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“Effect of CALL (Computer Assisted language learning) material on spoken proficiency of

learner at secondary school level in District Rajanpur”

Researcher Supervisor

Mazhar Hussain Prof. Dr. Mamuna Ghani

Roll No. IU16A2LBO Chairperson

M.Phil English Linguistics Department of English

Session: 2016-2018

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH
The Islamia University of Bahawalpur
FORWARDING SHEET

This is to certify that the work in this thesis entitled “Effect of CALL (Computer Assisted

language learning) material on spoken proficiency of learner at secondary school level in

District Rajanpur” has been completed by Mr.Mazhar Hussain under my supervision and is

approved for submission in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of

M.Phil in English Linguistics.

Date: ______________ _________________________

(Prof. Dr. Mamuna Ghani)

Supervisor

Chairperson/Dean

Faculty of Arts

Department of English

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the thesis “entitled “Effect of CALL (Computer Assisted language

learning) material on spoken proficiency of learner at secondary school level in District

Rajanpur” is a result of my independent investigation except where I have indicated my

indebtedness to other sources. I also declare that this thesis has not been submitted for any other

degree elsewhere.

Date: ______________ ____________________

(Mazhar Hussain)

Candidate

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APPROVAL CERTIFICATE

It is certified that the thesis “Effect of CALL (Computer Assisted language learning) material

on spoken proficiency of learner at secondary school level in District Rajanpur” by Mr.

Mazhar Hussain has been found satisfactory and is approved for the award of the degree of

M.Phil in English Linguistics.

Internal: _______________________

External: ______________________

Date: ______________________

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am grateful to the Almighty Allah, the most beneficent and merciful, all-embracing,

all-knowing who provided me with the opportunity, courage and ability to complete this research

work.

I pay my humble homage to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (P. B. U. H) who is blessing

of Allah for the universe.

I feel immense pride in extending my deepest sense of gratitude and appreciation to my

supervisor, Prof. Dr. Mamuna Ghani, Chairperson/ Dean of the Department of English, The

Islamia University of Bahawalpur, for her kind help, inspiration, encouragement, constructive

criticism and sincere personal involvement throughout the study. Her motivation, generous

assistance and appreciation for my work remained a steady source of encouragement for me.

I also extend my warm thanks to the teachers of English,The Islamia University of

Bahawalpur, for their valuable suggestions, co-operation and helpfulness.

Let me admit that I am what I am only because of ever granted prayers of my beloved

parents and moral support of my brother and friends.

Research is not a job of comfort, but a tedious one. The persons who contributed or co-

operated enough to bring some facility in this job, are worthy to be acknowledged. So I am much

obliged.

I am also, highly grateful to my worthy sincere and senior colleagues who always helped

me in my research work at the Department of English, Islamia university of Bahawalpur,

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specially Khalid Hameed Khan, Ch. Muhammad Shafique, Tanveer Akhtar Khan, Shafique

Baloch, Fida Baloch, Mustaneer Afzal Lodhi and Rao Faraz.

To my fellows, specially Nizam and Shahid Nawaz who always remained magnanimous

enough to extend me help and moral support. Nizam broke the records of educational generosity

and remained a constant source of solace and satisfaction for me throughout the journey of my

research.

To my all friends who remained around for extending help to me time and again.

Mazhar Hussain

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Abstract
English Language is getting more and more importance in the recent era as it has occupied the

status of instructions, social media and business communication almost all over the world. The

English language has got the status of second language as well as of official language. It has

become the demand of the day. So, every learner wants to speak English. But, it has been noticed

that majority of the ESL learners are unable to speak English language in my area. L1 saraiki is

used as a mode of communication in the most secondary schools of district Rajanpur. Learners

are not facilitated with the chance of learning the English language except the ESL teachers and

can’t get good books on English language learning; even don’t know the effect of CALL to

enhance the spoken proficiency of English language learning. CALL (computer assisted

language learning) has been introduced to fulfill this need. It will not only help the ESL learners

to learn language inside the classroom but also will provide them with the opportunity to get

language learning benefits outside the classroom. This study will be experimental and two

variables will be focused. One will be computer assisted language learning and other will be

traditional instruction. There will be two groups and 30 participants in each group. A pre – test

and post – test will be conducted to collect the data then data will be analyzed statistically.

CALL provides many spoken English language soft ware to enhance the spoken proficiency of

English language learners. It will motivate the students to learn English language, and being a

technology, it will be interested for learners. INSHA ALLAH, This study will assist English

teachers, curriculum developers and education policy makers of Pakistan.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
FORWARDING SHEET

DECLARATION

APPROVAL CERTIFICATE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

ABBREVIATIONS

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ONE INTRODUCTION TO STUDY 1
1.1 Introduction to the study
1.2 Background of the study:
1.3 History of Call Development
1.4 Definition of CALL
1.5 Why CALL?
1.6 Computer Assisted Language Learning

1.7 Dyned Language learning program


1.8 Uses of CALL in English Language Teaching

1.8.1 Computer as drill and practice

1.8.2 Computer as tutor

1.9 Examples of CALL tutorial Programs

1.10 Grammar Checkers

1.11 Concordancers

1.12 Internet applications

1.13 Electronic mail (E-mail)

1.14 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

1.15 World Wide Web (www)

A) Text

B) Pictures

C) Audio Files

D) Video Files

E) Chat & Voice Chat

F) Desk-Top Teleconferencing

1.16 Advantages and Limitations of CALL

1.16.1 Advantages of CALL

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1.17 Statement of the Problem

1.18 Main research question

1.19 Objective of the Study

1.20 Significance of the study

1.21 Research Methodology

1.22 Research Design

1.22.1 Experimental Research:

1.22.2 Material

1.23 Participants

1.24 Population of study

1.25 Sampling

1.26 Research tool / instruments

1.27 Procedure

1.28Data Analysis

1.29 Delimitation of the Study

TWO LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 Definition of CALL

2.2 Theoretical Framework of CALL

2.3 Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), a Historical Background

2.3.1 Behaviorist CALL.

2.3.2 Communicative CALL.

2.3.3 Integrative CALL.

2.4Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and Grammar Instruction


2.5Current SLA Theory and CALL
2.5.1Interactionist Theory

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2.5.2Sociocultural Theory (SCT)
2.6The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
2.7Communicative Language Teaching
a) The Affective Filter Hypothesis
b) The Input Hypothesis
c) The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis
d) The Natural Order Hypothesis
e) The Monitor Hypothesis
2.8CALL Online Programs
2.9Call Online Practice for the Skills OF Language
2.10Interactive CALL Programme
2.11 Research on Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)
2.12Teacher Guided Multimedia
2.13Importance of Technology in Second Language Learning
2.14Kinds of Technology Available to Teach and Learn a Second Language
2.15CALL and Language Skills
2.15.1 Listening, Speaking and Pronunciation
2.16 Importance of CALL
2.17 Writing and Reading
2.18 Data-Driven Learning with Grammar and Vocabulary
2.19 Application of CALL to Learn and teach the Four Skills of L2 Language
2.19.1Speaking
2.19.2Reading
2.19.3Listening

2.19.4 Writing

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2.20Investigation on Helpful CALL Teacher Trainings

2.21 Disadvantages of CALL

2.22Advantages of CALL

THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


3.1 Chapter Overview

3.2 What is Research?

3.3 Area of the Study

3.4 Main research question

3.5 Objective of the Study

3.6 Research Traditions

3.7 Research Methodology

3.8 Research design

3.9 Research Type


3.9.1Experimental design:-
3.10 Material
3.11 Participants
3.12 Population of the study
3.13 Sampling

3.14 Research tools

3.15 Procedure
3.16Data Analysis
3.17Conclusion

FOUR DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS


4.1 Pre-test and Post-test Results of Traditional Group

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4.2 Comparison of the Pre-test and Post-test of Traditional Group

4.3 Significance of Paired Sample Statistical Test

4.4 Sample T-test

4.5 Conclusion of the Results of Pre-test and Post-test of Traditional Group

4.6 Pre-test and Post-test Results of Experimental Group

4.7 Comparison of the Pre-test and Post-test of Experimental Group

4.8 Significance of the Paired Sample Statistical Test

4.9 Sample T-test

4.10 Conclusion of the Results of Pre-test and Post-test of Experimental Group

4.11 Sample Statistical Analysis

4.12 Homogeneity Test of the Groups.

4.13 Homogeneity Test of the Pre-test of Traditional and Experimental Group

4.14 Comparison between the Statistics of Traditional and Experimental Group

4.15 Conclusion of the Statistical Homogeneity Test of the Samples

4.16 Results of the Investigation

4.17 Post-Speaking proficiency Level of Traditional Group

4.18 Post-Speaking Proficiency Level of Experimental Group

FIVE FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


5.1 Discussion of the Results

5.2Conclusion

5.3Implications of the Study


5.4 Recommendations
5.5Further Studies

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REFERENCES…………………………………………………. …..
APPENDIX (Important language learning websites)

List of Abbreviations
 CALL Computer assisted language learning
 CAL Computer assisted learning
 CAI Computer aided instruction
 EFL English as a foreign language
 ESL English as a second language
 TBLT Task based language teaching
 TELL Technology enhanced language learning
 WBLL Web-based language learning

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. DESCRIPTION PAGE NO.

Table 4.1 Paired Samples Statistics

Table 4.2 Paired Samples Test

Table 4.3 Paired Samples Statistics

Table 4.4 Paired Samples Test

Table 4.5 Group Statistics

Table 4.6 Independent Samples Test

Table 4.7 Group Statistics

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Table 4.8 Independent Samples Test

Table 4.9 Post Speaking Proficiency Level

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CHAPTER ONE
Introduction to the study
1.1Introduction

The introductory chapter highlights the problem which is being studied and the background to

the study. Research questions and objectives of the study will also be discussed in this chapter.

The setting of the study and research methodology will also be discussed in this chapter. The

chapter is completed by operational delimitations and significance of the study.

Pakistan is a country in which many languages are spoken. The educated Pakistani’s acquire

some degree of proficiency in the elite class school system. This gives the Pakistani elite some

degree of proficiency in L2. It is an investigation of the study, being undertaken to find out the

effect of CALL material on the spoken proficiency of the ESL learners at secondary level in

district Rajanpur. Researcher's surveillance of the ESL learners less proficient speaking skills in

ESL classroom and in public places stimulated the urgency to undertake this study.

Communication skills had always been a point of debate for the linguists. First a learner and later

a scholar of English language, the researcher has experienced that speaking skills have always

been ignored in ESL classrooms in colleges. This study will be an exploration to find out the

effect of CALL material on the spoken proficiency of the ESL learners at secondary level in

district rajanpur.

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There are many methods for English language teaching and learning but the aim of all of these

methods is to enhance teaching quality and to provide the ESL learners and environment that is

feasible and attracting. CALL (computer assisted language and learning) has been introduced to

accomplish this requirement. It not only assists the ESL learners to gain knowledge but also to

ESL teacher for imparting instructions in a better way. Hence, CALL is very feasible and helpful

in learning English language effectively. There are many software programmes on CALL which

assist the second language learners for the acquisition of second language affectively,

particularly learning the speaking skills and acquiring the better speaking proficiency. CALL is

proving to be the most affective and comprehensive teaching methodology in imparting

instructions in the second language to the second language learners. The most significant

difference between the traditional way of teaching speaking skills and the practical approach by

CALL is that the second language learners learn the speaking skills fast and more affectively

with a lot of interest with CALL speaking software programmes.

Though there have been the researches in the field of CALL as a teaching aid in the learning of

speaking proficiency in second language, the researcher intends to broaden the aspect as effect of

CALL material on the spoken proficiency of the ESL learners in district rajanpur. This study will

investigate the perceptive whether ESL teachers and the ESL learners represent on it in ways

regarding teaching of speaking skills in English. The research will be experimental in its

procedure.

Pakistan is an under-developed state. Its position is low in the ranking list of educated countries

due to unsatisfactory literary rate (57%, ranking 160th out of 177: sources

www.literacyz.blogspot.com/2012/06). The condition is much bad in rural areas. (DR.R. kannan,

2009) (ESP World issue 5V-8) Said that even after twelve years of education pupils are not able

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to get command over English language. He goes on to say that the reason for slow learners is the

use of Bi-lingual method in language class. Based on geographical boundaries, different dialects

are being used as (L1) first language in Pakistan. The largest province of Pakistan is Punjab.

Literacy rate is better to some extent in Punjab in contrast to other provinces.

(www.ilm.com.pk/pakistan-information/pakistan-literacyrate/). The pupils in SSC/HSSC use L1

(Punjabi) as a source way medium of passing information. L2 (Urdu) is used as an instrument of

passing information in few rural areas that are developed or are near urban areas or they have

teaching department who belongs to urban areas.

English language enjoys the rank of official language of Pakistan. So it is considered as a

compulsory subject. In order to pass examination, students have to study it. Students are not able

to get degree without passing it. So, Students read it only to get success in examination and not

to enhance their speaking abilities. According to DR. Kannan (2009, ESP World, para.5):

“Our examination system makes the students role memorization rather than testing their

analytical and creative skills’’.

Speaking skills of students are not at good condition. Not only weak pupils but also the brilliant

pupils who get best grades in written examination of English are not able to speak English

language rightly.

Different elements are responsible for the less proficient speaking skills of the ESL learners. The

teachers of English language cannot cope with it because within a little time they have to cover a

great syllabus. The system of our education is not suitable to the spoken surrounding because it

does not have anything, belonging to language. On the opposite side if we think carefully

common living surroundings, 100% of students have rural background, which is not suitable for

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spoken English. Another important thing that is responsible for the slow learning of English

language is that the students who belong to rural areas have no access to media due to the lack of

cable network or internet services.

The factor that aggravates the condition is the lack of educated English teachers. In this research

we have talked about all the conditions and their results on the English speaking surroundings.

We made a set of questions to collect information that would be helpful to analyze the problems

with English speaking abilities. These set of questions were spread/scattered to the sample

inhabitants of high and higher secondary schools of villages of both categories of pupils.

The use of the computers is increasing at schools and it is becoming an important part of

education. Computers are used all over the area of education and in language learning and

teaching (Baturay, 2007; kocak, 1997; Makaraci, 2004, Tuzcuoglu, 2000). The technology of

computers is considered as an educational instrument which is helpful in English language

teaching (Liang and Bonk, 2009). In reality, a great range of electronic technologies is utilized to

scatter/add second language teaching and learning. (Liang and Bonk, 2009; Warschaur, 1996).

This technology is utilized by young language learners, these technologies consist of hardware

delivery ways whose examples are audio and video tape recorders, computer and internet joined

with educational access to teach the other language. Dynamic Education; (DynED) a computer

programme has been used by different countries as for instance China, Korea, Malaysia,

Myanmar, Turkey, and France recently. This programme is used in a helpful manner in teaching

English Language in schools in these countries.

The main aim of this investigation is to convey the short overview of the gradual use of

computer - Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and how computers have used or can be used

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for English language teaching (ELT) and learning to the Thai University English language

teachers. The importance lies on the history of CALL, uses of CALL in English language

teaching, and benefits and restrictions of CALL.

The present study aims at the CALL spoken programmes available on internet for the acquisition

of better speaking proficiency of the ESL learners at secondary level in district rajanpur. It is

supposed that the available programmes for the acquisition of better speaking proficiency of the

ESL learners impart a positive effect on the learning of speaking proficiency. CALL has

acquired the worldwide currency since the last two decades for the learning of the speaking skills

for ESL learners.

1.2Background of the study

Sub-Continent has been ruled over by British. In regard to the British rule, English language

became the official language of this area. English language enjoys the rank of official language

in Pakistan after freedom. We live in a society in which many languages are spoken. English and

Urdu are our institutional and instructional languages, which are our official languages as well.

Battle and Lewis (2002) says that in the growth of human capital a vital role is played by

education, which is also associated with individual betterment and facility for good living.

English is spreading vastly in Pakistan. According to Parveen, S. (2013) in her article “A study

on Attitudes towards Varieties of Spoken English in Pakistani Context” pass to Botton (2008, as

cited in Raza, 2008), 11% of inhabitants of Pakistan speaks English and Pakistan becomes the

third largest country of Asia, which has 20 million speakers out of the inhabitants of 180 million.

English is lingua Franca in the same times and it is a universal truth. The institutions and

universities are framed on syllabus and material written in English language, which indicates the

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importance of English language especially in Pakistan. In the wider sense, the international

media involving social media has English language as a source of communication, which is the

consequence of globalization. The increasing demand and importance of English language has

made a thirst of learning English in every inhabitant, especially in the pupils of Pakistan. All the

conferences that held in Pakistan are either national or international uses English language as a

source of communication. Pupils are asked to present their work in skilled English.

