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INSTRUMENT

TRANSFORMERS
CURRENT AND VOLTAGE TRASNFORMERS

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 62
CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
Schematic Diagram
of CT
a)Multi turn b) Single Turn

JS-1 type CTs for internal


installation of the 15 kV class,
with insulation in the form of
cloth tapes impregnated
with asphalt-base insulating
compound (General Electric
Instruction GEC–333B 1955)

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 63
CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
(a) Bushing CTs assemblies (three separate CTs).
(b) Location of a single CT, or CT assemblies, on a
power transformer’s HV bushing.
1 — Lower connecting piece;
2 — undoing connection bolt;
3 — lower fastening;
4 — replacing porcelain;
5 — head armature;
6 — loosening nut.

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 64
CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
One of the most widespread constructions of a high-voltage CT
(160 kV), with oil-impregnated paper insulation.
1 — Oil;
2 — copper plates for connecting to the controlled current circuit;
3 — volumes filled with nitrogen;
4 — air;
5 — jumper strap linking one of the outlets with the metal case of the
upper reservoir;
6 — porcelain insulator;
7 — insulated primary conductor (primary turn);
8 — four independent secondary windings, each with its own magnetic
core;
9—insulator on the outer wall of the tank, with the outlet connected to
the tank;
10 — terminal box with outlets of secondary windings.

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 65
CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
Xp Rp n= 𝑁𝑝/𝑁𝑠 X𝑠 R𝑠
𝐼𝑝 𝐼𝑠/𝑛 𝐼𝑠
𝐼

E𝑝 E𝑠
Vp V𝑠 Z𝑟

POTENTIAL TRANSFORMAER

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 66
CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
E
The approximate value can be C
𝑂𝐷 = 𝐼 ′ 𝑂𝐵 = 𝐼
directly calculated as 𝐸
𝐵𝐶 = 𝐼 cos(𝜃) D
𝑂𝐶 = 𝑂𝐵 + 𝐵𝐶 = 𝐼 + 𝐼 cos(𝜃)
𝐶𝐷 = 𝐼 sin(𝜃) 𝑂𝐶 = 𝑂𝐵 + 𝐵𝐶 = 𝐼 + 𝐼 sin(𝛼 + 𝛽) B
𝜃 = 90 − 𝛼 − 𝛽 𝜃
𝐼 ′
𝑂𝐷 = (𝐵𝐶 + 𝑂𝐵) +𝐶𝐷 𝛽
𝐼 ′ = (𝐼 sin(𝛼 + 𝛽 ) + 𝐼 ) +𝐼 cos(𝛼 + 𝛽 ) 𝐼
A
𝛼
  O 𝜑
𝐼 ′= (𝐼 sin(𝛼 + 𝛽 ) + 𝐼 ) +𝐼 cos(𝛼 + 𝛽 ) 𝐼
𝑉
 
𝐼 ′= (𝐼 sin(𝛼 + 𝛽 ) + 𝑘𝐼 ) +𝐼 cos(𝛼 + 𝛽 ) 𝛽
 
𝐼𝑅
𝐼 ′= 2𝑘𝐼 𝐼 sin(𝛼 + 𝛽 ) + 𝑘 𝐼 +𝐼 𝐸

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 67
CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
E
Now, CT transformation ratio will be (Actual)
C
𝐼 ′ 𝑘𝐼 + 𝐼 sin(𝛼 + 𝛽) 𝐸
𝐶𝑇 = = D
𝐼 𝐼
𝑘𝐼 + 𝐼 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝛽)+𝐼 sin(𝛽) 𝐼 = 𝐼 sin(𝛼) B 𝜃
𝐶𝑇 =
𝐼 𝐼 ′
𝐼 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝛽)+𝐼 sin(𝛽) 𝛽
𝐶𝑇 = 𝑘 + 𝐼
𝐼 A
𝛼
And Ratio error will be, O 𝜑
𝐼
Ratio error = 𝑉
𝛽 𝐼 = 𝐼 cos(𝛼)
+ 𝐼𝑅
( )
Ratio error = ( ) + ( )
𝐸

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 68
CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
E
and, CT Phase Error will be
C
𝐸
D
𝐶𝐷 𝐼 cos(𝛼 + 𝛽)
tan 𝛿 = = 𝐼 = 𝐼 sin(𝛼) B
𝑂𝐶 𝑘𝐼 + 𝐼 sin(𝛼 + 𝛽) 𝜃
𝛿
𝐼 ′
Phase Angle Error 𝛿 𝛽
With Assumption, 𝐼 <<𝑘𝐼 𝐼
A
𝛼
O 𝜑
rad 𝐼
𝑉
𝛽 𝐼 = 𝐼 cos(𝛼)
𝐼𝑅
𝐸

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 69
POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER
𝑉
𝐸 D

