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1.

0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 General background

Buckling is a mathematical instability that leads to a failure mode. When a


structure is subjected to compressive stress, buckling may occur. Buckling is usually
associated with columns so, columns can buckle in different ways and this is
mainly dependant on the method of fixing the ends of the column. There are
three common types being pinned ends, fixed ends and pinned-fixed ends.

This experiment to investigate critical buckling loads for steel strut with three
types of fixing the end of the column. This experiment also will test the Euler’s theory
buckling.

 2 EI
Pcr 
(KL) 2

Where; Pcr = critical or maximum load on the column/strut just before it begins to
buckle. This load must not cause the stress in the column/strut to exceed
the proportional limit
E = modulus of elasticity for the material (Young’s Modulus)
I = moment of Inertia
L = length of column/strut

1.2 Goal and objective

1. To investigate the influence of multiple column lengths and end restraints (support
conditions) under axial loading.

2. To derive the Euler buckling factor by accounting few columns length and end
restraint conditions.
1.3 Laboratory scope

This experiment will be conducted in laboratory using the buckling of strut


equipment and multiple lengths of strut which are 0.32m, 0.37m and 0.42m with three
end restraints (pinned ends, fixed ends, pinned-fixed ends).

1.4 Significance of laboratory

1. To determine the buckling response of clamped-clamped struts which is pinned


ends, fixed ends and pinned-fixed ends.

2. To determine the buckling based on length of the strut.


2.0 APPARATUS

Buckling of strut equipment and steel struts with length of 0.32m, 0.37m and 0.42m.

3.0 METHODOLOGY

Part 1

1. Fit the bottom chuck to the machine and remove the top chuck (to give the pinned
ends) select the strut, number 1 and measured the cross section using the venire
provided and calculated the second area.

2. Adjust the position of the sliding crosshead to accept the strut using the thumbtack
to lock off the slider. Ensure that there is the maximum amount of travel available on
the hand wheel threat to compress the strut. Finally tighten the locking screw.

3. Carefully back-off the handwheel so that the strut is resting in the notch but not
transmitting any load. Re zero the force meter using the front panel control.

4. Carefully start to load the strut. If the strut begin to buckle to the left, flick the strut
to the right and vice versa (this reduces any error associated with the straightness of
strut). Turn the headwheel until there is no further increase in load (the load may peak
and then drop as it settles in the notches).

Part 2

1. To study the effect of end conditions, follow the same basic procedures as in part 1,
but this time remove the bottom chuck and clamp the specimen using the cap head
screw and plate to make a pinned-fixed end condition.
1
2. Record your result in table and calculate the values of for the struts.
L2

3. Fit the top chuck with the two cap head screws and clamp both ends of the
1
specimen to make a pinned end condition. Calculate the new value of .
L2

4. Insert all the data obtained in Table 1, 2, 3 and 4.


4.0 RESULTS, DATA ANALYSIS & DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Results

Strut Number Length (m) Buckling Load Buckling Load


(N) (N)
Experiment Theory
1 0.32 53.09
2 0.37 39.71
3 0.42 30.82

Table 1 (Pinned ends condition)

Strut Number Length (m) Buckling Load Buckling Load 1/L2 (m-2)
(N) (N)
Experiment Theory
1 0.32 212.34 9.77
2 0.37 158.83 7.30
3 0.42 123.26 5.67

Table 2 (Fixed ends condition)

Strut Number Length (m) Buckling Load Buckling Load 1/L2 (m-2)
(N) (N)
Experiment Theory
1 0.32 108.34 9.77
2 0.37 81.04 7.30
3 0.42 62.89 5.67

Table 3 (Pinned and fixed ends condition)


4.2 Data Analysis

Length of strut = 0.32m, E=69×109 Nm

1. Calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory (Pinned ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

 2 (69 109 )(7.9823 1012 ) (0.0185)(0.00173)3


 
(1.0  0.32) 2 12

 53.09 N  7.9823 10 12 m 4

2. Calculate Buckling load (N) Theory (Fixed ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

 2 (69 109 )(7.9823 1012 ) (0.0185)(0.00173)3


 
(0.5  0.32) 2 12

 212.34 N  7.9823 10 12 m 4

3. Calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory (Pinned and fixed ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

 2 (69 109 )(7.9823 1012 ) (0.0185)(0.00173)3


 
(0.7  0.32) 2 12

 108.34N  7.9823 10 12 m 4


Length of strut = 0.37m, E=69×109 Nm

1. Calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory (Pinned ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

 2 (69 109 )(7.9823 1012 ) (0.0185)(0.00173)3


 
(1.0  0.37) 2 12

 39.71N  7.9823 10 12 m 4

2. Calculate Buckling load (N) Theory (Fixed ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

 2 (69 109 )(7.9823 1012 ) (0.0185)(0.00173)3


 
(0.5  0.37) 2 12

 158.83N  7.9823 10 12 m 4

3. Calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory (Pinned and fixed ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

 2 (69 109 )(7.9823 1012 ) (0.0185)(0.00173)3


 
(0.7  0.37) 2 12

 81.04 N  7.9823 10 12 m 4


Length of strut = 0.42m, E=69×109 Nm

1. Calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory (Pinned ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

 2 (69 109 )(7.9823 1012 ) (0.0185)(0.00173)3


 
(1.0  0.42) 2 12

 30.82 N  7.9823 10 12 m 4

2. Calculate Buckling load (N) Theory (Fixed ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

 2 (69 109 )(7.9823 1012 ) (0.0185)(0.00173)3


 
(0.5  0.42) 2 12

 123.26N  7.9823 10 12 m 4

3. Calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory (Pinned and fixed ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

 2 (69 109 )(7.9823 1012 ) (0.0185)(0.00173)3


 
(0.7  0.42) 2 12

 62.89 N  7.9823 10 12 m 4


4.3 Discussions

Based on the theoretical calculation, multiple column lengths and condition of


end restraints does affect the critical/maximum load. The derivation of Euler’s
equation is the mathematical derivation of pinned ends condition.

5.0 CONCLUSION

Based on the theory value of Buckling of strut, we can consider that when L is
bigger, Pcr will be small, therefore the buckling load and the length of strut is
inversely proportional in linear condition.

6.0 REFERENCES

Hibbler,R.C.(2018). Mechanics of Materials.10th Edition. London,UK: Pearson


Education, Inc.