The present study aims at the CALL spoken programmes available on internet for the acquisition

of better speaking proficiency of the ESL learners at secondary level in district rajanpur. It is

supposed that the available programmes for the acquisition of better speaking proficiency of the

ESL learners impart a positive effect on the learning of speaking proficiency. CALL has

acquired the worldwide currency since the last two decades for the learning of the speaking skills

for ESL learners.

The ESL learners of the district Rajanpur have been imparted instructions of the speaking skills

in a traditional way of teaching. The researcher aims to see the affect of CALL material on the

spoken proficiency of the ESL learners that’s why he has chosen the experimental research so

that he may find out the affect of the CALL material on the spoken proficiency of the ESL

learners at secondary level in district Rajanpur.

1.3 History of Call Development

This part gives a short history of CALL growth. This inspection proposed to show order and

sequence of events, the growth of CALL over the past 30 years by communicating to important

technological growth, theories of learning and language teaching settings. The examples of

CALL projects and programs that have established in this time are also given.

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Warschauer (1996) distributed CALL into phases of development which are represented as

Behaviorist CALL, Communicative CALL, Integrative CALL (Multimedia CD-ROM) and

Integrative CALL (Internet). When a new phase starts it does not end the previous phase, but the

old is continued within the new (Warshauer, 1996).

Following is the summary of historical CALL development table:

Comprehending how to velocity, strength and pliability of computers can expedite our learning

abilities, is a troublesome task faced by educators, investigators and theorists. Development in

this region, however, does not seem to be extroverted from recent investigation on CALL, which

is affected from the similar restrictions as primary investigation on classroom instruction:

Few details are given to tell the mutual action among partaker during training. Moreover,

depiction of CALL activities comprised in research are not trial based. They fail to depict what

subjects really do when working with CALL. A third issue is that the stipulation used to depict

CALL activities have been progressed particularly for that aim and cannot be contrasted to those

which are used for class-room activities. At the same time, these signifiers are not adequately

varying and conventionally stated to permit particular contrast within CALL activities. To

figure-out these issues, this paper suggests a discussion analysis of student-computer

communication capable by seeing the educators and the computer as two participants in a

conversation. It claims that the dialogue analysis system of classroom communication is

advanced by the important component and organization of depicted CALL dialogue, analyze

information from computer-leaner communication and contrast CALL activities with other

activities.

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Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is a kind of learning which consist of two

necessary characteristic: bi-face and personalized learning. Computer-assisted language learning

is clearly and concisely specified in a originative work by Levy (1997: p.1) as

“The search for and study of applications of computer in language teaching and learning”.

CALL includes a broader scope of data and communications technology implementations and

access to teaching and learning international language, from the “traditional” drill-and-practice

projects the qualities of CALL in the 1960s and 1970s to more fresh demonstration of CALL,

e.g. as used in a realistic learning environment and Web-based expanse learning. It also bestows

to the use of principal agreements, synergistic whiteboards, Computer-mediated communication

(CMC), and language learning is computerized representation of words and mobile-assisted

language learning (MALL).

1.4 Definition of CALL

Computer-Assisted Language (CALL) is stated as:

“The search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning”

(Levy, 1997:1)

The basic purpose of CALL is to discover methods for using computers for the aim of teaching

and learning the language. More particularly, CALL is the use of computer technologies that

advance educational learning, involving word processing, submission packages, instructed drill

and exercise, teacher, imitation, problem solving, games, multimedia CD-ROM, and applications

of internet for language learning purposes such as electronic-mail, chat and the World Wide Web

(www). Different terms are linked with CALL. CALL is recognized as Computer-Aided

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Language Instruction (CALI) and Computer-Enhanced Language Learning (CELL). The first

two terms ordinarily citied for computer implementation in language learning and teaching,

while CALL connotes using CALL in a self-approaching environment (Hoven, 1999).

1.5 Why CALL?

The causes for the use of CALL by ELT teachers:

o Some of the works of the teachers can be done by computers and provide great help to

educate besides the attendance of the instructor. (Pennington and Steven, 1992).

o New technical methods have observed that computers become self-effacing, rapid and

mild for the tutor to use (Evy, 1997). The well-designed CALL software is willingly valid

to the instructor at present.

o Computers are allowed to do multimedia applications, integrate video, auditory sensation

and script by technologies, and this capability permits the students to get together with

both the program and other pupils.

o Great flexibility has been offered by computers for class scheme and bearing of

individual learning, selecting activities style of an individual. (Oxford and others, 1998).

o The computer can give significance-concentration, communicative learning environment,

which performs the aim of communicative language teachings.

1.6Computer Assisted Language Learning

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Up to the time restrained, computer-assisted language learning CALL was a subject of pertinence

mostly to those with a specific involvement in computers. Computers have become so common

in schools and homes and their uses have enlarged so theatrically that the language instructors

should begin to think about the entailment of computers for language learning. (Warschaver,

1996).

The term which is mostly used by the instructors and educators to depict the use of computers as

a past of language instruction is known as CALL (Kocak, 1997). Computer assisted learning is a

type of computer-based assisted learning with two main characteristics: (1) bidirectional

language (2) individualized learning. It is not a procedure. The materials of CALL are the

instruments for learning. The focus of CALL is not teaching but learning. The materials of

CALL are used to comfort the language learning process. The student-centered and self-paced

material for learning is CALL which advances learning. (Alkan,1997; Levy,1997). The origin of

CALL is from CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction), a term that was viewed as a help for

teachers. A great stress has been laid on student-centered lessons that permits educators to get

knowledge on their own with the help of structured or unstructured communicative lessons and it

is the philosophy of CALL. Learning in classrooms can be strengthen with the help of CALL.

CALL can also be used as curative to aid educators with restricted language adeptness

(Chapelle,1990; Chapelle and Jamieson,1986; Levy,1997; Liddell,1995).

The pattern of CALL lessons mostly takes into attention the tents of language teaching methods,

which can be extracted from learning theories (behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist) and

second language as “Krashen’s Monitor Theory”. CALL can also be identified as an access to

teaching and learning International languages whereas the computer and its assets e.g. internet

can show, strengthen and estimate the stuff which is to be learned CALL is independent free

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from internet (Liang and Bonk, 2009). CALL can stand separately as for instance in CD-ROM

format. Relying on its plan and aim, CALL may involve a firm communicative component

particularly when CALL is mixed in a web-base structure. It also involves the search for and

inspection of implementation in teaching a language and learning (Warschaur, 1996). CALL is

meant to scatter face-to-face language teaching, not substitute it, except for self-study software.

CALL is also recognized by various other expressions such as Technology-enhanced language

learning (TELL) computer-assisted language instruction (CALI) and computer-aided language

learning (CAL) but these all are basically alike (Ehsani and Knodt, 1998).

An amount of teaching method approaches have advanced in the computer age, involving the

communicative and combinative approaches. Others involve constructivism, computer language

theory and socio-cultural theory despite of the fact that they are not solely theories of language

learning. With constructivism, pupils are energetic contestants in a mission in which they

“construct” new language depended on endurance in order to combine new ideas in existing

established plan of knowledge (Brooks and Brooks, 1999). The complete language theory

assumptions that language learning moves from complete to the segments instead of establishing

informal abilities like grammar to proceed for greater skills like reading

comprehension/paragraph. The complete language persists the contrary is the manner we learn to

use language(Alkan,1997). Pupils learn grammar and other abilities by making intelligent

suppositions that depends on the capacity they experienced. It tells us that the four skills

(reading, writing, listening and speaking) are interconnected (Stepp-Greany, 2002). Social

connection includes second language learners communication with others in social learning

surroundings motivated by the idea of the zone of proximal development i.e., background of

assisted language learning and evolvement, socio-cultural theory explains that learning is a way

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of becoming component of a craved community and learning the laws of manner for that

community.

The purpose of using Computer-Assisted Language Learning involves (a) experiential learning

(b) inspiration (c) improvement of students attainment (d) genuine data for learning (e) greater

communication (f) global comprehending, (g) individualization and (h) independence from a sbe

divided in the following disciplines: (a) financial obstacles (b)availability of computer hardware

and software, (c) theoretical and technical knowledge and (d) acceptance of technology

(Chapelle,1990; Hardisty and Windeatt,1989; levy,1997; Liddell,1995; Warscgaer,1996)

Visual and auditory input conveyed in a well-ordered arrangement and enables the learners to

comprehend grammar, syntax and vocabulary of the objective language with no need for script

aid, using CALL. Learners can communicate with the submission, and have their

communications recorded into their study records and can impact and rate and level of the

presentation. (Knowles, 2004).

1.7 Dyned Language learning program

The former director of the entire submission plan at the language Institute of Japan and team of

engineers founded DynEd in 1987. The discoverers of DynEd also created the first world’s

communicative multimedia language learning CD-ROM in 1988 and gained a U.S patent for this

discovery in 1991(Stark,2004).

The program is made up of ten progressively modern units. Students click on the suitable device

and a screen seems with five options for study. Warm-Up lessons, School-life lessons, School

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Subject-lessons, World Talk cards and Language Extension lessons, and speaking. There is

continuous aid and output which can be selected by users to replay (Stark,) 2004:2)

In the Warm-Up session, a narrator depicts a view, stooping about three seconds between

statements for student processing. “It’s very hot. The sun is shining and the water is clear”. The

similar expression and reaction to an audio is shown by the next screen. The student clicks on the

answer. If it is wrong, the pupil will listen, “No that’s not correct. Please try again”. When the

answers are right, the supportive sound will say “That’s right!” or another will say, “Good!”,

then a new picture will appear and procedure is reiterated (Stark, 2004:3).

School-Subject lessons concentrate on math, English grammar, science, world history, and

geography. Students are provided revelation to the data in different circumstances and key

vocabulary and grammar forms are recycled for every lesson. The fundamental descriptions also

supply background knowledge for pupils who require it. Pupils learn the language of school

guidance, interpretations, providing examples, categorization, contrasts, asking questions, and so

on. Various areas of a subject are represented by lessons. For example, math gives lessons on:

geometric shapes, positive and negative numbers, fractions, temperature, measuring and many

more (Stark, 2004).

World Talk Cards and Language Extension Lessons give us common topics e.g. precedence,

weather, profession, and places of business. The language is given in a game pattern usually

Concentration” and, all the lessons, has regular verification for understanding. When the game

ends, a grammar concentrated lesson clearly describes right usage. Language Expansion lessons

and speaking up lessons permits students to benefit from speaking ability identification

technology to drill and complete their speaking preciseness. It is not an enunciation plan,

13
although pupils can contrast their speaking abilities to their narrator’s. There are three degrees of

proficiency, novice, arbitrate and skilled. With each progressive level the response is more

detailed and challenging. Two or three units are evaluated at a time by four mastery tests. These

tests are demanding and need some higher-level thinking comprehension, and implementations

as well as recall of the target language forms and information. Pupils can get throw the next units

if they achieve these tests after the stated units (Stark, 20044-5).

DynEd is planned to help English Language Learners (ELLs) aged from 11 to 18 to attain the

language they require for prosperity at school in classes with school fellows. It depends on brain

and language attainment research, utilizing both to form a combined pattern where the activities

of multimedia and communication in classroom supplement each other. Given language

structures and vocabulary that is given is limited for the confine classes and for social situation

that usually occur in classroom conditions. It is general for ELL students to attain fundamental

English, but it is unusual that they gratify their academic capability. This extensive program

addresses their requirement for encouragement in academic capability. This extensive program

addresses their requirement for encouragement in academic and social language for academic use

for English-speaking education system.

1.8 Uses of CALL in English Language Teaching

This segment gives a short survey of how CALL can or cannot be used for the aim of language

learning and teaching. Here is the division of the use of CALL (1) Computer as drill and

practice, (2) Computer as Tutor (3) Computer as Simulation/Problem Solving, (4) Computer as

Tool for ELT teachers and students, and (6) Applications of Internet for ELT.

14
1.8.1 Computer as drill and practice

Computers are considered as an instrument for saving time with the immediate output, in this of

CALL. Behaviorism Learning Theory the tenet behind Drill and Practice and the Audio-lingual

access language to teaching. The chief purpose of Drill and Practice is to examine the

background knowledge and to help the learners to master different language skills (as for

instance reading, listening, etc).

Drill and Practice depends on three steps: Supplying stimulus; Receiving active/immediate

response from the learner; and giving instant response.

There are many which are as follows (1) Paired Associate/Matching; Sentence Completion;

Multiple options; Part reorganization, True-False; and short questions.

Well-planned Drill and Practice programs can inscribe the students’ advancement and earns the

time a student squander on each exercise. Some plans include timing characteristics to aid the

students to control their velocity while practicing Drill and Practice CALL in their early years

centered on performing language abilities and ingredients separately (e.g.; vocabulary, grammar

(e.g. irregular verbs, past tense, articles) reading, and transformation classroom teachers

produced a lot of Drill and Practice exercises. There are various restrictions to Drill and Practice

exercises such as lack of communication and authorized data which are not reliable, significant

and contextualized (Felix, 1998). As a result, the accepting language Drill and Practice plans of

the 1960s-1970s did not create sufficient authentic interaction for the students.

“Contextualized activities”, such as space satiating, recreating scripts etc, are examples of these

programs are advanced in early 1980s such as Cloze exercises, Text reconstruction and Eclipse

15
(by Higgins), etc. Key composing plan used to create script fixture is Storyboard, written by John

Higgins (Levy, 1997).

1.8.2 Computer as tutor

The role of the computer as instructor is to demonstrate the assimilator the data of the lesson as

script, production of pectoral images, videos, creation of cartoons, or slides, involving learning

activities, drills and practice. For the transfer of training substances, computer serves as a mean.

The program is composed of the following phases: Introduction stage (speaking aims,

background knowledge). Demonstration of the materials exercises, giving response.

Example of CALL tutorial programs are as follows.

1.9Examples of CALL tutorial Programs are

o Grammar

Longman Grammar Software, Grammar Expert Plus, Tense Buster (Clarlty Software); Grammar Mastery

(ALA); Grammar Rom (Addition Wesley Longman); Grammar 3D: Contextualized Practice for Students

of English (Heinle & Heinle).

o Speaking, Pronunciation & Listening:

16
Learn to speak (The Learning company); English Pronunciation (1997-98) (Okanagan University

College); Dragon, Naturally Speaking (A voice recognization program); See It, Hear It, Say It!

(Courseware Publishing International); Accent Improvement (Speak Ware); Real English (Wiser

Software).

o Integrated Skills/Courseware:

(CALI), Dynamic English (DynEd); English Discoveries (Berlitz); English language Development

(Jostens); Rosetta Stone (Fairfield language Technologies); Planet English

(Unisearch Ltd and the University of New South Wales); Issues in English (Protea Software); Active

English (courseware Publishing International.

1.10 Grammar Checkers

ELT educators can utilize grammar checker projects to examine and indicate grammatical

problem in literary works. Such as spelling checkers, grammar checkers can be a different

program like as Grammatik or built-in projects like the Grammar Check in Microsoft Word.

However, these grammar checkers yet, have restricted skills and are planned for local speakers.

That is why; they are not suggested for ESL/EFL students until they may be embarrassing.

1.11 Concordancers

Educators and students can utilize concordancing software to seek in enormous databases to

discover all the functions of unusual words. It might be embarrassing for ESL/EFL initiators.

17
The chief Concordancer for ELT educators and learners is Oxford MicroConcord. The software

comprises a sum of around 1000,000 words from British newsprints.

1.12 Internet applications

Computer can be linked with the internet and can combine associated multimedia script,

graphics, auditory voice, video and wakefulness. It can be supposed that the explosive

development of internet has granted fresh like to associative media and CALL.

To access script, graphics, auditory, video, and wakefulness distributed on internet, the educator

and student need to utilize ‘Web Browser’ software, a computer established graphical projects

that permits users to find and investigate knowledge on internet. Common Web Browsers are

named as Netscape Navigator and Microsoft. It is hoped that internet would be one of the largest

admirable degree for CALL because it permits for world-wide distant learning.

The utilization of internet is simple. The user commonly links or associates just by pressing

buttons of the mouse. Simple navigation has the benefit of utilizing internet in connecting to

various sites about the world.

Next are the internet implementations that ELT educators can utilize for language education.

1.13 Electronic mail (E-mail)

18
Computer-mediated communication when the exploiter links to the distant computer with FTP,

he/she two devices: one native and one distant. Once you communicate to the distant computer

along with FTP, you may do any job regarding files like transferring local files (scrip and dual-

figures and sound) to the distant site, recovering files from the remote site, alternating

directories, giving names and removing files both on the native and remote sites.

