminals. The combination is equivalent
to a 30-.Q resistor in paiallel with a 0-() resistor, which, of course, is 0 f,I or a short
circuit.
IJt us next consider the current i leaving d in Fig. 8.150) through thc t5-O
resistor. Frcm KCL, this sa$e current must enter a through the l-H irductor; hence
no curent flowing in the circuit to the left of d can enter the other part of the circuit
to the right of a, and vice versa. Thus after the switch is clo6ed, the network redtrces
to two independent circuits, each of which can be solved individually.
The first circlit, consisting of the l-H inducto and the 15-() resistor, is simply
a source-free rRL net'rvork having i(0*) : i(0-) = 2 A. Therefore,
i- k-ts' A
230 Chapter 8 Simple RCand ft Circuits
ib)
FICURI 8.'15 (al Circuit containinC an inductance and a capacjtance; (b) equivalent
circuitfo.t>O

lhe second ctcuit. composed of all the elemenls lo the righr of d. is simply a
driven RC network with o(0*) : x16 ) = 6O V From our shortcut p.ocedue, we
6nd

a= 40+me-'V
.
The shorkui procedure presented in this secrion is appticable also to circuirs
containinS dependent sources. However, no savings in time or effort usually re.sult
because the circuit equations still have to be written fol the source-fie€ and dc
steady-state cases .

EXERCISES
8.6.1 Solve Exercise 8.5.1 using the shortcut procedure of this section.
t.6.2 Find o and i for t > 0 if the circuit is in dc steadv stare atr:O
Answer 2(l - €-ld) v,4(1 + rnA
"-'d)

txERct$ a-6.2

231
8.6.3 Find i for t > 0 if the circuit is in dc steady state at t = 0
Ans-e, le '*' - 3e-,* + 5 mA
:tr) -kO :H ,'A

txERcrsE 8.6.3

8.6.4 Findifort > 0 inthe circuitof Ex. 8 6.2 if both switches areclosedatt:0 and
i(0) = 0. (SrSSestion. Find i, as before and note that +is due to two sources )
Answer 12 5oo0r
12e mA

L THE UNIT STEP FUNCTION


In the previous sections we have anallzed clrcuits in which energy sources have been
suddehly inserted into the networks- At the instant these souces are applied the
voltages or curents, at the points of application, change abruptly. Forcing functions
whose values change in this manner are called ritgularity ftuctions Therc arcm ny
singularity functions that are useful in circuit analysis. One of the most important
is ihe unit step tunction, so named by the English engineer Oliver Heaviside
(1850- 1925).
' The nit step function is the function equal to zero for all negative values of its
argument and equal to I for all positive ralues of its aryument. If we denote the unit
step tunction by the Embol , (r) , a mathematical descliption is

u(r) = o, ,<o (s.ls)


= 1, r> 0

From a graph of (8.18), shown in Fig, 8.16, we se€ that at t = 0' !(t) changes
abruptlyiom 0 to l. Some authors define (0) to be 1, bulwe are leaving !(t)
undefinedatr=0.

FIGURE 8.r6 G'aph of Ihe unir \rep fun' rion uh)

232 Chapter S Simple RC and Rl Circuils


The unit step fuDction rnay be used to rcpreseot voltages or curcnts with finite
djscontinuilies. For example, a voltage step of y volts is represeoled by the product
Vu(t). Cleaiy, this voltage is 0 for t < 0 and y volts for, > 0. A voltage step
souce of l/ volts is shown in Fig. 8.17(a), A circuit that is equivalent to this solrc;
is shown in Fig. 8.17(b). A shott circuit exists for < 0, and the voltage is, of
I
/
course, zero. For > 0, a voltage y appears at the terminals. We have assumed in
our model that the switching action occurs in zero time.

FIGURE Ll7 (a) Voltage step source of V volb; (b)equivatenr chcuit

Equivalent circuits for a cudetrt step souce of 1 am!'eres arc shown in Fig.
^ - An
_
8.i8. open circuit exists for , < 0. and rhe current is zero. For r > 0, tie
swilching aclion causes a terminal curreD! of 1 arnperes lo flow.

FICURI 8.18 (a) Currcnt step source of / amperes; (b)equjvalent circuit

The switching action shown in Fig. 8.17 can only be apFoximated i! actual
circuits. However. in maDy cases, it is not necessary lo rcquLe rhat the voltage
souce be a short circuit for t < 0, as we slEll s€e i4 the next section. If the termi-
nals of a network to c4tich the source is to be connected rernain at 0 V for t < 0, a
series conrcction of a source y aDd a switch is equivalent to the voltage step genera-
tor, as shown itr Fig. 8.19. Equivalent circuits fqr a current step generator in a net_

FICURI 8.19 {a) Network with V applied ar r : O; (b) equivalent circujt

Section 8.7 fhe Unit step Frlnction 233

L
work arc shown in Fig. 8.20. In each case the cutrent in the netwolk teminals must
be zero for r < 0.

Iu(t\

. (a) o)
FIGURE S.20 (a) Network with i applied at t : 0; (b) equivalent circuit

I-et us now retum to our definition of the unit step furctlon Siven in (8.18). We
may generaliz€ this dennitio! by rcplacing , by t /o in the three places that it oc-
-
curs, which resulE ilr

u(t -td= 0, t<to (8.Ie)


=1, t>ro

The iulction u (, * ,o) is the fuaction l,l(t\ delnted by to se.o ds, as shown in Fig
8.21.

HCUnf 0.21 Graph of l}le unt step function u(t t')

Multiplyiog (E.19) by V or l give's us a voltage step rource or a curent step


source who"" ialue cha4es abruptly at time to. Equi\'"alent netrvorks for thes€
sources are obtained in Figs. 8.17-8.20 by taking aI actions rclaled to $tirching
to
.Eflrratt=ln.

EXAMPIE 8.9 SreD functioDs are very usefirl in formuiatilg more complex funclions Thke' for in-
stance, lhe rectangular voltage pulse of Fig 8 22a) From this fr8ure we se€ thal
orG)=0' t<0
: v' 0 < t < to
=0, tlto
234 Chapler 8 Simple RC and fl Ckcuils
(b)
FICURE 8.22 (a) Rectangular puke; (b) square wave

Si-nc€ r{r) b€.omes I for r >oand -r(r - ro) becomes -l for r> ro. we may
write
a(t): vlu(t) - u(! - k\l (8.20)
Tq check this result, we see that, for t < 0,
"r(,)=v(0-0r=0
For0<1<to,
o(r)=Y11 -0,=u
and for ,> ,0,

o(, - Y(1 :1) =o


Now suppose that we wjsh io produce a traiD of these pulses with one occru-
ring every T seoonds, where Z > to, as showD in Fig. 8.22(b). Such a wave is called
a squore wave. Tlte f]rst pulse is given by (8.20). The leaold pulse is simply the first
f
pulse delayed by secoDds. Ther€fore, replacing t by t -
T in (8.20), we have

vtse2: V{u(t ^ T') - ult - fr i r")1}

The (n + l)th pulse in tlie pulse train is ;he fiIst delaied by n?, ard therefore
pulselr + 1 : VIu(t - nT\ - utt - (nT + ts\l|
I

Sedion a.7 lhe Unil Sle. run.ti.n 235 I

!
I

I
I

F_
i
To gbtain an expressiot for the square wave for all t > 0, ve add the exFessio4s
above and obtain

0,(t) = Y> IbG - nT) - ut, - (nT + to)l] (8.21)

Waveforms like those of Fig. 8.22 ale very comfton in diSr'ral circuiti such as
those in the digital computer.

EXERCISES
E.?,1 Usilg unit step functions, write an expression for the current i(t) that satisfies
(a) t(r) = 0, <0
= -10 mA, >0.
(b) , (r) = 0, <1s
<r <5s
>5s
(c) tG) : o < 10 ms
l0<r <20ms
20<r <40ms
> ,lO ms
(d),(r)=4pA, <1s
>ls
Arul'sr (a) -10r(t) nAt (b\ ztu(t - 1) - lt(r - 5)1 A;
(c) -2u(t - 0.01) + 6r(t - 0.02) - 4a(t - 0.04) A;
(d) 4a(-t + 1) ,,A
8.7.2 Sketch the voltage given by

a(t) = tu(t) - 2(t - t)u(t - l) + (t - - 2\v


z)u(t
8.7.3 Using unit slep functjons. write an expression for u(r) for -@ <, < @.
Anst^' 10 sn 2ntlult) - a(r - 0 5)l

EXERC|SI 8.7.3

236 chapter 8 simple Rc and Rt circuits

i
I

8.8
THE STEP RESPONSE
The step response is the response of a circuit having only one input which is a unit
step funclion. The response and step input can, of course, be a current or a voltage.
The step r€sponse is due entirely to the step input since no initial energies are
present in the dynamic circuit elements. This is the case because all the currents and
voltages in the network are zero al t = 0
due to the fact that the step function is
zero for
@ < r < 0. Thus the step response is the response to a unit step input
with no initialenergy slored in lhe circuil.

EXAMPLE 8.10 trt us find the step response o in the simple RC circuit of Fig. 8.23(a) having an in-
put of ?* :
r(r) V. Applying KCL, we have

ca'
da b uttt
n -o
- or
da,al,,.
dr- RC- RC""'
. For t< 0, this equation becomes
dD
. RC

the solution of which is


a : Ae-t/Rc

Applying the initial condition r t0 ) = 0. we see that A - 0. and lherefore


o(t) - 0' t<0
which co4firms oul assertion that the response is zero prior to tbe change in the
itrput.
For / > 0, our differentral eqLration is

dnl
A* Rc= RC

nGURt 8.23 (a) RC circuit with a voltage

Secrion a.8 The St€p Response 237


We know that
a=a^+DJ
where

a" = Ae '/\
and, by insirection,

Therefore,
x=I+Ae-'/Rc
The initial condition o(0*) = o(0-) = 0 requires that A = -1, dnd thercfore ou.
\olution for all I is
0(t):0, ,<0
=1,e,ftc, t.>O'
This may be wtitten more concisely, using the unii tdp function, as

a(r) =t (l - e-'/R1u(t)
The vollages across the resistor aod the capacitor are zero for, < 0 Tltlrel
fore, an equivalent cfcuit for our'Detwork is satisfled by the aitauit of Fig. 8.23(b)
provided we specif] that D(0 ) = 0.

EXAMPLE 8.1.I Irt us find D,(t in the circuit of Fig. 8.24, consisting of a resistor, a capacitor' and
an op amp. A nodal.equation at the inverting terminal oi the op amp is givel by
u,
R*' ^4Y
dr
=o
since the node vokage aod the cufieot of lhe inverring terminal are bolh zefo'
Therefore,

238 Chapter I Simple RC and Rt Circuias


Integrating both sides of this equation between the limits of 0* and r, we have

r.tu)
- - tt' Dtdt +D,rc)
-l
RC J'-
The response or(r) is p.oportional to the iltegral of the input voltage o, if
u.(0.) : 0. Thus the circuit is called an integrator.

EXAMPI-E 8.12 l-€t us now determine the .esponse of the network if a1 = Vu(t). In this case, since
:
ol0-) 0 and o, is th€ capacitor voltage, then odo*) = 0. Therefore, we have

= - *,oth\ urrt dt
vt'
J".
If t <0,then,r(t) :0, and oz(t) 0. For r > 0, l,t(r) = l, and we have
=
v
D, - - Rcthltl
A graph of or is shown in Fig. 8.25. This luncrion is called a mmp ftnction wilh a
slope of - V/RC.

fICURE 8,25 Step response of an inteerator

EXAMPLT 8.13 Let usfnd the vollage u{tl in lhe network of Frg. 8.26. given rhat ito } - 0. The
fo.cing function for the circuit is the current pulse,

L(r) = lot'r(r) - a(r - 1)l A


which is the pulse shown in Fig. 8.27(a). Since i,:0 for r < 0, we have
i(0 I 0. AJso. since at / = 0 a crrrent srep of l0 A is applied, lhe nelwork re-
sponse is identical to the slep response until time t = 1 s. At this time, the forcitg
firnction i"(r) becomes zero, and the response is simply the source-fe€ respoise le-
sulting from the energy which the inductor has accumulated durhg the intewal of
the current pulse. Therefore, we see that the solution of the problem involves
finding the step response ol the circuit for t < I s and then finding the sourc€-ftee
response for t> 1s.

Section 8.8 The Step Response 239


ir(,1 v(t)

RL circuit driven by is(t)

' (a)

'(rl
t2
l2\l - e t)

. (b)
FICURI i8.27 (a) Forcing function t {t); (b) rcsponse oi an Rl circuit to ts(t)

We know that the step respons€ is of the form

o=o"+q
where

. R.q'/L
on = Ae = Ae-s/s = Ae-t
and, by current divGion aDd Ohm's law, the forced response is the steady-state value

,,- r 3J =,,
rl,'u'9,.l
"t -lz
Combining these equations. we have
' o: Ae-l * 12

Chapter E Simple RC and Rr Circuats


Since,(0*) =.i(0 ) :0, then
"(0) = o(0 ) = 0 andA = -12. Therefore,
r <0
= l2(I e-), 0<t<l
For t> 1, weknowthat1)isof theform'
x= Be- '
At, : l- (th ' nst nt ust b6fore , - l), our.solution for the step aesponse gives
,(1 )=12(l ?'t)
Since the inductor current is continuous, u(l-) = o(ll), where lt is the instantjust
afterl=l.Therefore.
o(1.)=Be-'=12(I-e-t)
or
B=l2tl-?-tle
and our solution b€comis

D: l2(l -e')e',,,, r>l


The solulion for all I can be writlen as

t(rl: t2(I - e-)tu(t) - r(, * r)l * 12(t - e-:t)e1,-,,u(t - t\ (8.22)


A graph of this response is shown in. Fig. 8.2?(b).

EXERCISES
E.8.1 Find the step responses i and , [i, = u(t) A),.
'. Ansv',et (l - 0.5e to)r(r) A, 5(l - e-'la(r) V
' '5c)

EXERC|ST 8,8.1

8.E.2 Find the response i to rrs = 42u(t) V.


Answ"r 2(t - e ?t)u\) A
8.8.J Find i in Exercise 8,8.1 if i, = i0['/(r) -
t1(, - l)l A.
Answet tol(l - 0.5e-i&)!(r) - (l - 0.5e-,0r, ")r(, - l)l A

Section 8.8 .Th6 Step Response 241


l,
l2a

txERctsE 8.8.2

8.8,4 Find o if a" = 2"-'*rrr, V and there is no initial slored energy. (This circuit i!
lik€ the intedrator of Fig. 8:24, except thal the capacitor has a resistot in parallel
with it, making it a practical, or lrssy, capacitor. Thus the circuit is.alled a,rss)
iuegmtot.l
lnswer 2(e-M' e-rmJll(t) V

APPLICATION OF SUPERPOSITION
In this section we consjder the use of superposition for obtaining solutions of RC ard
RL circuits containin€ two or more independent sources.

EXAMPLE 8.14 Let us consider th€ circuit ot Fig. 8.26. The value of the independent currenl source
is given bv
rs=10!(t)-l0r(r-l)
' This source is equi lent to a pair of independent current sources connected in paral-
lel. Thus if we let
L=i+i,
where ir = l0l](r) aDd 6= lou{r - l).thecircuitofFig.8.26canberedrawnas
shown in Fig. 8.28.
From the principle of suprposition, 1'e rnay write the outFn voltage as

242 chapter 8 Simple Rc and Rl circuits


5H

3c,< 20

FICURE 8.28 Equivalent circuit of Fig. 6.26

where Dr and 02 are the responses due to ir and ir, resp€ctively. In our previouS solu-
tion w€ found that the response due to the cu.rent step ir was given by
q= l2(1 - e-')u(t)
Next, we need the respoRse oz due to iz. We note that i, is simply the negative of ir
delayed I s in time. Therefore, o? is oblained ftom or by multiplying or by and -l
replacing r b1 r
L The result is gilen by
7= _12(1 - e t -\))u(t _ l)
Our solution is now given by
o = t2(l _ e-')u(t) _ t2(t, e t' t)u(t - t) (8.23)

which is equivalent to (8.22) (see Ex. 8.9.1).

EXAMPLE Lls t€t us ionside! the RC network of Fig. 8.29, which contains two independent
souces and an initial capacitor voltage o(0) = Vo. Applying K\rL arcund the left
mesh, we find that
' 1['
(n, ' R:)ir idt-vo=Y' Rztt
=l
Multiplying each term in this equation by a constant K, we have

(R, - Rr(Kr) + \ I' rxi' a, a Kvo = Kvt - RlKtn

Cleady the current response becomes Ki when the independent sources l1n t the ini_
tial capaqtor voltage are multiplied by the frctor tr, which demonstmtes the piopor-
tionality property for a linear network. This result is easily extended to any linear

FIGURI a.29 RC network

Section 8.9 Application oi SupelPosilion 243

I
circuit containing one or morc capacitors. Ttrus itritial capacitor voltages can be
trcated as indlpendent voltage souices. ln a simiLr matrner, it is ealily shown that
initial inductor currents can be treated as indepedent curent !,ources.

rxAMPtE 8.16 We shall now employ superposition to determine tte vohage o by finding or. rr, atrd
%, the responses due to yr,1r, and yo, respectively- The circuit for finding or is
shown in Fig. 8.30(a). This is a simple driveD ftC circrit having a ztro initial capac-
itor voltage. The solution is given by
t)t=Vll-'-Nf\r)

(a)

FIGURE 8.30 Circuits for finding (a) v,; (b) v,; (c) vr for an RC network

The circuit for finding t1 is shown io Fig. 8.30(b). This again is a simple
driven circuit having a zero initial capacitor voltage, for which we find
az= -R,l,(l - e-1/('t+4e)
In the c[cuit of Fig. 8.30(c), the voltage q is siryly the souce-ftee rcsponse
resulting ftom ihe initial capacitor voltage. Since o,(0) : yo, we find that
at : Voe-t/<Rt+R'e
I

244 Chaple' I Simple RC and Rl Circuit5


I

t
Therefore, the entfue response is given by

o:o,+o2+u (8.24)
: V- RzIt + (Rz\ V + Vo)e'/@fuc
Inspecting our solution, we see that il consisls of a forced resPonse u/ and a nat_
ural r*ponse o,, which we could have anticipated. An alterrBtive method of findjng
the solutiotr is to obtain or and o,, as described previously. Superposition can, of
course, be used in finding or. In our case, we know that

lrr * u'r

From FiB. E.30(a) and (b) we see. by inspection. lhat

av-Vt
and
au = -RzIt
Thercfore, the forced response is

at = Vt RzIt

The nafiral rcsponse, obtained ftom the souce-free circuit tFig. 8.30(c)1, is
given by
' D" = Ae l@1+Rz)c

Therefme,
a _ Vt _ RzL + Ae-'/{Rt+R2)c (8.25)

Since o(0) : Yo. we have

A= R2I1 _\+Vo
which sub6litnted into (8.25) gives (8.24).

