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TRAFFIC VOLUME STUDY OF PALICO BALAYAN ROAD FROM BOLBOK

TO BAUAN AND ALTERNATIVES ROUTES IN BANABA AND BALETE

A Research Study

Presented to the Faculty of

College of Engineering

University of Batangas

Batangas City

In Partial cgFulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

By:

CAJEFE, GERMAY D.

DICANG, DIANE APRIL

GONZALES, HENDERSON P.

CAMPANG, MAYNARD V.

MEAPA, DAVID

SUPAN, LINDON BER C.

2017

Campuses: Hilltop | MH del Pilar | Pallocan East | Pallocan West | Lipa

Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

Website: www.ub.edu.ph
INTRODUCTION

Today congestion is found on circumferential and cross-town roadways as

well as radial highways. The growth and dispersion of residences and work

places reflects the continued shift of people and jobs to suburban settings; the

rise of office buildings and of edge cities along freeways/ beltways; and the

decline of population and employment in older central cities. (Falcocchio et al.,

2015)

Most people living in cities suffer from bad traffic. More than anything

else, it seems to be a daily disturbance that affects one’s lives, but don’t know

what to do about it. Urban road traffic is a typical network. The urban road traffic

weighted network model with considering the functional properties of urban road

network and presents the traffic efficiency concept of the road section in the

urban road traffic network. According to the different edge weights which are

determined by the different attribute of the edges. The progression of rapid and

unplanned urbanization has resulted in an unprecedented revolution in the

growth of motor vehicles world-wide. The alarming increase in morbidity and

mortality owing to road traffic problems over the past few decades is a matter of

great concern globally. Road users got irked once confronted with the perennial

problems of mobilization due to sporadic traffic congestion, and expected

jamming particularly at rush hours as different kinds of vehicles in all shapes and

sizes is slowly moving at road. Motorist felt rigors of traffic problems while

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queuing to a narrow road in order to proceed to the shortest way going to their

intended destination

An alternate route provides additional capacity to service primary route

traffic. Alternate routes begin from one point on the primary route and terminate

at another point on the primary route. The terminal point of an alternate route

must be downstream of the congested area. The congestion may result from

some event that causes either a significant or total roadway capacity reduction or

excessive, sustained traffic demand. These events may include a traffic incident,

natural disaster, or emergency. These events may render a roadway facility

impassable. Diverting traffic to a parallel roadway specified in a carefully planned

alternate route plan provides an effective, temporary response to facilitating

increased mobility and improved travel time reliability in the corridor. Alternate

routes may accommodate local and/or regional traffic. A local alternate route

involves diverting primary route traffic a short distance, typically from one point

(e.g., interchange or major intersection) to the next downstream point using a

roadway located adjacent to the primary route. A regional alternate route typically

represents a high-speed, high-capacity facility that services a primary route

through traffic, destined for some location (e.g., city) far downstream of the

bottleneck location, over an extended distance. The purpose of a regional

alternate route is to minimize travel time and delay anticipated on the primary

route or local alternate route. The function and operation of alternate routes differ

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considerably from that of evacuation routes. When implemented, alternate routes

must accommodate both the traffic diverted from another facility and day-to-day

background traffic on the alternate route. However, evacuation routes are

typically required to move large numbers of people away from a particular

location. Therefore, traffic flow on evacuation routes is typically unidirectional;

often, officials use uncommon traffic management strategies, such as contraflow

lanes, to maximize traffic flow in one mandated travel direction. During an

evacuation, officials may find it necessary to utilize parallel alternate routes to

accommodate as much traffic as possible away from a particular location.

Background of the Study

Since the Palico- Balayan- Batangas Road, in the direction through the

Bauan Public Market is recognized as one of the major roads for transportation

concerning livelihood. There is a need for a solution to solve the identified

problem in the area about the congested movement or circulation of the vast

numbers of vehicles, lack of traffic signs in the area and yearly increase of

vehicles. These problems can lead to traffic problems like accidents because of

lack of traffic signs moreover if a certain motorist is not familiar of the area. Also

the increase of vehicles yearly, it can cause severe traffic congestion because

the number of vehicles can no longer accommodated by the road. The economy

of the city can also be affected because of problems of exportation and

importation of goods and services in the area.