FTP is used to download or up download files by- the teachers like software programs, scripts,

pictures, sounds, videos. Many of FTP sites re provided on the internet at various servers like the

FTP server at University of Illusions at Urbana-Champaign <ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu/ > Washigton

University at St. Louis <ftp://wuarchive.wustledu/>, FTP server at Morash University

<ftp://ftp.monash.edu.au> association makes it simple for ELT students to have clear authentic

association with the educator, other students or involved people nearby the world by utilizing e-

mail. E-mail is the superior method for educating interactive literary work. One of its benefits is

that it supplies by the way of pen-pal arrangement. E-mail composing is believed to be extra

personal and significant than classroom composing activities (Felix, 1998). A problem relating

communication through E-mail is that the communication does not occur simultaneously

(asynchronous).

There should be division of e-mail projects that can be suggested for the students. The largest

admirable project on the Unix stage or platform is Pine of Washington University

<http://gpu.srv.ualberta.ca/HELP/mail/pinel.html>. Eudora http://www.eudora.com and

Netscape Mail <http://www.netscape.com> are simple to utilize. Anyhow, Pine and Eudora

claim clear link to the internet by the way of the server through which exploiter is the part of it.

If the exploiter wants to approach to e-mail in some place and anywhere in the world, he/she can

implement for liberated web-based e-mail services like as Hotmail.com

19
<http://www.hotmail.com>,Yahoo.com<http://www.yahoo.com>,Mail.com<http://www.mail.co

m >, Alta Vista.com <http://www.Alta Vista.com >, etc.

1.14 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

The file transfer Protocol (FTP) is the easy way for moving files on internet. The real FTP was

provided on the UNIX System but since FTP is also provided on the network and it is being extra

friendly in comparison to the operating on the UNIX System.

1.15 World Wide Web (www)

Computer networks have allowed connecting to information around the world, and share

millions of documents---texts, graphics, sounds, and videos via hypertext keywords or links.

WWW or the web now has absorbed many of the above services. For example, the web can now

do e-mail, ftp, chat and voice chat, desktop conferencing, and MOOs (Multiple-user-domains

object Oriented), which allows for real time communication.

The WWW provides a rich resource of “authentic materials” for language teaching and learning.

Using web browsers such as Netscape <http://www.netscape.com> and internet

Explorer<http://www.microsoft.com/>, the WWW yields good (and bad!) resources for the

teacher and the learner. Learners can find information, which suit their own internets and fields

of study.

20
The teacher and learner can search for the following materials on WWW:

A: Text

Texts can be downloaded, saved as html or text files, and printed and kept as worksheets.

Teacher can download suitable texts and put them on the school’s website for further reading

assignments or doing English exercises such as grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and drills to

acquire better speaking proficiency etc. There is a variety of texts on a range of topics at the

WWW, which teacher and the learner can choose to serve their own interest. You can find texts

in almost any field on the WWW.

B: Pictures

Pictures can be very useful in language teaching and learning. Pictures can convey meaning and

stimulate language. By using a web browser, teachers can download, save and print pictures and

keep them as a resource for language teaching. There is a variety of pictures on the web. Many

pictures are copyright free for educational use. AltaVista <http://www.altavista.com> is a good

search engine for searching pictures on the internet.

C: Audio Files

21
Many web sites provide audio clips that the user can download and store for use in language

teaching and learning. With advanced technologies such as

the RealAudio program <http://www.real.com>, the teacher can download “live” audio files such

as news, short stories, songs for use in class and self access center or for individual listening at

home. Web sites that provide audio files are such as CNN News<http://www.cnn.com>, BBC

English<http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice>. etc.

D: Video Files

The WWW is also a rich resource for Video files (video films, video clips, digital movies). To

view video files, there is a need for video and movie viewing programs such as

RealVideo<http://www.real.com>, QuickTime Moviehttp://www.aple.com/quicktime/, which

can be downloaded from the internet. Useful videos and movies that can be downloaded and

saved: previews of video films, movies, conversations or dialogues among people, news,

speeches, and documentary films. Teachers can use videos and movies with other Medias, such

as textbooks, pictures, handouts, or audio materials. However, there are some technical

limitations with downloading wide materials. Video clips, which are usually short, are easy to

download and manipulate. However, long videos and movies, need a lot of computer RAM and

disk spaces, always cause problems. The computer must be powerful and must have a fast

internet connection.

E: Chat & Voice Chat

22
Computer-mediated communication allows user to exchange real time instant messages in no

time delay as in e-mail). The application of this type is chat programs that allow users to connect

to remote sites to send and receive instant written messages. “Talk” is an original version of chat

on the UNIX system. Web-based chat is easier to use than the UNIX system “talk”. Examples of

chat programs on the web are: ICQ <http://wwp.icq.com/>, IRC (Internet Relay Chat)

<http://www.ircnet.org/>, Yahoo <http://www.yahoo.com>.With the progress in real time audio

technologies, voice chat is becoming available (e.g. Yahoo Voice Chat

<http://chat.yahoo.com>). Voice chat allows users to exchange real time-instant digital voice

messages with users in remote sites. Chat provides a strong motivation for interactive and

communicative use of language. ELT teachers can use chat sessions as a means for meaningful

authentic communication with the real audience. The learner can join several chat groups

according to his/her own interest.

F: Desk-Top Teleconferencing

One of the more significant appearance of MOOs (Multiple-user-domains Object Oriented or

Multi-User Object Oriented system) is communication (Verbal, nonverbal, expressing feelings)

with people associated to the MOO from all over the world. MOOs evaluate from MUDs (Multi-

User Domains). MOOs assign for real time communication, simulation and role play among

users. The users can construct their own new “rooms” and write the variety, to decide who could

come in and out. The user can even built their unreal home.

23
Recently a number of important MOOs have been installed for ESL learners to take part such as

CU- SEEMe http://www.cuseeme.com. In using MOOs special client software programs such as

Tiny Fugue (for Unix, MUDDweller (for Mac), or MUDwin (for windows) are needed.

MOOs provide a strongly enthusiastic ways for meaningful real communication with a real

audience. Those who are interested in this desk-top teleconferencing can join MOOs on many

websites such as the CU-SeeMe Website <http://www.cu.seeme.com>, at Rachel’s super MOC

List <http://cinemaspace . berkeley.edu /~ rachel /moolist/> .

1.16 ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF CALL

While section 3 above shows some of the merits of how CALL can be used for language

teaching and learning. CALL has also some limitations. This section revises advantages and

limitations of CALL.

1.16.1 Advantages of CALL

Learners ‘agent.

o CALL can change the learner’s abilities and preferences.

o CALL can change the learner’s cognitive and learning styles.

o CALL can adapt the learner’s self-paced learning.

1.17 Statement of the Problem

Students at secondary school level in district Rajanpur do not Speak English as second language

neither in the schools nor in their everyday life. This present study will describe why the students

24
are not able in speak English and how does CALL assist the spoken command of secondary

School learners. This study would analyze the result of CALL material on the spoken skill of

secondary School learner. This study has tried to find out the effect and importance of CALL

materials on the spoken proficiency of the ESL learners at secondary level in district Rajanpur of

the Punjab, Pakistan. It is a noticeable fact to use CALL materials in L2 class so that ESL learner

may understand the speaking skills in a better way at secondary level. This process occurs as L1

is generally used as a medium of imparting instructions in the government schools from where

majority of the learners get their Matriculation degree. Further, L2 is not encouraged in

government schools. This is the reason that such learners remain incapable of developing L2

competence in them. Their speaking skills are very much disregarded. Hey are unable to speak

English and communicate in it in a better way. An ESL teacher, himself, needs support of CALL

speaking material in ESL class. So, CALL speaking material gains importance for ESL teacher

and learner in this scenario. The numbers of researches conducted in Pakistan are insufficient to

determine the importance and role of CALL materials towards speaking skills of the ESL

learners in ESL class. There are some questions which are needed to be answered. Some most

important questions are; what is the affect of CALL material on Speaking Skills of the learners at

secondary School level in district Rajanpur, To revise the concept and importance of English

Speaking Skills, To identify the learning difficulties in speaking English,To examine the new

ways of improving spoken skills of English language learners.

The aim of the current study is to find answers these questions and to establish ESL teachers’

strategy to the importance of CALL materials. The significance of the utilization of CALL

materials in ESL class will also be determined by the current research.

1.18 Main research question


25
 What is the effect of CALL material on Speaking Skills of the learners at secondary

School level in district Rajanpur?

1.19 Objective of the Study

The main aims of the studies are:

1: To revise the concept and importance of English Speaking Skill.

2: To identify the learning difficulties in speaking English.

3: To examine the new ways of improving spoken skills of English language learners.

1.20 Significance of the study

The increased significance of English has needed the students to be efficient in English and fine

speaker of a language is more obvious and apprehensible in relying on communication tasks.

Every speaker of a language wants to be understood clearly, when he speaks. Pakistani students

also want to achieve skills in English language. This study would be highly useful for the teacher

of English at Secondary School level and for students in Southern area like district Rajanpur.

The end of this study may provide important information for the betterment of English teachers

in public sector regarding language learning proficiency for the object of speaking. The effect of

the study will preside the teachers as well as learners of English, learned and taught as a home

26
language while in the non-English Speaking countries of the world it is learned as an

international language. Although all languages are learned in a real order of listening, speaking,

reading and writing but in Pakistan due to anti-English environment or some other agents,

students, especially at the secondary school level are not able to express them precisely in the

English language even though they are provided a topic or goal. They frequently feel a sense of

vacillation and are not comfortable to speak carefully due to the lack of knowledge about

language form of English difference, of sentence formation between English and their native

language and the inappropriate learning environment, incompetent teachers, deficiency of proper

and appropriate general ways and techniques.

The research topic has been chosen out after a detailed observation of the difficulty faced by ESL

learners at secondary level in government schools of Rajanpaur. Pakistani learners encounter

many troubles in learning English as second language and practicing speaking skills in particular.

Mostly, the learners are not emphasized the need and urgency of the speaking skills. They are not

made to realize the importance of learning speaking in English in their everyday life and when

they came to know about it, it is too late for them to learn it; as a result, they have inferiority

complex in them. The current study has been chosen to find out effect of CALL materials on

spoken proficiency of the ESL learners.

ESL teachers are controlled by the examination patterns and syllabus design to play helpful role

in enhancing reading performance of the ESL learners. After the current study,ESL teachers will

be able to make required changes in their teaching strategies and methodology, especially

considering multilingual background of ESL learners. The findings and conclusion devised by

the current study would be implemented usefully. It will also be valuable for the curriculum

authorities of the future. Apart from it, the study will provide practical implication for ESL

27
teachers serving in government schools of district Rajanpur. If a teacher wants to make teaching

learning process more effective, his teaching methodology and teaching technique matters a

great deal. The use of CALL material will assist a great deal to the ESL teacher for imparting

instructions regarding speaking skills to the ESL class.

In addition to it, the current study will provide a practical importance for ESL teachers serving in

government schools of Punjab. It will be an interesting topic for exploration, as this process is

very significant to barriers faced by school students at secondary level where they gain

knowledge of English in the L1 settings. This study topic has been selected to investigate the

effect and significance of CALL materials to the spoken proficiency of the ESL learners in the

educational institutions at school level. Further, the importance of English in Pakistan and the

barriers faced by ESL learners in ESL class will also be viewed. To conclude, the study of the

effect of CALL materials to the spoken proficiency of the ESL learners in ESL class at

secondary level has a practical significance for ELT in Pakistan.

1.21 Research Methodology

The research methodology is considered a back bone in research work if there is no method then

there is no research in every type of research a researcher takes an issue.

Research methodology is a mode to catch distinctive difficulty when a research problem is

noticed then how it is solved or attained that process is called the research methodology. If we

think about the word “Methodology” it is the way of searching or solving the research problem

(Industrial research institute 2010).

1.22 Research Design

28
1.22.1 Experimental Research:

The research will be based on experimental design. Two groups of participants experimental and

controlled will be randomly selected from public or government high schools from district

Rajanpur. There will be 30 students in each group Pre and Post- test will be conducted for both

of these two groups. Before applying, any general method there will be a pre-test conducted for

both groups and after the treatment, the Post-test will be conducted to find out the results. The

earlier condition of the groups from their Present condition and this difference will show the

effectiveness of the treatment. Experimental research is significant to society as it helps us to

improve our everyday life. The experimental method is a systematic and scientific approach to

research for the researcher’s variables and controls any change in other variable.

(Reference: en. Wikipediz .org)

1.22.2 Material

Some materials as, English spoken software’s on computer, methods and strategies will be

designed for the treatments of both groups.

1.23 Participants

There will be two groups of participants, experimental and controlled both will be consisted of

30 participants each. All these participants will be selected randomly from public/ Govt High /

schools from district Rajanpur.

1.24 Population of study

29
The population of study will be the secondary schools level learners of district Rajanpur.

Discussion of students will be recorded then analyzed and data will be collected from the

students in classroom.

1.25 Sampling

A sample is a set of the population, which is selected for research study, true the sampling and

exact the result, wrong sampling deceives the results. Recently 30 students will be selected from

conventional instruction group and 30 students will be selected from computer- assisted language

learning group.

1.26 Research tool / instruments

Data will be gathered through pre-test and post-test of same standard.

However, the researcher will attempt to adopt or form some new items in the supervision of the

well-regarded monitor.

The authenticity and reliability of the test will be checked out.

1.27 Procedure

Data will be collected through pre- test for both the groups of students. After the pre- test a

treatment for the period of 8 weeks shall be arranged and during this period different methods

and strategies will be used to improve the spoken skill of secondary school learners, then post-

test similar to the pre-test having content like the pre-test, will be controlled. So, in this way ,data

will be collected in the form of scores.

30
1.28 Data Analysis

The data will be formatted as tables, analyzed and interpreted category wise. The data will be

analyzed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and appropriate T-test will be

applied.

1.29 Delimitation of the Study

The present study will be delimited to the secondary school level learners in district Rajanpur.

The researcher will be bounded to the students studying in 10th class. Due to the restrictions of

time and money and to collect effective data the study is delimited to the Govt. Boys secondary

Schools of Rajanpur.

31
CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

This exploration of the study will review the research completed during last five years. The study

will review the done on each of the learning skills of language, that is; writing, speaking,

listening and reading and in which way Computer assisted Language Learning (CALL) are used

as an aid for learning a language and it’s positive effects on learner’s achievements in learning.

Since the year 2000, CALL has emerged and progressed very rapidly and this application is used

for learning and teaching of four skills of language. It is a truth that educational programmes

have altered by the extensive utilization of computers as a medium of instruction (Park, & Son,

2009). As internet is used in teaching and learning, software educational programmes have

become accessible than before.

2.1 Definition of CALL

Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) can be defined as

"The search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning".

Levy (1997: p. 1)

32
It comprises applications of technology for learning and teaching foreign languages.

Cameron (1999a) expresses the view about CALL as to “improve the learning capacity of those

who are being taught a language through computerized means” ( p. 2)

The category of CALL which enhances the language learning capacity of learners is what

Pegrum (2009) termed blended learning. It is a arrangement of face-to-face teaching and CALL

(p. 27).

Face-to -
Blendid
face CALL
Learning
teaching

Fig.1 adopted from Pegrum2009, p.27

2.2 Theoretical Framework of CALL

This framework is pertinent to the pedagogical theories projected by the proponents of the CALL

that aids the learners to develop the language learning expertise.

The CALL material structure accounts for principles of language teaching methodology and

pedagogy, which are derived from various language learning theories ( cognitive, behaviourist,

constructivist) with theories of second language learning as monitor hypothesis by Stephen

Krashen .

33
Warschauer (2000) adopted the different approach. Inspite of payimg attention to the type of

CALL, he distinguished three historical stages of CALL that are categorizes with respect to their

underlying methodological and pedagogical approaches

A: Structural CALL: 1970s to 1980s.

B: Communicative CALL: 1980s to 1990s.

C: Integrative CALL: 2000 onwards.

2.3 Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), a Historical Background


Knight (1997); Mackintosh (1998) defined CALL “is any process in which a learner uses a

computer and, as a result, improves his or her language” (Lomicka, 1998) defined CALL as

"one of the newest resources for language teachers in providing an enriched context for learning

is the computer".

Davies (2002), traced the origin of CALL’s progress and expansion can be draw back to 1960’s.

CALL programmes were limited chiefly to universities till late 1970’s.In this way, CALL

extended a association between pedagogy and technology. Davies (2002) continues that in the

beginning, CALL programmes paid attention on the teaching approach which utilized the

practices relate to programmed instruction. This practice lead to the expression termed as

Computer Assisted Language Instruction (CALI).

Computer programmes have been utilized for language learning and teaching since

1960's. (Underwood, 1984), demonstrated that this period of time is divided into three phases:

A: Behaviorist CALL.

34
B: Communicative CALL.

C: Integrative CALL.

2.3.1 Behaviorist CALL

Behaviorist CALL gives attention to drill practicing. There are many software available for

learning language, for example, Speaking Pal, Speak English, Speak and Listen and Learn to

Speak English etc. which assists the learners to reiterate the words, their grammatical structures,

and pronunciation. Computers are not liable to be bored thus provide the language learners the

prospect to reiterate the lexical items with grammatical structure to the point that they become

the element of learners’ written or spoken habits. According to this theory Computer are

believed to play the role of an instructor.