EXERCISES
E.9.1 Redrlce (8.22) to the form of (8.23).
E.9.2 Us€ superposition to find o in Fig. 8.29 if Rr :2 A, Rz = 3 O, C = 0.1 F,
o(O) : 8 V, U:LV12V, andl' = 2 A.' .

Attwet 6t 22
8.9.3 Use superposition 1o find i for, > 0. Assume the circuit is in a steady-state condi-
lionatr:0.
e^.". S r fqf -e *)mA
l

- Section 8.9 Application of Superyosition 245 l


rxtRctsE 8.9.3

8.10
SPICT AND THE TRANSIENT RESPONSE
As in the dc case, SPICE is a very useful tool for obtaidng transient responses for
networks containing energy-storage elements, such as capacitors and ind&tors, and
excitation sources that are dc, exponential, pulse, sinusoidal, and piecewise linear.
As we have seen in previous chapters for simple Rc and RZ circuits, a solution first
requires the determination of the initial conditions of all eoergy:storage devices at
the time the tmnsient response is to begin. The dc analysis of SPICE described in
previous chapterc can b€ used for determining initial conditions if the circuit is in a
steady-state condition prior to the start of the transient rcsponse, which occurs, for
instance, as a result of a sr,/itch operation. SPICE can then be used to simulate the
response just after the swirching action using these initial lues'. Before Foceeding
to the following discussion, it is recommended that the C and L statements ard the
. .PLOT and -TRAN commands of Appendix E be reviewed.

EXAMPLE 8.17 As an example, consider finding and plotting the capacitor voltage for the ctucuit of
Fig. 8.31(a) for the first 75-ms interval following the switchhg action at t 0. At :
the instant just pdor to activation of the swibhes, let us assume that the circuit is in
a dc steady-state condition, as shown in Fig. 8.31(b). A SPICE circuit file for deter-
mining the initial capacitor voltage is
INITIAI- COI\DITIONS FOR FIG.8,3I (b)
, Data Sr ar enpnt
v1 10 DC -12
R1 125K
R22320K
R43010K
c2018-6
* solution control stat€ments
DC V1 -12 -12.1
* output control siatehent
. PRIIIT DC V(C)

The output file gives the initial capacitor voltage of 10.29 V. A circuir file can now
be wtitten for the fansient response using this initial value for the circuit of Fig.

246 Chapter 8 Simple RC and 8t Circnits


t\= 12

&= l0kO

(c)
FICURE 8.31 (ar R{ circuir: (bj redrawn al l= 0 in dc sreadv state conditon; {c) re-
-
drawn at t 0- for rransient recponse

8.31(c). Suppose that we desire a response in lo-ns intervals. fo. the first 75 ms. A
circuit file is
TRANSIEIST RESFONSE FOR FIG, A.31(C)
* Data stateDenis
F.22320K
R3 3 4 .t5K
R4SolOK
C2OIE-6 IC=-IO-2g
v240DCtO
' Solution contfo.I statement fo! trdsient lesponse
i . TRAN 5iIS ?5MS UIC
* output control statenent for printinA md plottitrA lesponse
. PRTM TR^N V IC)
. Pr,o4 lltN V{C) I

The plot generated on the printer fq this progran is shoen in Fig. 8.32.

secrio; 8.10 sPlcE and rhe Transienr Response 247 l

l
TIM' Y(C)
{.)---------- -1.5000E+01 -1 .000 0E+01 -5.0000:+00 0.00001+00 5,0000!+00
0.0008+00 -1.029E+01
5.000E-03 -?.804E+00
1.000a-02 -5. ?96E100
1.5008-0u -,1.1548+0 0
2.000E-0? -2.346E+00
2.s00a-02 - !. ? 91E+0 0
3.000E-0 2 -9.463E-01
3.5008-02 - 2. ?,I3E- 01
4,0004-02 2.535t-01
4.500E-02 6.666t-01
5,0008-02 9,356t-01
5,500E-02 1.2 26810 0
6.000E-02 r.406E+00
6.5008-0 2 1.5348+0 0
?.000E-02 t.6228+00
?.500E-02 1.6?78+00
flCURt 8,32 Transi€nt rcsponse for circuit of Fig. 8.3i

In Example 8.17, the voltage source o, has a dc ralue of l0 V SPICE Fovides


a variety of other excitations for transient reqronses, such as the examples given in
Table 8. L

TABTE 8.1 Examples of Excitations tor v, of Fig. 8.31 in the lnterval


0<t <0.1 s

SPICE $ar€in nt

v2 4 0 D(P(l0v w os 0.1s ls)


l0t!(r) - a(r o.oz)t v v2 4 0 PUIJE{r0V 0V 0.O2S 0S 0.1S)
l00r V v2 4 0 Prvl(os 0v 0_ ls 10Y)
l0 sii t2?(2.5r1 v v2 4 0 SIN(OY IOY 2_5IZ)

EXERCTSTS
E.l0.l Using SPICE, find (a) oc(0 ); (b) a plor of oc(t) for 0< t< l0 ms if the networt( is
in a steady-state condition at t = 0 .
An,wr 25 V

EXtRCtSt 8.tO-1

8.10.2 Repeat Exercise 8.10. I if u - - 1000t V.


Answet -25 V
244 Chapter 8 Simple RCand Rr Cir.uils
I
8.10.3 not t(r) for 0 <r< 115 ms if i(0) = 10 nA. I

2ko ,1.7 kO

.ll
f ) "3'n ({)'"*

EXERC|SI 8.10.3

8.11
SUMMARY
In this chapter ve have considered the analysis of RC and lRa circuits, which involve
the solntiotr oftr,rtor&r dilfercntial eq&tions.. The solution is made up of a natural
respoise dns respor?se unless there is no souce, in which case only the na!
ural rcspoNe ^forced
ir present. The natuml response contains a time constant r, which is a
- measure of how fast the response decays. For an RC circuit, = RC, and for an RZ
circuit, r: L/R- "
If the sorce is dc, a shortcut method is available for finding both the natunl
and forced responses by inspection of the cfcuit. In the case of a gene&l source, an
integratin&factor method yields the solution and also shows that the forced response
has the form of the source ftrnction.
TI]e uni, step function was dgfined and used to represent circuit firnctions by a
single equation even if they coltain discontinuities. "fbg step response, the response
to a udt step input,'was also considered, as was superposition considering initial
stored eoergy as an input. Finally, SPICE was applied to obtain a graph of the RC
and Rt circ-nit responses.

PROBLEMS
Find o(/) for r >0ifo(0 ): l0V. (a) Deteftine R, C, and th€ initial energy
(, : 0) in the series RC circuit if o = 8e 5' v
t--o and t : 20?-5' rrA. (b) Find the percent of the
initial gn€rgy that is dissipated in the resistor

PROBLEM A.'I

Find t(t) for , > 0 iu Pr(b- 8.1 if the inirial


energy slored is w.{0) : 8 ,rJ. Pf,OBUM A.3

'chapter s P;bbms 249


8.4 If the cicuit is in steaq stare at t= 0_ , find o 6.t Find i for r> 0 if the circuit is in steady state
fort>0. atr:0.
8.5 Find o and tfott > 0ifi(0) = 14. 8.9 Consider a source-fte€ circuit that has a re-
8.6 Find i for t> 0 if the circuit is in steady stare spome o(/): yoe e. Show that a straight
line that is tangent to a grnph of this response
t.7 Findtforr > 0if o(0):6V. at time ,' inters€ctr the tinte axis (abscissa) at
tine rr + r. (Note that Fig. 8.? is th€ clse
t, = 0.)

9'l

\ ,="1 ,,'1 jr
tt
PROBLEM A.4 PRoBLEM 8.rt

24cl

PROBLEM 8,6

I'
i1. 6Q jn 3Q

PROBLEM 8-7// .

l0 c,

t't' >sa 10s,

-J /=0
*t i6f
PROBLEM 8.8

250 Chapter 8 Simple RCand Rl Circuirs

t
8.10 Find i fo > 0 if the circuit is in steady state t.l3 'att-0
Find t for r > 0 if the circuit is in steady state

8.ll Find o for r > 0 if the circuit is in steady state 8.14 Find , for / > O if the circuit is in steady state
aa, = 0 . att:0.
8,12 Find 1) for t > 0 if the circuit is in saeady stat€ 8.15 Find I for t >oifr(0:sA.

9c)

I
PROBTEM 8.'I O

PROBTEM A.I1

r'/
I0mf

30s,

chapter S Problems 251


PROBEMa.I3.

PROILIM 8.14

0.5irv

PROELEM S.1y

8.16 Find i for t> 0 if the circuit is in st€ady state 8.19 Find i for , > 0if the circuit is ia steady srare

8.11 Find o and i for r> 0 if the circuit is iD steady


E.20 Find t fort > 0 if i(0) = 2A.
stateatt=0. a.2t Find o for t > 0 if the circuit ls in steady state
at{=0.
E.lE The circuit shown is in a dc steady-state condi- 8.22. Find , for ,> 0 if the circuit is in stoady state
tion at t = 0 . Find D for > 0. i
lqo t=0

PROBTTM 0.16

2s2 Chapter 8 Simple RCand Rr eircuals

t
'i io 2.5.0

30v

t2()

4H

PROETEM 8.18

PROALEM 8.22

253

I
8.2.! Find o for t > 0 if the circuit is id steady state t.29 Find i for I> 0 if th€ circuit is in steady state

att:0
8.24 Find t and o for ,> : -6 v
0 if 0(0) 8.30 Find o and i for I> 0 if the circuit is in sleady
stateatr=0-.
a-25 Reo€at Bob. 8.24 if the l6v source is re-
pl;ed by a lo" r'-V source *ilh lhe same po- 8.31 Find o for all t if (a) o": 124(t) V and (b)
IaritY os - l2t/il,r 4(I I)l v
t,26 Fiod o for ,> 0 if the circuit is in steady state 8.32 Find o for />0 if o(0) = 2 v and (a)

alr = 0 .
!,s- 6V, O) a*:6e-' v, and (c) t)'=
6e-3' Y.
t.2? Find i for r> 0 if the crcuit is in steady state
at, = 0-. 8.33 Find o if t" = 2? 3'!(t) V
t.28 Find ol for , > 0 if there is no initial stored 8.34 FindlJfort > 0if os = 3!(r)V
energy.

6(I

u 12

PROBLTM 8.24
PROELEM 8.23

PROBLTM 8,26

PROBTEM 8.27

254 chapter S s'mple RC and Rt Circuits


PROBTEM 8.29

PIOBLEM 8.30

3s'

\
$r
PROa[tM e31 PROBLIM A32

14f,r

PROBLEM 8.!3_/,-- PROBLTM 8.34

Chapter 8 Probl€ms 255


8.35 Find , for i>0 if D,-2e-3' V and 6.36 Find for r> 0 the curenr downward ir tbe
o.(0) = 0 capacitor if r(0) = 0, and (a) r, :4 V, O)
t.36 = 2e x'u(t, V
Find l, if D, .
a. = 2e ' V, znd (.1 Ds = 2 cos 2tV.
8.37 Find o for r > O if Dt(O) : 0 and ,, = 8,39 Find o for all r if (a) ,, :2l(,) V, and (b)
t 2u (t) v. q : 2tu(t) u(t - t)lv.
8.40 Find , for all time if os = 2u (r) V

Ii'

PRoBLEM 8.y./

PROBIIM 8.38

256 Chapter S Simple RC and Rr Circuitt


PROALEM AI9

PROELIM 8.40

COMPUTER APPLICATION PROBLEMS


t.41 Use SPICE to solve (a) Prob.8.l9for0< t < I s, (b) Prob.8.28 for 0 < I < 0.5 s, and
(c) Prob. 8.36 for 0 < t < 1.5 s.
8.42 Use SPICE to plot the output voltage D for 0 < r < 25 ms.
100 ko

l0

l0

PROBLTM 8.42
;
I

Chapler 8 Computer Applicatio; Problems 257

,l

{
E.43

a.+4

" PRdBLE ,! 8.i4

2sS Chapter E Simple RC and Rl Circuits


9
Second-O rder Circuits

Electromagnetism was discovered in An aaempt should be nade cation, were accepted by lhe UniveF
lhe spring oi 1820 by the Danish to see whether ekctricity, sity of Copenhagen, where Hans
physicisl Hans Christian Oersted in i|s nnst latent stage, has studied astronomy, ahemislry, rnathe-
when he demonslraled lhat lhe nee- matics, physics, and phaamacy, He
afiy ejlect on the nagnet as
dle oJ a compass moved when placed completed his training in phamacy in
near a curreni-carrying wjre, By JuJy 1797 and lwo years lalsr received his
of lhal year, he was certain that an Hans Christian Oersted
doclorate in philosophy. Afler a baiel
electrjc current produced about il a stint as a pharmacist, he was al-
circular magnelic field, and he pub- tracled to the world of science, which
lished his results in a short paper, written in Latin, and was in ferment al lhe time over Volta's discovery of
carried by the major scientific journals of Eurcpe. the eleckic batlery. Between 1800 and 1820, he was
Oersted was born in the town of Rudkobing, on a university teacher, researcher, publisher, and one of
the Danish island of Langeland, the elder son of an the mosl sought-afler lecturers ol his day.
apoihecary, Soren Chrislian Oerstod. Because of Oersted's great discovery had an enormous im-
lamily problems, Hans and his younger brolher were pacl on the scienlific world, and he was showered
placed wilh a Cerman wigmaker.while lhey were still with honors and awards. The Royal Sociely of London
young boys, The brothers' intellectual abilities and ex- gave him the Copley Medal, and lhe Frgnch Academy
traordinary thirst for knowledge were soon apparent to awarded him a prize of 3000 gold francs. ln his honor
the townspeople, who did what they muld to educate the oersted was chosen as lhe standard cgs unit of
them. ln 1794 lhe brothers, wilh no pior lormal edu- magnetic lield intensity..

259

L
T n the case
I of Iinear circuits with energy-storage elemen!s the describing equations
(those relaling rhe outputs lo rhe inpurs)
may be expressed a. linear d iffer.-" iili .""r_
llons. because the lerminal relations of the elemenrs are sucb that the terms in rtre
loop or nodal equations arc derivatives, int€rals, oi multiples of th" unkn;;;;;;
lhe source variables. Evidently, a single differenriation ol an .quu,ion *iff ,.ro".
any inlegrals lhal h may conlain. so that in general the Ioop or nodal equations tor
a
given circuit may be considered to be differential equations. The descridirg"qoution
then may be obtain€d fiom these equations.
The circuits containing stomge elements that we hav€ considered so
^
first-order circuits. That is, they wete described by first_order diffe.""riui
far were
This is always the case when thcre is only one siomge element pr"."rt;.l;il;;
"q."io"..
switching action convsts the circuit into two or more-independenicircuits
tuu,
ing no more than one stomge element. "uctr
In this chapter we consitler second-order circuits, which, as we shall see, con_
.
tain t\ro stomge elements and hav€ describing equations that are second-order iiffer_ .
ential_equations. In general, nth-order circuits, containing n storage elements, are
describ€d by rrth-order differential eqlarions. The results fL first_ ind second_order
circuits (r, = I and n = 2) may be readily extended to the general case, but we shali
not do so here. However, a solution of a third-order differJntial equation is outlined
in.Prob. 9.39, which may be us€d to solve a third-order circuit given in prob. 9.40.
Higher-order citcuits are he3ted in more detail in Chapter 14.
Another, very elegant, method of solving higher-order circuits. as well as firs!
and second-order ones. is the Laplace rransform method gi\en inChapler lg. An in_
lerested reader may go directly to this chapter withour rhi need for reading the inter_
vening chapters,

9.1
CIRCUITS WITH TWO STORAGE ELEMTNTS
To introduce the subjectof second-ordq citcuits. let us begrn with lhe circuit of Fia_
9.l. where the output to be found is the mesh currenr ir. The circuir contains rvr'o
stomge elements, the inductors, and as we shall see, i, satisfies a second_order dif_
ferential equation. Methods of solving such equations will be considered in later sec_
tions of this chapler.

\
260 Chapter 9 s€cond-Order Cncuits
I?)
FIGURE 9.1 Circuit with two inductors

The mesh equations of Fig. 9.1 are given by


.li,
2; + t2it 4i, ax

(e. r)
-'ai,-+rai,-o
'dt
From the second of these we have
t ldi \
i,-i\;t4t,) (e.2)

which diferentiated results in


di, _t(d,i? + 4di,\ (e.3)
dt 4\dt' dt I

Substituting (9.2) add (9.3) into the fiist equation of (9.1) to eliminate i,, we have,
afler mulriplying the resultirg equation through by 2.

ff * rcff * rci.= 2., (e.4)

The describing equation for the output ,; $ thus a seconl-order differcntial equation.
That is, it is a differential equation in which the highest derivative is second-order.
For this rcason we refer to Fig. 9.1 as a recorl-ord?4 circuit and note that, typically,
second-order circuits contaitr two stomge elements.
There are exceplions, however. to the rule lhat two-storage-elemenl circuits
have second-order describitrg equations. For example, let us consider the cLcuit of
Fig. 9.2, which has two capacitors. With tle refereoce node taken as indicated,

FIGURI 9.2 Circuit with two capacitors

Sedion 9-1 Circuits with Two Stohge Units 261


I

I
I

I
I
nodal equalions at the nodes labeled or and 02 are given by

---' + rr
(e.5)
h,
-: + 2a1
The choice of the oode voltages ur and o? as the unknowns has resulted in two
first-order differential equations, eact containing only one of the uDkno\rns. When
this happens, we say that the equatiois te uncoupled, and thus no elimination pro-
cedure is required to sepa&te the variables. It was the elimination procedure which,
applied to (9.1), gave the second-order equation of (9.4). The eqlations bf (9.5) may
be solved separat-ely by the methods ol the Fevious chapter.
Eyidently, Fig. 9.2, although it contains two siomge elements, is not a second-
order circuit. The same voltage o, is across each RC combination, aDd thus the cir-
cuit may be redmwn as two 6$t-order circuits. If the souce were a practical souce
rather than at ideal source, then the circuit would be a second-older circuit (see
Prob. 9.1).

