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Applications of First Order Differential Equations

1. This law states that, the rate of change, over time, of the temperature of the object is
proportional to the difference between the temperature of the object and that of the medium
in which it is placed.
A. Newton’s Law of cooling
B. Kirchoff’s Law
C. Hooke’s Law
D. Newton’s First Law of Motion

2. Suppose that a corpse was discovered in a motel room at midnight and its temperature was
80 oF . The temperature of the room is kept constant at 60 oF. Two hours later the
temperature of the corpse dropped to 75 oF . Compute for the constant k.
A. 0.1547
B. 0.1437
C. 0.1548
D. 0.1438

3. Compute for the time of death in Problem 3.


A. 8:13 PM
B. 7:30 PM
C. 7:26 PM
D. 4:57 PM

4. A bacteria culture starts with 500 bacteria and after 3 hours there are 8000 bacteria (assume
exponential growth model). Compute for the constant k.
A. k = 0.8471
B. k = 0.9242
C. k = 0.7418
D. k = 0.6242

5. A first-order RC series circuit has one resistor (or network of resistors) and one capacitor
connected in series.
A. Always True
B. Never True
C. Sometimes True
D. Insufficient Information/Data

6. These equations are used in carbon dating and other real-life applications.
A. Logistic Growth
B. RC Circuit
C. Exponential Growth and Decay
D. Mixing Tank

7. A 300 gal capacity tank contains a solution of 200gals of water and 50lbs of salt. A solution
containing 3 lbs of salt per gallon is allowed to flow into the tank at the rate of 4 gal/min.
The mixture flows from the tank at the rate of 2 gal/min. How many pounds of salt are in
the tank at the end of 30 mins? How many pounds of salt are in the tank at the end of 30
mins?

A. 363 lbs
B. 565 lb
C. 576 lb
D. 763 lb

For numbers 8 -10:

A large tank holds 100 gallons of fluid in which 10 pounds of salt is dissolved. A mixture
containing ½ lb. of salt per gallon flows into the tank at the rate of 6 gal/min and the well-
stirred mixture flows out of the tank at the rate of 4 gal/min.

8. How many gallons of solution are in the tank after 10 minutes?


A. 120 gal.
B. 115 gal.
C. 305 gal.
D. 100 gal.
9. How much salt is in the tank after 1 hour?
A. 107 .09 lbs.
B. 101.74 lbs.
C. 110.98 lbs.
D. 102.76 lbs.
10. In how many minutes will the tank contain 40 pounds of salt?
A. 21.58 min
B. 16.91 min
C. 14.23 min
D. 32.67 min

For numbers 11-12:


On an RL circuit, a battery having a voltage of 12V is connected in series with a
load of 2 Henries and a resistor of 40 ohms.
11. Find the steady state current if there is no initial current given.
A. 3.0 A
B. 0.1 A
C. 0.2 A
D. 0.3 A
12. Suppose the load is replaced with a capacitor having a capacitance of 0.04 F. What is the
charge at the capacitor at steady state?
A. 0.84 C
B. 0.57 C
C. 0.75 C
D. 0.48 C

13. A fisheries biologist is maximizing her fishing yield by maintaining a population of lake
trout at exactly 500 individuals. Predict the initial instantaneous population growth rate if
the population is stocked with an additional 600 fish. Assume that the growth parameter
for the trout is 0.005 individuals/(individual*day).

A. –0.55 fish/day
B. 0.55 fish/day
C. 1.57 fish/day
D. -1.57 fish/day
For numbers 14-15:
14. A state game commission releases 40 elk into a game refuge. After 5 years, the elk
population is 104. The commission believes that the environment can support no more than
4000 elk. Write a model for the elk population in terms of t.
4000
A. p= 1+99e0.194t

4000
B. p = 1+99e−0.194t

4000
C. p = 1+75e0.219t

4000
D. p = 1+75e−0.219t

15. Use the model in (2) to estimate the elk population after 15 years.

A. 631 yrs
B. 345 yrs
C. 626 yrs
D. 125 yrs
ANSWERS:
1. A
2. D
3. C
4. B
5. A
6. C
7. A
8. A
9. B
10. C
11. D
12. D
13. A
14. B
15. C
SOLUTIONS:
1. Newton’s Law of Cooling
1 75−60
2. k = 2 ln (80−60)

