Você está na página 1de 26

Open-Channel Flow

(1) Introduction, Uniform Flow,


Manning’s equation, Normal Depth

Qian Liao
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee
Spring 2019
“Open-Channel”

• Liquid (water) flow with a free surface (interface


between water and air)
• Applications
– Natural channels: rivers, streams
– Engineered channels: canals, sewer lines or culverts (partially
full), storm drains
• of interest to hydraulic engineers
– Flow rate (discharge) estimation
– Velocity distribution
– Discharge - stage (depth) relationship, discharge measurements
– Optimal channel design
– Sediment transport
Classification of Open-Channel Flows

• Steady and Unsteady


– Steady: flow velocity, discharge, depth etc. do not change with
time

• Uniform, Gradually Varied, and Rapidly Varied


– Uniform flow: velocity and depth at any given time do not change
with the streamwise position (distance)
– Gradually varied flow: gradual changes in velocity and depth
with distance
– Rapidly varied flow: velocity and depth change rapidly in a short
distance
Nomenclature
• Cross section area: A Cross-flow section of a channel
• Wetted perimeter (water-solid
interface): P
A
• Hydraulic radius: R = A/P
Side view of a channel
P

• Pressure head
p
d
y d 
• Elevation head (gravitational
head): z’
z1 z z’
z2
• Hydraulic head (similar to the
Datum piezometric head in groundwater)
L
z1  z 2 p
• Bottom slope S0   z   d  z   y  z = water surface
L  elevation
Nomenclature (cont.)
• Velocity distributions
Vertical distribution of mean flow velocity in a
laboratory rectangle open-channel on different
spanwise (along y- direction) sections
y
z

x
0.5
1
0.4 2
3
4
0.3 5
z (ft)

6
0.2 7
8
9
0.1
10

0
0 0.5 1 1.5
V (ft/s)
X-sectional Average
• Cross-sectional average (mean) velocity (V)

 v y, z dydz
z

V A
A
y
• Cross-sectional average flux of momentum

 ( v)vdydz  dydz
 2
v
A
 A
A A

• Cross-sectional average flux of kinetic energy

 2 
A  2   dydz
3
 v  vdydz v
2
 A
A A
Momentum and Kinetic Energy Correction
Factors: a and b
2

A v dydz  A vdydz 


2

• Does
A

A 
 , or V 2 ?
 
 
• Define “momentum correction factor”

 dydz
2
v
b A
So the momentum flux:   v 2 dydz b AV 2  b QV
AV 2 A

• Define the “kinetic energy correction factor”


 dydz
3
v
  V2
 v dydz  a AV  a Q
3 3
a A So the KE flux:
AV 3 2 A 2 2

• Note: if velocity distribution is uniform over the x-section,


a = b = 1.0
Example
Channel width = 1 m

What is
• the wetted perimeter P?

𝑯=𝟏𝒎
• the hydraulic radius R?
• the discharge Q in (m3/s)?
• the x-sectional averaged velocity V?
• the momentum correction factor, b?
• the kinetic energy correction factor, a?
• the hydraulic head?
• the kinetic energy head (velocity head)?
Control Volume Analysis : Energy Equation (Steady state)
Total energy per unit volume:

Total head (energy ÷ g):

Steady state energy equation

 a1V12 
Energy influx Q   gz1  gy1  eu1 
 2 

Energy outflux  a 2V22 


Q   gz2  gy2  eu2 
 2 
a1V 2 eu1 a 2V22 e
 z1  y1    z2  y2  u2
1
Influx = Outflux 
2g g 2g g
a1V 2 a 2V22 eu 2 eu1
 z1  y1   z2  y2  hL
1
Or Where, hL ~ head loss = 
2g 2g g g
Control Volume Analysis : Momentum (Steady state)

Steady state energy equation


y
   
 v v  n dA   F
CS

For example, along the x- direction


x
F x  Net flux of momentum
 Outflux - Influx

 x 1 2 g f
F F  F  F  F  b V
2 2
2
A2  b 2
1 1 A1
V

Hydrostatic Wall friction Mom


Mom
pressure influx
Gravity outflux
forces

If b1 = b2 = 1 F1  F2  Fg  F f  QV2  V1 
Steady Uniform Flow
• Invariants (parameters do not change along the flow) in a uniform flow
– Mean velocity (momentum, kinetic energy) and velocity distribution (a, b)
– Water depth
– Geometry and area of the cross-section  Prismatic channel
• Headloss slope (headloss per unit length) = bottom slope
v12 v 22
y1  z1  a1  y 2  z2  a 2  hL
2g 2g
hL z1  z 2
Head loss slope  S f    S0
L L

L
Steady Uniform Flow : Force Balance

F1

Ff Fg

F2
L

• Pressure force: F1  gyc1 A1 F2  gyc 2 A2 and F1  F2


• Gravity force:  gALS0
• Frictional force (shear stress from the bottom and side
wall): F   PL , where  is the wall shear stress
f 0 0