EXERCISES
9,1.1 Find the equation satisfied by th€ mesh current i,.
Ansi?r
d, i, + _di, .. d.,
tA t 6t,=
dt2 d;
2A 3r)

IH I

EXIRCISE 9,1.1

9.1,2 Let Ds= 8e 2'y, n(0*) = 2 A anO r:(0*)=9 A in Exercise 9.1.1, and find
diz(0*)/dt (the value of dirldt d t = o*\.
Ans\9et -23 Als
9.1.3 For the values of iz(o.), dn@.)ldt, and os given in Exercise 9.1.2, show that t, in
Exercise 9. t.I is given by

i. = 3e-' + 4e 2t + 2e-61 A
(Sug8ertbr. Substitute the answer into the differential equation, etc.)

262 Chapter 9
9.2
-E SECOND.ORDER EQUATIONS
ln Chapter 8 se considered first-order crrcuils in some delail and saw thar rherr de-
scribing equations werc lint-order difierential €quations of the form

dr (e.6)

In Sec. 9.1. we defined second-order circuits as those having two storage elements
nirh de\cribints equarions that were second-mder dlflerenrial equation\. given gen-
erally by

dlx dx
(e.?)
E+o'A+dor=/(rl
In (9.6) and (9.7) the a's are real constants, i may be either a voltage or a current,
and/(r) ofthe independent sources. As an example, for the cir-
is a known function
cuit of Fig. 9.1, the desoibing equation was (9.4). Comparing this equation with
(9.7), we see that d, :
10, ao :
16, /(r) = 2Ds, and x = iz.
From Chapter 8 we know that the complete response satisfying (9.6) is given
by
(e.8)

where r, is the natual response obtained when /(l)


= 0 and _rr. is the forced re-
sponse, which satisfies (9.6). The forced response, in cont$st to the natuml re-
sponse, contains no arbitmry constants.
l,et us see if this same procedure will apply to the second-order equation (9.7).
i
By a solution to (9.7) we shall mean a function which sarisfies (9.7) identically.
That is, when.t is substituted into (9.7), the left member becomes idenrically / (r).
We shall also require that r contain two arbitrary constants since we must be able to
satisfy the two conditions imposed by the initial energy stored in the two srorage
elements.
I{.r" is the natural resporse [i.e., the response when/(r) = 0], ir must satisfy
the equation
d2x, dx"
--:-i+dr---+(hx"=l) (e.e)

Since each term contains.r, to the same degr€e, namely I (the right member may be
thought of as 0 : 0&), this equation is sometimes called the l/rmogeneous eg]d.ation.
If.rr" is to satisfy the original equation, as it did in tie firct-order case, then by
(9.7) we must have
d|t, dx,
(9.10)
i'^;''ao.'fk\

\er non 9.1 se, ond-Ordpr I qLDlroh 263


Adding (9.9) and (9.10) and reananging the terms, we may wdte
d,. d.
;(r, - x) - at:(\ + t) - an6, + x!\ = Ihl (9.1 1)

The rearnngement is possible, of couse, because the equations involved are linear.
Comparing (9.7) ard (9.11) we see that (9.8) is our solution, as it \ras in the
first-order case. That is, r satisfying (9,7) is made up of two components, a nafuml
response r, satisfying the homogeneous equation (9.9) and a.forced restrronse x,. satis-
fying the original equation (9.10) or (9.7). As we shall see, the natural response will
contain two arbitrary constarts and, as ilr the first-order case, the forced response
will have no arbitmry constants. We considd methods of finding the natuml and
forced reponses in the next three sections. Of cotrlse, if the driving, or forcing,
tunctions are such that/(t) = 0 in (9.7), then the forced response is zqo, and the
solution of the difrerential e4uation is simply the natural response.
A reader ryho has had a course in diferential equations will note that the natu-
ml response and the forced response are also called respectively the complementary
solution and the particular solution. The complementary solution contains the arbi-
rary conslants and the particular solution, as its name implies. contains no arbiffary
constants-

EXERCISES
9.2.1 Show that

and

are each solutions of


dzt dx
6x=O
Et5E*
regaidless of the values of the coDstaDts A! and,4r.
9.2.2 Show that
x=xt+t2=Ate'}'-A-e"
is also a solution of the differcntial equation ol Exercise 9.2.1.
9.2.3 Show that if the dght member of the differertial equation of-Exercise 9.2.1 is
changed frorp 0 to 12, then

x: A,e-, + Aze-1,+ 2

is a solution. Thus the natural respotrse is Are a + Are r'and the forced tesponse
is 2.

264 Chapter 9 Second-Orde. Circuils


9.3
THT NATURAT RTSPONSE
The natuml response r, of the geneml solution
t=x,+x,
of (9.7) must satisfy the bomogeneous equation, which we repeat as

d'?x dr (e.r2)
-,+at+!anr-O
dt' d
Evidently, the solutioD r :,r" must be a furction which does not change its form
when it is differentiated. That is, the function, irs first deri!"tive, and its secodd
derivative must all have the same form, for otheiwise the combination in the left
member of the equafion could not become identically zerc for all t.
We are therefore led to trv

(e. r3)
since this is the only function which retains its folm when it is repeatedly differenti-
ated. This is, of couse, tbe same fimction that worked so well for us in the fust-
order case of Chapter 8- Also, as in the first-order case, A and r aie constants to be
determined.
Substituting (9.13) for r in (9.12), we have
As2e" + Asate"'+ Aaoe"': O

or
,4e"(J'?+drr+do)=0
Since Ae" cannot be zero [for then by (9.13) r, = 0, aod we cannot satisfy any ini-
tial energy-stomge conditionsl, we have

12+drr+do=0 (e.14)

This equation is called tbg characteristic equar-on ind is simply the result of replac-
ing de vatives in (9.12) by powers of r. That is, -r, tle zeroth derivarive, is replaced
by ro, the first derivative by st, and the second dedvative by rr.
Since (9. 14) is a quairatic equation, we have not one'solution, as in the first-
order case, but two solutioDs, say sr and rr, given by the quadratic formula as

-a,+!a"-qa" (e.l5)

Therefore, we have two Datural components of the folm (9.13), which we denote by

(e.16)

Section 9.1 The Natural Response 265


The coefficients Ar and A, are, of cou$e, arbitmry. Either of the two solutions
(9.16) wilt satisfy the homogeneous equation, because substiruting either into (9.12)
reduces it to (9.14).
As a matter of fact, because (9.12) is a linear equation, the r m of the solutions
(9.l6) is also a solution. That is,

x.=til+\42 (e.t7)
is a solulion of t9.l2). To see rhis. \ e have only lo subsrirute the expression for &
into (9. t2). This results in
d, d.
t x"z\ ' atj,(xa'
),,(x"' r', r do(r,, - r'.,.r

- /d'*, * a'\dx"t a"x.,)-


li
r td t"
' d.x",
d;: \i ''-i; ' ^,')
=0+0=0
sioce both .r"r and -r,, satisfy (9.12).
By (9.16) and (q.17) we have
,"= Ale\'+ A1e"21 (e.18)
which is a more gengral solution (unless J! = s2) than either equation of (9.16). In
fuct, (9.18) is ca,lled the eeneral sol rrb, of the homogeneous equation if sr and r,
are d[stihct (i.e., not equal) roots of the characterisric equation (9.14).

EXAMPLE 9.1 The homogeteous equation corresponding to (9.4) is given by


dlt,
_- di,
-E
d(
I t0_.:
dt
+ l6t?. 0 (e.1e)

and lhus the characreflsitic equalion is

r.+lor+16=o
The root! are's : -2 r: -8, so that the general solution is given by
and

i2 = ,t + A2e-st
O.2o)
^e
The reader may verify by direct substitution that (9.20) (9.19), satisfies regardless of
the value of the arbitrary constants.

Because (9.18) is the natual response, the numbers rr and 12 me sometimes


calle.d the natural ftequ?rcr€r of the circuit. Evidently, they play the same role as
the negative reciprmal of the time corstants considered in Chapter 8. There me, of
course, two time constants in the second-order case as compared to one in the first-
ordea case. For example, the'nalual ftequencies of the iircuit of Fig. 9.1 are
r = - 2, and r = - 8, as displayed in (9.20); the time constants of the two terms are
then j and j.

266 Chapter 9 Second-Order Carcuils


Thb unit of natuml ftequency, which is the inverse of that of the time constant,
is the reciprocal of seconds. Thal is. it is a dimen\ionless quan ty drrided b) \ec-
onds. Therefore, st is dimensionless, as it must be in e"'.

EXERCISES
9.3.1 Given the linear differential equation

u - tt#, tt 2t# o

show that -rr te-', xz : I, and -tj + .rr2 are all solulions.
=
9,3.2 Civen the nonlir€al differential equation

,dtl-ta=0
show that rr : t'? and r: = I are both solutions but that -rl + -r, is nol a solution.
9.3.3 Civen
d'1t dx
.dt(a) -+6-+8,r=0
dt
d'1t dt
(b\E+6A+9r=t)
find the chamcteristic equation and the natural frequencies in each case.
Answet \a\..*2, -4; (b) -3, -3

9.4
TYPES OF NATURAT FREQUENCIES
Since the natural frequencies of a second-order circuit are lhe roots of a quadratic
chamcteristic equation, they may be real. imaginary. or complex numbers. The oa-
tule ofthe roots is determined by the discriminantai -
4ao of(9.15), which may be
positive (corresponding to real, distinct roots), negative (complex roots), or zero
(real. e4ual roots).

EXAMPLE 9.2 Consider the circuit of Fig. 9.3, where the response to be found is the voltage o. Fdr
variety, rather than writing two loop equations or two nodal equations, let us mix the
two. The nodal equation at node t? is
- + i + lda
4 --
4dt =
{)

and the ght mesh equation is


di
Ril--l
rU

Seclion 9"j. . Types of Naloral Frequencies \ 267


:) ,l |r
I Hi

FIGUtE 9-3 S€ond-order ckcuil

(We have thus avoided terms with integrals. The reader is asked to use a strictly
nodal analysis in Exercise. 9.4.4.) Substituting for i from the first equation into the
second, we have

* , lt t'a' r'l
L4\dt
^lJ(ou
,,-\l
"/ t - al- t\a ' - *)l= "
Drllerenralng and simplifying the resuh. we have

*4
*,o - r,t, n, +r" = nu" *ff
The natural component o, satisnes the homogeneous equalion

4a"
dt' -,o
'^ - r,4"
'' dt + rn r +r," _ o
from which lhe chamcteristic equation is
. ,r'? + (R + 1)r + R + 4 = 0

Using the quadratic formula, we'have the natuml frequencies,

,, ,_-rn.lr+VF' x-ts r9.:t)


IfR = 6 O in (9.21), the natural ftequencies arc real and distinct, gived by
sr.r: _2, _5
6.22)
If R = 5 O. lhe natural hequencies are real and equal. given by
s,., = -3, -3 (9.23)
FinaUy, ifR = 1 f,), the natural ftequencies are complex nurntrers, given by
s\2 = -l t j2 (9.24\
where j= !'
1. (In elect ical engineerilg we cannot use i, as the rnathematiciatrs
do, for the imaginary number unit, since this would result in confusion with the cur-
rent. Complex numbers arc considered in Appendix C for the reader who needs to
review the subject.)

268 chapte. e second-order circuits


Distincl Real Roots: Overdamped Case

If the natural frequencies sr.2 are real and distinct, the natural response is given by
(9.18). This case is cal]'d the oretdampel cdse, because for a real circuit sr and r,
are negative so that the response decays, ot is damped o,rt, with time. As an exam-
pie, in the case of (9.22) we have
6 - A,e '1' + A,e-5'

Complex Roots: Underdamped Case

If the natural frequencies are complex, then in geieral we have


st?=a ! iB
where (t and p are real numbers. By (9.18) the natural response in the geneml case
is

x^ = Aieb+iB' + A,eG iF' (9.2sJ

This appears to be a complex quantity and not a suitable answer for a real current or
voltage. However, because Ar and Ar are complex numbers, it is rnathematically
correct, although somewhat inconvenient,
To put the natural response (9.25) in a better form, let us consider l€r'slor-
muld, given by ''
ed=cosd+jsin0 (9.26)
and its ahernative form, obtained by replacing d by -d
er'=cosd-jsind (9.27)
These results are derived in Appendix D. They are named for the great Swiss matbe-
matician konhard Euler (pronounced "oiler"), who lived from 1707 to 1783. Eu-
ler's greatness is attested to by the fact that the symbol € for the base of the natural
logarithmic system was chosen in his honor.
Using (9.26) and (9.27), we may write (9.25) as
xn= eot(he)Bt + Are-jg!)
= e"'l^kos pt + j sin pr) + A?(cos B. j sin Fr)l
= e"'[(Ar + At cos pr + (7e1 - 7Az) sin F4
Since Ar and,4, are arbitrary, let us rename the constants as

At+ A2= Bl
iA, jAz: Bz
so that

t" = e"t(& cos Bt + 82 sin Bt) (e.28)

Section 9.4 Types of Natural r.€quencies 269


The case of complex roots is called lhe undetdamped case- For a real circuit, a
' is negative so that the response (9.28) is damped out with time. Because of the sinu-
soidal terms, however, the damping is accompanied by oscillations. which distin-
guishes this case from the overdamped case.

TXAMPLE 9.3 lnlhecaseof{a.24rwehaveo - -landB - 2. $lhar


| , - c '(Bt cos 21 . B) sin 2/)

where 8r and 8, are, of course, arbitmry.

Real Equal Roots: Critically Damped Case


The last type of natural liequencies we may have are those that are real and equal,
say
(e.2e)
These chamcterize the cfitically damped case, \thich is the dividing line between the
' overdamped and underdamped cases. In the crirically damped case, (9. 18) is not the
geneml solution since both.r,r and t,
are of the form Aet', and thus there is only
one indep€ndent arbitrary constant. For (9.29) to be the natural frequencies, the
characteristic equation must be
(r - k)'?: s2 - 2ks + 't1
:0
and therelore lhe homogeneous equalion mu(t be

d'x^ -zkT+k'x,=\)
- d^^
(9.30)
E
Since we know that,4ee is a solution for A arbitrary, let us try
. x^ = h(t)b,,
Srbstituting this expression into (9.30) and simplifying, we have

Ee"=o
Therefore, ll(l) must be such that its second derivative is zero for all t. This is true if
,i? (t) is a tr)lynominal of degree I, or

.
.h(t) = At + Azt
where A, and A, are arbitmry constantJ. The geneml solution in the repeated-root
case, sr., = k, is thus
x^- (h + A,t)ek . (9.31)
which may be verilied by direct substitution into the homogeneous equation (9.30).

I
EXAMPLE 9.4 In the case of (9.23) we tlave rr,2 = -3, -3, and thus
p, : (A1 + tut)e t'

270 Chapter 9 Second'Order Circnits


EXERCISES
9.4.1 Flnd the natuml frequencies of a circuil described by
d:xt atA
d\
I aox=tJ
dt'1
if (a) ar : 5, do = 4; (b) at = 4, a! = 13; and (c) a, = 8, ao = 16.
Answer (a) -t, -4; (b) -2 1: j3,(c\ -4, -4
9.4.2 Find.r in Ex. 9.4.1 with the arbitrary constants determined so that r(0) - 3 alld
d\(O)/dt - 6.
Aniwet (a) 6e-' - 3e a'; (b) e 2(3 cos 3r + 4 sin 3r); (c) (3 + 18r)e-i
9,4.3 Find r if
djt
A'z-25r=O
Answer x: Ar cos 5t + A, sin 5/
9.4.4 If the node voltage at node Z' in Fig. 9.3. is or, show that the two nodal equaiions
are
LDr *, u-Dr lda
4 R iA=u
and

D,-D t' ur dt t-i(o)


=o
--" i.
Differentiate the second of these and substitute into the rcsult the \alue of ,r from
the first equation to obtain the describing equation for Fig. 9.3.

9.5
THE FORCED RESPONSE
The forced response rr of the general second-otder circuit must satisfy (9.10) and
contain no arbitlaty constants. There arc a number of methods for finding .rr, but for
our puryoses we shall use the proced[e of guessing the solution, which has worked
so well for us in the past. We know fiom out experience with first-order ctcuits that
the forced response has the form of rhe drivitg function. A constatt source results io
a constant fotced tesponse, and so on. However, the rcspons€ must satisfy (9.10)
identically, which means that fust and secotrd derilatives of rr., as well as r, itself,
will appear in the left member of (9.10). Thus we are led to try as rr. a combination
of the right rnember of (9.10) and its derilatives.

EXAMPLE 9,5 kt us consider the case o, = 16 V in Fig. 9.1. Then by (9.4), for i? = r, we lrave

:
dP+l0nt+ l6t 32 (9.32)

Section 9.s The forced Response 271


The natuml response was given earlier in (9.20) by
r,: A)e 2' + A*-e (9.33)
Since the right member of (9.32) is a constant and all its derivatives are consranr
(namely zero), let us try

where / is a constant to be determined. We note that A is not arbifary but is a par-


ticular value that hopefully rdakes -!. a solution of (9.32). Substituting ,r. inro (9.32)
yields
16A : 32
of
xr=A=2
Therefore, the genetal solution of (9.32) is
x\t) = e'r' t A,e s'- 2
A knowledge of the initial energy stored in the inductors can now be used to evalu-
ate Ar and Ar.
In the case of constant forcing functions we tuay often obtain -q from the cir-
cuit itself. In the example just considered, .!. is the steady-state value of i in Fig. 9.1
when os = 16 V. At steady state the inductors are short circuits, as shown in Fig.
9.4, so that, from the figure, we have

go

FICURI
f""l )
9.4 Circuir of Fig. 9.1 in the sready stare

EXAMPTE 9.6 Suppose that in Fig. 9.1 we have

1),=20cos4,V
Then by (9.4), again for t, = i, we have

(e.34)
*+10*+16,r=,+0cos4r
The natuml response.r, is given by (9.33), as before. To find the forced response.v
.J,le need to seek a solution which contains all lhe terms, and their possible
deriva-
tives, in the .ight member of (9.34). The coefficients of these terms will then be de-

272 Chapter 9
termined by requiing r/to satisfy the differential equation. In the case under consid-
emtion, the only term is a cos 4t term and the al. t
.q = A cos 4r + I sin 4r (9.35)
contains this term;nd all its possible deri\atives (which are cos 4t and sin 4t times
constants).
From (9.35.) we have
dt,
i- 4As''1.4t I 48co\4t
d, t,
4t -
7/ - -16A cos 168 sin 4r

Substituting these values and (9.35) into (9.34) and collecting terms, we have

408 cos 4t - ,10A sin 4r = 40 cos 4r


Si-Dce this must be an identity, the coeffrcients of like terms must be the same on
both sides of the e4uation. ln the case of the cos 4t terms we have

408 - 40

and for the sin 4t terms we have


. 40A=0
Thus A= 0and8- l.sothar
xt = sjJt 4t (9.36)

The general solution of (9.34), from (9.33) and (9.36), is given by

i,= 7= tr" z''A,e 3'+ sin 4t (q.31)

This may be readily verified by direct substitution.