Campuses: Hilltop | MH del Pilar | Pallocan East | Pallocan West | Lipa

Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

Website: www.ub.edu.ph
The urban transportation system is the key of the economic activities in all

urban communities all over the world, and consequently sustains livelihood of the

people living in them. The big proportion consists of roads. Logically, most

planning and research efforts have focused on the road system. In essence, road

transportation system is the major player in the economic activities of most urban

centers.

Four (4) projects of the Department of Public Works and Highways

Batangas I District Engineering Office (Batangas I DEO) for the year 2014 were

for Network Development – Widening of National Roads in various sections of

Palico-Balayan-Batangas City Road in Western Batangas. With a total of length

of 2.07 kilometers, the road widening included sections in Mahayahay, Palanas,

Bukal-Tubigan in Lemery, Batangas and Rizal in Tuy, Batangas.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study aims to use Traffic Volume Study of Palico Balayan Road from

Bolbok to Bauan and Alternatives Routes in Banaba and Balete to fully

understand and asses the traffic situation to come up with a solution and possible

alternate routes. Specifically, the researchers sought to answer the following

questions:

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1. What are the possible solutions to improve the traffic condition to the main

road of Palico Balayan?

2. What is the most convenient alternate route?

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

OBJECTIVES

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1. To relate the data obtained and conduct a traffic volume study to identify

possible and most convenient alternate routes.

2. To provide solutions to further improve traffic conditions in the area.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This research will quantify the traffic counts, number of vehicles passing a point

during a specified period of time and the number of vehicles per unit length in the

alternate routes in Palico Balayan Road and will analyse the possible solutions in

rerouting vehicles, giving the vehicles a choice to prefer routes that will suit their

destinations without being engaged into heavy traffics. This quantitative research

will use the two-way ANOVA to compare the mean differences between the

roads that have been split on independent variables (called factors).

The starting point of the main road is from Bolbok Access Road to Bauan –

Batangas Provincial Road, the main road is also called the Palico – Balayan

Road. The alternative routes will be at Banaba Road which is from Batangas

Diversion Road to Caltex Road, Batangas. The other one will be at Balete Road,

starts from Balete Road to San Jose Bauan Road going to Makalintal Avenue.

Campuses: Hilltop | MH del Pilar | Pallocan East | Pallocan West | Lipa

Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

Website: www.ub.edu.ph
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

To the motorist which passes through Palico- Balayan- Batangas

Road - this study will become an advantage of the motorist of how they can

utilize the given study to ease their daily travel along that road

To Bauan Traffic Management - the findings of this study may be used in

the formulation of recommendations which will as other studies for this matter.

This will help the management to have more alternative ways for the traffic

congestions.

To The University of Batangas - especially to the College of

Engineering, Civil Engineering Department. This study will provide additional

knowledge and may be used as basis for further studies and extension activities.

To the Civil Engineering students, these study benefits students

through the wider knowledge about traffic and on ways on how it will be lessen.

To the Researchers, the study is beneficial not only to other people but to

the informants as well. This would help them gain a wider knowledge of the

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topics mainly discussed in the University. Moreover, this would create an edge

for them in the transportation engineering for the reason that they have

experienced a more serious, influential and effective activity that opened them to

be more responsive, unbiased, and effective citizen of the country

To the Future Researchers, the result of the study could be used in

their research literature. Moreover, they can also utilize it for reference purposes

as they conduct similar topic to their study. With that, it would be a great help for

them to be able to gain more knowledge and wisdom to the field they have

chosen.

Campuses: Hilltop | MH del Pilar | Pallocan East | Pallocan West | Lipa

Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

Website: www.ub.edu.ph
DEFINITION OF TERMS

AADT

 AADT is annual average daily traffic

ADT

 ADT is average daily traffic

(They are not the same. ADT is daily volumes in a time period greater than a

day, but less than one year, divided by the number of days counted

Capacity

 The maximum rate at which persons or vehicles can be reasonably

expected to traverse a point or uniform segment of a lane or roadway

during a specified time period under prevailing roadway, traffic and control

conditions; usually referred to as vehicles per hour or persons per hour.

This is the standard used to determine when additional lanes need to be

added.

DELAY TIME

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Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

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 A simulation process is presented for providing a point estimate of

average traffic delay on minor roads at urban signalized intersections

during peak hours.

DENSITY

 Sometimes referred to as concentration is the number of vehicle traveling

over a unit length of highway at an instant in time.