2.3.2 Communicative CALL

This theory centres on the use of vocabulary and terminology in communication in spite of the

reiteration of the similar lexicon repeatedly as is established in behaviourist theory. The main

objective of communicative CALL is to give the language learners the prospects to

communicate. They make available the background either images or the linguistic items and

learners communicate orally to give response e.g. describing a picture, to speak about the address

of some place, to tell the address of some place. Here computer perform the work of workstation

or stimulus provider.

35
2.3.3 Integrative CALL

Integrative theory has its name in support of collaborative or integrative environment for

learning a language. The development of the Internet has prepared the environment for learning

as collaborative and supportive for learning. There are many on-line websites and softwares

which are used in classrooms for language teaching and learning. These include chat-rooms,

dictionaries, pronunciation tutors, encyclopedias and many website links for learners.

2.4Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and Grammar Instruction

For many years Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has given attention to several facets of

interaction in the second language. The function of input, interaction and output has been

fundamental. On the other hand, pragmatic, discourse and sociolinguistic elements of

communication have given less attention (Kim & Rissel, 2008). According to Krashe’s (1981)

monitor model, intelligible input is an exclusive component that facilitates acquisition, the

primary function accountable for the development of the language systems between the

languages. Many language instructors have the same opinion that input used by the language

learner is compulsory to maintain language learning, mostly, they give stress on major function

for negotiation and interaction of meaning (Ellis,1985; Gass, 1997; Hatch, 1978; Pica, 1994), for

official classroom the study of language, together with

contextualized attention on form (Doughty & Williams, 1998; Long, 1991).

2.5Current SLA Theory and CALL

There are many theories regarding language learning which elucidate Second

36
Language Acquisition (SLA) theory as it is related to Computer-Assisted Language Learning

(CALL), the present study will review these theories briefly.

2.5.1Interactionist Theory

There are many studies regarding the use of CALL and second language learning in Second

Language Acquisition research that are based on the interactionists perspectives. Hsu (1994)

explained it as the learner quest for assistance to overcome the barriers in the way of second

language learning. As Long (1991) demonstrated it as the basic element of interactionists theory

the only input that is perceived can be beneficial for the learners. It provides assistance for the

framework of instructional material, which possesses characteristics that boosts input via

modification.

Arguing on interactionists SLA theory and Computer-Assisted Language Learning

(CALL) , Chapelle (1999) proposed that communications in CALL can be helpful for second

language learners if they give attention to learners’ ‟ attention on input form, allow for

modification so learners can focus on input form and meaning, and draw learners‟ focus is given

to their linguistic yield in a way leading to self-correction (Mills, 2000).

Chapelle (1989) stressed that following the theory and methodology of the interactionists

research on CALL demands an elaboration of the understanding asserted that applying the theory

and methods of interactionists research on CALL demands an elaboration of the concepts and

understanding of meaning in two manners. Firstly, understanding of meaning is required to be

viewed not only by direct conversation but also in written conversation of communication that

37
happens on networked computers. The second more elaborated definition of understanding of

meaning is viewed when the altered communication takes place among the computer and the

learners. Theses computer programmes shaped the prospects for altered communication of

interaction by providing altered input to the second language learners on requirement. The data

acknowledged that the language learner indeed occupied in altered interactions and

communication by asking for and getting the altered input, i.e., written text and aural

input(Chapelle, 1989) The investigation of the researches have proposed that the input of the

target language with saliency feature (Doughty, 1991; Sharwood Smith, 1991)

and prospects for the production of understandable output (Swain, 1985; Swain & Lapkin, 1995)

are necessary for acquisition of language. These declarations demonstrate that the other

recognizable interactions can be recognized in CALL tasks, such as how learners are exposed to

input that emphasize significant linguistic properties and how they exact the linguistic output to

formulate it as comprehensible.

Chapelle (1998) explained that a repeatedly cited research advantages of Computer-Assisted

Language Learning (CALL) is data-collecting methodology that can construct learners

“interaction as they work on learning activities (Bland, Noblitt, Armington, & Gay, 1990;

Doughty, 1992; Jamieson & Chapelle, 1987). Chapelle (1998) suggested that such data can

provide researchers with detailed information about learners” performance and interaction.

2.5.2Sociocultural Theory (SCT)

The sociocultural theory (SCT) has its origin from the constructivism-the umbrella term.

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Constructivism theory holds that human beings produce their own knowledge and understanding

from their own ideas, interactions and experiences. This kind of interaction is an interaction

between their behavioral patterns and experiences. Constructivism is not a new concept of a

special pedagogy. It is the fundamental process of learning theory known by the educationists for

years. For constructivists, it is the social interaction which causes your knowledge and

experience to boost. The learners draw out knowledge and experiences by themselves by

meditating. When we have an idea about constructivism in our mind, we look at it in a way that

there is a natural set up of classroom with a groups of learners working together, sharing and

building their ideas. Within the constructive model, the attention is given to the learner rather

than on the instructor. The learner interacts with his or her learning environment and acquires

knowledge with the self learning procedure.

2.6The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

ZPD theory is proposed by an eminent social constructivist and psychologist, Lev Vygotskys,

elaborating the difference between what a learner can do with assistance and what he or she can

achieve without assistance. Vygotsky states that a learner pursues an adult’s pattern of behavior

and with the passage of time develops the capability to do task without any help. Vygotsky

(1978) provided the definition of ZPD as the “distance between theactual developmental level as

determined by independent problem solving and the level ofpotential development as determined

through problem solving with the assistance of an adult (anexpert), or through collaboration with

more capable peers (novices)”.

Majority of the CALL researchers view sociocultural theory (SCT) as a prospective way of

framing and Interpreting the findings in CALL (Levy & Stockwell, 2006; Ganem-Gutierrez,

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2003; Warschauer,2005). Although ZPD theory is based on interactionists theory the researchers

consider that CALL can also be viewed through the perspective of sociocultural theory. Hence

CALL can be viewed as an expert having essential information and a novice may ned to

comprehend from its material. As learners may face difficulties in learning they may ask for

additional instructions to learn through CALL.

Once novice are given instructions regarding several forms of enhanced input it will be better

for them to do second language functions or tasks.

Garrett (2009) urges the scholars regarding CALL to remind them to it and those outside CALL

that “CALL is not shorthand for „the use of

technology‟ but designates a dynamic complex in which technology, theory, and pedagogy are

inseparably interwoven” (Chapelle, 2009, p.719).

To demonstrate the link between CALL and SLA, Chapelle (2009) discussed many

theoretical perspectives assembled into four common approaches:

1) Cognitive linguistic

Discusses Universal Grammar, induction theory of autonomous with concept oriented

approach of second language learning.

2) Psycholinguistic

input processing theory, interactionists theory.

3) Human learning

Cognitive and associative creed, skill acquisition theory.

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4) Language in social context

sociocultural, conversation analysis ,language socialization.

complexity theory and systemic functional theory.

Chapelle (2009) proposed that the above mentioned approaches can be beneficial for the

evaluation and development of CALL tasks and material.

2.7Communicative Language Teaching

CLT is the theory of teaching the second or foreign language to enhance learners’

communicative competence in foreign language and the to produce correct grammatical

construction of the sentences and the knowledge to produce the correct form of the grammatical

construction at the correct time. (Richards, J. Platt, & H. Platt, 1992).

Hymes (2002) first presented the expression “communicative competence” to present the

suitable use of language in varied social contexts. Savignon (2002) defines the expression as “the

ability of classroomlanguage learners to interact with other speakers, to make meaning, as

distinct from their abilityto recite dialogues or perform on discrete-point tests of grammatical

knowledge” (p.3).

Canale and Swain (as cited in Brown, 1994) acknowledged four dimensions for communicative

competence

1) Grammatical competence.

2) Discourse competence.

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3) Social-linguistic competence.

4) Strategic competence.

Communicative language instructions have teaching learning environment centered to the

learners where learners converse and interact with each other to acquire communicative

competence.

Krashen (1985) is the most fervent advocate of CLT. His SLA theory of learning second

language has the base on theory of first language acquisition and he emphasizes that the most

important element in learning a new language is the comprehensible input. Krashen assesrts the

second language learners need to comprehend the meaning of the second language to learn it

effectively.

Krashen (as cited in Nutta, 1996) in his Monitor Theory demonstrates five hypotheses as how

the language is learned

f) The Affective Filter Hypothesis

The learners cannot learn the language if the desired needs are not fulfilled.

g) The Input Hypothesis

The most important element in the second language learning is the comprehensible input. The

instructor must make the essential input for the learners beyond the learners current level of

competence, if the instructor wants the learners to make progress. The input provided can be

understandable to the learners with the assistance of gesturing, repetition of words, visuals and

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other strategies which are provided to the learners while learning their first language to make it

easy to learn and understand.

c)The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis

The fluency in the language is acquired through subconscious procedure when the second

language learner is exposed to understandable input and learning the deliberate process which

facilitates the learners to understand the language rules and are put into use in a situation when

there is the proper time for the monitor in mind to proceed, for example, planned writings and

speeches.

d) The Natural Order Hypothesis

There is the proper sequence for the developmental structure that is related to the learner’s

language learning process. If the learner is given ample understandable input, then the learner

will be capable of learning the inherent structure of the language without the grading of the

syllabus design.

e)The Monitor Hypothesis

There is the monitor present in the brain which assess the learned language structure when time

for the designed writing or speech occurs but not affecting spontaneous communication.

Many researchers stress the significance of understanding of meaning with understandable input

in ESL classrooms (as cited in Nutta, 1996). Ellis (1985, p.161), a well-known SLA researcher,

has proposed the contemporary theory for communicative language learning and teaching,

particularly on its two aspects: interaction and input. He maintains that the qualities essential for

development of fast SLA facilitation are:

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1) The input with high amount is directed to the learner.

2) Learner perceives the requirement to communicate in L2

3) Self-sufficient management of the presented material by the language learner, e.g.,

management of the chosen topic.

4) Attachment to the here and now principle at the start.

5 )The competency in the variety of speech acts by the learners and the instructor, the language

learner is in need of the opportunity to produce and listen the language which is used for

different functions of language.

6) Exposition to the high range of directives.

7) Exposition to the high of extending speech.

8) Prospects for outgoing practice, which makes available the chance for the experiment with

new forms.

2.8CALL Online Programs

From pedagogical point of view, it is effective in presenting grammar in its context and the

maximum amount of opportunity for a sound practice. One benefit in CALL programme is that

the learners are not restricted for traditional language practice, arrangement of the presentation

and material for practice. The users are not needed for the grammar presentation prior to attempt

exercise. Users are not bound for the exploration of grammar and follow the inductive approach

to teach the grammar. Some instructor of CALL choose the trial and error methodology as they

have the chance to correct their mistakes from the incorrect answer. These exercises are the most

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effective elements of the programmes. There is a powerful resource for effective learning in the

form of a range of opportunities for practice. The types of exercises comprise binary questions

or multiple-choice, editing or error correction, filling in the blanks, modified clause, partial

dictation and others.

2.9Call Online Practice for the Skills OF Language

CALL exercises have as a feature for practicing all the four skills of language.

Speaking exercises requires the users to verify the responses to the listening timely, may

provide a specific benefit to the learners, who can opt to listen the response models by the

learners after giving the answers, with viewing the prompt transcripts and the prescribed

responses in the window programmes. Moreover, many exercise models incorporate different

skills of language, that is, speaking, listening, writing and reading. There is a place created in the

exercises for the examination and elaboration of vocabulary and specific words, phrases and

names are highlighted in the glossary. Clicking the hyperlinked elements shows the pop-up

window with the examples of the elements for use.

Overcast (2007) is of the view that the test exercises provided at the end of each chapter are very

useful not only from the comprehensive point of view of grammar but also from the diagnostic

and corrective evaluation purpose. Users can check from the pop-up windows to check the

explanations for the incorrect answers. On the completion of the test the users can check their

progress report a show much they have achieved with the grammar points mentioned in the

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chapter. This characteristic feature can help in highlighting the lapses in the learning outcomes

and may help the learner or the instructor to opt out the learning programme independently.

2.10Interactive CALL Programme

Bouziane (2005) presented the computer programme for teaching grammar to the upper

intermediate level advanced learners that has its base on the series of grammar books having the

same title. The presentation of practice and production analysis pattern is the characteristics of

deductive approach for teaching grammar.

CALL Interactive programme is a useful resource for the target language users. Its authentic

way presenting grammar deductively with rich practice material and testing and production

phases are all very effective in enhancing the learning of English grammar. Bouziane (2005)

suggested that some enhancement may be introduced in the introduction and the combination of

the concepts regarding inductive and deductive approaches of teaching grammar.

The incorporation of grammar conception with performance in various language skills in

different contexts will surely create prospects for learning to take place.

Bouziane (2005) proposed that the CALL interactive programme is multipurpose in the context

that it is used for self assessment, a supplement for the book even in a suitably equipped

classroom. Its uses audio, interactive exercises and animation with the help of multimedia, an

innovation that which cannot be replaced with the paper based material.

2.11 Research on Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

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The use of internet technology in language learning and teaching has been an attention the

research studies with the progress in technology and the CALL research programme (Zhao,

2003). In this part of the review of the research literature, many research analysis are presented

in the chronological sequence:

Chapelle and Jamieson (1986) carried out the study to explore the usefulness of

computer-assisted language learning (CALL) in the learning of English as second language

by the learners whose first language is either Spanish or Arabic in a rigorous computer program.

Learner’s level of English competency was evaluated by TOEFL and the verbal test of

communicative competence.

He conclusion of the researches demonstrated that the application of CALL programmes are

more effective for the specific types of the learners and when investigating the efficiency of

CALL it is required that the learners shall be examined with respect to their variables.

Lasagabaster and Sierra (2003) proposed that though majority of the studies have examined the

outlook of instructor and learners towards CALL, but there is little research on learners

impressions and insights. Kessler and Plakans (2001) proposed that in the procedure of

assessing materials “learners must be included, as they are also experts of their learning as well

as benefactors of well-developed materials”. Lasagabaster and Sierra (2003) conducted the

study in which the learners were provided the opportunity to demonstrate the views about the

technology they used in the laboratory with multimedia. The population of the research was 59

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undergraduate learners who filled the questionnaire and the result was that the foreign language

learners feel the use of technology a necessary element in the learning of foreign language.

The successful programming of the technology based interactive communication task within the

area of (CMC) Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) can result in a lot of benefits for

target language learners. De la Fuente’s (2003) research explored different effects of face to face

and computer mediated interaction in the learning of L2 meanings by Spanish learners. Different

kind of measures, that is, productive, receptive, written and oral were employed to evaluate both

assessment performance and task participation.The research based on task interaction has

presently studied the effects conciliation process (De laFuente, 2003).

Present target language knowledge about cognitive psychology (Ellis, 1995) worked as the

frame to elucidate the results.

Jamieson, Chapelle, and Preiss (2004 ) demonstrated that CALL programmes may be ideally

drawn on the principles from the area of L2 learning. In their research, a criteria to investigate

the English language design as a foreign or second language (EFL/ESL) online programmes and

assessment courses, Longman English Online. The results of the evaluated judgment

demonstrated that most of the parameters of the criteria were met, though some were better than

others.

In Stockwell‟s (2007) investigation of the study, the literature investigating that what kind of

technologies were utilized in the teaching of L2 or target language instruction, in the field of

language skills was examined. Appearing the most important four English language journals in

the area of CALL (CALICO Journal, CALL,

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Language Learning & Technology, and Re CALL) from 2001 to 2005 were evaluated. The

investigation of the research concluded with the examination of the relation between pedagogical

goal and technology. Discussing on instruction of the grammar, Stockwell (2007)explained that

the research focusing on English grammar usually consists of the instructions of the grammatical

structures and the role of sentence complexity or accuracy and were diverse in the scope and

range. Many researchers have evaluated the utilization of commercial software course

programmes, for example the research by Jamieson, Chapelle, and Preiss (2004) who

investigated the utilization of Longman English Online with adult ESL learners.

A case study by Kim and Rissel (2008), the language teachers conviction that in which ways

language learning and teaching influenced the use of technology in giving instruction in the

postsecondary background were evaluated. The data consists of six weeks classrooms

observation in the computer labs. The interview was conducted with the three language

instructors. The conclusions recommended that the language instructors conviction about

interaction influenced the use of computer technology more effectively than their capability to

use computers in teaching the second or target language.

2.12Teacher Guided Multimedia

CD-ROM programme is used as a teaching aid in giving instructions for vocabulary learning to

target language learners. Learners from two consecutive classes were given the control for

experimental group for 30 days. Traditional instructions were given for two hours to the control

group. The instructor imparted instructions to both groups in the same contents. The results

Showed that the group that utilized the CD-ROM program for learning acquired better

vocabulary in English than the group who got instructions in a traditional way.