Some of the more comnon lorcin8 functions/rttwhich occur in (g.7) are


listed in the fusr column of Thble 9. 1. The general form of the coFespoDding forced
response is given in the second column, which may be useful for formulating the
rial solution \.

TABtt 9.1 lrial Forced Responses

(0
KA
I AI+R
t1 Atz+Bt+C
sin ,r, cos ,t ,,{ sin r, + , cos rt
e"' sia bt, e'' .os bt sin rt + a cos ,,
"-(A

Section 9-5 The Forced Response 273


EXERCISES
9.5.1 Find the forced response if
d".*ttu+i'=rrrt
a' 'dt '^
where f(t) is giver by (a) 6, (b) 8e ', and (c) 6t + 14.
Answer (a) 2; (b) -Be';(c)2t + 2
9.5,2 If r(0) : q and dt (O) / dt : 2, find the complete solution in Exercise 9.5.1.
3'
Answer (a) 2e' + 2; (b) 9e-' - 8e-'z' + 3e-'' : (.) e-t + e + 2t + 2

9.6
EXCITATION AT A NATURAL FREQUENCY
Suppose that the circuit equation to be solved is given by
d'x . tu
fi-h-b\A+abx= f(t\ (9 38)

where a and b + d are known constants- In this case the chamcteristic equatioD is

s'?-(a+b)s+ab=O
from which tle natural frequencies are
Jr = a, S.. = b
Therefore, we have the natuml response
n: Are'' i Azeb (9.39)
where Ar and A, are aibitrary.
Irtus suppose now that the excitation functioo contaiN a natuml frequency,
say

f \fi = e' (9.40)


The usual procedure is to seek a forced response,
x!= Ae' (9.41)
and determine A so that 4 satisfies (9.38), which in this case is
d'zt ta t blV
dx
+ abt ' e'
* - (9.42)

However, substituting x,. into (9.42) yields


0=e^
which is an impolsible situation.
This difficulty could bave been fores€er by observing that rr" in (9.41) bas the
form of one of the components of .t" in (9.39), and thus .t will satisfy the homoge-

274 chaprer e second-order ctrcuirr


neous equatioi coiraspording to (9.38). That is, ,/ substituted into (9.38) makes its
l€ft member identically zefo. There is no poidt theo in fiying such a forcad response
as (9.41).
i I.€t us corsider what happeDs if we multiply by t the pafl of rl that is duplicated
in r". That is, let us try
xt = Ate'
instead of (9.41). We lhen have

I '==AGr - t\e.
dx,
dt

"+-Az't+2n)e^
dr'
Substitlting these 1dues, along with (9.43), into (9.42), we have
Ae-la2t + 24 - (a + b\{at + l) + abtf = ed

whicb, upon simplification, b€comes


A(a-b)e^=e^
since this must be atr idenrily for all r. we musl have
1

a- h

The general solution of (9.38), using (9.39), and (9.43), is then


. te-
\- Ated+Are"+ ,

EXAMPTE 9.7 Suppos€ that the excitation in Fig, 9,1 is given by


ozi 6e-" + 32

Ther ifiz I .{, we bave, by (9.4),


ilzx -dx l6x=12e-'+g (e.44)
dt'
-+tU-+ dt
The natuml response, as before, is
&= Are'z + Aze-3'
Noting that the right member of the differcntial equation has the telm e-z tlr com-
mo! rtith .rr, we try
tr=A?-2'+8
Tbe hctor r has been inserled inlo the naurml trial solutioo of x, to remove rhe dupli- I

cation of the term e-'. Substituting r/ into (9.44) and simpliffng, ve have I

i
,Ae-a+168:12e-'+& I

. S€crion 9.5 Exciration at a Natu€l Fr€quency 275 I

I
Thereforc, we have A = 2 and B : 4, so thar
xf= 2te-! + 4
The general solution is now

tz:t-:aa+t
Finally, let us considet the case of (9.38) whpte b = a and/(r) is given by
(9-40). That is, both natural fiequencies and the ftequency of excitarion are all th;
same. In this case we h?ive

tl'x df
2tt: + a'zx: ed (e.4s)
-
The characte stic equdtion is

s2-2as+a?=O
and thus the naruml fiequencies are

Jr=J2=d
The natuml response is rhen

x"=(At+A2t)e.l
We know it is ftuitless to ffy as the forced response .xr given in (9.41) becaus€ it is
duplicated in the traoml response. In this case, (9.43) will Dot work eitber because
' it, too, is duplicated. The lowest E)wer of / that is nor duplicated is 2; thus we are
led to tly
tt: Atzed
Substituting this exFession into (9.45) we have

so thal A= :. The forced and complele responrs follow as before.

A geneml rule of thumb is that if a natural fiequency term of ,r, is duplicated in


xr, tbe term in .V is multiplied by the lowest power of t required to remove the dupl!
cation.

EXTRCISES
9.6,1 Find the forced respoDse if
dzx dx
-.: | 4=.r jx - IQt
d( dt
I

I wheref(/) is given by (a) 2e 1' + 6e-4t (b) 1e ' + 2e-',


Answer (a)2e 11.- ft-3t' (b\ t(2ea - e-3t)
^nd
I

| 276 Chapter 9 Second'Oider Circuirs

I
9.6.2 Find the forced response if
dlx dx
-A'z+4A+4t= lut
where f (,.) NSivenby (a)6e 'z' and
(b\ 6te-2' [Saa8?rtion'In (b), try 4- At'e '']
,tnswer la) 3t')e-t; lbt rte 'z'
9.6.3 Find the complete lespoDse if
d)t
.;+9i - 18 sin 3t

aod x(o) : dx(o)ldt : o. lsusSestion:


'ky xt = r(A cos 3t + B sin 3t l
Answer sin 3l - 3t cos 3t -

9.7
THE COMPTETE RESPONSE
In the prcvious sections we have noted that the complete response of a circuit is the
sum of a natural and a forced lesponse and that the naturdl response' and thus the
complete response, contains albitrary constants Th€se coffitants' as in Jhe first-
olde; cases ;f
Chapter 8, are aletermined so that the complete lesponse satisfies
specified initial eneryy-stomge conditions'

EXAMPLE 9.8 l,et us find t (/), for t > 0, which satisfies the system of equations

fr+x+sl"''a,=rc"" (e.45)
x(o) : 2
the htegral; this
To begin, Iet us differentiate the fust of these equations to eliminate
results in
d'1x ^dt 5r = 48e r'
dt' dt
The ;hamcteristic equation is
J"+2s+5=0
with roots
sr'z= -l: j2
Therefore, lhe natuEl response is
x^ = e '(At cos 2l + A, sin 2t)

Tiying as the forced resPonse i

= Ae-"
'J l

Section 9.7 The Complete Response 277 I

I
we see that
EAe t = _48e-tt
so that A = -6. The complete response is therefore
= c-'tAt ccrs 2t t A, sin 2tl - 6" " \9.47 )
^ul
To determine the arbitrary constants we D€€d two initial conditions. One,
r(0) - 2. is grven in 19.46). To obtain the other we may elaluare the first equation
of (9.46) at t = 0, resulti$g in
dx(01 b(ol
-- f
t- - ' 5 Joxdt = t6
Noting the value of r(0) aDd that the integral term is z€ro, we have

dr (O)
,i, = 12
(9.48)

Applying the second equation of (9.46) to (9.47), we have

= Ar 6=2
'(0)
or Ar = 8. To apply (9.48) we may differentiate (9.4?), obtainiog
dx
;
- e-'(-2At sin 2r + 24? cos 2r) - e-'(A, cns 2r + A2 sin 2r) + l8e !
from which
da (o\
; = 2A2 - A: + t8 = t2 (9.49\

From this, knowing A!, we find A, = l.


At this point let us digess for a moment to note a very easy rDay to get (9.49).
We may differeDtiate r(r) and immediately replace r by 0 beforc we write down
the result. That is, in (9.47), the derivative of x t:
Aise-'eft = 0 (which is l)
times the dedvative of (Ar cos 2r + A2 sin 2t) at r - 0 (which is 2Ar) plus
(Ar cos 2, + Az S'll. 2r) t = 0 (rrhich isA') times the derivative of e I att = 0
(which is -1) plus the de vative of -6e n at t : 0 (which is l8). Th€se steps are
written down in (9.49) and can be done mentally, avoiditrg the iotermediate prior
step.
Returring to oru problem, we now have the arbitrary corFtaots, so that by
(9.47), the final ans,wer is
r: €-'(8 cos 2r + sin 2t) - 6e ''
EXAMPLE 9,9 L€t us find o, r > 0, in the circuit of Fig. 9.5 if o,(0) = o(0) :0 ard o! =
5 cos 2{Xnr V. The nodal equatioD at node or is
I r
. 2/10)q l0-ror ,-odo,
-1x l0'u+ l0-'- -0
I

278 chaprcr e 5econd-o,dcr cin u,l'

I
I
flCUlE 9.5 Example
I
"'
of
L

4ot D + 2 x l0 'ff - zr, = !o cos 2000t (e.50).

and the nodal equation at the inverting input of the op amp is

I)8dt
x to-r,,
'1, ro"*=o
or
| .^ ,da
ot=__xlo,dt (e.51)

Substituting (9.51) into (9.50) and simplirying, we have


d2r -du
4tlt' + 2 x l0r-
a
+2 \ i06o = - 2 r l0'cos2000r
Ttle characlerislic equatlon is
s'?+2xlCPr+2x106-0
so that rhe natural frequencies are sj., - l00O( - I t jl). The narural response is
tlrerefore
. 'u, : e-'*(,4' 10001 + A, sin 1000,
"o"
For the forced rcsponse we shall try
ot= A cos 2fffit + I sin 20001
which subctituted into the differential equation yields
(-2A + 48) co6 2000t + (-4A - 28) sin 2000, = -20 cos 2000t

Therefore, equating coeffiiients of like terms, we have


-2A+48 = -m
-4A - 28.: O
fiom which A =2a\d,B : -4. The complete response is then
o = e-'o'n(A, cos lmor + A, sin 1000r) + 2 cos 2m0t - 4 sin 2000t (9.52)

section 9.7 The Cohplere R€sponse 279

l
From (9.51). for / - 0-. we see that

Dr(o')--]'lo'rd"(o-)
4dt
and since or(0+) = or(0-) = 0 we have
dulo').o rq5lr
dt-
Like 01, o is also a capacitor voltage (acrcss the *-pF capacitor), so that
1,(0+)=t,(0 )=0 (9 54)
From (9.52) and (9.54) we have
At+2=0
ot At = -2, and lrom (9.52) and (9.53) we have

l0O0A, l000Ar - 8000 = 0


fiom which A, = 6. Thus the complete response is
o=a '*( 2cos 1000r + 6sin 1000r) + 2 cos 2000r,- 4 sin 2000r V

EXERCISES
9.7.1 Find r, t > 0. where
dtI
V'tx-+lxa-1ut
. r(0) =2
and (a)/(t) = I and (b) /(t) = 21.
,+rcwo (a) (2 3t)e '1'; (b\ 3(t - t\e-" + t I
9.7.2 Find i, a, di/dt, and dx/dt at t -O*.
An:rer 0.0,2 A/s.40 V/s

I a

txtRctst 9,7.2

9.7.3 For / > 0 in Exercise 9.7.2, frad (a) o and (b) t. (Sugeestion: Be.ause of Kirch-
hoff's laws ard the terminal relationships of the elements, i has the same nahral fte-
quencies as o. Thus o, is easily obtained afte! i" is found: its forc€d respon!€ is evi-
dent by inspection of the circuit.)
Answer (a) e-2'( 6 cos 4, + 7 sin 4t) + 6 V;
(b\ e-'z'(-2 cos 4t I sin 4r) + 2 A
-

280 chapter g second-o.der circuits


' 9.8
THT PARALLEL NIC CIRCUIT
One of the most important second-order circuits is the parallel RLC circuit of Fig
9.6(a). We shall assume that at r = 0 there is an initial irductor current,
i(0) : /" (9.5s)
and a[ initial capacitor voltage,
1r (0) :vo (9.s6)
and analyze the circuit by finding o for r >0.

FIGURE 9.6 (a) Parallel RIC circuit, with (b) the source killed

The single nodal equation that is nec€ssary is given by


r: tf' t/tt+ Io-('dt=i,
dD
r + tJ.t {9.57)

which is an inlegrodifferential equarion that becomes. upon differentiation.


d't
ldD I di"
'dtt
R&'L"- dt
To find the natural response we make the ght member zero, resulting in

( d'1a lb 1
(e. s8)
dt,+ RA+LD={J
This result follows also from killing the cuffelt source, as in Fig. 9.6(b), and wrir
irg the nodal equation. From (9.58) the charactedstic equation is

c"'+]"+j=o
Section 9.8 The Parallel RrC Cir.uil 281
from which the natuml fiequencies are

/'\2RCl
\' LC' rsse)

As in the geneEl second-order case already discussed, there are three types of
responses, depending on tbe nature of the discriminant, l/Rz 4C/L, in (9.59\. -
We shall now look briefly at these thfee cases. For simplicity we *ill take i! = 0 and
considei th; source-ftee case of Fig. 9:6(b). The forced response is theo zero and
the natuml response is the complete response,

Overdamped Case

If the discriminant is positive, that is,

t4c
- ->{l
or, equildently,

L> 4RZC (9.60)

then the natumi frequencies of (9-59) are real and distinct nCgative numbers, and we
have the overdamped case,

x=AGrt+A*t2' (9.61)

From the initial conditions and (9.5?) evaluated at, = 0*, we obtain

d0(0.) _ %+Rlo (9.62)


dt RC

whrch together with {9.561 can be used Lo determine the atbitmry constants.

TXAMPLT 9.10 Suppose thar R = 1 O,, = : H, C = i F, Vo = 2 V, and 10 = -3 A. Then by


(9.59) we have Jr., = -1, -3, and hence
a-Ar'''+Azet
Also, by (9.56) and (9.62) we have
o(0) = 2v
du(9*)
= c v/.
dt
which may be used to obtain Ar = : -3, and thus
5 and A,

I
D.5e-'-3c''
This overdamped case is easily sketched, as shown by the solid line of Fig. 9.7, by
I sketching the two components and aCding them graphicaly.
I

282 Chaprer q Second-Order Crcuil'

I
I

t
flCURt 9,7 Sketch of an overdamped respons€

The reason for the term overd.omryd fiay be s?*n ftom the absence of oscilla-
tions (fluctuations in sign). The element values are such as to "dadp ouf'any oscil-
latory tendencies. [t is, of course, possible for the response to change sign ortc?, de-
pending on the initial conditions

Underdamped Case
If the discrimimnt in (9.59) is negative, that is,

L< 4R?C (e.63)

then we have the uderdamped case, wh€re the nahtal frequencies are complex, and
the response contains sines and cosines, which of course are oscillatory-type func-
tions. In this case it is convenient to define a resonant frequenct,

I
(9.e\
YLC

damping coeffcient,
^ 1
(9.65)

and danped frequency,


^
,n = !G= "' (e.66)

Each of these is a dimensionless quantity "per second." The resonant and dampei
fr€quencies are defined to be radians pel second (rad/s) and the damping coefficient
is nepers per second (Np/s).
Using these definitions, the natuml frequencies, by (9.59), are
t' 2: -d ! j@d

section 9.8 The Palallel Rrc ckcuit 283


and therefore the response is

a = e "'(At cos @dt + A, sin &rdl) (e.67)


which is occillatory in nature, as expected.

EXAMPLT 9.11 Suppose tha|n = 5 O,l = I H, C = *F, yo = 0, and /o = -lA. Then we have
l] = e '(Ar cos 3r + Az sin 3d
From the initial conditions we have o(0) = O and da(O*)/dt = 15 V/s. from which
Ar = 0 and A) = 5. Therefore. the underdamped response is
1)=5e,sin3,
This response is readily sketched if it is obsefled that since sin 3, vades b€-
tween +l and -1, o must be a sinusoid that ri€s between 5e-, and -5e ,. The
re_
sponse is shown in Fig. 9.8, where it may b€ seen that it is oscillatory in nature. The
response goes lhrough zero at lhe poin6 \r,here rhe sinusoid is zero, which is deter-
mined, in general, by the damped frequency o,r.

FICURI 9.0 Sketch of an underdamped esponse

Critically Damped Case

When the disc minant of (9.59) is zero, we have the critically damped case, for
which
L=4R2c (9.q8)
In this case the natural ftequencies are real and equal, given by
Jl,2 = -d, -d
where d is given by (9.65). The r€sponse is then

a = (A' + A,t)e d (e.6e)

284 chapter e second-order chcuic

I
txAMPt-E 9.12 As an e\ample. consider rhe case R --
ro -. lA. I O. Z = I H. C = i F. yo = 0. and
tn this case we have a = 2.A ._
0. eLirda = 4.Thlr;;;,,.rp"^:,;
o=4k,t
This.j5 easily skelched by plorring 4,
and e-, and mulriplying the nro togerher. The
resutt ls shown in Fig. 9.9.