𝐤 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟒𝟑𝟖
1 75−60
3. t = 0.1438 ln (80−60)

t = −4.57 hrs
𝐭(𝐝) = 𝟕: 𝟐𝟔 𝐏𝐌
80
4. ln ( 5 ) = 3k

k = 0.9242
5. Always True
6. Exponential Growth and Decay
7.
dQ
= Qin – Qout
dt

dQ Q
= rin Cin– rout V
dt

dQ Q
= (3)(4) – (2) 200+2t
dt

dQ Q
dt
+ 100+2t =12
1
IF : e∫100+2tdt
Let u= 100+2t
du= 2dt
1 1
: e∫ux2dt
1 1
: e2 ∫udt
1 1
: e2 ∫udt
1
: eln(100+2t)2
1
IF = (100 + 2t)2

Q(IF) = ∫ Q(t) (IF)dt


1 1
Q(100 + 2t)2 = ∫ 12 (100 + 2t)2 dt

1
12 ∫ (100 + 2t)2 dt

Let u = 100 + 2t
du=2dt
1 1
Q(100 + 2t)2 = 12 ∫ (u)2 dt
1 3
2
Q(100 + 2t)2 = 12 x 3 (u)2 + C
1 3
Q(100 + 2t)2 = 4 (u)2 + C
1 3
Q(100 + 2t)2 = 4 (100 + 2t)2 + C
t=0 ; Q= 50lbs

1 3
50(100 + 2(0))2 = 4 (100 + 2(0))2 + C
C=500-4000
C = -3500

t=30min ; Q= ?
1 3
Q(100 + 2(30))2 = 4 (100 + 2(30))2 -3500
Q = 363 lbs

8.
gal
The tank gains 6 – 4 = 2 min

t = 10 min: 100 + 2 (10)


t = 120 gal

9.
t = 60 min
1 400,000
Q = 2 (100 + 2t) − (100+2t)2

1 400,000
Q= [100 + 2(60)] −
2 [100+2(60)]2
Q = 101.74 lbs
10.
Q = 40 lbs
1 400,000
40 = 2 (100 + 2t) − (100+2t)2

400,000
40 = 50 + t - (100+2t)2

400,000
= 10 + t
(100 + 2t)2
t = 14.23 min

11.
dI R V
+ L (I)=L
dt

dI 40 12
+ I=
dt 2 2
dI
+ 20I = 6
dt
IF: e√20dt
=e20t
I∙ e20t = ∫ 6e20t dt
6
I∙ e20t = ∫ 20 e20t + c

I(0)=0
3
I∙ e20(0) = 10 e20(0) + c
3
c= - 10
3 3
I∙ e20t = 10 e20t -10

Steady State : t→ ∞
3 3 1
[I∙ e∞ = 10 e∞ − 10] e∞
3 3
I= 10 − 10e∞
3
I= 10 − 0

I=0.3 A
12.
dQ Q
(R) + = V
dt C
dQ Q
(40) + = 12
dt 0.04
dQ 5 3
+ Q=
dt 8 10
5
IF:e∫8dt
5
=e8t
5 5
3
Q∙ e8t = ∫ ∙ e8t dt
10
5
12 5
Q∙ e = 25 e8t + c
8
t

Q(0)=0
5
12 5
Q∙ e8(0) = 25 e8(0) + c
12
c= -25
5
12 5 12
Q∙ e8t = 25 e8t − 25

Steady State : t→ ∞
5
12 5 12 1
[Q∙ e8t = 25 e8t − 25] e∞
12 12
Q=25 − 25e∞
12
Q=25 − 0

Q= 0.48 C
13.
dx
= x(b − ax)
dt
dx
= xb − ax 2
dt
dx x
= bx (1 − )
dt b
a
Where b = growth parameter
b/a = equilibrium population = K
K
Max population growth rate = 2
K
500 = 2

K = 1000
dx (500 + 600)
= 0.005 (500 + 600) (1 − )
dt 1000
𝐝𝐱 𝐅𝐢𝐬𝐡
= −𝟎. 𝟓𝟓
𝐝𝐭 𝐝𝐚𝐲
14.
dx x
= bx (1 − )
dt k
dx x
= bx (1 − ) , 40 ≤ p ≤ 4000
dt 4000

dx
∫ x = ∫ bdt
x (1 − 4000)

1 1
∫( + ) dx = ∫ bdt
x 4000 − x
ln |x| - ln |4000-x| = bt +c
4000−x
ln| | = - bt – c
x
4000−x
= e-ce-bt , let ± e-c = d
x
4000−x
= de-bt
x
4000
x = 1+ de−bt

since x(0) = 40
4000
40 = 1+ de−b(0)

d = 99
since x(5) = 104
4000
104 = 1+ 99e−b(5)

b = 0.194
𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎
p = 𝟏+ 𝟗𝟗𝐞−𝟎.𝟏𝟗𝟒𝐭

15.
x(15) = ?
4000
x = 1+ 99e−0.194(15)

x = 626 yrs