FLOW RATE (VOLUME)

 Is the study if interaction between travellers and infrastructure with the aim

of understanding and developing an optimal transport network with

efficient movement of traffic and minimal traffic congestion problems

SPACE MEAN SPEED

 Is the harmonic means of the speeds of vehicles passing a point on a

highway during an interval of time.

SPACING OF VEHICLES

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 Is a rocket-powered vehicle used to transport unmanned satellites or

humans between the earth’s surface and outer space.

TRAFFIC INTENSITY

 Is a measure of the average occupancy of a server or resource during a

specified period of time, normally a busy hour.

WAITING TIME

 In transportation, dwell time or terminal dwell time refers to the time a

vehicle such as a public transit bus or train spends at a scheduled stop

without moving

SPEED CAPACITY FOR 2 LANES

 Is the ability of a road to accommodate traffic volume. It is the maximum

hourly rate at which vehicles can reasonably be expected to cross a point

on a roadway during a given time period under prevailing traffic roadway

and control condition. For multi-lane highway it is 2000pcphpl, and for 2-

lane highway is 2800pcph (passenger car per hour).

VOLUMES STUDIES

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Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

Website: www.ub.edu.ph
 The volume studies are conducted to collect data on the number of

vehicles and for pedestrians that pass a point on a highway facility during

a specified time period.

Route

 A particular way or direction between places route is also

a fixed path for regularly moving or delivering people or things

Road

 Road transport means transportation of goods and personnel from one

place to the other on roads. Road is a route between two destinations,

which has been either paved or worked on to enable transportation by way

of motorised and non-motorised carriages

Congestion

 Vehicles clogging streets and highways

Traffic Management

 A key branch within logistics. It concerns the planning, control and

purchasing of transport services needed to physically move vehicles.

Traffic

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 The business of moving passengers through system of transportation.

Travel

 Is the movement from the point of origin to a point of distinction

undertaken so that an individual can perform the desire activities.

Vehicles

 Is a device for carrying passenger usually moving on wheels.

Two-way ANOVA

 stands for Analysis of Variance and tests for differences in the effects of

independent variables on a dependent variable. A two-way ANOVA tests the

effect of two independent variables on a dependent variable.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

http://seahipaj.org/journals-ci/june-2017/IJIMSEP/full/IJIMSEP-J-1-2017.pdf

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.580.8884&rep=rep1&type=pdf&fbclid=IwAR2C8kE

GmZgKzp0JHQyU2FWyiMLnjWxKBaT5Q44DUCsekeX38dMPfPqZOyk

Campuses: Hilltop | MH del Pilar | Pallocan East | Pallocan West | Lipa

Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

Website: www.ub.edu.ph
CHAPTER III

METHODS OF RESEARCH

The topic that will be discussed in this chapter are research method that

will be used by the researcher, sources of data and information, the instruments

that will be used for gathering data, and the procedure that will be followed in

doing the research.

SUBJECT

Campuses: Hilltop | MH del Pilar | Pallocan East | Pallocan West | Lipa

Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

Website: www.ub.edu.ph
The research is about Traffic Volume Study of the Palico Balayan Road

from Bolbok to Bauan and Alternative Routes in Banaba and Balete. The starting

point of the main road is from Bolbok Access Road to Bauan – Batangas

Provincial Road it’s distance is 3.23 miles (4.844125 kilometers) , the main road

is also called the Palico – Balayan Road. The alternative routes will be at Banaba

Road which is from Batangas Diversion Road to Caltex Road, Batangas with a

distance of 2.14 miles (3.443996). The other one will be at Balete Road, starts

from Balete Road to San Jose Bauan Road going to Makalintal Avenue.

RESEARCH DESIGN

The research is about a study of Traffic Volume Study of Palico

Balayan Road from Bolbok to Bauan and Alternatives Routes in Banaba

and Balete, with the objective of determining the traffic volume studies of the

main road and the alternate roads. The researchers find it appropriate to use

quantitative method of research.

In order to attain this objective, the researchers find it appropriate to use

quantitative method of research. Quantitative methods emphasize objective

measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data

collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-

existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research

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focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people

or to explain a particular phenomenon.

The researchers may quantify the data and generalize the results from the

traffic counts that will be gathered as the sample to the population of interest.

INSTRUMENTATION

The instruments that will be used in the study as a survey is the traffic

counts gathered in the main road and alternative routes.

Traffic count is traffic volume studies that are conducted to determine the

number, movements, and classifications of roadway vehicles at the location.