FtcURt e,9 Sketch of a crt|cally dampid response

.^-_-j:t:u"ty .":. in the paralJel RZC clcuir. rhe sleady_slale value


response ts zero. tncause each term in rlne of rhe natural
rcsponse contains a factor €-, where
a <O

EXERCISES
9.8.t ln a source-ftee parallei RLC circurr. . j_kn
' rhe circuit is {a) overdamped
R and C _ 0.25 pF.Find t so thar
wlth r.
arz -
ro00 rada..and {"i -3000r rbr underdamped wirh
Ans\|et (aJ i; (b) i: (c) I H "r,,""rr'oirojl*'
nt'' or^:,lIo e r'(b, rrse rhis resur,
lil 'j'ri'flT'f ii'fl:l'1" flllnlo
t =005F'rrOj'0 andrl0l -6A'ro nnd i.
. d't
| idt ,
0l P '16 cos 3' !
^tt:w?t d- RC d, ' t ci= 2 sin 3t)

""' il;,';lH:{J$f,ilj;ji"J:'9rr:lt.lhere is in the underdamped case orrhe


i",fr",.".""_n"""u1"."-_"_u_t/2R(.1.I_€tR=@top€ncircuit.)indshowthat,
d,x
7F+'d"=o
For this case, find the geneml solution
for o.
Answe. A1 cos oot + A2 siD @ot

Section 9.8 The pa.a el RtC Circln


285
9.9
THE STRIES RIC CIRCUIT
The serie,s nLC circuit, sho*n in Fig. 9.10, is the dual of the parallel circuit, con-
sidered itr the previous section. Thercforc all the results for the pa.allel circuit ha
dual counterpa{s for the series circuit, which may be wdtten down by iDspectiot
this s€ction we simply list these resulti using duality and leave to th€ reader ther
vedfication by conventioDal means.

FICURI 9.10 Series RIC circuit

Referring to Fig. 9.10, the iritial conditions will be taken ar

0(0) : %
r(0) Io
=
The singlelogp equation necessary in the anilysis is

r,fi*ni*llt**r":,, (e.70)

which is valid for t > 0. The resulting characteristic equation is

Lr,+R +:=o (e.?l)

and the natural frequencies are

''-
n,
2L v\z/
t;\, -z ,
(e.72t

The series RLC circuit is overdamped if


4L
^-
t-I, (e.73)

and the resPonse is


i=A]€st'+A2e'21 (e.14)
The cicuit is critically damped if
4L
c R,
(e.75)

286 Chapter 9 Second-Order Circuils


in which case Jr = s, = -R/2L, and the rcsponse is

i=(At+A2t)e"l (e;16)

Finatl'. the circuit is underdamp€d iJ

L<!R, (9.17\

in which case the resonaDt frequency is


I (e.78)
YLC
the damping coefficient h
R
(9.79\
":i
and the damp€d frequency is
= \/ia '- (e.80)
!,ro
"'
The underdamped response is
i - e -(^ cas o;t * Az sin r.rar) (e.8r)

EXAMPLE 9.13 Suppose tbat t > 0 in Fig. 9.11, give! that


it is rcqlired to 6!d o for
o(0):6v, i(o)=2A
We know that

o=on+oJ
where the natulal response rr" contains the natural fre4uencies. Tbe natural ftequen-
cies of the current i are the sarne as those of o because obtaining one ftom the other,
il general, require,! only Kirchhoff's laws and the operations of addition, subt'ac-
tion, multiplication by constants, integration, and differentiatior. None of these op-
emtioDs chaoges the nahrral ftequencies. Therefore, since the nanlral frequelcies of i
are easier to get (only one loop equation is required), let us obtain them. Aroutrd the
loop wd have

(e.82).
fi*r,*rl',**u:ro
FIGURI 9.1'l Driven series RIC circuit

Section 9.9 The Sedes RIC Cir€uit 287


.l
j
The characteristic equation, followitg differentiation, is
.i
r':-2r*5=0
with roots i
I

r, )= -la j2
Thus we have

D, : e-'(At cos 2t + ,4, sin 2t)


[We could have obtained Jr., ftom (9.72) direcrly, but rr is Fobably easier to wrire ',
the characteristic equation, since it can be dorte by inspection.l
The forced r€rponse o, is a constant in lhis case and may be obtaiDed by tr,-.
spection of lhe circuir in lhe sleady state. Since in rhe stead, stale the capaciror is i!4 \
open circuit and th9 inductor is a short circuit, is = O arld o1: 10. Th;refore, the .
complete rcsponse is

D= e'(Atcos2t + Arsinr) + 10 !
from the initial \.oltage. we have
o(0)=6=Ar+10
ot At: -4 Also' we have
Ido(0*)
--=tlvt=z
tdt
dn6* \

d, = tO= 2Az- At

Therefore, ,4, = 3, and we have


D = e'(-4 cos, + 3 sin2r) + l0V

EXAMPLf 9.14 I€t us find o in Fig. 9.11 if the source is


os=4cosrV
In this case we need the differential equation for o, which we may get ftom (9.82)
and
. lda (e.83)
J cll

We may also obtain it direatly ftom the figure since the voltages aqoss the inductor
and resistor are

dt 5 dt1
and

2&t

288 Chapter 9 Second Order Circuic


and that across the capacitor is o, of course. In either case, the rcsult lry KVL is
d'a da
E'2dr* 5l)- 20cosl

The natural response is the same as i[ the previous example. To get the fo.ced
response we shall hy
,/=,4cost+Bsint
which substituted into the differential equado[ results in
(4A + 28) cos t + (48 - 2A) sin t=m cos t
Equating like coefficients and solving for A and 8. we have
A=4. B=2
Therefore, the general solution is
a = e ,(At cos 2t + 42 s1\ 2t) + 4 cos r + 2 sin r
From the initial voltage, we have

0(0)=6=4+4
or Ar = 2. From the initial current and (9.83), we have
lo!0.):,0=24,-A,+2
dt

The compiete response is therefore


o = e-'(2 cos 2t + 5 sin 2r) + 4.cos, + 2 sin t

EXERCISES
9.9.1 = 6O,Z = I H, o, = 0, o(0) : 8 V, and t(0) = 4AinFis.9.l0.
I-€t,R Find t
for, > 0 if C is (a) 1F, (b) + F, and (c) i F.
Ansh)er (a) 7e 5, - 3e-, At (b) 4?-3,(cos 5r
- sin 5, A; (c) (4 - 2}t)e 3' A
9.9.2 Findoforr > 0ifR = 40O,L:10rnH, andC:5pF.
Answer e-,m,(4 cos 4rf)0t - 3 sin 4000r) V
L

txERctst 9.9.2
9.9.3 Find o for r > 0 if the cicuit is in sready state at r= 0.
Answet I- e-2(8 cos 4r - 6 sin 4t) V

Seclion 9-9 The series RIC Circuit 289


*')8v r:oj(
)e u -Lr

_ EXtRCtSt 9.9.3
9.9.4 .Findt, for r > 0if (a)C: jFtudO)C=;F.
Answer (a\ -25e-, + e-' + 24 Vt O) U
- (24 + 36t)e"' V

6cl
c
IH

cxtRctst 9-9_4

---9lLALTERNATIVE METHODS fOR OETAINING


THE DESCRIBINC EQUATIONS
Iir this section we consider two methods of expediting the process of obtaioing the
describing equatio! of the circuit. In the cas€ of the para{etind series RIC cirJuits,
a single equatiotr is requtued, which afte! difrerenriation, is the describing equatit n.
However, in many second-order circuifs there are two simultaneous circuii equa_
tions ftom which the describing e{uation is obtained after a tedious eliminarlion
process.

EXAMPLE 9.1 5 I.et us consider the circuit of Fig. 9. 12 foi , > 0. Taking node , as reference and
qridDg nodal equatiors at qodes a and or we have

o-a' o-ot ldt)


4 6 4dt
(e. E4)
ur dr+i(0)=0
--*J"
If we arc inter€-stedin finding o we must elimitrate or aad obfain the describing equa_
tion itr terms of o. The result, as the reader may verifu, is

*4*r*+rca:*+61)" (e.85)

In this-case the process is not ovedy complicated but it can be shortercd by the
melhods we shall consider in this chapter.

290 Chapte.9 Second-Ord€rCircuits


r
I

FICURE 9.12 Cjrcuit wath two storage ele:r€nts

The first method we shall discuss is a systernatic way of obraining r describing


equation, such as (9.85), from the circuit equations, stlch as (9.84). To devrlop the
method, Ier us filst introduce the diffefenfltrltio[ operatt D, which is defined by

o =!dt
That is, Dr : dx/dt, D(Dx\ : Dzt = d2x/dt2, and so on. Also, we have, for ex-
ample,

dx
ai+bx- aDx*bx=GD t b)x

It is importani here to note that r is hctored out of the middle member and placed
dJ&e/ the opemtor exFession, indicating thal the operation is to be pedormed on r.
Otherwise the meaning is changed radically.
With these ideas in mitrd, let us rewrite (9.84) io op€raror form. This resulr,
after first differenlialing the second equation. is

/t s\ I
la, * ,2r, - 6u,= iu,
I

t /t \
-loa+llo+llo,=o
b\b/
which when cleared of fi"actions becomes
(3D+5)o-2ar:3x,
(e.86)
-Da + (D + 6)0, :0.
To eliminate or, let us "opemte" on the tust equation with D + 6, by which we
mean multiply it through by D + 6 on the lefi of each term. Then let us multiply the
rcond e4uation by 2, resulting in
(D + 6X3D + 5)t, - 2(D + 6)q = 3(D + 6)os
-2Do+ 2(D + 6)o1 :0
[We notc. that colstants such as 2 commute with op€rators, i.e., (D + 6)U =
2(D + 6)r, but riabl€s do not.l Adding tbese last two equalions elimirates or and
rcsults in
(D + 6X3D + s\ - 2Dlo = 3(D + 6)oa (9.87)

Section 9.10 Alt€rnative Methods for Obtaining the Describing fquataons 291
Multiplying the operators as if they were polynomials, collecting lerms, and dividing
out the common factor 3, we have
(Dt +'lD + l0)o = (D + 6)os
which is the same as (9.85).
The procedure may be carried out in a more direct manner by using determi-
nants. For example, we may use Cramer's rule to obtain the expression for o from
(9.86), given by

,:A,A (e.88)

where A is the coefficient determinant

A= I
l;n +-s ) I
I (e.8et
| -D D+61
and Ar is given by

a'
lr,- -z :3{a + o)u'
:lo" I
(e.eo)
o+61
We note that in this last expression we must be careful to write os a/tel the opemtor.
Writing (9.88) as

{o=4,
we see ftom (9.89) and (9.90) that we have the describinS equation (9.8?).

The second method we consider is a mixture of the loop and nodal methods in
which we seiect the inductor cureDts and the capacitor voltages as the unknowns,
rather than the loop curreDts or the node voltages. We then write KVL around loops
which conrain only a single inductor and KCL at nodes, or geDemlized nodes, to
which only a single capacitor is cormected. In this .Ilanner each equation cont4irs
only one derivative, that of an inductor current or a capacitor voltage, and no inte-.
grals. The equations are then relalively easy to manipulate to find the describing
equation.

EXAMPLE 9.16 Usrng Flg. 9.12 again. let i. lhe inductor currenl. and r. the capacitor vohage. be
the unknowDs. (These unknowns are sometimes called the rtdle variables of lhe cin-
. cuit-) Then for t > 0 the nodal e4uation at node a is

r+i+__=0lda (e.e1)
4 4dt
and the loop equation around the dght mesh is

o=6i+4 (e.e2)

Itis a relatively simple rnatter to solve for i in (9.91), substitute its value into (9.92),
and simplify the result to obtain (9.85). The reader may note that we have applied

292
this method, without saying so, in obtaining the describing equation of the circuit of
Fig. 9.3 in Sec. 9.4.

Some advantages of this method are that no integmls appear (thus no second
derivatives occur as a result of differentiation), one unknow! is easily found in terms
of the others, and the initial conditions on the first derivatives are easily obtained for
use in determining the arbitrary constants in the general solution. For example, it
may be se€n from Fig. 9.12 that i(0) = 1 A and D(0) = 6 V. Thus from (9.91) and
lhe ralue ol r'rl0'). we have

do (0. )
: 0,(0-) - l0
dt

This last method can be greatly facilitated, particularly in the case of complex
circuits, by using graph theory- Since we are looking for inductor currents and ca-
pacitor voltages (the state variables), we put the inductors in the links, whose cur-
rents constitute an independent set, and the capacitors in the tree, whose bmnch
voltages constitute an independent set, as we recall ftom Chapter 6. (The fiee
should also contain voltage sources, the links should contain current sources, and so
on, if possible.)
Each inductor ,is then a link with current i, which forms a loop whose only
other elements are tree bmnches. Therefore, Kvl.around this loop will contain only
one derivative term, L (di/dt), and no integrals. This loop can easily be found since
it is the only loop in the graph if the only link added to the tree is L- For example,
the gaph of Fig. 9.12 is shown in Fig. 9.13 with tree branches shown as solid lines
and Iinks as dashed lines. The loop containing the l-H inductor is a, ar, b, a
through the branch labeled o, ard KVL around it is (9.92).

flCURt 9.I3 Craph of Fig. 9.12

Each capacitor is a tree branch whose current, together with link currents,
constitutes a set of currents flowing out of a node or a generalized node, because if
the capacitor is cut ftom the circuit, the ffee is separated into two parts connected
only by lirlks. In the eMmple of Fig- 9- 13 the thrce curents, shown crcssing the
dashed line ttuough the capacitor, labeled o, and two linl<s, add to zero by KCL.
This is stated by (9.91).

section e.10 Alternative Method3 for obtaaningihe Descibing Equations 293

I
I
I
F
EXERCISES
9.10.1 Find the describing equation fo! u, r > 0, in Exercise 9.9.4 by (a) the 6rst mpthod
of this section using.nodal equations and (b) the second method of this section.
Answer C(d'za/dt'?) + 6c (da/dr) + a:24
9.10.2 Solve Exercise 9.1.1 using (a) the tust method of this secrion applied to lhe me6h
e4uations and (b) the second method of this section.
9.10.3 Solve Exercise 9.7.3(a) using the second method of this secrion.

9..t 1

SPICE FOR TRANSIENT RESPONSES


OF HIGHER-ORDER CIRCUITS
' SPICE, or any similar compiter program, be€omes vety useful in solving circuits as
the order of the describing differential gquatiixs increases. The appliaation of
SPICE to higher-order circuits involves essentially the same procedure as thai of the
fiNt-order networks of Chapter 8.

EXAMPLE 9.17 Consider finding i and o in Fig. 9.6(b) for R = 2N A, L = 10 mH, C = I pF,
o(0) = lV, andi(0):0Aintheintenral0 < r < 1ms. A circuit file for a plot of

fICURE 9.14 Transient response tor circuit of Fig. 9.6(bl


IEOAND:

+: I([)
TUIE V{ r )
(.)---------- -1.00008+00 -5.0000t-01 o.o000a+00 5,0o0oE-ol 1.0000!+00
(+)---------- -5.00008-01 o.0oo0a+00 5.OOO03-03 1,ooo0!-02 t.5000!-O!
0.0008+00 l,0o0E+00:_---- -:------.-- -;
5.0008-05 6.750!-01
L0008-04 2. ?3r E-0r
1.500!-04 -9.1538-02.
?.0008-04 -3.602t-01 .
,.5008-04 -4.9r6E-01 .
3.000!-0t -4.392E-01 -
3.5001-0,1 -3.3168-01 -
4.000I-0.t -2.1498-01 .
4.500r-0,r -3,3658-02 .
5.000!-04 1,0?38-01 .
5.6008-04 1.932E-01 ,
6.0008-04 ,.r6tB-01 .
6.5008-04 1.9958-01 .
?.000E-0!t 1,355E-0r -
?.500E-0a 5.639!-02.
3.000E-04 -1.?s,E-02.
8.t00E-ort -7.149!-02 .
9.0008-04 -9.3108-0?.
9.500!-0.1 -9.?838-0t .
1.000E-03 -?.€30t-02 -

294 Chapler 9 Second-Orde. Circuits


ianduis
PABALLEL RLC CIBCT IT OF FIG 9.6{8) lunderalahped case!
* DATA STA'TnI'NTS
RI O 2o00HM
L 1o loiiH
c1o 1uF
* sET V(1) : I V and r(C) =0 ATT=0 USrNC . rC STAIEI,ENT
.IC V (1) t
.IBAN O. OsMS 1lls UtC
. PLC'T TRAN V(1) I(L)
. END

In this program the .IC (itritial cotrdition) comrnand sets node voltage V (l) = o, the
capacitor voltage, to atr initial value of I V. The inductor current is zero sfuce i! is
not specifred by an IC s{ateoent in L. The Pspice solurion is shown ir Fig. 9.14-

EXAMPLE 9.18 t€t us frndr,foro < r < 15 rns in the thtd-oder circuit of Fig. g.ts(a). hior to
time t : i
0, os = 10 V and the s?itch is closed. making = 0, which requires that
,
the CCCS have 7.ro cuneot (an open circuit). The circuit is redrawn Fig. h
9.15(b) illustrating these cooditions. A circuit file for finding the initial ralues
oa (0 ) and r.(0-) is

INIIIAL CONDITIONSi FOR CIRCT'IT OF. FIG. 9. 15 (b]


* DATA STATBm.IS
vcrooocro
R1 10 1lK

c1 201UF
L 1 4 0.1H
R3401K
* sollrTtoN coNltoL sT^lqnl|r
.DC CC r0 10 1
* oulPut coNIBoL sTAtstEtr
.I,ElNa DC V(C1) r (L)
, F,ID

The resulting initial Yalues are

vc v(c1) I (L)
1.000E+1 5- OOOE+OO

We can now write a circuit fle for t > 0 for Fig. 9.15(c) usirg thes€ lblues to find
o" :y(4) iq the desned htelval. Note that a dummy voltage souce or has be€n in-
serted to allow ,; for the CCCS between nodes 0 and 3.

Section 9.11 SPICE for T.ansient Rerponss of Hither-Order Circuits 295


@
(b)

FIGURE 9.15 (a) Third-order circult, (b) redrawn at I = 0-; {c) redrawn for t > O

296 Chapter g Second-Order Cn(uitr


TI],ANSIEIYT RESPoNSE FoR CIRCUIT oF FIc. 9. 15 (c)
l DATA STATEIENTS
Rt0l1K
R2t22K
.l 2 o rlt- lc-sv
\,Dt20mo
C2 20 3 2UF 1C=O
L3401HlC=5M
R4OlK
Frx03v.t0
* SOLUIION CONIROL STAT'EMENA
. TRAN 1MS TSMS UIC

' OUIPIJT CONTROL STATEMEM


. PLoT iRAN v(R3)
END

The plot of o, for rhis program is shown in Fig. 9.16.