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Godwin-Jones (2009) proposed that the utilization computers to help learners learn and practice

grammatical constructions trace back to the initial time of computer-assisted language learning

(CALL). With the introduction of the technological age, CALL started to pay attention to

computer-mediated communication. The recognition of form and expression is the most

important factor of online learning for grown-up learners. When compared with the initial

grammar-oriented software , there is acknowledgment of the fact that these days the attention

given to form shall not be isolated but it shall be incorporated to the communication-centered,

language learning atmosphere.

It is clear that the practice of grammar requires more than single phrase or word answer. The

traditional exercise formats, for example, filling the blanks and multiple choice, shall be

complemented by the new interaction with original communication goal. Background of the

informative context shall be provided with the exercises.

Godwin-Jones (2009) proposed that the computer programmes are expected to guide the

learners to focus on structure and form of the language, thus, it is necessary for the grammar

exercise to be innovative, integrated and intelligent.

Garrett (2009) explored existing uses of internet and technology to smooth the progress of the

imparting instruction and second language assessment. She investigated the changes that have

occurred for last 18 years in the chosen topics from her article of 1991, discussing the relation

between pedagogy, research, theory, and technology etc. Garrett (2009) then discussed the most

Important and challenging problems in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) practice

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And scholarship today, which is the new demand in instruction of the language, the necessity

to rethink instruction about grammar, teacher training, professional development, online learning

and CALL research. Garrett suggested that new projects are required to encourage the utilization

of technology and internet for encouraging second language acquisition and investigation of

CALL, for example, encouragement for language centers, streamlining professional

organizations devoted to CALL, the national CALL center establishment

In Garrett (1991) views, the effectiveness of the use of computer for encouraging the language

learning process is a problem of major concern.

Garrett proposed that the studies trying to provide the answers of the question were usually

misunderstood as the assistance of computer is not in itself the language teaching methodology;

its effectiveness depends upon its use ; i.e., which kind of language learning process it supports

and how effectively it is incorporated into syllabus.

Garrett (2009) asserts in her article of 1991 the dominance of pedagogy over computer

technology; in contrast, she desired to stress that these three elements of CALL,

i.e., technology, or research, pedagogy shall not govern the others. The recognize pedagogical

observance shall not be the basic determiner for technology use. Nor SLA theory shall be

given prominence in practicing CALL, nonetheless it plays an important role in justifying and

motivating it.

Garrett (2009) would distinguish today’s CALL in three types:

A: Tutorial,

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B: Engagement with genuine materials,

C: Communication.

Traditional grammar CALL created corrective review by examining learners’ answers aligned

with item-specific stock up correct answers. Current scheme to progress error diagnosis and

response are given attention in spite of natural language processing (NLP) or intelligent CALL

(CALL), containing the programmed grammatical rules of language in compute and learners

input is coordinated by using a parser. The new requirements on language instruction comprise

of a dominant set of motives to rethink CALL grammar. Some language instruction programmes

are powerfully directed towards communicative approach.

2.13Importance of Technology in Second Language Learning

Learning and teaching technologies have acquired prominence in the recent 20 to 30 years. This

is the most extensive area in educational field, having a wide variety of language teaching and

learning tools, especially in the second language (Reinders & Thomas, 2012). These days, the

increased level in the number of teachers and learners using internet technology to learn and to

teach the second language(Han, 2008). If the language instructors use the internet technology

efficiently; then it can be very effective in imparting instructions to second language, an efficient

utilization of technology counts language pedagogy performance to utilize any kind of internet

technology to encourage and increase the scope of language learning and teaching

(Hoopingarner, 2009). Computers are instruments used to allow learners to practice the second

language and ethnicity which they have not experienced yet, like they could not experience

before, computers facilitate learners to have a wide variety of materials in the target or second

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language, for example, videos, blogs, podcasts with the opportunity to have the interaction with

the native speakers (Dickinson, Brew, & Meurers, 2012).

Technology used for learning and teaching has the control of enhancing learners’ learning and

motivation, while providing learners the prospect for the access to technology and

communication, for the communication of ideas using the newly acquired L2 grammar and

vocabulary learned (Díaz, Jansson, &Martínez, 2011).

When executing a fusion of language learning and teaching, technology usage and face to face

interaction, instructors must teach the learners the language learning approach to be effective

when utilizing the technology autonomously (Salinas, Cabrera, & Ríos, 2012). Technology has

cultivated learning environment where cultural and language learning and education are

spreading as learner centered; substance is growing to be customized by the learners’ use, as the

learner is learning not only the target language, but also literacy from technology (Poureau, &

Wright, 2013).The proper use of technology can be an effective tool that can have positive

enfluence on language skills of the second language (Gill, 2011).

2.14Kinds of Technology Available to Teach and Learn a Second Language

The process of learning and teaching is going through a change from conventional classroom

environment to wide spreading technologically influenced one, where learners are not the inert

learners, but, they are learning from the environment with the help of the technology which is

well-known to them (Edwards-Groves, 2012). It is significant to note that with the invention of

the new formats in technology, that is, multimedia, and mobile devices, that is, tablets and smart

phones etc. All this procedure is modifying the way we communicate and collaborate.

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Moreover, the internet applications available for second language learning and teaching are

more complex and complex than 20 years before (Levy, 2009). In the recent decades internet

technology has enlarged its function in L2 education with the utilization of new technological

formats to impart instructions in L2, which facilitates more interaction, for example discussion

boards or live chats (Gill, 2011). As the available technology is diverse and growing, instructors

have to opt out software and hardware, which can meet the instructors and the learners’ needs.

The instructors’ choice depends upon several reasons, for example, personal preference which is

based on their acquaintance with the available technology, their capability to put into practice the

technology to teach or to learn L2. The learning goals with pedagogical purpose are taken in to

account when choosing software or hardware for imparting instructions in L2. Technologies

shall make it feasible to reach towards these goals.

The choice of technology depends upon the institutional judgment, this judgment is based on

institute’s budget (Stockwell, 2007). Second language teaching has changed dramatically due to

the availability of the new technology in and out of the classrooms with the assistance of the

mobile by second language learners (Abdollapour, &Maleki, 2012).

2.15CALL and Language Skills

Language skills are integrated into the contemporary classroom. Nevertheless, just as most of

the investigation has been done on separating the language skills as individual elements of

interest, same is the case with CALL development. In this part of the study, we will analyze

different kinds of technology formats which are used to help ESL learners to develop literacy,

oral skills and the knowledge of language.

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2.15.1 Listening, Speaking and Pronunciation

The accumulation of sounds to computer processors in the 1980s took away listening

from the adhesive tape, which permitted the mixing of text and onscreen graphics, proceeding to

multimedia environments. Videos and speech in the digital form provide great control to the

listener, technology adds meaning to the text, for example L1 and L2 description, notes of

explanation and glossary notes, can improvise acquisition of language and immediate

comprehension (Borrás and Lafayette, 1994). Now a days, learner of any language , who wants

to learn the second language can have audio or video material to learn the language and ethnicity

of that language, this is all done because of the world wide web. On internets, there are a number

of language learning exercises for the language learners with varying pedagogical qualities.

Listening is the way through which a second language learner can be acquainted directly with the

culture and ethics of the second language, which a learner wants to acquire.

In the framework of online listening in, Robin remarks:

“in the immsediate future – the next five to ten years – the frontier in language learning and

technology will not be found in what program does what better, but rather which students use

off-the-shelf technology to best facilitate their own learning in their own learning style” (2007:

109).

Many authors, for example Hoven (1999), have proposed theoretically based models of teaching

for computer-assisted listening. Plass and Jones (2005) presented a multimedia-based model for

teaching and learning of acquisition of second language.

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Recently, CALL speaking practice is of two categories: the learners sitting in front of the task

based computer in the form of groups or pairs or the individual learners utilizing computers for

recording their audio, mostly in the form of pre decided dialogues. Involuntary speech perception

(ASR) has permitted a few restricted audio based dialogue systems (such as Subarashii for

establishing Japanese (Bernstein, Najmi and Ehsani, 1999)) and some marketable programs, for

example, Auralog’s Tell Me More allow the learners of the language to choose which text to

articulate in a dialogue. Nevertheless, these programs are beyond the category of the practice

which is established in ordinary face-to-face communication.

A more normal speaking exercise is now achievable by utilizing asynchronous resources, for

example, online aural discussion board (e.g. Wimba) and podcasting program. Skype with other

VOIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) programs permit video and audio linking computer with

computer at a little or no charge. There is confirmation from some learners that practicing with

text-based chat communication can improvise speaking proficiency (Payne & Whitney, 2002).

In the field of pronunciation, three most important categories of programming are there.

The tape recorder in the form of a digital version is the simplest form, where the language

learners utilize the computers to pay attention to models of native speakers, then they analyze

their voices by recording and comparing with computer provided model. Speech visualization is

the other area which can be connected with recording. Here again, the language learners

endeavor to correlate a model, but in place of only hearing it thoroughly, they analyze a graphic

illustration of it: the multifarious form of wave, the spectrogram with wave forms of weaker and

stronger resonance having diverse frequencies, taken out line representing of waves and the

pitch curve.

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“Although the value of matching wave forms and spectrograms is questionable due to their

complexity, practice with pitch contours has been shown in several studies to be effective in

raising awareness and performance in intonation (Chun, 2002) and tone in tonal languages”.

ASR (automatic speech recognition) is the application to estimate generally that how much

closeness is between native speaker and learner’s speech. Numerical score or meters are used to

represent the learner’s feedback. Even though, with the addition of the problems with the

accuracy in judgment( for instance a native speakers of a language may be termed as non-native

speaker) there are drawbacks to the assessment of such result as it does not inform the learner of

the language where the problem is taking place or what kind of measures can be adopted to

improve it.

A few latest applications, for example, Carnegie Speech (www.carnegiespeech.com) have been

successful to draw out particular phonemes in a word or a phrase that needs work out and present

targeted elucidation and practice exercises for enhancement.

2.16 Importance of CALL


There is no doubt in the fact that media has a great impact on the teaching and learning of the

second language these days.

“It can now be argued that computer-assisted language learning has come of age, and that

we are now entering a fully integrated and naturalized phase of CALL” (Reinders, &

Thomas, 2012).

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“CALL has made its way into the mainstream teaching of L2 and LOTE, nationally and

internationally, and the future of CALL is directly related to language teaching (Hubbard,

2008)”.

Many research studies have proved that the learners who use CALL show better performance

than the learners who do not use CALL (Grgurovic, Chapelle, & Shelley, 2013). The utilization

of technology tools possess the likelihood to improve L2 learning and teaching by maintaining

the instruction quality with the lowest quantity of teacher-learner contact and not disturbing

unconstructively the educational objectives (Hoopingarner, 2009).

Bush’s (2008) research proposed that technology facilitates second language learning for the

learners, this is due to the fact that technology can be used easily by the learners when they are in

need of it. The introduction of technology has promoted changes in teaching methodology,

which exceeds the group work and traditional way of teaching, with the learning atmosphere of

learning activities and games; this new learning atmosphere encourage L2 learners to use L2 in a

condition that can rebuild the situations of life as near as possible to real life situation , L2

learning environment of this kind permit L2 learners to organize their learning of a language

without relying on the L2 teacher (West, 2013).

In view of Warschauerto (2010), one significant advantage of utilizing technology in L2

learning and teaching is the encouragement of technology based learning because of its daily

availability, and provides the opportunity to L2 leaners to use technology more frequently for

second language learning. Lin’s (2010) research proposed that learners are on support of the

technology based learning atmosphere when are are provided instructions in L2.

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“Incorporating technology to learn a target language is very important in today’s

multicultural and multilingual global society” (Godwin-Jones, 2013).

2.17 WRITING AND READING


Since the computers have been invented, reading activities are present at it, up to 1990s crisp

black were introduced on white screen monitors, and its use was widespread. Early, it was

established that these computer applications could support reading expansion in three ways:

A: For promoting automaticity and reading strategies the language learners are organized

in a systematic way.

B: By making available the exercises and comprehensions.

C: By providing annotation and other learning aids for comprehension.

Recently, the technology has made reachable a colossal sum of in print material in frequently

taught and less frequently taught languages. Glossing is not needed to be consulted time and

again by the learners due to the aid of online dictionaries. Chun (2006) proposes an examination

of reading investigation on CALL linked research to 10 propositions for instruction in reading

from Grabe (2004) which have become known from research on text based reading.

Recently, the exploration on CALL development has given emphasis on vocabulary learning.

Apart from the apparent progression of CALL development in the area of L2 teaching and

learning on imparting instruction on reading, Chun (2006) has proposed a number of fields in

which small amount of development has resulted.

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These count four areas from 10 implications:

“promote extensive reading; build reading fluency and rate; develop intrinsic motivation for

reading; and contribute to a coherent curriculum for student learning” (Chun, 2006: 86).

Beyond the practice exercise on keyboards as learners changed their learning process

from pen and paper to the computers for work, early investigation on writing in CALL paid

attention to two areas:

A: The development of word processing abilities in learners.

B: The utilization of text based and then the development of graphic organizers to sustain the

writing procedure.

Once, the research on word processing was very frequent in CALL, but now it does not exist:

Pennington (2004) observes the reason as:

A: Research on word processing demonstrated encouraging affects in writer attitude, length of

the text, quantity and quality of the text, in few cases the revision quality also counts.

B: Now, the word processor is used by almost every one for the composition –now, it is normal

in use in the form of BAX (2003).

Grammar checkers and spell checkers were carried in as they developed to assist in the

improvement of precision in L2 writing. A few committed CALL applications were introduced

which included different characteristics of grammar, vocabulary and composition to build an

incorporated editing and composing environment, for example, Systeme-D for French (Noblitt,

Sola and Pet, 1987).

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Technology has been undergone a great progression to promote joint writing process and web:

most currently the free online suite of Google Docs (http://docs.google.com) is chosen by

language educators for the purpose of imparting instructions. Recognizing the fact that genuine

writing is in need of the listeners, language educators use a range of computer-based alternatives

for publishing learners work. Firstly, this was done by the utilization of word processors and

committed publishing software for the creation and formation of printed publications. In 1990s,

learners-produced web programs were an option, presently wikis and blogs have unlocked the

additional chances for learners, specifically those with less technical skills, to present their in

print product before the online viewers.

2.18 Data-Driven Learning with Grammar and Vocabulary


Numerous initial disk-based CALL applications give attention to vocabulary and grammar

improvement, not because that characterized specific condition of the language of art and its

teaching but also due to the fact that such kind of technology was comparatively easy to program

on the computers.

Today, the computer application authoring system, for example, Hot Potatoes

(http://hotpot.uvic.ca) from University of Victoria have facilitated the language instructors to

create their own grammar practices by using multiple choices, matching formats and gapped

sentences. In addition to the more conventional type of practices, Higgins (1988) proposes the

substitute, for example, Storyboard, in which the entire text of the story is removed and must be

restructured. Though, not particularly intentioned at grammar, such kind of text restructured

programs enhance grammar awareness. Grammar regulators have been investigated as an

assistance in improving grammatical proficiency, though they are needed to be utilized with the

perspective of their drawbacks (Burston, 2001).

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“ ICALL (Intelligent CALL) programs have been shown to be effective in assisting

grammar learning when used with particular structures so that the range of errors can be

anticipated and the feedback appropriately targeted” (Nagata, 1993).

Today, when we look at the contributions of the web, vocabulary is the most frequent

application, because it is of much high importance for the language learners involving the

utilization of discreet items of knowledge, for example; definitions, translations, words, and it is

facilitating for the management of the programs. CALL has developed the electronic glossing

which provides aid in development of vocabulary and reading comprehension

Chun (2006) proposes 30 researches in the field of electronic dictionary and multimedia usage.

Despite of the contradictory results of these studies, the positive opinion about the worth of

glossing has emerged, the fact that the glossing about both first and second language are helpful,

and text and visuals both are better together than either alone. In addition to the investigation,

with the most facilitating range of vocabulary tools for language learners, the investigator and

the teacher is Tom Cobb’s Lextutor site (www.lextutor.ca), which consists of frequency

analyzer, vocabulary level tests, and many diverse utilities.

The field of data-driven learning (Johns, 1994) intends to encourage learner’s investigative

learning of vocabulary and grammar by utilizing computer programs to assist them noticing the

model in the teaching of the target language. Concordancer is the most popular program which

permits the user to choose an item, for example, word, phrase or a stem, and searching the

example in a specific corpus. The consequences are generally represented in a succession with

the chosen articles in the basic and the limited context in which it come into sight on the either

side. For illustration, see Edict’s Web Concordance at http://www.edict.com.hk/concordance.