A
gALS 0   0 PL  QV2  V1   0  0  g S 0  gRS 0
P
Shear Stress
• From fluid mechanics analysis, relation between shear
stress and the mean free stream velocity (drag law)
V 2 
 0  C f   
 2 

• From momentum equation (control volume analysis)


 0  gRS0

V 2 
gRS0  C f   
 2 
2g
and V RS0
Cf
Chezy Equation
• Introduced by the French engineer Antoine Chezy in 1768
while designing a canal for the water-supply system of
Paris
2g
V  C RS 0 compared with V RS0
Cf

• Chezy’s coefficient, C
2g
C
Cf

– Consists of a universal constant g, and a non-dimensional


constant friction (resistant) coefficient Cf.
Manning Equation
• Most popular in U.S. for open channels
Chezy equation: V  C RS0 Q  VA  CA RS 0
1 1/ 6
Manning proposed: C R where n is the roughness
n

Manning equation in SI metric units:


1 2/3
V R S 0 , where [ R] ~ m, [V ] ~ m/s
n
In English units: V  1.49 R 2 / 3 S0 , where [ R] ~ ft, [V ] ~ ft/s
n

Flow rate (Q=VA)


1 1.49
Q  AR 2 / 3 S 0 or Q AR 2 / 3 S 0
n n
Values for Manning n
Lined Canals n

Cement plaster 0.011

Untreated gunite 0.016

Wood, planed 0.012


n = f(surface
Wood, unplaned 0.013
roughness, channel
Concrete, trowled 0.012

Concrete, wood forms, unfinished 0.015


irregularity,
Rubble in cement 0.020
stage...)
Asphalt, smooth 0.013

Asphalt, rough 0.016

Natural Channels

Gravel beds, straight 0.025

Gravel beds plus large boulders 0.040

Earth, straight, with some grass 0.026

Earth, winding, no vegetation 0.030

Earth , winding with vegetation 0.050


Manning’s Formula: A and R
Manning’s Formula: Example 1
• A rectangular channel is 3 ft wide and is lined with concrete (roughness n =
0.013). The bottom of the channel drops in elevation at a rate of 0.5 ft per
100 ft. What is the discharge in the channel when water depth is 1.5 ft and
uniform?
Manning’s Formula: Example 2
• Manning’s formula can also be applied to pressurized flow. Consider a 12 in
diameter pipeline built on a slope of 1 percent. Assuming that n = 0.013,
determine the discharge and flow velocity when the pipe is full (with water).
Manning’s Formula: Example 3
• What is the discharge rate and flow velocity for water flowing in a D = 450
mm diameter sewer pipe with water depth of d = 300 mm? Assume a slope of
S = 0.00412 and roughness n = 0.013.

D = 450 mm
d = 300 mm
Normal Depth
• Normal depth (yn)
– Depth of water when flow is uniform and steady, given the flow
rate, channel slope, roughness and geometry
1
Uniform and Steady: Q AR 2 / 3 S1/0 2 Both R and A depend on y
n
Normal Depth for a Wide Rectangle
Open-Chennal
• Wide means B>>y Hydraulic radius
A By By
R   y
P B  2y B

For a uniform flow


y
1 1 2/3
Q  AR 2/3
S 0  Byn yn S0
n n

B
So we have

3/ 5 3/ 5
 nQ   nQ 
yn    or yn   
B S   1.49 B S 
 0   0 
Newton-Raphson Method
• An iterative method to determine the root of a function f(x)=0
– Assume that we know both f(x) and f’(x)

y f(x)

f(xi)
Slope= f ’(xi)

f  xi 
f(xi+1) xi 1  xi 
f ' xi 
x
xi+2 xi+1 xi
Find the Normal Depth (yn) (not very wide channel)
• Apply Newton-Raphson Method to solve f(yn) =0
1
f  y n   A  y n  [ R y n  ] S 0  Q  0
2 / 3 1/ 2

S 01/ 2  2 / 3 dA 2 dR 
f  y    R  AR 1/ 3 
n  dy 3 dy 
S 01/ 2 2 / 3  1 dA 2 1 dR 
 AR   
n  A dy 3 R dy 
 1 dA 2 1 dR 
 Q   See table 5.1.2
 A dy 3 R dy 
Solve the normal depth:
given Q, S0 and channel geometry  yn
Procedures:
1
Qi  A yi [R yi ] S 01/ 2
2/3
1) Guess normal depth = yi, calculate
n

2) Calculate f  yi   Qi  Q If |f(yi)|< e, stop iteration, yn = yi

 2 1 dR 1 dA 
3) Calculate f  yi   Qi   
 3 R dy A dy  y  yi
f ( yi )
4) Calculate yi 1  yi 
f ( yi )

5) Let yi =yi+1, go to step 1)


Example 5.1.3
• Find out the normal depth for the rectangle channel:
– Width: B = 8’
– Discharge Q = 100 cfs
– Channel slope: S0 = 0.0004
– Manning’s roughness: n = 0.015