Tl[lI V(R3)
(.)---------- -2.00008+oo 0.00008+00 2.0000E+00 .l.o00oE+o0 6,00ooE+0u

1,0008-01 1.035!+00
2.OOOA-03 ?.1r1!-Or
3.0001-03 4.493t-01
it.000E-0, 2.355x-01 .
5.000t-03 r.3?38-01
3,0008-03 4.932!-0t.
?.0008-03 -1.119!-02
3.0001-03 -5.2€0!-02 "
s.0oot-03 -?.934t-02
1.0001-01 -9.?,178-02
1.100t-02 -1.0038-01
t.t00E-0, -t.l43E-01
1.3008-02 -1.1?08-01
1.400!-0t -1.1?5!-01
1,5008-02 -1.1641-0r

FICURI 9.16 Transienr response for cjrcuir of Fig. 9.1s(a)

EXERCISES
9.11.1 Use SPIC!: to_plot_ ; in Fig. 9.6(a) for 0 < , < 500 ps wirh ,; = 0. I ! (r) A,
L = l0 mH, C = I pF, i(0) = -t0 InA, o(0) =0.and(a)R=25O,(b)R:
50 O. and (c) R 75 O.
9.11.2 Use SPICE to plot i for O < , < 4 s in Example 9. I I wirh the lo-V source replaced
by l0[r(r) - !,(r - l)l V.
9.11.3 Use SPICE to plot o in Fig. 9.5 for 0< r< 100 ms if
or = l0(e-'e - e *)u(t) y
9.11.4 Plor o, in Fig. 9.15 in rhe inteft"l 0 < /< 20 rus for
Ds = -10|/{-r) looolt o.OllLlli -r{r 0.0t)l v

Section 9.11 SP|CI for Transient Responses of Higher O.der Ci.cuits 297
9.12
l--
SUMMARY
In this chapter we have considered circuiis with tvro ttoraqe elcmentt, whos€ analy-
sis entails the solilltlon of iccond-order differenrial eEulions. As in tbe first-order
case, the solutio[ consists of a rdtrra, plus aJr.,rced response. The natuml lesponse
exhibits ,rro time contlonts, or equivalently, two hatural freqencies. The natural
ftequencies may be redl aad distinct, cottipbr, ot real and equar, resulting respec-
tiyely in the overdamped, underdanped, ui critically damped cases. Irl the unaler-
damp€d case, the lesponse is oscirratory and displays a resonont frequncy, a dafip-
ing coefftcient, altd 1 damped frcEcncy. Special important cases of second-order
cit.ttits are the WallcL and J?rr:ff RLc circuits.
The de,scribisg equalionJ for second-order circuits are obtained by eliminating
unwa.teg variables from two oi more equations. A special, direct method is to use a
dif.ferentiation opemtor D afr Cnmer's rule. Another method uses $ate rariables
gmph theorJ. Fin^lry, as was the cas€ for first-order circuits, SPICE was showtr
^nd
to be an effective tool for graphing the rraui?nt itrc|lil respcnses.

PROBTEMS
Insert a 1-O resistor in se.ies rvith o, in Fig- / > 0 if the circuit is in sterdy state
Find i for
9.2. thereby making the souce a praclical a{t=0-,
rather than an ideal one. Show lhat in this crse Find i for I > 0 if l(0) = 4 A and o(0) =
02 satisfies the second-order €quatiotr, 8V.
sff* nff,u=+ff,u 4H

Find i for t >0 if t,(0) = 9 A and i(0) :


3A. i.Ai'
tt It 2\1

PROBTTM 9.4

[*l*f!" PROBLTM 9.2


49 2H
9,5
9.6

9.1
Find o in Prob. 9.4
Find ,
'Fitrd, for
for r>

2H
0
if t(0)
ifthe circoil

i > 0 if o,(0) :
is changed to I A.
is in steady state

az(O) = r2v.

PROBLEM 9.3

294 Chapler 9 Second-Od€r Circuits

i
PROAEM 9.6

PROBTEM 9.7

9.t The aircuit is in steady stat€ at t = 0-. Fitrd o 9.f2 The ciicuit is in steady state at r = 0 . Find
,
and i for > 0. o for r >0 if I is (a) 8 H, O) 6 H, and
9.9 Find o for t> 0 ilthe circuit is in steady state
(c) 4.8 H.
att=0-. 9.13 Find i for t> 0 if the circuit is in steady state
9.10 Find i for t> 0 if the circuit is in steady state att=0_.
att=0-. 9.14 Find o for ,> 0 if the circuit is in st€ady state
9.11 Find i for a > 0 lf the circuit is in steady state att=O
. att:0-.

PROBTIM 9.8

9.9
'ro3l.tM I

299
L

Chapter9 Problems l

'I
I
t-
0.0r F

PROAI€M 9.10 PROBTEM 9.11

PROBttM 9.r2

40|

t5V t=b
lo
l2 sI )tlt-----Y-

4H

PROBLIM 9.I3 PROBTEM 9.14

9.15 Findifor, >0if ,(0) = 2 V, i(0) =1A, 9.18 Find t for, > 0if the circuit is in steady stale
and(a) I : 1 HandR = I O, (b)L = I H *hen the switeh is oponed at ,= 0.-
andR : 3 O, and(c)a = 2Handi = sO. 9.1 Find t for t > 0if os:12"(itV
9.ld Find i for . > 0 if tr(o) = 3 A, t,(0) = 9.20 Find o for t > 0 if the circuit is in stpdy slate
-1 A, and'(a) o" - 15 V, (b) o" : 10€-'' V, att=0.
and(c)o,=5e'V g.2t Find o, and 1,, for , > 0 if the circuit is in
9.1? Find I for t> O if the circuit is in steadv stare steady state at , = 0-
atr=0 _

300 Chapter 9 Second-Order Circ!its


PROBTEM 9.16

PROSLEM 9,17

Ir
PnoBLtM 9.18

301
20v

PROSIIM 9-20

PROaIM 9.21

9,22 Fird i, fot r> O ifthe ctrcuit is in sleady state 9.25 Find i for r > 0 if is : 10 A and the circuit,is
in steedy state at a - 0-.
9.23 Find i, t >'0, if tbere is no initial6tored en- 9-26 'Find lhe maximum value of fte critically
cryY and {a) R = 2 n, P = 2i 6\ R = 2 fi, damp€d rcsFtrse i of Prob. 9.25 and the ti;€
p = l;and (c)i = | a, p = 2, (
al which it occurs if is = l0& r) A. ,
9.24 Fi.d i, r > 0, if there is no initial stored en- 9.11 Find i for r > 0 if i(0) : 2 A and
. elgy and (a) c = + F, (b) c = * F, 8nd (c) 6V '(0) =
c=+F.

PROB|tM 9.22

FR()BTIM 923

302 Chapler 9 Second-Order Circuits


PROBLTM 9.24

PROBLTM 9.25 PROBLTM 9.27

9.2t Fbd o for t > O if (a) t, - 2zO) A. atrd lb) 9.30 Find o for t >0.
', = 2,''n(t) t.

PROSLIM 9.28

9.4 titrd t, t> U, tp(U) = O v aldr((,) = z A. 12 ul.t) Y


PROBTIM 9.30

9.31 (a) Find o for I > O. (b) Replace th€ c!r-


--*lir-
257 i 2H
rent and voltage sourc€s by 2 eoo 2t A alrd
6 co6 2t V, r€spec'tively, with the same polari-
_-Jv\r-:rtrf\- ti;s, and fnd o for i > 0 if therc is no initial
stored energy,
6fl ;", 9.32 Find o, t > O, if lhe circuit is in $eady state
at r : 0 . (Not€ that this is the circuit of Fig.
PROStC,ll 9.29 9.12,)

Chapt€r9 Problems 303


r-0

I J,..
6f}

rHa
li.
PROBTEM 9.31 PNOBLEM 9.32

9.33 Find o for t >0 if o(0) =4 V and t(0): 9.34 (a) Find o for t > 0, il ol0) = 0 and
3A_ o5l(t) = 2 y. (b) Repeat part (a) if th€ 4-V
soulce is replaced by on€ of 26 co6 2r V (c)
R€p€at part (a) if the 4-V by
q In one of 2" ' v.
source is replacld .

=1*.3
9,35 Find o for r > 0 if therc is no initial s1oled
energy.
i\
,/l6c.s8rv tiF lo 9.36 Ffud the 'value, m mnge of lalu€s of
p : I + R > 1 so that the circuit is (a) ove!-
damped. O) underdarnped, and (c) criticatly
damped. (,Vor?. The ouFut is i) and p < 3 to
PROE|-CM 9.33
insue that the natural reEloBe. decays ntber
than grows with time.)

PROELEM 9.34

PROBLTM 9.35

304 Chapter 9 Second-Oder Cncuits


PROBLEM 9.36

PROBLEM 9.37 PROBLEM 9.38

9.31 Find o for /> 0 if there is no initial srored has ihe natural fiequencies
eneryY and 1)j : 5 V.
9.38 Find o, t > 0, if (a) ,,(0) = 4 V. o(0) : 0: s- 1, 2, 3
(b) o, (0) = 0, o(0) : 2 v; and (c) o1(0):
as its roots. Thus show that the natural re-
4 V, ,(0) : 2 V. (Note that thb rcsponse js an
unforced sinusoidal response. Such a circuit is
.alled a hamonic oscillatot .)
x,= A\e'+ A1e '1'
+ he 1'
9,39 Higher-order differential equations may be
solved in the same manner as second-order Show also that the forced response is
equations- There are more natural ftequencies
and thus more terms in the flatural rcsponse, ,=2
For example, if
and that the geneml solution is
d1t* r|'1r dx
a, 6E * 1l dt+ 6x = 12
tt:t4+tJ
show that the chamcterisric equation
9.,m Using the results of Prob. 9.39, find l, t> 0,
13+6r,+llr+6=o if there is no initial stored energy.

chaprer 9 Problems 305


fin

iir
PROALEM 9.40

COMPUTER APPLICATION. PROBTEMS


9.41 Use SPICE to plol I in Prob. Ll I in lbe interval0 < t < I s.
9.42 Use SPICE ro plot i in Prob. 9.24 in the intervalo < I < I s.
9.43 Use SPICE in Prob. 9.37 tb plo. l) in the interval 0 <t< 5 ms if os =
I5t"(r) - l,tr, 0.0005)l v.
9.44 Use SPICE to plot o in Prob. 9.38 fd 0 < t < 5 s.
9.45 for
Plot t in Prob. 9.23(a) 2 s < r < 8 s if the l2-v source is replaced by
",
ofthe glaph.
shown. (fl,rti Replace , by r + 2 s in the SPICE solutio!.)

PROBTEM 9.45

306 Chapter 9
10
Sinusoidal Excitation and Phasors

..,1

Th€ use of complgx numb€rs 10 solvo I hlrve found the equation laler attracted the attention ol th6 sci-
ac circuit problgms-the so-called that will enable us to enlific @mmunity, his politicat activi-
phasor method considered in this lies while hs was at thg University at
trans mi t e lc c tr ic ity thr o u gh
chapler-was first done by the G€F Breslau attrac,ted th€ polic€. H€ was
man-Austdan malhematician and alter4ating cu ent over
lorced to iee the colntry just as ho
electrical engines Chades Proteus thousanh of miles. I have
had finished th6 work lor his doctor
sleinmetz in a paper presenled in reduced it to a simple ate, which ho n€ver re@iv€d. He did
1893. He is noted also for the laws ot problem in algebra. olectdcal r€search in lhe Unit€d
hysteresis and foi hjs work in manu- Charles Proteus Steinmetz Slat€s, p.imarily with the G€noral
tactured lighlning. Electric company. His pap6r on com-
Sleinmetz was bom in Breslau, plex numbgrs revolutjonizod th€ anai-
Germany, the son of a govbmm€nt railway worker. Ho ysis of ac ckcuils, although it was said at th€ time that
was defomed from barlh and lost his molher when h9 no one bul Steinmetz understood the method. ln 1 g97
was 1 year old, but this did not keep him frofn b€com- he also published the first book to reduco ac calcula-
ing a scientilic genius. JuSt as his work on hyst€resis tions lo a scien@,.

307
n Chapters 8 and 9 we have aMllzed circuits containing dlnarnic eftiments and
have seen that the complete response is the sum of a natuml atrd a forced response.
The natural rcspor$e for a given circuit is obtained from the dead circrit atrd there-
fore is independent of the sources, or e\citalions. The forced response. on the other
hand, depends directly on the type of excitation applied to the circuit. trn th€ case of
a dc souce, the forced response is a dc steady-state tesponse, an expoDectial input
results in an €xponential forced response, and so on.
One of the most important e"lcitations is the sitrusoidal forcing function. Sinu-
soids abound in Dature, as, for example, in the motio! of a pendulu4, in the boutrc-
ing of a ball, aDd in the vibrations of strings and membranes. Also, as we have s€€n,
the nafuml response of an underdamped serond-order circuit is a damped sinusoid
and ir the absencc of damping is a pure sinusoid.
ln electrical engineering. sinusoidal funcrions are exlreme,y imporlant for a
number of reasons. Tbe carrier signals geremted for comrnunication purposes are
sinusoids, and, of course, the sinusoid is the dominant signal in the electric power
industry, to name two very important examples. Indeed, as we shall se€ later h the
study of Fourier series, almost every us€fuI signal in electdcal engineering can be
resolved iDto sinusoidal components.
Because of their importance, circuits with a sinusoidal forcfug futrction will be
considered in detail in this chapter. Since the natural response is hdqretrdent of the
sources and can be found by the methods of the prcvious chapterc, we shall concen-
uate on finding only the forced response. This response is important i! itself since it
is the ac steady-state response that is left after the shoit time required for the transi-
tory nalufal respon5e lo die.
Since we are interested only in the ac steady-state req)ons€, wb shall trot limit
ouselves, as we did in Chapters 8 and 9, to 6rst- and second-order circuits. As we
shall see, higher-order n C circuits may be handled, insofar as the ac steady-state
response is concerned. in lhe same way as resistive circuils.

10.1
PROPERTIES OF SlNUSOIDS
We devote this section to a review of some of the properties of sinusoidal functions.
I-et us begin with the sine wave,

o(t).: Y. sin (.)r (10.1)

308 Chapter r0 5inusoidai Ercitrtion and Phasors


${fch is skerched y., which is the
in Fig. 10.1. The anplitude of the sinusoid is
maximum value that the function attains. The mdion Irequency, or aneular fte-
qnercy, is (o, rneasured in radians p€r second (rad/s).

FIGURE 10.1 Sinusoidal function

The sinqsoid is a penbdic function, defined generally by the property

(10.2)

wlP''e T is the period. That is, the function goes through a complete cycle, or pe-
riod, which is then repeated, every I seconds. In the case of the sinusoid, the period
is

T 2' (10.3)

as may be seen from (10.1) and (10.2). Thus in I s the function goes through 1/7
cycles, or periods. lts frcquenc! f is tbe

r -T 2r
(10.4)

cycles per second, orl€ltz (abbrcviated Hz). The latter term, named for the German
physicist Heinrich R. Hertz (1857-1894), is now the standad uitit for fiequency.
Some older books use the former term, but it is beitrg discontinued. The relation be-
tween ftequency and radian ftequency is sepn by (10.4) to be

(lo.s)

A morc geneml sinusoidal expression is giveD by

u(r) = Y- sin (,,r + d) (t 0.6)

Section 10.1 Propenies of Sinusoids 309


where 6 is the phase angle, ot simply thg phase. To be consistent, since (.)t is in m-
dians, d should be expressed in mdians. However, il electrical engideeri.Dg it is of-
ten convenient to specify d in deglee,s. For example, we mEr vr te
/_\
t,=y;sin(2+;,)
or
a = V. sln (2t + 45"\
inrerchangeably. even Lhough rhe latter expression contains a matbematical ioconsis-
tency.
A sketah of { 10.6) is shown in Fig. 10.2 by rhe solid tiDe. along witb a skech
of (10.1), shown dashed. The solid cuwe is simply the dashed curve djspl?!.j.d 6/a
secords, or 0 mdians to the left. Th€refore, points on the solid curve, such as its
peaks, occur O tud, ot O/@ s, esrlier than correspoDding points on the dashed
curve. Accordingly, we shall say that y, sin (at + 6) ledds V^ sitt @, by d Iad (o!
degrees). ln geneml. the sinusoid

ur = Y., sm ((,-lt - a)
leads the sinusoid

a, = Vfl sin (at + P)


by d - B. A0 equilalent c\pression is that D) lags q by d p.

flCURt 10,2 Two sinusoids with differeot phases

As an example, consider
u,-4sin(2r+30')
and
xr=6sllr-(2t-12"\
Then ol leads o, (or o, lags or) by 30 (-12) = 4X
-
Thus.far we have considered sine functions tather than cosiDe functions in
defining sinusoids. ll d{es not mattel rphich form we use since
/_\
coslor-11=sinu,r (10.7)
\2/
310 Chapter'10 Sinusoidal E!€atation and Phasors

I
sin (.,r + iJ : cos -r (10.8)

The only dilference between sines and cosines is thus the phase angle. For example,
we may write (10-6) as

Drr)=Y-cosl.,,r+5 llIJ
\

EXAMPIE '10.1 To determine how much one sinusoid leads or lags another of the same fi€quency,
we mult first express both as sine $aves o! as cosine waves with positive aftplitudes.
For examPle t"t
= 4 cos (2/ + iff)
,'
and

4= 2sin(2t+18')
I nen. slnce

-sin @t = sin (.r, + 180')


we have
1,2=2sh(2t + l8'+ 180')

= 2 cos (2t + 18. + 180. - 90')


= 2 cos (2t + 108')

Comparing this last e,\pression with or, we see that or leads o2 by 30" - 108' =
-78', which is the same as saying that Dr lags o, by 78'.
The sum of a sine wave anil a cosine wave of the same fiequency is another si_
. ousoid of thal frequency. To show this. consider

A cos ,r +B sin .r = lA\ Pl


;6|7*" ., , ,f-"^ .,)
which by Fig. 10,3 may be written
A cos rat I B sin a,r - \4f-T-F 1cost,rt cos d - sin t,lr sin 0,
. By a formula from trigonome&y, this is
,q cosr.,t + B s:rr art = lFaE cos (r,rr - 0) (10.9)

where. by Fig. 10.3.


