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Let us reexamine the problem of a mass on a spring (see Sect. 5.6). Consider a

mass which slides over a horizontal frictionless surface. Suppose that the mass is

attached to a light horizontal spring whose other end is anchored to an immovable

object. See Fig. 42. Let be the extension of the spring: i.e., the difference between

the spring's actual length and its unstretched length. Obviously, can also be used as

a coordinate to determine the horizontal displacement of the mass.

The equilibrium state of the system corresponds to the situation where the mass is at

rest, and the spring is unextended (i.e., ). In this state, zero net force acts on the

mass, so there is no reason for it to start to move. If the system is perturbed from this

equilibrium state (i.e., if the mass is moved, so that the spring becomes extended) then

the mass experiences a restoring force given by Hooke's law:

(503)

Here, is the force constant of the spring. The negative sign indicates that is

indeed a restoring force. Note that the magnitude of the restoring force is directly

course, Hooke's law only holds for small spring extensions. Hence, the displacement

from equilibrium cannot be made too large. The motion of this system is

representative of the motion of a wide range of systems when they

are slightly disturbed from a stable equilibrium state.

Newton's second law gives following equation of motion for the system:

(504)

This differential equation is known as the simple harmonic equation, and its solution

has been known for centuries. In fact, the solution is

(505)

where , , and are constants. We can demonstrate that Eq. (505) is indeed a

solution of Eq. (504) by direct substitution. Substituting Eq. (505) into Eq. (504), and

recalling from calculus that and , we

obtain

(506)

(507)

Figure 95 shows a graph of versus obtained from Eq. (505). The type of motion

shown here is called simple harmonic motion. It can be seen that the

the amplitude of the oscillation. Moreover, the motion is periodic in time (i.e., it

repeats exactly after a certain time period has elapsed). In fact, the period is

(508)

This result is easily obtained from Eq. (505) by noting that is a periodic

function of with period . The frequency of the motion (i.e., the number of

oscillations completed per second) is

(509)

angle determines the times at which the oscillation attains its maximum

amplitude, : in fact,

(510)

Here, is an arbitrary integer.

0 0

0 0

0 0

Table 4 lists the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the mass at various phases

of the simple harmonic cycle. The information contained in this table can easily be

derived from the simple harmonic equation, Eq. (505). Note that all of the non-zero

values shown in this table represent either the maximum or the minimum value taken

by the quantity in question during the oscillation cycle.

We have seen that when a mass on a spring is disturbed from equilibrium it

executes simple harmonic motion about its equilibrium state. In physical terms, if the

sends the system past the equilibrium state ( ) to negative displacement states (

). The restoring force again overcompensates, and sends the system back

through to positive displacement states. The motion then repeats itself ad

infinitum. The frequency of the oscillation is determined by the spring stiffness, ,

and the system inertia, , via Eq. (507). In contrast, the amplitude and phase angle of

the oscillation are determined by the initial conditions. Suppose that the instantaneous

follows from Eq. (505) that

(511)

(512)

(513)

and

(514)

since and .

(515)

Recall, from Sect. 5.6, that the potential energy takes the form

(516)

(517)

the motion, as expected for an isolated system. Moreover, the energy is proportional to

the amplitude squared of the motion. It is clear, from the above expressions, that

simple harmonic motion is characterized by a constant backward and forward flow of

energy between kinetic and potential components. The kinetic energy attains its

maximum value, and the potential energy attains it minimum value, when the

displacement is zero (i.e., when ). Likewise, the potential energy attains its

maximum value, and the kinetic energy attains its minimum value, when the

of is zero, since the system is instantaneously at rest when the displacement is

maximal.

The torsion pendulum

Consider a disk suspended from a torsion wire attached to its centre. See Fig. 96. This

setup is known as a torsion pendulum. A torsion wire is essentially inextensible, but is

free to twist about its axis. Of course, as the wire twists it also causes the disk attached

to it to rotate in the horizontal plane. Let be the angle of rotation of the disk, and

let correspond to the case in which the wire is untwisted.

Any twisting of the wire is inevitably associated with mechanical deformation. The

wire resists such deformation by developing a restoring torque, , which acts to

restore the wire to its untwisted state. For relatively small angles of twist, the

magnitude of this torque is directly proportional to the twist angle. Hence, we can

write

(518)

where is the torque constant of the wire. The above equation is essentially a

torsional equivalent to Hooke's law. The rotational equation of motion of the system is

written

(519)

where is the moment of inertia of the disk (about a perpendicular axis through its

centre). The moment of inertia of the wire is assumed to be negligible. Combining the

previous two equations, we obtain

(520)

Equation (520) is clearly a simple harmonic equation [cf., Eq. (504)]. Hence, we can

immediately write the standard solution [cf., Eq. (505)]

(521)

(522)

We conclude that when a torsion pendulum is perturbed from its equilibrium state

(i.e., ), it executes torsional oscillations about this state at a fixed frequency, ,

which depends only on the torque constant of the wire and the moment of inertia of

the disk. Note, in particular, that the frequency is independent of the amplitude of the

oscillation [provided remains small enough that Eq. (518) still applies]. Torsion

pendulums are often used for time-keeping purposes. For instance, the balance wheel

in a mechanical wristwatch is a torsion pendulum in which the restoring torque is

provided by a coiled spring.