These data can help identify critical flow time periods, determine the influence of

large vehicles or pedestrians on vehicular traffic flow, or document traffic volume

trends. The length of the sampling period depends on the type of count being

taken and the intended use of the data recorded.

The instruments that will be used in traffic counting for getting the data are

video cameras, which will serve as the data recorder and video the traffic in the

area, stopwatch to identify the speed of the vehicles to one point to another using

a benchmark. The researchers will be collecting all the data in the external hard

drive where the data will be stored.

PROCEDURES

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Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

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The researchers will first observe and analyse the roads to identify the

possible cause of the probable problem of the roads. Then the researchers will

gather the data needed by conducting traffic counts during peak hours in three

days in the main road which is the Palico Balayan Road and in the alternative

routes in Banaba and Balete. After the traffic survey and gathering data, the

researchers will study and proceed to the statistical treatment and computation,

two-way ANOVA will be used to compare the mean differences of the road . The

researchers will then interpret the results of the traffic volume studies in the main

road in Palico Balayan Road and the alternative routes in Banaba and Balete.

After interpreting the data and results, the researchers will conclude solutions

and recommendation for the traffic in Palico Balayan Road and the road of

Bolbok at Balete.

DATA AND COMPUTATION

This research will calculate the traffic counts, number of vehicles passing a point

throughout a definite period of time and the number of vehicles per unit length in

the alternate routes in Palico Balayan Road. . From the starting point of the main

road is from Bolbok Access Road to Bauan – Batangas Provincial Road, in the

main road is also called the Palico – Balayan Road. The alternative routes,

Banaba Road which is from Batangas Diversion Road to Caltex Road, Batangas.

Campuses: Hilltop | MH del Pilar | Pallocan East | Pallocan West | Lipa

Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

Website: www.ub.edu.ph
The researchers will

REFERENCES:

 WRITING A THESIS PROPOSAL: INDEPENDENT LEARNING

RESOURCES © 2001 Learning Centre, University of Sydney

 Libguides.usc.edu

 Slideshare : A Study on Traffic Management Along EDSA and Quezon

Avenue

 CHALMERS Rerouting of road traffic A comparison of different rerouting

alternatives at unplanned disruptions in road traffic( Master of Science

Thesis in the Master’s Programme Infrastructure and Environmental

Engineering )(Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Division

of GeoEngineering Road and Traffic Research Group CHALMERS

UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Göteborg, Sweden 2014 Master’s

Thesis 2014:34)

 Akcelik and Associates Pty Ltd: GLOSSARY of Road Traffic Analysis

Terms

 Bantay trapiko - Bauan-San Pascual - Home www.facebook.com

Campuses: Hilltop | MH del Pilar | Pallocan East | Pallocan West | Lipa

Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

Website: www.ub.edu.ph
 https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=what+is+number+coding+in+manila

&oq=what+is+number+coding&aqs=chrome.1.69i57j0l4.5725j0j9&sourcei

d=chrome&ie=UTF-8

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unified_Vehicular_Volume_Reduction_Progra

 https://philippines-streets.openalfa.com/streets/palico-balayan-batangas-

road-taal

 https://www.google.com.ph/maps/dir/Bolbok,+Batangas/Bauan,+Batangas

/@13.8078742,120.9878402,7871m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m14!4m13!1m5!1m

1!1s0x33bd0f8c0eaa77c7:0x2d0f84738baf658d!2m2!1d121.0483644!2d1

3.7731365!1m5!1m1!1s0x33bd0f43050a8e33:0x4020bfe46fd1d828!2m2!1

d120.9761599!2d13.7962681!3e0

 Traffic & Highway Engineering by Nicholas J. Garber, Lester A. Hoel

 Civil Engineering PE by Indranil Goswami, ph.D., P’

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Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

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CHAPTER IV

Order of Presentation

Descriptive Data

Results of Statistical Testing

Interpretation of Statistical Resuts

CHAPTER V

Summary of Findings

Conclusions Drawn by Result

Recommendation

Appendices

Campuses: Hilltop | MH del Pilar | Pallocan East | Pallocan West | Lipa

Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

Website: www.ub.edu.ph
Campuses: Hilltop | MH del Pilar | Pallocan East | Pallocan West | Lipa

Telephone Numbers: +63 43 723 1446 | 980 0041

Website: www.ub.edu.ph