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2.19 Application of CALL to Learn and teach the Four Skills of L2 Language
The process of teaching has undergone a changed, generally, by the utilization of internet in the

classroom; technology utilization will keep altering second language instructions because new

invention in the technology is being bring about quicker than ever (Hoopingarner, 2009). The

utilization of CALL technology in the teaching of second language; some range of technology

can be utilized for the instruction of the language skill (Stockwell, 2007). In an investigation by

Lin, he presented that CALL having its base on video showed positive affect on the learning of

L2 nouns, verbs and adjectives among learners of the second language with diversity in

proficiency (Lin, 2010).

Sites, for example, Wikipedia and Face book, facilitate the second language learners and teachers

with the material to provide them the natural environment to learn the second language in a

natural manner; the social media facilitates the learning process in L2 (Istifci, Lomidazde,

&Demiray, 2011). CALL based teaching and learning programs of L2 provide the facilities to

the learners, for example, communicative activities and multimedia programs, which are

appealing for the learners (Genc, 2012). The use of technology imparts special multifunctional

and versatile feature, which provides to CALL numerous levels of complexity and functions in

L2 learning (Levy, 2009).

2.19.1Speaking

Speaking has been receiving the most wide usage of CALL programming and applications in the

learning of the target language , including audios as well as videos, which may be live or

recorded. The users have the prospect of interacting and communicating with the participants and

teaching methodology which makes the teaching and learning process an effective tool in

teaching the target language (Levy, 2009).

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Kirkgoz (2011) used a Task-Based Speaking Course to improve the speaking skills of the second

language learners by the utilization of technology in the documentation of L2 speaking, which

facilitated the significant means of technology utilization allowing learners to listen and making

correction in improving pronunciation where needed. The Task-Based learning of the language

gives more attention to the basic structure of the second language. L2 learners communicate in

L2 to complete the work assigned by the instructor (Littlewood, 2004). Learners’ pronunciation

can be enhanced due to communication with the new computer application with recognition of

voice (Hoopingarner, 2009).

I movies software provide the second language learners the chance to record the video by

themselves and role playing for L2 pronunciation practice (McNulty, &Lazarevic, 2012). Kim’s

(2012) investigation proposed that CALL assists in improving second language learners’

pronunciation. The Participants of the Kim’s research developed their second language

pronunciation by utilizing the Technology Enhanced Accent Modification program, which

provide the visual feedback to enhance second L2 pronunciation. Lord’s (2008) study proposes

that L2 learners possess the potential to enhance their L2 pronunciation by utilizing podcasting

technology. In this process the learners acquired the phonetic awareness of the second language.

Bahrani’s investigation proposes that (2012) the exposure of L2 learners to audiovisual

technology in the normal environment can enhance the L2 speaking skills. CALL utilization

with the interaction with peers aided to enhance the L2 learners’ speaking skills (AbuSeileek,

2007).

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2.19.2Reading

Levy’s research (2009) proposes that, technology supply the reader with support to comprehend

L2 texts in a better way when reading, by supplying more material for the learning activity or

demonstrating information to make certain the reader’s process of learning. A profusion of

reading substance in the second language is available on the Internet and these reading materials

can be improved by the use of technology with building of vocabulary , reading the text and

comprehension process. In the process of reading, learners can utilize the technology to look for

the ideas and other pieces of information which can assist in strengthening the learning process

(Hoopingarner, 2009).

Chun (2001) proposed that serving tools available for L2 learners, for example, Internet glosses,

hyperlinked words, on-line bilingual dictionary and audio narration are very useful for reading

and comprehension, some are utilized more than the others, but, it was necessary to have many

options, for learning several learning style. The process of the acquisition of vocabulary and

reading conception are entwined; good knowledge of vocabulary results into effective L2

reading-comprehension process. Integration of technology in the process of learning expressions

and reading comprehension construct it as an influential tool with a lot of possibilities

(Constantinescu, 2007).

2.19.3Listening

The recent technology has provided CALL a vast contact to an extensive range of video and

audios as well. It is much easy for the second language learners and teachers to get access to

audio files at any time and any place. The ease of access to these technology applications

facilitates the learning process of the learners as they can replay, slow down and stop the videos

and audios as the learner of the second language learns sounds and intonations of L2(Levy,

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2009). The learners of the second language can spread the exposure to the target language

community by the utilization of CALL programs and applications (Hoopingarner, 2009).

O’Brien (2013) concluded that CALL applications like podcasts permit the recurrence of

listening procedures which the learners can reach outside the classroom and working the

activities independently to improve the process of understanding and listening.

The listening of the second language can be improved by the recent CALL technology because

the model can enhance the learners proficiency from average to the advance level. (Mayor,

2009).

2.19.4 Writing

Technology facilitates the learners with involuntary recognition of the grammatical errors, for

example, spell checker with auto corrections when a learner writes in L2. Word processing

programs encourage the learners to correct themselves when writing in L2. The utilization of

internet technology encourage the learners in mutual writing when the process of writing is

completed by e-mails, logs or other internet applications where the learners can examine each

other writing and provide response to each other(Levy, 2009).

Zha’s research (2006) resulted that interaction among peers encouraged production of second

language and motivated making of correction by second language learners for proper usage of

L2 when the learner of the second language uses computer-mediated-communication for the

writing of post by the utilization of target language. The utilization of L2 for writing blogs

provides the language learners with the interactive format which encourages motivation of the

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L2 learners’, this blogging is complemented with the peers review (Vurdien, 2013). New

technologies for language learning, for example, Blogs or Wikis offer the recent technology

which support teaching of the second language, particularly L2 writing (Warschauer, 2010).

2.20Investigation on Helpful CALL Teacher Trainings


Hubbard (2008) proposed that employers insist on language teachers who are technology-

proficient, but generally language teachers of future do not encompass technology courses as

their course. Generally, teachers of the language take the use of computers positively, but

regarding the usage of computers their skills are limited, training in computer is required for the

development of confidence and support for the language learners (FatemiJahromi, &Salimi,

2013).

It often happens that the second language instructors do not think the propriety of the utilization

of technology in imparting instruction in the target language for the target language learners

(Lam, 2000). Teacher training courses shall be momentous having importance for the language

teachers having CALL training course paying attention to the advantages CALL brings to

reaching practices in L2 education (Kessler, 2010). Second language instructors who utilize

technology in imparting instructions in language must know the proper utilization of the

technology and different kind of choices available, and their application in achieving learning

objectives (Stockwell, 2007).

Integration of technology in the teaching of language must be sustained by the teachers’ training

instructions about the advantages facilitated by the technology and the ways how technology can

enhance learning and teaching. Imparting training in technology facilitates the educators with

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preparation, support and guidance so the educator can utilize technology in the curriculum

(Pourhosein Gilakjani, 2012).

Computer-Mediated-Communication training to train the teachers on CALL is significant

because of the active supportive integration that CMC promotes amid L2 teachers and the

trainers. CMC is the utilization of technology as a process of communication, to impart training

on CALL to the language teachers. It is available in several formats, for example, video chat and

other distance learning and teaching formats. When the language teachers utilize computers to

integrate, they turn out to be well-known with the technology application, prior to it is put into

practice for instructions in the language classroom (Son, 2002).

Other example of online teacher training is the process in which the teachers attend online

program course on the related subject matter. The online teaching program is based on

technology for teaching with hand on application utilized by the second language learners.

The training by the mentors is other example of CALL training procedure, it is done by the

experienced teachers as how to utilize the technology to give instructions in L2 (Hubbard, 2008).

When the language teachers are creating different kinds of activities for the purpose of teaching

by using computers, they shall be as comfortable as creating activities in a traditional

(Kessler, 2006).

2.21 Disadvantages of CALL


The investigation of the research has proposed that the utilization of CALL exerts positive

outcome on the proficiency level of ESL learners. On the other hand, CALL has disadvantages

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and limits too, such as monetary aspects, partaker isolation, and requirements of the technology

knowledge(Lai &Kritsonis, 2006).

A significant shortcoming of CALL is the preliminary cost. Computers, its various programs and

accessories, for example, microphones with copy rights cost a economic burden on learning

facilities. But, after the preliminary costs have occurred, internet technology is significantly

lower than conventional classroom instruction. Moreover, the utilization of CALL as a scaffold

technique, learners are capable of working independently. This generates a prospect for the

learners to play integrating learning games, repetition of lessons as frequent as required, and

relieves the anxiety and stress of learning the target language. The ESL class teacher is required

to pay more attention to the L2 areas which may still be not easy to learn by the utilization of

technology. These language areas usually comprise of oral features, for example, oral dialogues

or official presentation practice (Lai &Kritsonis, 2006).

Occasionally, for the most part, even the apparent disadvantages are ignored in adult

teaching learning process. In adult education program, the fundamental priority is the basic

literacy of the learners. One thing on which many adult learners give attention to is the primary

knowledge of the technology which the learners should possess so that they may take benefits

from the technology. Many computer applications are written at a level which may be difficult

for adult language learners to comprehend effectively.

“The “Digital Divide” report released by the Children’s Partnership in 2000 estimated that some

44 million American adults lack functional literacy skills” (Children’s Partnership, 2000).

Moreover, majority of the websites do not provide transformation from one language to another,

and they do not provide ant help for the non native speakers to understand the language. These

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factors can cause the hinderance in learning the second or target language. Instructors of the

language are required to understand the learners well, their problems and needs for literacy

(Terrill, 2000).

If the learner and the instructor do not possess the basic skill in the technology, then it

will be difficult for both of them to continue the teachings in the target language. If an instructor

wants to guide his learners fully, he must have the thorough knowledge as how the computer

program shall be used by the learners but also how the particular program will interact with the

learners for better understanding of the subject matter (Terrill)

The further disadvantage CALL has is the non availability of the programs for language learning.

Many of the computer programs for language learning are still unsatisfactory; the majority of

them dealing basically with writing, reading and listening. These programs are good supplements

for language learning, but majority of the language learners want to lean the speaking skills.

Warschauer (1996) says that a computer program shall be capable of, “diagnose a student’s

problems with pronunciation, syntax, or usage and then intelligently decide among a range of

options.”

It is a fact that all the learners do not want to use CALL for learning a language. A survey

conducted by Scholfield and Ypsiladis (1994) learners were separately interviewed concerning

their CALL views.

In Murday, et al (2008) demonstrated in his study as how difficult it was to operate a particular

computer program if the earner do not possess sufficient knowledge of the computer technology.

Some participants complained that their most of the time was spent on learning to resolve the

issues of the software program rather than paying more attention on the learning process. This

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created anger and frustration in the learners. If the learners are not able to use the CALL

program, the blame must be placed on the difficulties created by technology. Rather the blame

must be placed on the inadequacy of the program.

The last major disadvantage of CALL is improper language programs: the unavailability of

proper technology causes unexpected situations. A person who studies the target language can

share the diverse range of situations which may be revealed when learning the target language.

In the traditional classroom, a living instructor is always present to instruct the learners. Because

of the boundaries of computer’s artificial intelligence, a situation aroused by the language

learners may remain unexplained due to restricted programs. As computers and humans work on

information differently, it may be a continuous disadvantage. (Lai &Kritsonis, 2006; Felix,

2005).

Stepp-Greany (2002) found the presence of educator to be a significant aspect in the language

learning process. Moreover, these learners established that the educator assists in facilitating

education in CALL setting where the communication skill, cultural knowledge, and self-reliance

in learning process can be facilitated by the educator’s presence.

2.22Advantages of CALL

The most important advantage of CALL is that it enhances the prospect of self directed learning.

The learners can learn the language when they desire with the control of the rate at which they

are learning (Lasagabaster& Sierra, 2003).

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“Online communication allows for the chance at interaction with other human beings to be

increased because there are no time or place conflicts, in contrast to the normal face-to face

communication” (Salaberry, 2001).

In a research carry out by Lasagabaster and Sierra (2003) learners were questioned about

their computer usage in respect to four significant CALL applications. These are:

A: Tell Me More.

B: English Express.

C: CD English Tutor.

D: Interactive course in Acoustic Phonetics.

Specially, for how much time they use the CALL program, which kind of program they utilized,

and what is the reason of choosing these program. An important discovery exposed that majority

of the learners were utilizing CALL applications for grammar, listening and vocabulary. About

87% of the population stated listening as a work they practiced the most of the time while using

CALL program, 31% listed speaking (Lasagabaster& Sierra, 2003).

The possible conclusion drawn from the research is either:

(1) Learners feel more facilitated by using less active learning skills while utilizing CALL

(2) CALL applications pay more attention on specific features than others.

(3) Pronunciation speaking are two fields of CALL program which are needed to be improved.

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Learners’ attitude towards CALL program is another factor when using it in the class

room. Though conclusions provided from the research may not be applied to every condition, a

research carried out by Church (1986) proposed that,

“although we have no statistically reliable evidence that computer exercises necessarily result in

higher grades, students nevertheless clearly believe that the exercises help improve their work”

(p. 251).

In general, there is proof from the data collected that the learners of the second language deem

CALL program to be effective tool in learning a language (Felix, 2005; Son, 2007). There are a

lot of reasons that why adult learners specially use CALL. In a study proposed by Rosen (1996)

adult learners use CALL for a wide variety of purposes:

“for learning (e.g. to improve reading and writing skills, or take a course); to access a wide

variety of information (e.g. information about the weather, health, travel, other cultures,

American news, and – in the case of ESL students – news from their native countries); for

classes at school; for shopping; to communicate with friends, family members, other students, or

key pals; for entertainment; for virtual travel; and for the sense of control and power one can feel

when using a computer and the Internet.”

CALL facilitates to instruct learners the valuable skills of language. The use of technology

generally facilitates the learning process. The advantage of using the computer technology in the

ESL class is that it facilitates the learning process of the language learners. The online resources

for the learning process are easily available for the language learners as compared to the

traditional classroom. Different kinds of knowledge regarding program assistance, education,

and other required subjects for learning are easily available online.

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The sum and substance of all the discussion is that the utilization of technology for ESL learning

is significant. Technology facilitates the learners in the learning process of the second language.

Furthermore, CALL permits the learners to access fresh information, which may facilitate in

removing the distinction

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

3.1 Chapter Overview

Methodological procedure of the current study is discussed in this unit. The unit opens with the

important question, what research is? Next research methodology is discussed.

This unit constitutes the research pattern of current research which is experimental. Population

and pattern are also given in detail. Last pages of the unit deal with instrument for information

collection and rational for the instruments elaborated description of the setting of research, data

collection procedure and ways of information analysis of the current study.

3.2 What is Research?

We must know what research is before starting research methodology. Neville (2007) explain

research as:

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’’a process of enquiry and investigation; it is systematic, methodical and ethical; research can

help to solve practical problems and increase knowledge.”

Howard and Sharp (1983:6) explain research as

“a methodical process of getting insides and discovering important facts by adding our own

knowledge and of other as well.”

Research pattern is always very important in every research. So researcher explains research

pattern of the research work in next part. The research methodology is considered a back bone in

research work if there is no method then there is no research in every type of research a

researcher takes an issue.

Research methodology is a mode to catch distinctive difficulty when a research problem is

noticed then how it is solved or attained that process is called the research methodology. If we

think about the word “Methodology” it is the way of searching or solving the research problem

(Industrial research institute 2010).

3.3 Area of the Study

It is from the usefulness of CALL material and the spoken proficiency of the ESL learners that

the topic of the research has been selected, the spoken proficiency which have been taught at the

Government schools of District Rajanpur, Punjab, Pakistan, to the ESL learners. And hence, can

provide the ground for the development of the further research. The population of the research

consists of 60 ESL learners and getting education at government schools of District Rajanpur.

3.4 Main research question

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 What is the affect of CALL material on speaking proficiency of the ESL learners at

secondary School level in district Rajanpur?

3.5 Objective of the Study

The main aims of the studies are:

1: To revise the concept and importance of English Speaking Skill.

2: To identify the learning difficulties in speaking English.

3: To examine the new ways of improving spoken skills of English language learners.

3.6 Research Traditions

Many researchers while demonstrating research methodologies specify a clear distinction

between qualitative and qualitative research methods, though their views and opinions differ

about the importance and explicabilities of both these research methodologies. Silverman (1993)

define these as two different schools of social science and he calls them as “positivist” and

“interpretive social science”. Those who make a distinction between quantitative and qualitative

research methods point out many ways in which these two categories differ from each other

(Glesne & Peshkin, 1992). Nunan (1992) terms quantitative research as controlled, objective and

generalizable. On the other hand, qualitative research is naturalistic as it employs descriptive

data, it is concerned with process, it is inductive, and it is concerned with meaning as seen by the

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participants (Biklen & Bogdan, 1998). But, Van Lier (1998) offers a different viewpoint, writing

particularly about research in applied linguistic. He emphasizes that research can be divided into

two parameters i.e. selectivity parameter and interventionist parameter. Most researchers admit

that since the last few decades applied linguistics research has been of quantitative type in the

field (Van Lier, 1998). Now, it is not necessary to validate qualitative methods as they have

already proved to be useful in research (Silverman, 1997). Many researchers recognize that

though these two paradigms exist yet their areas are described unclear (Biklen & Bogdan, 1998).