,B
0 = ran-ti (10.10)

A similar result may be established if the sine and cosine terms have pbase angles
other than zero, indicating that, in general, the sum of two sinusoids of a given {ie-
quency is another sinusoid of the same frequency-

section 10.1 Properties of sinusoids 31 1 l


FICURE 10.3 Triangle useful in adding two sinusoids

We must be clear on whar is meant by (10.10), sitrce some mathematics books


takg this exFession as the pdncipal value of the arctangent and place d h a apecifc
quadmnL We mean that the terminal side of the angle d is in the quadrant where the
point (A. B) is localed.

txAMPL[ 10.2 We have

-5 cos 3r - t2 sin lr = 16, I, t2,"o,


fr, -
* '(*)]
13 cos (3r - 112.6.)

since lan-r (12/-5) is i0 lhe second quadmnt, because A = -5 < 0 and B --


12>O

EXERCISES
l0.t.l Find rhe period of rhe following situsoids:
tar 4 cos (3r - 33').
'"' *" /2r - 1) r :.; 1\
\- 4/ - *'\-/r,
(bt cos
6)'
(c) 8 sin 2zr.
antwt ta) 2n/3r ftt t; lc) I
10.1.2 Find the amplitude and phase of the following silusoids:
. (a) 6 cos 2r + 8 sin 2r.
_ (b) (4V3 3) cos (2r + 30) + (3V5 4) cos (2r + 60").
- -
[Suggestion: In (b), expand both functions and use (10.9).]
. Aniwqr (a).10, -53.10; (b) 5, 36.9.
10.1.3 Find tbe frequency of rhe following sinusoids:
(a) 3 cos (6ar -
10').
(b) 4 sin 377r.
Ansyer (a) 3i b) 60 Hz

312 Chapler l0 Sinusoidal Excitation and Phaso.s


AN f,T CIRCUIT EXAMPLE
As an example of a circuit with a sinusoidal excitation, let us 6Dd the forced compo_
netrt iof the curent i in Fig 10.4. The describing equation is

,d! ,r, =v."*., (10.11)

and followirtg the method of Chapter 9, let us assume the trial solution
'i=Acos@r+Bsinort

rrcURE 10.4 Rl circuit

Substituting the trial solution into (10.11), \{e have


L(-@A sin @t + @B cos ot) + lt (A cos (.)t + I sin (.)t) : v. c6 @t

Therefore, equating coefficients of like ternrs, we must have


M*aLB=V^
-oLA+RB:O
from which

uLV"
B=
R, +;Li
The forced response is then
Rv- aLV^ (,l
i'' =
L' cos.dt -
srn
R'+ ot R' + u'L'
-:--
which by (10.9) and (10.10) may be witteD as

vta[\ - tan-'^J (lo.l2)


n=
;1, * -,1cos -
\"'r
The forced response is, therefore, a sinusoid like the excitation, as we pledicted
when we chose the trial solution. We may write it in the form
ir = I- cos (@t + 6\ (10.13)

Secrion 10.2 An Rr Circuit Example 313


\rAere

,v^
\./R, +.,'21.2

@L
(10.14)
R
Since the natuml response is

i": Ate Rt/L

it is clear that after a sho.t time i. + 0, aDd the current seltles down to its ac steady
slate value, given by (10.12).
The method we have used is straightforward and conventional but, as the
reader might agrce, is rather laborious for such a simple problem. For a second-ordef
circuit, the method is more tedious, as was illustrated by the example of (9.34). For
very high-order circuits the procedure is, of course, even more complicated. Evi-
dently, we need a bett$ method. One such method is developed in the remainder of
this chapter, and irs use allows us to tlea! circuits with stomge elements in the same
way we uealed reSistive circuits in Chapters 2, 4, and 5.

EXERCISES
10.2,1 Find the forced response iin Fig. 10.4 if L = 60 rnH, R = 8 kO, V, = 4 V, and
@ = 100,000 rad,'s.
Al'rl'er 0.4 cos (100,000r - 36.9') mA
10,2.2 Find the forced component of o.
. tu,c, tRl-/ll RC J cos (.rr - tan (,RCt V
-

[xtRctst 10.2.2

1 0.3
AN AITERNATIVE METHOD USINC COMPLEX NUMBERS
The alternative method of analyzing citcuits with sinusoidal excitations, which we
consider in the remainder of the chapter, relies heavily on the coocept of complex
numbers. The reader who is unfamiliar with complex numbers, or who needs to re-
view the subject, should consuit Appendices C and D, where conplex numbers and

314 Chapter l0 Sinusoidal Excitation and Phaso6


thei properties are discussed in some detail. For convenience, we list a few of these
properties in this section b€fore considering the alternative method of analysis.
The complex number A is written in rectangular form as
A=a+ jb (10.15)

where j = \EJ and the real numbers d and b are the real and imaginary parts of
A, respectively. Equivalendy, we may say that
a=ReA, b=lmA
where Re and Im denotr lhe real pa of and lhe imagimry parr ol
The number A may be written also in the polar form,

A=lAler"=lAlld (10.16)

where iA I is the magnitude, given by

L
el = t/7'l-F
and a is the an8le or argument. given by

o = ,^n '
!
These relations betiveen rectangular and polar forms are illustrated in Fig l0.5

flCURt 10.5 Ceometrical represenlation of a complex number A

EXAMPT-I 10.3 Suppose that we have A=4+ j3. Then lAl= \/4'1 +3'?=5 and d=
tan ' I .1b.9'. Therefore. the polar form is
A slllg
EXAMPLE 10.4 Consider A = -5 - ,
j 12. Since both d and are negative, the line segment repre-
senting A lies in the third quadrant, as shown in Fig. 10.6, ftom which we see that

lAl= V5'- 12:= ll


and

d= l8o'- ran-'
l z+t.o'
Thus we have A = 131247.4'.

Section 10.3 An Altemativ€ MeIhod Using ComPlex Numbe6 315


FICUf,E 10.6 Complex number with neSatjve real and imagjnary parts

Other usefi, results are


j=\/w
j'= 't = t/tEo"

By Euler's forrDula. wtuch is discussed in Appendix D aud which we have used


in Chaptf,r 9, we know Illat
V- cos tDt + jV^ sB at = V^eN
Therefore, we trlEr say that

V6 c6 @t = Re(V-etu) (r0.17)
and
' Y. sin ot : MV^etu)
Retuning to the Rt circuir example of Fig. 10.4. we know rhat exronentials
are matnernallcall, easier to handle aB excitarions &an sinusoids.
Therefore. let us
see what happens if we apply the complex excitation
, at: V^er'' (10.r8)
instead of rhe feal excitatioD

os = y- cos or = Re r)r (10.19)

We cannot duplicate such a complex excitation i! the laboratory. but there is no rea-
soD we calurotconsidq it abstracdy. In this case the forced compoDent of the cl|r_
rent, which we call ir, satisfies

' rfr + nr = ar = v-etu, (ro.2o)

376 Chapter 10 Sinusoidal Excitat'on and Pha5o6


To solvc this equation, we try
i = AeP'
which, substituted into (10.20), yietds
I j@L + RtA?' = V-e -
from which
V^
^- n+ Pt
v- ,,," ,..., *
VR' + d')L'
using complex number division. Therefore, we have
.v-
VR' - d'L'
Let us now observe that

o.,, = *"1-4
+ h"Lz""-"--'"''"]l
I \/R'1

' - v. I ,rt-\
tan'RJ
t?-Zcosltor
which, by (10.12), is the corect folced response of Fig l0.4. That is'
rr = Re l' (10.21)

we have established for this erample lhe interesting resuh thal if ir is the com-
plex response to the complex forcing function or, then = Re is the response to i i
u, = ne o'. That is, o' yields ir and Re or = os yields Re ir = The reasoi for i.
this is that the describing equation (10 20) contains only real coefficients. Thus,
fiom (10.20), we have

=*",,
""(rf;*",,)
OI

r4-tn. r't - R{Re i,, = y. cos.rr


dt

and therefore. by {10.1 l).


r=i=Rer, (10.22)
Ttus we see that it is easier lo use the complex forcing functioD Lr to find the
complex response ir. Then since the real forcing functioD is Re tJ1, the real respons€
is Re ir. This principle holds for all our cLcuit amlyses, since the describing equa-
tions are lincar with r€al coefficients, as may be seen in a developmelnt analogous to
thar leading to r I0.22).

Secrion 10.3 An Alternative Method Using complex Numbe6 317


EXERCISES
10.3,1 Replace the real forcing function /, cos {rt in Exercise 10.2.2 by the complex forc_
ing function 1.?/.', find the resulting complex response o,, and show that the real re-
spons€ is o = Re or,
10.3.2 Show that, for a real.

n"/,d')
\ drl - dt
o3,n. ,,
and use this result ro esrablish (10.22). (Susgestian:
llJt:t = /+
J8, where/and8
are real. )
10.3.3 In Exercise 10.2.2, replace the curent souce by ir = 1-€,.'A and show that the re-
sponse o, has the propqty that Re or = o, where o is the original response.

10.4
COMPTEX EXCITATIONS
[,et us now generalize lhe results using complex excitalion functions in the preceding
section- The excitation, as well as the forced response. may be a sinusoidal voltage
or curent. However, to be specific, let us consider the input to be a voltage source
and.the outputto be a curent though some element. The other cases may i consid-
- , ered in an analogous way.
In general, we know that if
o, = V_ cos e)t + 0) (r0.23)
the forced response is of the form

i = I- cos k'rt + 4) (10.24)


as indicatedin the general circuit of Fig. 10.7. Therefore, if by some means we can
find 1. and we have olll answer, since .r, d, and y, are known.
{,
To solve for i in Fig. 10.7, let us apply the complex excitation

at = vder@t+o) (to.zs)

flCURt 10.7 Ceneral circuit with input and output

318 Chapter 10 Sinusoidal txcitation and Phasors


and find lhe complex response ir, as shown in Fig. 10.8. Then we know from the
results of the preceding section that the real response of Fig. 10.7 is

t = Rei, (10.26)
This is a consequence oi the fact that the coefficients in the describing equation are
real. as pointed out previously.

l4

FICURE 10.0 Ceneral circuit with a complex excitation

The deit;ribing equation may be solved fo! the forced response by the method
of Chapler 9. That is, since we rnay wtite the excitation as

ar = Vneroejd (t0.27\
which is a constalt times €t-, then the trial solution is

i' = AeP'
Comparing (10-24) and (10.26), we must have
I^.os (@t + {) = Re[Aefl
which requires that
A = I.eb
and hence
L= Ihei6 er" (10.28)
Taking rhe real pad. we have the solution (10.24r, of course.

EXAMPTE 10.5 I-et us find the forced respoise i of

! , z r 8r = l2\4 cos (2r + 1s..,


,4

First we replace the real excitation by the complex excitation,


t), - l2\5 e'n'-ts"
where for coovenience lhe phase is written in dege€s. (This is. of couse, ao incon-
sistent mathematical explession, but as long as w€ interpret it correctly it should
present no difficulty.) The complex respons€ ir satisfes

9! + zo! + s;, = 121f2


tll "n'r"

Section l0.4 Compler Excilations 319


atrd it rnust have tha g€neral form
il = Ael'
Thercfore, we must have

l-4 r j4 + StAeL = l2leE eatens"


or,
A=
which gives
i = (3/-3cP)el
: 3ei@-toPl
Thus the real answer is
rr = Re i, = 3 cos (21 - 30')

.EXERCISES

10.4.1 (a) From the time-domain e{uations find the forced response l) if os = 10€i3, V. (b)
Usirg the result in (a), frnd the forc€d response o if os : l0 cos 8t V.
Answet (n) 2ei\3ts3' e V (b) 2 cos (8r 53.1.) V

EXERCISI 10.4.r

10.4.2 Find the forced response o in Exercise 10.4.1 tf as = l0 sin 8r y. (Suggestion.


sin 8r : Im eJr'.)
Answer 2 sm (8t - 53.1) V
10.4.3 Using the method of complex axcitation, find the forced response i if Ds =
20 cos 2t Y.
Answer 2 as (2t + 36.9") A

10.4.4 Repeat Exercise 10.4.3 if o, : t.:':;:t""t


Ausk?. 2 cos 4, A

320 Chapter l0 Sinusoidal frcitation and Ph6o6


r-- 10.s
PHASORS
The results obtained in the preceding section may be put in much more compact
form by the use of quantities called p/rdrorr, which we shall introduce in this sec-
tion. The phasor method of analyzing circuits is credited generally to Charles Pro-
teus Steinmetz (1865-1923), a famous electrical engineet with the Ceneral Electric
Company in lhe early part ol this cenlur].
To b€gin, let us recall the gen€ral sinusoidal voltage,

Y. cos (irr + 0) (10.29)

which, of course, is the source voltage Ds of the preceding section. If the frequency
o is known, then D is completely specified by its amplitude y. and its phase 0. These
quantities ale displayed in a related complex number,

v=vnet6=vd/g (10.30)

which is defined as a phasor, or a phasot represandtion. To distinguish them from


other complex numbe$, phaso6 are printed in boldface type, as indicated.
The motivation lor the phasor dehnrrion ma) be seen from the equivalence. by
Euler's fomula, of
' V-cos (4,' + d) = Re(Vneiaejut) ( ro.3l )
Thereforer in view of (10.29) and (10.30), we have

tJ = Re(ver'') (10.32)

. EXAMPTE 10.6 Suppose that we have

r' : 10 cos (4r + 30') V

The Phasor rePresentation is rhen

v = 10l]q v
since y- = l0 and 0 = 30'. Conversely, since (d : 4 rad/s is assumed to be
known, , is readily obtained from V.

In an identical fashion we define the phasor reFesentation of the time-domain


current
i=1-cos(@r+d) (r0.33)
to be
l=t.ejo-t-14 (10.34)

Section 10,5 Phaso6 321


Thus if we knon, for example, that ar :6 rad/s and that I = 21!f A, the! we
have

i=2cos(6r+15")A
we have chosen lo represent sinusoids aod theL relared phason on fte basis of
cosine functiolls using the hct that cos art : Re(e"). We could have cho6€n sine
fimctions just as easily, using sin ort = Irn (er') (see Exercise 10.4.2). Thus if a
function such as

o=8sin(3r+3f)
is given. we may change il to
rl=8cos(3t+30'-90)
= 8 cos (3r - 60')
Then the phasor representation is
v = 8L60'
Had we chosen to base the phrso$ on sine firnctioDs, then we would keep o a6 is
ard write its phasor as 8f3E, which, of course, wodd represent 8 sin (3t + 3f) in
the time domain. An illustration using sine-basdd phasors is given in Example
t0. t6.

EXAMPLE 1O.7 To se€ how the use of phasors can greatly shorten the work, let us reconsidgr Fig.
10.4 and its describing equation (l0.ll), rewitte& as

t-:cll t Ri = Y. 6* .,,, 0.35)

Following oul me$od, we replace the excilarion y. cos ot by the complex forcirg
function
at = V^eN
which may be writen
ot:Ieb
since0 = 0, and therefole V = v^19: v^. S8bstituting this;lue aDd i = ir into
(10.35), we have
di,
L-:+ Ri1 =VeN
.dt
whose solutjon ir b related to lhe real solution i by
i-Reij
Next, hying
=w
322 chapte.10 sinusoidal Excilation and Phasors
as a solution, we have

. ioLlei't + Rleia' = Vett'


Dividing out the factor ed, we have the phasor equation
j@LI + Rl:y (10.36)

Therefore,

vv^ / .aL
'
R + ioL VR, + t',L' f -tan R
Substituting this lue into the exptession fot ir, we have
.v-
vR1 + u'L,
Taking the real part, we have i = i, obtained earter in (10.12).

It is importart to note that if we can go directly from (10.35) to (10.36), there


is a vast saving of time and effort. Also, in the process we have conveated the differ-
ential equation itrto an algebraic equation, somewhat like those encountered in resis-
tive circuits. Inde€d, the only difference is that the Dumbers here are complex,
whereas in resistive circuits they were real. With tle hand calculatot as cornmonly
a€ilable as it is today, even the complexity of the numbeN presents little difficulty.
In the remainder of the chapter we shall see how to bypass all the steps be-
twe€n (10.35) and (10.36) by studying the phasor relationships of the circuit ele
ments and conside rg Kirchhoff's laws as they pertain to phasors. Indeed, as we
shall see, we may go directly from the circuit to (10.36), bypassing even the step of
writing down the differetrtial equation.
In general, the real solutions are time-domain firnctions, and their phasofi are
frcquenct-domain fitnctions (i.e.i they are functions of the ftequency o). This is il:
Iustrated by the phasor I of Examplg 10.7. Thus to solve the time-domain Foblems,
we may convert to phasors and solve the corresponding freque cy-domain problems,
which are generally much easier. Fioally, we convert back to the time domain by
fiDding the time fuDction ftom its phasor representation.

EXERCISES
10,5.1 FiDd the phasor representation of (a) 4 cos (2t + 45"), (b) 8 cos 2t + 15 sin 2r, and
(c) I srn (Jr -
b)_).
Answer (a) 4 lgt@) ti
/ -6r.9"i @) 2 l2s'
10.5,2 Find the time-domain tunction represented by the phasors (a) 101:!U, O) 6 + j8,
and (c) -j6. In all cases a' : 3.
An$'€r (a) 10 cos (3, - l7'); (b) 10 cos (3r + 53.1'); (c) 6 cos (3r - 90')

Section 10.5 Phasors 323


10.6
VOLTACE-CURRENT RELATIONSHIPS TOR PHASORS
In this section we show that relationships between phasor voltage and phasor current
for resistors. inductors, and capacitors are very similar to Ohm's law fff resistors. In
fact, the phasor voliage is proportional to the phasor cwrent' as in Olun's law' with
the proportionality factor being a constant or a function of the tequency (,
We begin by considering the voltage-curent lelation for the resisfor,
o=Ri (10.3?)

where
' a =V.cos(rdt+0)
(10.38)
i=I^cos(d+A\
If we apply the complex loIt^ge V-ejt't+o), the complex current which results is
1-?,1-+c), which substituted into (10.3?) yields
Vdel-t+o) : N-ei\.1+6t
Dividing out the factd ej'' results in
V^eio = Rl^ejo (10.39)

which, since V.er" and /-?' are the phasors V and I, respectively, !€duces to

V=RI (10.40)

Thus lhe phasor or ftequency-domain relalion lor lhe resislor is exacll] like lhe time-
domain rilation. The voltage-current relations for the resistor are illuslrated in
Fis. 10.9.

FICURE 10.9 Voltage-current relations for a resistor Rjn the (a) time and (b) freqLrency

' From (10.39) we hav€ y. = RI- and 0 = 0. Thus the sinusoidal voltage and
cu ent for a resislor have the same phase angle, iil which case they are said to be irl
prdre. This phase relationship is shown in Fig. 10 10, *tere the voltage is repre-
sented by the solid line and the current by the dashed line.

