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# Open-Channel Flow

## (1) Introduction, Uniform Flow,

Manning’s equation, Normal Depth

Qian Liao
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee
Spring 2019
“Open-Channel”

## • Liquid (water) flow with a free surface (interface

between water and air)
• Applications
– Natural channels: rivers, streams
– Engineered channels: canals, sewer lines or culverts (partially
full), storm drains
• of interest to hydraulic engineers
– Flow rate (discharge) estimation
– Velocity distribution
– Discharge - stage (depth) relationship, discharge measurements
– Optimal channel design
– Sediment transport
Classification of Open-Channel Flows

## • Steady and Unsteady

– Steady: flow velocity, discharge, depth etc. do not change with
time

## • Uniform, Gradually Varied, and Rapidly Varied

– Uniform flow: velocity and depth at any given time do not change
with the streamwise position (distance)
– Gradually varied flow: gradual changes in velocity and depth
with distance
– Rapidly varied flow: velocity and depth change rapidly in a short
distance
Nomenclature
• Cross section area: A Cross-flow section of a channel
• Wetted perimeter (water-solid
interface): P
A
• Hydraulic radius: R = A/P
Side view of a channel
P

• Pressure head
p
d
y d 
• Elevation head (gravitational
head): z’
z1 z z’
z2
• Hydraulic head (similar to the
Datum piezometric head in groundwater)
L
z1  z 2 p
• Bottom slope S0   z   d  z   y  z = water surface
L  elevation
Nomenclature (cont.)
• Velocity distributions
Vertical distribution of mean flow velocity in a
laboratory rectangle open-channel on different
spanwise (along y- direction) sections
y
z

x
0.5
1
0.4 2
3
4
0.3 5
z (ft)

6
0.2 7
8
9
0.1
10

0
0 0.5 1 1.5
V (ft/s)
X-sectional Average
• Cross-sectional average (mean) velocity (V)

 v y, z dydz
z

V A
A
y
• Cross-sectional average flux of momentum

 ( v)vdydz  dydz
 2
v
A
 A
A A

## • Cross-sectional average flux of kinetic energy

 2 
A  2   dydz
3
 v  vdydz v
2
 A
A A
Momentum and Kinetic Energy Correction
Factors: a and b
2

## A v dydz  A vdydz 

2

• Does
A

A 
 , or V 2 ?
 
 
• Define “momentum correction factor”

 dydz
2
v
b A
So the momentum flux:   v 2 dydz b AV 2  b QV
AV 2 A

## • Define the “kinetic energy correction factor”

 dydz
3
v
  V2
 v dydz  a AV  a Q
3 3
a A So the KE flux:
AV 3 2 A 2 2

## • Note: if velocity distribution is uniform over the x-section,

a = b = 1.0
Example
Channel width = 1 m

What is
• the wetted perimeter P?

𝑯=𝟏𝒎
• the hydraulic radius R?
• the discharge Q in (m3/s)?
• the x-sectional averaged velocity V?
• the momentum correction factor, b?
• the kinetic energy correction factor, a?
• the hydraulic head?
• the kinetic energy head (velocity head)?
Control Volume Analysis : Energy Equation (Steady state)
Total energy per unit volume:

## Steady state energy equation

 a1V12 
Energy influx Q   gz1  gy1  eu1 
 2 

## Energy outflux  a 2V22 

Q   gz2  gy2  eu2 
 2 
a1V 2 eu1 a 2V22 e
 z1  y1    z2  y2  u2
1
Influx = Outflux 
2g g 2g g
a1V 2 a 2V22 eu 2 eu1
 z1  y1   z2  y2  hL
1
Or Where, hL ~ head loss = 
2g 2g g g
Control Volume Analysis : Momentum (Steady state)

## Steady state energy equation

y
   
 v v  n dA   F
CS

## For example, along the x- direction

x
F x  Net flux of momentum
 Outflux - Influx

 x 1 2 g f
F F  F  F  F  b V
2 2
2
A2  b 2
1 1 A1
V

## Hydrostatic Wall friction Mom

Mom
pressure influx
Gravity outflux
forces

If b1 = b2 = 1 F1  F2  Fg  F f  QV2  V1 
Steady Uniform Flow
• Invariants (parameters do not change along the flow) in a uniform flow
– Mean velocity (momentum, kinetic energy) and velocity distribution (a, b)
– Water depth
– Geometry and area of the cross-section  Prismatic channel
• Headloss slope (headloss per unit length) = bottom slope
v12 v 22
y1  z1  a1  y 2  z2  a 2  hL
2g 2g
hL z1  z 2
Head loss slope  S f    S0
L L

L
Steady Uniform Flow : Force Balance

F1

Ff Fg

F2
L

## • Pressure force: F1  gyc1 A1 F2  gyc 2 A2 and F1  F2

• Gravity force:  gALS0
• Frictional force (shear stress from the bottom and side
wall): F   PL , where  is the wall shear stress
f 0 0