In the view of Grotjahn (1987), there is oversimplification of the distinction between qualitative

and quantitative research. Chaudron (1986) also acknowledges the function of quantitative and

qualitative approaches in L2 research. Indeed, it is a matter of great importance in selecting

research methods which are most likely to be beneficial for investigating a research question in a

definite background (Silverman, 1997).

This present study is a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies,

which are descriptive in approach.

“The descriptive method was selected in order to establish the existence of phenomena through

explicit description”, (Seliger & Shohamy, 1989, p.125).

Likert scale questionnaire with five points is quantitative in its nature; on the other hand piloting

the questionnaire and semi-structured interview are the part of the qualitative data collection

methodologies. Hence, the data was collected in the form of questionnaire and semi-structured

interviews

3.7 Research Methodology

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Research methodology can be defined as an intellectual human activity which is used in the

exploration of matter and nature specifically the way in which data is collected, organized,

explained and analyzed.

According to Goddard and Melville (2004),

“Answering unwanted questions or exploring which currently does not exist in research”

In a research methodology, researcher always tries to investigate and interpret the question

systematically and to find out the answer of the problem until conclusion. If the researcher does

not find the answer of the problem or question, there will be less possibility to reach the

conclusion. A researcher can face problems in finding answer of the questions; but this problem

can be sorted out by using correct research methodology (Industrial research institute, 2010)

3.8 Research design


As the main objective of this study was to explore the effect of CALL materials on the spoken

proficiency of the ESL learners at secondary level in district Rajanpur, pre-test and post-test

research tools of the experimental research design were mainly used. It is compulsory for every

researcher to define and explain explicitly the sample and population of the study. In this, there

are no hard and fast rules, and the researcher has to rely on his own judgment and reasoning. The

population of the study is always defined and explained according to the aims and objectives of

the study. The situation and demand of the study decide the choice of the target population.

The features of the selected population are represented by the sample of the research study. The

subjects of the study were 60 ESL learners of secondary level in district Rajanpur. English is
being taught there as a compulsory subject.

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The research aims to validate that CALL materials can be used in ESL class for the acquisition

of better speaking proficiency in secondary schools of district Rjanpur to provide to the learners

a productive environment for learning. Further, the various data collection tools used for the

present study have been explained.

The research will be based on experimental design. Two groups of participants experimental and

controlled will be randomly selected from public or government high schools from district

Rajanpur. There will be 30 students in each group Pre and Post- test will be conducted for both

of these two groups. Before applying, any general method there will be a pre-test conducted for

both groups and after the treatment, the Post-test will be conducted to find out the results. The

earlier condition of the groups from their present condition and this difference will show the

effectiveness of the treatment. Experimental research is significant to society as it helps us to

improve our everyday life. The experimental method is a systematic and scientific approach to

research for the researcher’s variables and controls any change in other variable.

3.9 Research Type


Research type is as follows:

3.9.1Experimental Research

The research will depend on experimental pattern. Quantitative data will be collected.

Experimental and controlled, these two groups of the ESL students will be selected without any

particular order from government high schools from district Rajanpur. 30 students will be present

in each group. For these groups pre and post tests will be arranged. Before starting any strategy

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pre-test will be arranged for these two groups. In order to differentiate the results of the

experiment, post test will be arranged. Effectiveness of the treatment can be shown by the

comparison of the condition of these two groups i.e. before and after the treatment, the ESL

students speaking proficiency can be improved by experimental research. Researcher arranged

one or more variables and find out change in variable in experimental method which is

systematic and scientific approach. (Reference.en.wikipedig.org)

3.10 Material

The material will be arranged for the treatment of these two groups as English Spoken software’s

available on computer and methods and strategies adopted for the current research.

3.11 Participants

Experimental group and control group both will constitute two groups of the participants. There

will be 60 participants in both control and experimental group. Each group will constitute 30

participants each. All these participants will be selected without any particular order from

government high schools from district Rajanpur.

3.12 Population of the study

It is necessary to choose some individuals for sample population for collecting essential data in

spite of collecting information from each individual. It is mandatory for the researcher to define

the target population plainly. In this regard, there are definite rules to follow, and the researcher

has to rely on his own opinion. The population has been defined with respect to the objectives

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and necessities of the research. Sometimes, the whole population will be not enough and small.

But, most of the times, population is too large to carry out survey to all of its individuals. This

difficulty is solved by cautiously selecting a small sample which sensibly represents the

population of the study.

Secondary school level learners of district Rajanpur will be the population of the current study.

Conversation of ESL learners will be collected and then analyzed and information will be

collected from the ESL learners in the classroom.

3.13 Sampling

The subset of population which is selected for the present study is sample. Results will be

accurate if sampling is perfect. If sampling will not be perfect then result is misleading. 30 pupils

will be selected from (CALL group (computer assisted language learning) and 30 pupils will be

selected from traditional instruction group in the present.

3.14 Research tools

Information will be gathered by pre-test and post-test. 02 tests of same levels will be developed.

However the researcher will try to develop some new things in the guidance of the respected

supervisor. Test’s validity and reliability will be checked.

3.15 Procedure

Information will be gathered through pre-test for these two groups of ESL learners. After the pre-

test a treatment for 56 days will be organized and during this period of time various ways and

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strategies will be used with the help of CALL speaking material to improve the spoken language

ability of secondary school learners then post-test just like pre-test will be arranged and we will

get the data in scores in this manner.

3.16Data Analysis

The data will be arranged, examined and explained with respect to their category. The data will

be examined by using statistical package for social science (SPSS) and suitable T-test will be

applied for the analysis of the data.

3.17Conclusion

After collecting data from the population, it was organized systematically to follow the analysis.

For the analysis of the pre-test and post-test, a computer programme named statistical package

for social sciences (SPSS) with suitable T-test was used. The data collected was analyzed by

using descriptive statistics. The responses of the tests were coded and then frequency tables were

drawn. The frequency tables were then converted to graph.

The tables and graph was drawn with the help of Microsoft Office word.

To sum up, this chapter presents the research tools and instruments specially designed for the

research.

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CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS

The findings of the study are interpreted by chapter four of the research. Chapter four will

illustrate the findings exploring what is the affect of CALL material on Speaking Skills of the

learners at secondary School level in district Rajanpur by experimental research. Two groups,

experimental and traditional will be subjected to the experiment analyzing the affect of CALL

material on speaking skills of the ESL learners. Pre-test and post-test data of the ESL learners

will be analysed with the application of T-test.

Chapter four of the research is designed to provide illustration of the investigation by the

examination of the results, which were obtained by the experiments on experimental and

traditional group of the ESL learners. The results of the investigation demonstrate the affect of

CALL material on speaking skills of the ESL learners at secondary level in district Rajanpur.

The researcher has confirmed the positive aspects of CALL material on speaking skills of the

ESL learners. Researchers in the area of CALL investigation have demonstrated that CALL

material facilitates the learners’ learning abilities of the language, especially the speaking skills.

In this chapter, statistical tables have been employed for the analysis and explanation of the

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experimental data. The investigator has discussed and explained the results on the basis of these

analysed statistical tables.

4.1 Pre-test and Post-test Results of Traditional Group

Table 4.1 Paired Samples Statistics

Traditional Group Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean


Pre Test 93.96 30 2.69067 .49125
Post Test 131.04 30 17.24816 3.14907

Table 4.1 shows the descriptive statistics of pre- test and post-test of traditional group. In pre-test

each of 30 students has scored an average of 93.96 scores, with standard deviation 2.961 and

standard error 0.491. Similarly, in post-test each of 30 students has scored an average of 131.04

scores with standard deviation 17.248and standard error 3.149.

In the above table, there are 30 students in pre-test and post-test for traditional group, students 1

to 3 got different works in different 11 questions for the average score of each student. The mean

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score is calculated by using simple arithmetic mean which is obtained by adding all the values

and then dividing the sum by the number of values for different types of data. Different methods

of obtaining average are used but here we needed the simple arithmetic means which is obtained

X
as: X  , where ΣX = sum of all the values, n = number of values.
n

As the data in the traditional group is in paired form, so here, the statistic used to calculate

descriptive values is paired sample statistic (data is calculated once by pre-test and again by post-

test) so the data is in paired form.

30 students have 93.96 average works in pre-test of traditional group.

Another descriptive calculation in the table is standard deviation and standard error of mean.

Where the positive square root of the variance is called standard deviation (variance is the mean

of squares of deviations of all the observation from their mean. The standard deviation is

expressed in the same units as the observations themselves and is a measure of the average

spread around mean. The standard deviation has not a simple interpretation like the arithmetic

mean (μ | x ) that is interpreted as the balancing point for the distribution. The standard deviation

is very important concept that serves as a basic measure of variability. A smaller value of the

standard deviation indicates that most of the observations in a data set are close to the means

while a large value implies that the observations are scattered widely about the mean.

Here standard deviation for pre-test of traditional group is 2.69067. The value of standard

indicates that the obtained works of each student are within difference of 2.69067 from the

average of 93.96.

85
Similarly the average works of 30 students in post test of the traditional group are 131.04 and the

standard deviation which is the measure of extent as how much the data is closer to mean of data,

which is 17.24816. It means that the works of each student are in difference of 17.24816 from

the average work of 131.04.

4.2 Comparison of the Pre-test and Post-test of Traditional Group

As compared to pre-test of traditional group, the post-test have a larger standard deviation which

clearly shows that post-test works are spread over the values of data set while pre-test standard

deviation (2.69067) is an indication that the values of data set are close to each other.

Table 4.2 Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences Sig.


Traditional Group Std. 95% Confidence T Df
Std. Error Interval of the (2-
Mean Deviation Mean Difference tailed)
Pre Test - Post Test -37.08 17.06059 3.12 -43.45 -30.71 -11.90 29 .000

It shows the comparison between these two sets of paired-observation in which post-test

indicates 37.08 more scores as compared to the pre-test with standard deviation of 17.061 and

standard error 3.12. 95% confidence interval of this estimate has been observed from 30.71 to

43.45 which means the average marks obtained in the post-test will be within 30.71 to 43.45 with

95% probability. The value of “t” which is -11.90 with 29 degrees of freedom and “p” value

0.000 indicates there is a significant difference in the average obtained marks of the students in

pre-test and post-test.

86
To test whether the two observations (individually) are significant or not, the null hypothesis is,

“there is no significant difference” against the alternatives. And there is significant difference in

two data sets.

4.3 Significance of Paired Sample Statistical Test

To test the significance of pre-test and post test paired sample test is used because here the two

samples are not independent (dependent). This happens when the observations are found in pairs

as the two observations of a pair are related to each other (pairing by design).

4.4 Sample T-test

When the observations from two samples are paired, either naturally or by design we find the

difference between two observations of each pair. Treating the differences as a random sample

from a normal population with mean HD = H1 – H2 and unknown S.D SD, we perform a one

sample t-test on them. This is also called a paired difference t-test or a paired t-test.

Now the comparison between two sets of paired observation in which post test indicates 37.08

more scores as compared to the pre-test. The calculated value of t is -11.90 with 29 degrees of

freedom and p-value is 0.000.

4.5 Conclusion of the Results of Pre-test and Post-test of Traditional Group

87
Now for conclusion that whether there is significant difference or not, we use the critical region

of p-value using 5% level of significance, which is the probability used as standard for rejecting

a null hypothesis H0, when H0 assumed to be true. This probability is equal to some pre-assigned

value denoted by α, 5% or 1%. By 5% we mean that there are about 5 chances in 100 of

uncorrected by rejecting a true null hypothesis PV < α.

The above condition is true, for p-value is less than α so we reject the null hypothesis and each

conclude that there is significant difference in the average obtained works from pre-test and post-

test.

88
4.6 Pre-test and Post-test Results of Experimental Group

Table 4.3 Paired Samples Statistics

Experimental Group Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean


Pre Test 94.32 30 2.74005 .50026
Post Test 150.66 30 18.39994 3.35935

Table 4.3 demonstrates the descriptive statistics of pre- test and post-test of experimental

group. In pre-test, each of 30 students has scored and its average was 94.32 scores, with standard

deviation of 2.74005 and standard error of 0.50026. Similarly, in post-test each of 30 students

has scored an average of 150.66 scores with standard deviation 18.39994 and standard error

3.35935.

The above table shows that there are 30 students in pre-test and post-test for experimental group,

students 1 to 3 got different works in different 11 questions. The mean score is calculated by

using simple arithmetic mean which is obtained by adding all the values and then dividing the

sum by the number of values for different types of data different method of obtaining average are

X
used, but here we need the simple arithmetic means which is obtained as X  , where ΣX =
n

sum of all the values, n = number of values.

As the data in the traditional group is in paired from so here statistic used to calculate descriptive

values is paired sample statistic (data is calculated once by pre-test and again by post-test) so the

data is in paired form.

30 students have 94.32 average works in pre-test of experimental group.

89
Another descriptive estimation in the table is standard deviation and standard error of mean.

Where the positive square root of the variance is called standard deviation (variance is the mean

of squares of deviations of all the observation from their mean. The standard deviation is

expressed in the same units as the observations themselves and is a measure of the average

spread around mean. The standard deviation has not a simple interpretation like the arithmetic

mean (μ| x ) that is interpreted as the balancing point for the distribution. The standard deviation

is very important concept that serves as a basic measure of variability. A smaller value of the

standard deviation indicates that most of the observations in a data set are close to the means

while a large value implies that the observations are scattered widely about the mean.

Here standard deviation for pre-test of experimental group is 2.74005. The value of standard

indicates that the obtained works of each student is within difference of 2.74005 from the

average of 94.32.

Similarly the average work of 30 students in post test of the experimental group is 150.66 and the

standard deviation which is the measure of the extents as how much the data is closer to mean of

data is 18.39996. It means that the work of the each student is with difference of 18.39996 from

the average work of 150.66.

4.7 Comparison of the Pre-test and Post-test of Experimental Group

As compared to pre-test of experimental group, the post-test have a larger standard deviation

which clearly shows that post-test works are spread over the values of data set while pre-test

standard deviation (2.74005) is an indication that the values of data set are close to each other.

90
Table 4.4 Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences Sig.


Experimental Group 95% Confidence t df
Std. Std. Error Interval of the (2-
Mean Deviation Mean Difference tailed)
Pre Test - Post Test -56.340 18.36 3.35270 -63.197 -49.483 -16.804 29 .000

Table 4.4 demonstrates the comparison between these two sets of paired-observation in

which post-test indicates 56.340 more scores as compared to the pre-test with standard deviation

of 18.36 and standard error 3.35270. The 95% confidence interval of this estimate has been

observed from -49.483 to- 63.197 which means that average marks obtained in the post-test will

be within -49.483 to -63.197 with 95% probability. The value of “t” which is -16.804 with 29

degrees of freedom and p- value 0.000 indicates there is a significant difference in the average

obtained marks in pre-test and post-tests.

To test whether the two observations (separately) are significant or not, the null hypothesis is,

“there is no significant difference” against the alternative, that there is significant difference in

two data sets.

4.8 Significance of the Paired Sample Statistical Test

To test the significance of pre-test and post test paired sample test is used because here the two

samples are dependent on each other. This happens when the observations are found in pairs as

the two observations of a pair are related to each other (pairing by design).

4.9 Sample T-test

When the observations from two samples are paired either naturally or by design we find the

difference between two observations of each pair. Treating the differences as a random sample

91
from a normal population with mean HD = H1 – H2 and unknown S.D SD, we perform a one

sample t-test on them. This is also called a paired difference t-test or a paired t-test.

Now the comparison between two sets of paired observation in which post test indicates 56.340

more scores as compared to the pre-test. The calculated value of “t” is 16.804 with 29 degrees of

freedom and p-value is 0.000.

4.10 Conclusion of the Results of Pre-test and Post-test of Experimental


Group

Now for conclusion that whether there is significant difference or not, we use the critical region

of p-value using 5% level of significance, which is the probability used as standard for rejecting

a null hypothesis H0, when H0 assumed to be true. This probability is equal to some pre-assigned

value denoted by α, 5% or 1%. By 5% we mean that there are about 5 chances in 100 of in

corrected by rejecting a true null hypothesis PV < α.

The above condition is true for p-value is less than α so we reject the null hypothesis and each

conclude that there is higher significant difference in the average obtained works in pre-test and

post-test.

4.11 Sample Statistical Analysis

Table 4.5 Group Statistics

Std. Error
Groups N Mean Std. Deviation Mean
Pre Test Traditional Group 30 93.9600 2.69067 .49125
Experimental Group 30 94.3200 2.74005 .50026

Two samples, each consisting of 30 students were taken for traditional and experimental group.