324 Chapter 10 Sinusoidal Excilation and Phaso6


IICURE 10.10 Voltage and current waveforms for a resistor

EXAMPLE IO.8 Suppose lhar the vohage

1) = I0 cos (t00r + l0') V (lo.4l)


is applied across a 5-O resistor, with the polarity indicated in Fig. 10.9(a). Then the
phasor voltage is
v = l0ll0" v
and the phasor current is

r=Y-rofo'-t,:o"e
R5
Therefore. ir the iime domain we have
i= 2 cos (100r + 30') A (r0.42)
This is. of course. simply lhe result we would have obrained using Ohm's law.

In rhe case of the inductor, substituting the complex curent and voltage into
the time-domain relationl

,L4
gives the complex relalion

v-"'-' n = yd 11-",- '1


= ioLI^et''+6)
Again, dividing out the factor er- and identifying the phasors, we obtain the phasor
relation

v = jaLt (10.43)

I', section 10.6 Vohage-Curent Relationships for Phasors 325


Thus the dnsor voltag€ V. as in Ohm's law. is Foportiooal to the phasor clllrent I,
with dr€ pioportionality hctor irz, Th€ voltage-current relations for the indEtor
are shov/n in Fis. 10.11,

y+ ( j@L\(r^/A

atr inductor ttle cuJrent ,a8s tlie voltage by 9f.


Another expie3siorl that is u6ed is
that the cufien! atrd voltage are 90o oxt of pbrse. This i! $hown graphically in FU.
10.12.
Finaly. let us consider the capacitor. Substituting the complex cunent aDd
voltage into the dme-domain relatiotr,

i=ci-do
FtcuRf 10.12 VoltaSe and cuqent waveforms ior an ihductor
v,i I

L 326 Chapter 10 Sinusoidal Exciiation and Phaiots


t
i

I
give\ the complex relation

I4etd' at = c 4tlv-?rd+s'l

. = i@CV-sit**ot

Again dividing by e! and idenlirying lhe phasors. we obtain rhe phasor relation

I : jaCV (10.44)

I
v= juc ( 10.45)

Thus the phasor voltage V is proportional to the phasor current I, with the propor-
tionality factor given by I / jac . The voltnge-current relations for a capacitoi in the
time and ftequeoq/ domains are shown in Fig. 10.13.

G) (b)
flCURt 10.13 VoltaSe-current relations for a capacitor in the (a) time and (b) frequenc)
domains

In the genenl case, if the capacitor voltage is given by the first equation of
(10.38), then by (10.,14), the phasor curent is

t = (jac)(v^/!)
= @cv^/o + 90"

Therefore, in the time domain we have

i i: @CVn cos t.tt t 0 + gDo)


i
which, by comparison with the fu$ equation of (10.38), irdicates that in the case of
I a capacitor the current and voltage are out of phase with the current leading tbe

l voltage by 9O'. This is shown graphically in Fig. 10.14.

Section10.6 voliaSe-cur€nr Relationships for Phasore 327

I
t
FICURt 10.14 Voltage dnd cutrent waveforms lor: capacitor

EXAMPTE 10.9 Il rhc voltaBe of (lo.4l' r\ applred acros\ a l-/]f capacitor. (hen b] {10.44t lhe
phar,,I currcnl i\
t = Jr l00r l0 "r{ 101jff} A
= lAzq mA
The time-domain current is then
I= coc {t00r - t20"r mA
and therefore the current leads the voltage by 90'.

EXERCISES
10.6.1 U.ing phasors. tind the ac \te.rdy state currenl r ifo - 12costlOOOt + 30') V in
(a) Fig. 10.9(a) for n - 4 kO, (b) Fig. lO.ll(a) for L = 15 mH, and (c) Fi8.
l0.lJ(a)lora = . /rF.
Azswer (a) 3 cos (1000t + 30') mA; (b) 0.8 cos (1000t - 60') A;
(c) 6 cos (1000t + 120) mA
10.6.2 ln Exercise 10.6.1, find i in each case at t = 2 ms.
Anster (a) 2.445 mA; (b) 0.4 A; (c) 3.476 mA

10.7
IMPEDANCE AND ADMITTANCE
Let us now consider a Seneral circuit of phasor quantities with two accessible termi-
nals, as shown in Fig. 10.15. If the time-domain voltage and current at the termi-
nais are given by (10.38), the phasor quantities at the terminals are
v = v^1!
(10.46)
| = r.l:!
328 chapter l0 sinusoidal Excitation and Phasors
I
FICURI 10.15 General phasor circuit

We define the ratio of the phasor voltage to the phasor current as lhe
tmp?dakr of lhe cl..cuit. which we denore by Z. That ts.

z:7 (10.47)

which by (10.46) is
z=lzl&=Yrc- o (10.48)

where I Z I is the magnitude and dz the angle of Z. Evidently,


zl _v_ e":0-o
Impedance, as is seen f()m (10.47), plays the role, in a general circuit, of resistance
in resistive circuits- Indeed, (10.47) looks very much like Ohm's law; also like re-
sistance, impedance is measured in ohms, being a mtio of volts to amperes.
It is important to stress that igrpedance is a complex number, being the ratio of
two complex numbers. but it i\ not a phasor. That is. il haq no corrJsponding \inu-
soidal time-domain funcrion ol any phy\ical meaninB. as curre'nt and voltage
phasor: have.
The impedance Z is written in polar form in (10.48); in rectangular form it is
genemlly denoted by

Z=R+ jX ( 10.49)

where R = Re Z is the resistfue conponent, or simply r?sistanc?, and X = In\ Z is


lhe reactive conponent, ot reactance. fn general, Z = Z(ja) is a complex function
ofJ.r, but R = R (o) and X = X((') are real tunctions of o. Both R and X, like Z,
are measured in ohms. Evidently, comparing (10.48) and (10.49) we may write

El _ \fN + x,
.x
ez
R
and
a
R= Z co\ 0,
y=lZ sin 0z

i These.relations are shown graphically in

Seclion 10.7 lmpedance and Admittance


Fig. 10.16.

329
FICUIE't0.t6 Craphicat representation of impedance

EXAMPIE t0.lo Suppose in Fig. 10.15 thar V = 10156.9" V and I= 2120" A,. Then we have

7=lL^,^E$
2/20"
h.g"a
In rectangular form this is
Z = 5(co\ J6.9' Ij sin 16.9"1
= 4 , j3A
The impedances of resistors, inductors, and capacitors are readily found from
their V-lrelations of (10.40), (10.43), and (10.45). Disringuishing their
impedances with sutrscripts R, a, and C, respeatively, we have, from iiese e{uations
and (10.47),

ZN:R
zL=jaL:@LN:
(r0.50)
z.: -L = -;1
- j@C " aC -L7
= uC- q6.

In the case of a rcsistor, &e impedarce is purely resistive, its reactance being zero.
Impedances of inductors and capacitors ale purely reactive, having zero rJsistive
componeats. The inductiae rcactence ir deDoted by

XL = ."L (10.51)

so that
L= jx"
and the capacitive reacance ii demted by

__l
-aC (10.s2)

and thus
,{
k- jx.
I
(10.s3)

330 Chapter 10 Sinusoidal fx€itation and Phaso6


Since (,, 1-, and C are positive, we see that inductive reactance is positive and
that capacitiv€ rqrctance is negative. ln the general case of (10.49), we may have
X = 0, in which cas€ the circuit appears to be resistive; X > 0, in which case its re-
actance appeaN to be inductive; and X < 0, in which case its reactance appellrs to
be capacitive. These cas€s are possible when resistance, inductanc€, and capacitance
are all present in the circuit, as we shall see. As an example, the cicuit with
impedance given by Z = 4 + j3, \rhich we have just considered, ha! reactance
X = 3 , which is of the inductive t)?€. In all cases of passive circuits, as we shall se€
in Chapter 12, the resistance lt is nonnegative.
The reciFocal of impedance, denoied by

v=+ (r0.54)

is called admittan e a$d is analogous to conductance (the reciprocal of resistance) in


resistive cirpuits. Evidently, since Z is a complex number, then so is Y, the standard
representation being

Y=G+jB (10.55)

The quantilies G = Re Y and B = Im Y are called conductance and susceptance,


respectively. and are relaled to the inpedance componen6 t}
by
Y=Gr+i8 =;="tj (r0.s6)

The units of Y, G, and B are all siemens, sinca in general Y is the mtio of a current
to a voltage phasor.
To obtain the relation between components of Y and Z we may ralionalize lhe
last member of (10.56), which results in

1 R- iX
c+ jB= R +ji R- ix

F4uating real and imaginary parts results in

-R
(10.57)
^X
"--R\x,
Therefore. we nole that R aDd C are rrt reciprocals excepl in the purely resistive
case (X = 0). Similarly, X and ,8 are novff reciprocals, but i!
the purely reactive
case (.1R = 0) rhey are negadve reciprocals.

I Secrion 10.2 lmpedance and Admattance 331


EXAMPLE 10.11 If we have
Z=4+ j3
then
., l 4- 4 t j3
'-4+ i3- 4'+3' E rE
Therefore, G = andB = f --f -

Furlher examples are


Yr=G
Y.=+
yc _ joc
which are the admittances of a resistor, with R : l/G, an inductor, and a capacitor.

EXERCISES
10.7.1 Find the impedance seen at the termrnals of the souce in Fig. 10.4 in both re.tangu-
lar and polar lorm
Ans\|et R + jaL, \/R1 + a'1Ll len-t aL/R
.1S7.2 Find the admittance seen at the terminals of the source in Fig. 10.4 in both rectan-
gular and polar form.

10.7.3 Fild the conductaoce and susceptance if Z is (a) 6 - j8, (b) 0.2 + j0.15, and (c)
:-: / :.35"
A"sw"r (a) 0.06,0.08; (b) 3.2. -2.4; (c) -4, 4

'10.8

KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS AND IMPEDANCE COMBINATIONS


Kirchhoff's laws hold fol phaso.s as well as for thei corresponding time-domain
voltages or curents. We may see this by obsewing that if a complex excitation, say
Vnej\@t+o\, applied to a circuit, lhen complex voltages, such as Vrer(''+dr),
is
V2ejt't+or, etc., appear across the elements in the ci.cuit. Since Kirchhoff's laws
hold in the time domain, KVL applied around a typical loop results in an equation
such a\
Vteit.t+\) + V1e1.t+02\ +. . ..+ yren.doN):0
Di!iding out the common lactor p/ . we have

v,+v,+...+vd:0 i
where
v" = v,&, n: r,2,. . . ,N

332 chaorerio snusoidar Excitationaodphasors


I
are the phasor voltages around the loop. Thus KVL holds for phasors. A similar de-
velopment will also establish KCL.
ln circuits having sinusoidal excitations with a common ftequency (r, if we are
interested only h the forced, or ac steady-state response, we may firld the phasor
voltages or curents of every element and use Kfuchhoff's laws to complete the a.lal-
ysis. The ac steady-state analysis is therefore identical to the resistive circuit analysis
of Chapters 2, 4, and 5, with impedances replacing resistances and phasors replacing
time-domain quantities. Once we have found the phasors, we can convert immedi-
ately to the time-domain sinusoidal answers.

EXAMPTE 10.12 Consider the circuit ofFig. 10.17, which consists of N impedances connected in se-
ries. By KCL for phasors, the single phasor curent I flows in each element. There-
fore, the voltag€s shown actoss each element ille
\: ZJ
- Vz =. Z,l

V, = Z,l
and by KVL around the circuit,
v=Vr-V:'.. +v, t
=12,-2._.. . + zN)l
Since we must also have, ftom Fig. 10.17,
\ = Z,.tl
\\here z,*ls the equfualent impedance se€n at the terminals, it follows that

Za=Z'+22+...+ZN (10.58)

as in thp case of series rcsistors.

frcURt 10,17 lmpedances connected in series

Seclion 10.8 Kirchhoff's Las and lmpedanc€ Combinations 333


Similarly. as was rhe case for parallel conductlnces in Chapt€r 2, the equiva-
lent admittance Yq of N parallel admittances is

Yq = Y, + Y, + .'' + Y{ (10.J9)

In the case of two paEllel glements (-lf = 2), .xe have

_ltz,z,
z* = (10.60)
Y* Yn Y,= zn z,
In like manner, voltage and current division rules hold for phasor circuits,
with impedances and fte$rency-domain quantities, in exactly the same way that they
held for resistive circuils. with resistances and time-dornain quantitie.s. The reader is
asked to establish these rules in Exercise 10.8.2.

EXAMPTE I0.13 [-€! us retuin to the RZ cbcuit considered in Sec. 10.2. The circuit and its phasor
counterpart are shown in Fig. 10.18(a) and (b), respe.tively. By KVL in the phasor
circuit we have
zLt+ Rt=v^l!

(jaL + R)r - v^1!


ftom whilh the phasor current is

,'-R+Jtz
v"Ly

v^ / ,on
vR, + azLtl R

Therefore, in the tine domain we have, as before,

.= v. cos
/ - tat-,rr\
'n/
' vF-;1L, \ot

flCURt 10.18 (a) Timeiomain circuit; (b) equivalent phasor circuit

L iAL

+ v- IA

*
. (a) (b)

334 Chapter l0 Sinusoidal Excitation and Phaso6


An alternative method of solution is to observe that the impedance Z seeo at
the souce terminals is the impedance of the inductor, joL, and the resistor, R, con-
nected in s€ries. Ther;fore,
z= jaL+R
I and
i; , v v^Is
'- Z- R+ t,,L
I as obtaineal earlier.

i
EXERCISES
I

I
10,8.1 Derive (10.59).
10.E,2 Show in (a) that the voltage division rule,

v =urttv,
ard in O) that the current division rule,

r= v,-2,-
v--;t' z, . z,r'
are ralid, where Z, = l/Yr and Zz = l/Yz.
t l{

Y2

EXERCISI 10.8.2

10,E.3 Find the steady-state current i using phasors.


,qnswer,4 cos (4t -
36.91 A
1H

+
;F

r0.E.4 Find the steady-; , t';::::"';:;, *., phasors and vorrage divi-
sioD. ""t "r"
Answer 2 sos (4t - 126.9"\ Y

h
Section 10.8 Kirchhoff's Laws and lDpedanc€ Combinataons 335

I
i
I
10.9
PHASOR CIRCUITS
As rhe discus5ion in the preceding 5eclion suggesE. we may omit the steps of finding
the describing equation in the time domain, replacing ilrc excjtations and responses
' by their complex forcing tunctions and then dividing the equation rbrough by ?r,.to
obtain the phasor equation. We may simply start with the phasor circuit, which we
will now formalli define as rhe time-domain circuit wilh the voltages and curents
replaced by their piasors and the elenents identified by their impedatces, as illus-
tmted Feviously in Fig. 10.18(b r. The describing equation obtained ftom this circuit
. is then the phasor equation. Solving this equation yields the phasor of thg answer,
which then may be cgnverted to the lime-domain answer.
The procedure from starting with the phasor circuit to obtainhg the phasor an-
swer is identical to that used earlier in resistive circuits. The only differetce is that
. the numbers are. complex.

EXAMPLE 10,14 Let us find the steady-state curlent i in Fig. 10.19(a). The phasor circuit, shown in
Fig. 10.19(b), is obtained by r€placing tle voltage sou&e and the currents by their
phasors and laHing rhe elements with their impedances. In the phasor circuit the
impedance seen ftom the source terminals is

_ ,,(3 + j3x-j3)
3 + lJ _ It
=a-j3O
FICURE 10.19 RIC time-domain and phasor circuits

IrI
+lO

3f,,

5lQ'v
13f}

336 Chapter l0 Sinusoidal Excitation and Phasors


Therefore, we have

l, =,sq-
4 _ j3- sLl!.e"
.,54,. = r/16.s.
and by current division.
/ >':a
t=1.''."
\3+j3-j3i ,lr,=\A/ .s" A

In the time domain, the anslwer is


i = li cos (3r + 81.9") A

In the case of a dependent source, such as a source io, volts cotrtrolled,by a


voltage D., it will appear in the phasor circuit as a sourc€ tV,, wherc V, is the phasor
representation of o. , becausie D, = y. cos ((l)r + d) in the time domain rrill becomc
V-e^d*o) wl\en a complex excitation is applied. Then dividing eF out of the
equations leaves o. represented by its dEsor y-€d. In the samc way. to, =
r
kV- cos (ar d) is represented by irs phasor ,tV-e&. which is t tiftes rhe phasor
of o..

EXAMPLE I0.15 As an example of a circuit containing a dependent souce, let us consider Fig.
10.20(a), in which it is required to find the steady-state \"alue of i. The corre$poDd-
ing phasor circuit is shown in Fig. 10,20(b). Sinc€ dlasor circuits are analyzed. ex-
actly like resistive circuits, we may apply KCL at node a in Fig. lo.mo), req ting

v, - 1v.
( r0.6r)
t+ -:- = 3l0.
By Ohm's law we have Vr = 4I, which subsrituted into (10_61) yields
I

t4t\ - -i6
' j2t +
or
i6 6/-qr
-+ _ -:-/-4s.
l= 2- +=2
1

J 2V2l 4s V2- ^

FIGURE 10.20 {di Crcurr Lontdining a dependint source; rbJ correspondinS phasor circuir

:" 3te" a

Section 10.9 Phasor circuits 337


Therefore, we have
3
- 4s') A

EXAMPLE 10.16 I€t us find the steady-statc qrrlent ir in Example 10.14 if the source voltage
is o, = 5 3t v. sirce o, = 5 cos (3r - 90) v, the plBsor voltage is vs:
5 V,"itr
/-![ and, as before, the i$pedance se€n by the source is 5 O Thus t]ql
we have

.:ffi =!-53.1'A
alld
ir = cos (3t_ 53.1") = sin (3, + 36-9') A
If we had based the phasors on the sine instead of the cosine, we would save the
st€p6 offilst converting the sine to the cosine and then conve ing the cosine back to
the sine, or equiyalently, of first subtracting 90' and then adding 90' to the phase.
Based on the sine. V" = 518 V. and

= l/36.9" A,

OT

i, = sir (3t + 36.9) A

In the case of an op alnp, the phasor circuit is the same as the time-domain cir-
cuit. That is, an ideal op amp in the time-domain circuit appears as an ideal op amp
in the plEsor circuit, because the time-domai