𝐼
𝛽 A
𝛼
O 𝜑
𝐼 𝑉
𝛿
𝐼𝑅
𝐸
𝐼𝑋

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 70
POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER
B
A
𝛽

f
e
d
90-𝛿 𝑉
𝑉 𝐸
b
𝐸 c 𝜃 𝐼
𝛿
𝛿 𝛽
𝐼
A
a 𝛼
O 𝜑

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 71
B
POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER
A B 𝑂𝐴 = 𝑉 cos 𝜃
A 𝑂𝐴
= 𝑛𝑉 + 𝑛𝐼 𝑅 cos 𝛿
f + 𝑛𝐼 𝑋 sin 𝛿 + 𝐼 𝑅 cos 𝛽 + 𝐼 𝑋 sin 𝛽
e
d 𝐼
90-𝛿 𝐼 cos 𝛽 = 𝐼 cos 𝛼 + cos(𝛿)
𝑉 𝑉 𝑛
𝐸 𝐼
b C 𝐼 cos 𝛽 = 𝐼 + cos(𝛿)
𝑛
𝐸 c
𝜃 𝐼 𝐼 sin 𝛽 = 𝐼 sin 𝛼 + sin(𝛿)c
𝛿
𝛿
𝛿
𝛽 𝐼
𝛽 𝐼 sin 𝛽 = 𝐼 + sin(𝛿)
𝐼 𝑛
A
a 𝛼
O F D 𝜑
When 𝜃 𝑖𝑠 𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑦 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 72
POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER
B
A 𝐼 𝐼
𝑉 cos 𝜃 = 𝑛𝑉 + 𝑛𝐼 𝑅 cos 𝛿 + 𝑛𝐼 𝑋 sin 𝛿 + 𝑅 (𝐼 + cos 𝛿 ) + 𝑋 (𝐼 + sin 𝛿
𝑛 𝑛
𝐼 𝐼
𝑉 ≈ 𝑛𝑉 + 𝑛𝐼 𝑅 cos 𝛿 + 𝑛𝐼 𝑋 sin 𝛿 + 𝑅 (𝐼 + cos 𝛿 ) + 𝑋 (𝐼 + sin 𝛿
𝑛 𝑛
cos 𝛿
𝑉 𝐸 𝑅 𝑋
C 𝑉 ≈ 𝑛𝑉 + 𝐼 cos 𝛿 (𝑛𝑅 + ) + 𝐼 sin 𝛿 (𝑛𝑋 + )+𝑅 𝐼 +𝑋 𝐼
𝑛 𝑛
𝜃 𝐼 𝛿 𝐼 𝐼
𝛿
𝛽 𝑉 ≈ 𝑛𝑉 + cos 𝛿 (𝑛 𝑅 + 𝑅 ) + sin 𝛿 (𝑛 𝑋 + 𝑋 ) + 𝑅 𝐼 + 𝑋 𝐼
𝛽
𝑛 𝑛
𝐼 𝐼 𝐼
A 𝑉 ≈ 𝑛𝑉 + cos 𝛿 𝑅 ′ + sin 𝛿 𝑋 ′ + 𝑅 𝐼 + 𝑋 𝐼
𝛼 𝑛 𝑛
O F D 𝜑 𝐼 𝐼
𝑉 cos 𝛿 𝑅 ′ + sin 𝛿 𝑋 ′ + 𝑅 𝐼 + 𝑋 𝐼
≈𝑛+𝑛 𝑛
𝑉 𝑉

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 73
B
POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER (phase error)
G H 𝐴𝐵
tan 𝜃 =
A 𝑂𝐴
𝐴𝐵 = 𝐵𝐺 + 𝐺𝐴
𝐴𝐵 = 𝐵𝐻 − 𝐺𝐻 + (𝑓𝑑 − 𝑒𝑑)
f 𝐴𝐵 = 𝐼 𝑋 cos 𝛽 − 𝐼 𝑅 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛽 + 𝑛𝐼 𝑋 cos(𝛿) − 𝑛𝐼 𝑅 sin(𝛿)
e
𝐼 𝑋 cos 𝛽 − 𝐼 𝑅 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛽 + 𝑛𝐼 𝑋 cos(𝛿) − 𝑛𝐼 𝑅 sin(𝛿)
d tan 𝜃 =
90-𝛿 𝐼 𝐼
𝑉 𝑛𝑉 + 𝑛 cos 𝛿 𝑅 ′ + 𝑛 sin 𝛿 𝑋 ′ + 𝑅 𝐼 + 𝑋 𝐼
b
𝐸 c 𝐼 𝑋 cos 𝛽 − 𝐼 𝑅 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛽 + 𝑛𝐼 𝑋 cos(𝛿) − 𝑛𝐼 𝑅 sin(𝛿)
tan 𝜃 ≈
𝑛𝑉
𝛿 again
𝐼 𝐼
𝐼 cos 𝛽 = 𝐼 + cos(𝛿) 𝐼 sin 𝛽 = 𝐼 + sin(𝛿)
a 𝑛 𝑛

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 74
POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER (phase error)

ASHUTOSH.TRIVEDI@THAPAR.EDU 75