A
gALS 0   0 PL  QV2  V1   0  0  g S 0  gRS 0
P
Shear Stress
• From fluid mechanics analysis, relation between shear
stress and the mean free stream velocity (drag law)
V 2 
 0  C f   
 2 

## • From momentum equation (control volume analysis)

 0  gRS0

V 2 
gRS0  C f   
 2 
2g
and V RS0
Cf
Chezy Equation
• Introduced by the French engineer Antoine Chezy in 1768
while designing a canal for the water-supply system of
Paris
2g
V  C RS 0 compared with V RS0
Cf

• Chezy’s coefficient, C
2g
C
Cf

## – Consists of a universal constant g, and a non-dimensional

constant friction (resistant) coefficient Cf.
Manning Equation
• Most popular in U.S. for open channels
Chezy equation: V  C RS0 Q  VA  CA RS 0
1 1/ 6
Manning proposed: C R where n is the roughness
n

## Manning equation in SI metric units:

1 2/3
V R S 0 , where [ R] ~ m, [V ] ~ m/s
n
In English units: V  1.49 R 2 / 3 S0 , where [ R] ~ ft, [V ] ~ ft/s
n

## Flow rate (Q=VA)

1 1.49
Q  AR 2 / 3 S 0 or Q AR 2 / 3 S 0
n n
Values for Manning n
Lined Canals n

## Wood, planed 0.012

n = f(surface
Wood, unplaned 0.013
roughness, channel
Concrete, trowled 0.012

## Concrete, wood forms, unfinished 0.015

irregularity,
Rubble in cement 0.020
stage...)
Asphalt, smooth 0.013

Natural Channels

## Earth , winding with vegetation 0.050

Manning’s Formula: A and R
Manning’s Formula: Example 1
• A rectangular channel is 3 ft wide and is lined with concrete (roughness n =
0.013). The bottom of the channel drops in elevation at a rate of 0.5 ft per
100 ft. What is the discharge in the channel when water depth is 1.5 ft and
uniform?
Manning’s Formula: Example 2
• Manning’s formula can also be applied to pressurized flow. Consider a 12 in
diameter pipeline built on a slope of 1 percent. Assuming that n = 0.013,
determine the discharge and flow velocity when the pipe is full (with water).
Manning’s Formula: Example 3
• What is the discharge rate and flow velocity for water flowing in a D = 450
mm diameter sewer pipe with water depth of d = 300 mm? Assume a slope of
S = 0.00412 and roughness n = 0.013.

D = 450 mm
d = 300 mm
Normal Depth
• Normal depth (yn)
– Depth of water when flow is uniform and steady, given the flow
rate, channel slope, roughness and geometry
1
Uniform and Steady: Q AR 2 / 3 S1/0 2 Both R and A depend on y
n
Normal Depth for a Wide Rectangle
Open-Chennal
• Wide means B>>y Hydraulic radius
A By By
R   y
P B  2y B

## For a uniform flow

y
1 1 2/3
Q  AR 2/3
S 0  Byn yn S0
n n

B
So we have

3/ 5 3/ 5
 nQ   nQ 
yn    or yn   
B S   1.49 B S 
 0   0 
Newton-Raphson Method
• An iterative method to determine the root of a function f(x)=0
– Assume that we know both f(x) and f’(x)

y f(x)

f(xi)
Slope= f ’(xi)

f  xi 
f(xi+1) xi 1  xi 
f ' xi 
x
xi+2 xi+1 xi
Find the Normal Depth (yn) (not very wide channel)
• Apply Newton-Raphson Method to solve f(yn) =0
1
f  y n   A  y n  [ R y n  ] S 0  Q  0
2 / 3 1/ 2

S 01/ 2  2 / 3 dA 2 dR 
f  y    R  AR 1/ 3 
n  dy 3 dy 
S 01/ 2 2 / 3  1 dA 2 1 dR 
 AR   
n  A dy 3 R dy 
 1 dA 2 1 dR 
 Q   See table 5.1.2
 A dy 3 R dy 
Solve the normal depth:
given Q, S0 and channel geometry  yn
Procedures:
1
Qi  A yi [R yi ] S 01/ 2
2/3
1) Guess normal depth = yi, calculate
n

## 2) Calculate f  yi   Qi  Q If |f(yi)|< e, stop iteration, yn = yi

 2 1 dR 1 dA 
3) Calculate f  yi   Qi   
 3 R dy A dy  y  yi
f ( yi )
4) Calculate yi 1  yi 
f ( yi )

## 5) Let yi =yi+1, go to step 1)

Example 5.1.3
• Find out the normal depth for the rectangle channel:
– Width: B = 8’
– Discharge Q = 100 cfs
– Channel slope: S0 = 0.0004
– Manning’s roughness: n = 0.015