Before applying treatment to each group they were tested for their homogeneity as explained

92
below. Table 4.5 indicates the average scores obtained by traditional group, which are 93.96 and

average marks obtained by experimental group are found 94.3200.The standard deviation and

standard error is obtained as 2.69067 and 0.49125 for traditional group and 2.74005 and 0.50026

for experimental group.

4.12 Homogeneity Test of the Groups.

In this table, two groups, traditional and experimental of pre-test each having 30 students before

applying treatment to each group they were tested for their homogeneity. Homogeneity means

that whether two sample came from same population or not. The average works or 30 students of

traditional group for pre-test are 93.96 and the standard deviation is 2.96067 which means that

the values of the data set are in difference of 2.69067 from the mean. The average works of 30

students for experimental group are 94.32 which means that each student have 94.32 works and

standard deviation is 2.74005 which means that the values of data set of pre-test for experimental

group are in difference of 2.740045 from the average works.

Both the standard deviation indicates that the values of both the data sets are nearly closer to the

average works for traditional group and experimental group.

93
Table 4.6 Independent Samples Test

Levene's
Test for
Equality of
Variances t-test for Equality of Means
Sig. 95%
Pre Test Confidence
(2- Mean Std. Error Interval of the
F Sig. T Df tailed) Difference Difference Difference
Equal variances -
.856 .359 -.513 58 .610 -.36000 .70113 1.044
assumed 1.764
Equal variances -
-.513 57.98 .610 -.36000 .70113 1.044
not assumed 1.765

It shows the comparison between these two groups for the possible significant difference

between average marks. .And it was found significant difference between the average marks of

two groups while assuming equal variances in the marks of two groups. The value of test

statistics is that t=-0.513 with 58 degrees of freedom and p-value 0.610.

4.13 Homogeneity Test of the Pre-test of Traditional and Experimental Group

Now we have to test whether the two samples came from the same population or not. Firstly, we

tested the pre-test of traditional and experimental group, two groups as two samples. For this

purpose we use the independent samples test which is t-test for equality of two means.

Independent sample test contains two situations or condition. In first condition we suppose that

the variances of two samples are equal. Let two small n ≤ 30 samples (independent) from two

normal populations with H1 and H2 and S.D S1 and S2. If S1 = S2 = S but unknown, then the

unbiased pooled or combined estimated of common variance S2 (the term common variance

means that each population has the same variance. In this each t-distribution with degree of

freedom, for small samples, taken from normal population with unknown but equal S.D. It is

used as test statistic for testing hypothesis about the differences between two population means.

94
H0 : μ1 = μ2

H1 : μ1 ≠ μ2

In case of equal variances assumed, the data analysis gives the value of t = -513 with d.f = 58

and the p-value is .610. When these two groups results were compared, the possible significant

difference was found insignificant between average works of two groups. Assuming equal

variances the conclusion is drawn as PV < α. -610 < 0.05.

Statement is not satisfied so we reject the alternative hypothesis and accept the null hypothesis which is
H0 : H1 = H2.

That the two samples calculated from the same population.

Now we discuss the 2nd condition, when equal variances not assumed. In this case we suppose

that there are two samples with H1 and H2 and S.D S1, S2 if S1 ≠ S2 and unknown, we use their

samples estimate as S1 and S2 to compute the standard error of difference between means V, the

degree of freedom in this case does not happen to be an integer. It is always rounded down for

degree of freedom the test of the procedure is the same.

In the table, equal variances not assumed give the value of t = -513 with p-value -610. The

conclusion is drawn as PV < α. -6100 < 0.05

Statement is not satisfied so we reject the alternative hypothesis and can conclude that the two

samples and from are from the same population.

95
Table 4.7 Group Statistics

Std. Error
Groups N Mean Std. Deviation Mean
Post Test Traditional Group 30 131.0400 17.24816 3.14907
Experimental Group 30 150.6600 18.39994 3.35935

Two samples each consisting of 30 students were taken for traditional and experimental

group. Before applying treatment to each group they were tested for their homogeneity as

explained below Table 5 indicates the average scores obtained by traditional group is 131.0400

and average marks obtained by experimental group is found 150.6600.The standard deviation

and standard error is obtained 17.24816 and 3.14907 for traditional group and 18.39994 and

3.35935 for experimental group.

In this table, two groups traditional and experimental of pre-test each having 30 students before

applying treatment to each group they were tested for their homogeneity. Homogeneity means

that whether two sample came from same population or not. The average work of 30 students of

traditional group for post-test is 131.04 and the standard deviation is 17.24816 which mean that

the values of the data set are in difference of 17.24816 from the mean. The average work of 30

students for experimental group is 150.66 which mean that each student has 150.66 works and

standard deviation is 18.39994 which mean that the values of data set of pre-test for experimental

group are in difference of 18.39994 from the average work.

Both the standard deviation indicates that the values of both the data sets are spread over the

average works for traditional group and experimental group.

96
4.14 Comparison between the Statistics of Traditional and Experimental
Group

Table 4.8 Independent Samples Test

Levene's
Test for
Equality of
Post Test
Variances t-test for Equality of Means
Sig.
95% Confidence
(2- Mean Std. Error Interval of the
F Sig. t Df tailed) Difference Difference Difference
Equal
-
variances 4.693 .034 58 .000 -19.62000 4.60455 -28.837 -10.403
4.261
assumed
Equal
-
variances not 57.759 .000 -19.62000 4.60455 -28.838 -10.402
4.261
assumed

It shows the comparison between these two groups for the possible significant difference

between average marks. .And a significant difference was found between the average marks of

two groups while assuming unequal variances in the marks of two groups. The value of test

statistics is that t=-4.261 with 57.75 degrees of freedom and p-value 0.00 and 95% confidence

interval for the actual difference between these two groups may lie within -10.40 and -28.838.

Now we have to test whether the two samples came from the same population or not. Firstly, we

tested the pre-test of traditional and experimental group, two groups as two samples. For this

purpose we use the independent sample test which is t-test for equality of two means.

Independent sample test contains two situations or condition. In first condition we suppose that

the variances of two samples are equal. Let two small n ≤ 30 samples (independent) from two

normal populations with H1 and H2 and S.D S1 and S2. If S1 = S2 = S but unknown, then the

unbiased pooled or combined estimated of common variance S2 (the term common variance

97
means that each population has the same variance, in this each t-distribution with degree of

freedom. Hence for small samples, taken from normal population with unknown but equal S.D.

It is used as test statistic for testing hypothesis about the differences between the mean values of

two populations.

H0 : μ1 = μ2

H1 : μ1 ≠ μ2

In case of equal variances assumed the data analysis gives the value of t = -4.261 with d.f = 58

and the p-value is .000. The comparison between these two groups possible significant difference

was found insignificant between average works of two groups assumed equal variances the

conclusion is drawn as PV < α. .000 < 0.05.

Statement is not satisfied so we reject the alternative hypothesis and accept the null hypothesis

which is H0 : H1 = H2.

That the two samples are calculated from the same population.

Now we discuss the 2nd condition when equal variances not assumed. In this case we suppose

that there are two samples with H1 and H2 and S.D S1, S2 if S1 ≠ S2 and unknown, we use their

samples estimates as S1 and S2 to compute the standard error of difference between means V, the

degree of freedom in this case does not happen to be an integer. It is always rounded down for

degree of freedom the test of the procedure is the same.

In the table, equal variances not assumed gives the value of t = -4.261 with p-value -610. The

conclusion is drawn as PV < α. .000 < 0.05

98
4.15 Conclusion of the Statistical Homogeneity Test of the Samples

Statement is not satisfied so we reject the alternative hypothesis and can conclude that the two

samples are from the same population.

99
4.16 Results of the Investigation

Table 4.9 Post Speaking Proficiency Level

Cumulative
Groups Frequency Percent Percent
Traditional Group Valid 5 10 33.3 33.3
6 14 46.7 80.0
7 6 20.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0
Experimental Group Valid 6 12 40.0 40.0
7 18 60.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0

Pre-speaking proficiency level for each group was 04 after applying treatment the

proficiency level was changed in both groups.

4.17 Post-Speaking proficiency Level of Traditional Group

In traditional group 33.3% of respondents have changed their speaking proficiency level from 04

to 05, 46.7% from 4 to 6 and 20.0% from 04 to 07

4.18 Post-Speaking Proficiency Level of Experimental Group

In experimental group 40% have changed their speaking proficiency level from 04 to 06 and

60% is 04 to o7.

100
Post Speaking Proficiency

Groups: Experimental Group


60

50

40

Percent
30 60.00%

20 40.00%

10

0
6 7
Post Speaking Proficiency

The analysis of the experiment demonstrates that after the conduction of the experiment in the

control and experimental group, the experimental group has advanced in the speaking

proficiency in the English language. In experimental group 40% of the ESL learners have

changed their speaking proficiency level from 04 to 06 and 60% of the ESL learners has shown

progress from

101
CHAPTER 5

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter deals with five sections: (1) Discussion of the Results, (2) Conclusion, (3)

Implications of the Study, (3) Recommendations, and (5) Further Studies.

5.1 Discussion of the Results

It appears from the results of the study that learners’ language growth has occurred rapidly by

using CALL program on enhancing speaking proficiency. Moreover, larger proportion of ESL

learners is reaching at proficient level on standardized tests which shows progress on educational

development as well.

The researcher has examined that the learners enjoyed using this program in learning the

speaking skills, they are of the view that this program has assisted them a great deal in learning

the speaking skills and has enhanced their academic growth. When we have a look on all these

aspects, it demonstrates that learners are getting the benefit from this program.

The data collected from the study shows that the ESL learners respond well to the CALL

program of learning the speaking skills of English language. All the learners responded well and

enjoyed being interacting with the CALL program. Finally, the researcher has examined that the

ESL learners growth in learning the speaking skills is faster than the learners who do not use this

program.

102
The findings of the investigation show that there is a significant statistical difference between the

post-test results of experimental group and the post-test results of control group. This

investigation demonstrates that the experimental group benefited largely by using CALL

program in learning the speaking skills of the English language. This shows that computer

program for learning the language is an assisting material of learning the language.

The results of the study also indicate that CALL material of learning the speaking skills of the

English language has a significant effect on learners’ speaking proficiency.

By using the CALL material for the learning of the speaking skills of the English language

learners were able to compare their performance with that of the CALL material, enabling them

to learn the language in a better way. The program which has been used in learning the speaking

skills of the language permits the ESL learners to use the program herself or himself in or out of

the class room whenever they desire. This also allowed the learners to process the information

about learning in a straightforward way.

The CALL material used in the current study enabled the ESL learners of the experimental group

to practice different sub-skills of speaking which are found to be very useful for them. Learners

of the experimental group showed a great progress in correcting out their spoken sentences. They

were able to notice their grammatical errors while speaking by playing the CALL material on

spoken proficiency again and again.

ESL learners of the control group perform better in correcting out their pronunciation mistakes

while speaking. The learners who were taught by the use of CALL material performed better

than the learners who were given instructions with traditional method.

103
Thus, the results of the present demonstrate that computer is a helpful tool for learning important

sub-skills of language particularly speaking. It is a noted phenomenon that learners’ linguistic

development covers all linguistic features the program has presented, i.e., grammar,

pronunciation, spelling and style. The population of the experimental group, who possessed the

access to the learning facilities like CALL material for learning the speaking skills, performed

much batter; as they had the facilities available inside and outside the classroom whenever they

wanted for the learning of speaking skills.

5.2Conclusion

1. Learners using CALL material for learning speaking skills achieved higher mean scores

in their post-test after the experiment than their scores in their pre-test before the

conduction of experiment.

2. Learners using CALL material for learning speaking skills improved their speaking

proficiency achieved better results than those in the conventional classroom, proving that

CALL is a useful method for the improvement of speaking proficiency.

3. Learners using CALL to enhance their speaking ability obtained considerably better

proficiency than learners of the conventional classroom given instruction by the

traditional method, signifying that CALL is an effective tool for learning better speaking

proficiency, pronunciation and style.

4. The CALL program used by the learners of the experimental group for the learning of

speaking skills permits the learners to use that program by himself, in and out of the

classroom whenever he wants. This application of the CALL program supports learner-

centered approach, self-dependence skills and problem solving strategies,

104
5. The learners make use of most of the linguistic features accessible in the CALL program

regarding his individual needs.

6. The computer-based program allows each learner to obtain the kind of response he/she

needs.

5.3 Implications of the Study

The chief aim of the present study is to present an effective method of teaching speaking skills of

the English language. The findings of the present study suggest the following:

1. Learners may benefit from learning the speaking skills with CALL material on speaking

proficiency.

2. Learners may be more self-directed and interested to utilize computers to improve their

speaking proficiency with respect to the according to the user’s pace.

3. The utilization of computer programs at home by the ESL learners, for example, is an

expansion in the time and place of the learning of speaking tasks.

4. Using CALL program for the learning of the speaking skills or any other CALL error

checking programs for spoken proficiency enables the ESL learners to have an approach

to the recent valuable linguistic features for checking, correcting and evaluating errors in

speaking proficiency.

5. Such kind of CALL programs is very useful in providing response on error type,

examples and linguistic rules.

105
5.4 Recommendations

In terms of the important findings of the current study, the following recommendations are

suggested to be implemented which may be helpful in enhancing ESL learners’ English language

in general and their speaking ability in particular by using CALL programs and techniques:

1. CALL programs may be utilized more in Pakistan, particularly in the areas of enhancing

speaking skills.

2. Pakistani educational management is advised to include CALL facilities in their

educational programs for learners’ better learning performance.

3. EST teachers in Pakistani educational establishment can be given training to utilize such

facilities of computer programs in their ESL class.

4. As the use of technology in Pakistan is increasing, it is recommended that ESL teachers

can use multimedia labs and CALL programs in ESL class.

5. Learners shall be encouraged that the use of computers for education is normal part of

their education system and not something out of the ordinary routine.

6. Suitable drill practices connected with the subjects being taught shall be chosen for

imparting instructions to the learners

7. Computers can serve as a tutor which makes available the skills practice and language

drills.

5.5Further Studies

In addition to the results and conclusion of the present study, researcher has the prospect of

exploring many techniques by which language teaching and learning can be very effective with

106
the use of CALL material. More investigation shall be conducted in future to explore the role of

CALL material on the learning and teaching of ESL skills and activities.

1. Similar studies shall be conducted with different educational settings and different

population of the learners to obtain additional information regarding the effectiveness of

CALL material on ESL Pakistani learners.

2. The results of the present investigation can be relevant to the investigators in other skills

of the language and in other areas of the study.

3. Further investigation shall be carried out to explore learners’ behavior and attitudes

towards computer-assisted language instructions.

4. There raises a question that if the use of CALL material motivates ESL learners to

improve their speaking proficiency. Further research is needed to be conducted to know

whether ESL learners using CALL material will be encouraged enough to rely on

themselves or work together or interact.

5. More investigation into the attitudinal features of CALL will also be valuable.

6. The present investigation is limited to the male learners in the secondary school, district

Rajanpur. It only investigated male learners in one area. More investigation shall be

carried out on female and male learners and in other areas.

107
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Appendix

Important language learning websites


Area Websites
Grammar  http://grammar.about.com/
 http://www.free-english-study.com/home/grammar
 http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/grammar-and-
vocabulary
 http://www.grammar.ccc.commnet/grammar/quiz_list.htm

Vocabulary  http://www.free-english-study.com/home/vocabulary
 http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/grammar-and-
vocabulary
 http://www.vocabulary.com/lists/
 http://www.englishpage.com/vocabulary/vocabulary.html

Listening Skills  http://www.free-english-study.com/home/listening/


 http://www.learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/listen-and-watch/
 http://www.englishpage.com/listening/

Reading Skills  http://www.free-english-study.com/home/reading

Writing Skills  http://www.lang-8.com/


 http://www.free-english-study.com/home/writing/
 http://www.learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/writing/

Communication  http://www.fb.com/
Skills  http://www.gmail.com/
 http://www.skype.com/en/
 http://www.twitter.com/

Pronunciation  http://www.forvo.com/
 http://www.rhinospike.com/
 http://www.learnalanguage.com/

EBook  http://www.about.com/
libraries,  http://ebookee.org/
linguistics
128
 http://www.gutenberg.org/
 https://librivox.org/
 http://bookfi.org/
 http://oatd.org/
 https://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/1
 http://bookboon.com/
 http://www.planetebook.com/
 http://www.loyalbooks.com/
Online  http://www.merriam-webster.com
dictionaries,  https://www.translate.google.com/
translators
 http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/
 http://www.dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/
 http://www.wordnik.com/

Online  https://www.academia.edu/
language  http://www.thersa.org/
learning  http://www.slideshare.net/
communities/  http://search.4shared.com/
forums&  http://www.fluentin3months.com/forum/
sharing
websites

129
130