The simple pendulum

Consider a mass suspended from a light inextensible string of length , such that

the mass is free to swing from side to side in a vertical plane, as shown in Fig. 97.

This setup is known as a simple pendulum. Let be the angle subtended between the

string and the downward vertical. Obviously, the equilibrium state of the simple

pendulum corresponds to the situation in which the mass is stationary and hanging

vertically down (i.e., ). The angular equation of motion of the pendulum is

simply

(523)

where is the moment of inertia of the mass, and is the torque acting on the

system. For the case in hand, given that the mass is essentially a point particle, and is

situated a distance from the axis of rotation (i.e., the pivot point), it is easily seen

that .

The two forces acting on the mass are the downward gravitational force, , and the

tension, , in the string. Note, however, that the tension makes no contribution to the

torque, since its line of action clearly passes through the pivot point. From simple

trigonometry, the line of action of the gravitational force passes a

distance from the pivot point. Hence, the magnitude of the gravitational torque

mass is displaced slightly from its equilibrium state (i.e., ) then the gravitational

force clearly acts to push the mass back toward that state. Thus, we can write

(524)

Combining the previous two equations, we obtain the following angular equation of

motion of the pendulum:

(525)

Unfortunately, this is not the simple harmonic equation. Indeed, the above equation

possesses no closed solution which can be expressed in terms of simple functions.

Suppose that we restrict our attention to relatively small deviations from the

equilibrium state. In other words, suppose that the angle is constrained to take fairly

small values. We know, from trigonometry, that for less than about it is a good

approximation to write

(526)

(527)

which is in the familiar form of a simple harmonic equation. Comparing with our

original simple harmonic equation, Eq. (504), and its solution, we conclude that the

angular frequency of small amplitude oscillations of a simple pendulum is given by

(528)

In this case, the pendulum frequency is dependent only on the length of the pendulum

and the local gravitational acceleration, and is independent of the mass of the

pendulum and the amplitude of the pendulum swings (provided

that remains a good approximation). Historically, the simple pendulum was

the basis of virtually all accurate time-keeping devices before the advent of electronic

The compound pendulum

Consider an extended body of mass with a hole drilled though it. Suppose that the

body is suspended from a fixed peg, which passes through the hole, such that it is free

to swing from side to side, as shown in Fig. 98. This setup is known as a compound

pendulum.

Let be the pivot point, and let be the body's centre of mass, which is located a

distance from the pivot. Let be the angle subtended between the downward

vertical (which passes through point ) and the line . The equilibrium state of

the compound pendulum corresponds to the case in which the centre of mass lies

vertically below the pivot point: i.e., . See Sect. 10.3. The angular equation of

motion of the pendulum is simply

(529)

where is the moment of inertia of the body about the pivot point, and is the

torque. Using similar arguments to those employed for the case of the simple

pendulum (recalling that all the weight of the pendulum acts at its centre of mass), we

can write

(530)

Note that the reaction, , at the peg does not contribute to the torque, since its line of

action passes through the pivot point. Combining the previous two equations, we

obtain the following angular equation of motion of the pendulum:

(531)

harmonic equation:

(532)

It is clear, by analogy with our previous solutions of such equations, that the angular

frequency of small amplitude oscillations of a compound pendulum is given by

(533)

(534)

(535)

conclude that a compound pendulum behaves like a simple pendulum with effective

length .

Uniform circular motion

Consider an object executing uniform circular motion of radius . Let us set up a

cartesian coordinate system whose origin coincides with the centre of the circle, and

which is such that the motion is confined to the - plane. As illustrated in Fig. 99,

the instantaneous position of the object can be conveniently parameterized in terms of

an angle .

Since the object is executing uniform circular motion, we expect the angle to

increase linearly with time. In other words, we can write

(536)

where is the angular rotation frequency (i.e., the number of radians through which

the object rotates per second). Here, it is assumed that at , for the sake of

convenience.

From simple trigonometry, the - and -coordinates of the object can be written

(537)

(538)

(539)

(540)

comparison of the above two equations with the standard equation of simple harmonic

motion, Eq. (505), reveals that our object is executing simple harmonic motion

simultaneously along both the - and the -axes. Note, however, that these two

motions are (i.e., radians) out of phase. Moreover, the amplitude of the

motion equals the radius of the circle. Clearly, there is a close relationship between

simple harmonic motion and circular motion.

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