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‰ƒ†ƒ†˜ƒ…‡†‡”–‹ϐ‹…ƒ–‡

of Education

TEACHING SYLLABI FOR


Biology
Chemistry
Agriculture
VOLUME 1
2013
THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA
Ministry of Education and Sports

a
Uganda Advanced
‡”–‹ϐ‹…ƒ–‡‘ˆ†—…ƒ–‹‘

TEACHING SYLLABI FOR


Biology
Chemistry
Agriculture

VOLUME 1
2013

THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA


Ministry of Education and Sports
Copyright
© National Curriculum Development Centre, Uganda, 2013

Published by

National Curriculum Development Centre,


P.O. Box 7002,
KAMPALA.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,


stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any
means; electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher.

ISBN: 978-9970-00-046-3

Website: www.ncdc.go.ug

ii
Acknowledgement iv
Foreword v
General Introduction vii
Biology 1
Chemistry 121
Agriculture 267

iii
PHYSICS
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The National Curriculum Development Centre (NCDC) would like to thank
everyone who worked tirelessly towards the production of the Advance
Level (UACE) Curriculum Teaching Syllabi.

Special thanks go to the Ministry of Education and Sports for supporting


the work. NCDC would also like to thank the following for their professional
input: Secondary Schools, Universities, National Teachers’ Colleges, Uganda
National Examinations Board (UNEB), Directorate of Educational Standards
(DES), Secondary Science and Mathematics Teachers‘ Programme
(SESEMAT), Technical and Business Institutions, Religious Organisations,
Professional Organisations, retired and practising Teachers.

Last but not least, NCDC would like to thank all those who worked behind
–Š‡•…‡‡•–‘ϐ‹ƒŽ‹•‡–Š‡†‘…—‡–•Ǥ

NCDC takes full responsibility for any errors and omissions in the documents
and welcomes suggestions to address them.

iv
FOREWORD
For a long time teachers have been using Uganda National Examinations
Board (UNEB) syllabi to plan their teaching schemes. This approach has
rendered the curriculum to be largely driven by examination.

Working with relevant subject panels, NCDC has produced the Teaching
Syllabi for all the Advanced Level subjects. The subject content in the
•›ŽŽƒ„‹Šƒ•„‡‡…Žƒ”‹ϐ‹‡†—•‹‰ƒ’’”‘’”‹ƒ–‡•’‡…‹ϐ‹…‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡•Ǥ –•Š‘—Ž†„‡
noted that the content in the syllabi has remained largely the same except
in a few subjects where it has been updated by removing obsolete and/
or irrelevant material. Suitable teaching / learning strategies have been
suggested to the teacher and other users.

‡ƒ…Š‡”• ™‹ŽŽ ϐ‹† –Š‡ •›ŽŽƒ„‹ —•‡ˆ—Ž ‹ ’Žƒ‹‰ –Š‡ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ Ȁ Ž‡ƒ”‹‰
processes. The content therein will go a long way in enhancing the learners’
educational experiences and guide the teachers towards successful delivery
of meaningful learning experiences.

The teaching / learning strategies suggested in the Syllabi are just a


guide to the teacher but are not meant to substitute the rich professional
approaches that the teacher may opt to use to deliver knowledge, and to
develop understandings, skills, values and attitudes.

Connie Kateeba
DIRECTOR
National Curriculum Development Centre

v
SCIENCE SUBJECTS
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

vi
GENERAL INTRODUCTION

This volume of the Advanced Level syllabi contains three subjects: Agriculture,
Biology and Chemistry. There are other volumes containing other Advanced
Level subjects. The purpose of this merger is twofold. First, NCDC considered
the content relatedness of the subjects and second, the need to avoid extremely
voluminous books.

These syllabi have been written in accordance with the National Objectives on
Secondary Education. The syllabi content continues from that of the Ordinary
Level curriculum. The syllabi have suggested a teaching order, teaching and
learning strategies, and assessment strategies. In all cases the syllabi have tried
as much as possible to integrate the theory and practicals. This means that
the teaching and learning should be done through practical work as much as
’‘••‹„Ž‡ǤŠ‡’—”’‘•‡‹•–‘ƒ‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”ƒ…“—‹”‡–Š‡‡…‡••ƒ”›•…‹‡–‹ϐ‹…
skills.

The use of models or ICT opportunities should be exploited to help the learner
˜‹•—ƒŽ‹•‡…‘…‡’–•™Š‹…Šƒ”‡”ƒ–Š‡”Šƒ”†‘”†‹ˆϐ‹…—Ž––‘—†‡”•–ƒ†ǤŠ‡–‡ƒ…Š‡”•
are encouraged to help the learners acquire relevant mathematical skills so as
to solve quantitative aspects of the subjects, including graphical methods and
the use of logarithms.

The Agriculture •›ŽŽƒ„—•Šƒ•ϐ‹˜‡–‘’‹…•ǣƒ•‹……‹‡…‡ǡ”‘’”‘†—…–‹‘ǡ‹ƒŽ


Production, Agricultural Engineering and Farm Mechanisation and Economics.
The topics have been coded “I” or “II”, etc in order to differentiate them from
the O level syllabus content. These topics are meant to address crucial issues,
such as improved agriculture practices, new and appropriate crop and livestock
technologies, high value crops, and practical skills.

The Biology syllabus comprises 14 topics: Cell Biology; Chemicals of Life; Cell
Physiology; Levels of Organisation and Diversity of Life; Ecology; Inheritance
and Evolution; Transport; Nutrition; Gaseous Exchange; Respiration;
Homeostasis; Coordination; Support and Movement; and Reproduction,
Growth and Development. The syllabus places emphasis on understanding,
application, analysis and evaluation of Biology concepts relating them to
everyday experiences.

vii
SCIENCE SUBJECTS
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

The Chemistry syllabus has three main sections: Physical Chemistry,


Inorganic Chemistry and Organic Chemistry. It is hoped that when teaching
topics in the various sections, emphasis will be placed on the application
of chemistry in East Africa, particularly in the industries and communities.
The suggested teaching and learning strategies are meant to encourage
understanding of the basics of chemical behaviour.

viii
Uganda Advanced
‡”–‹ϐ‹…ƒ–‡‘ˆ†—…ƒ–‹‘

Biology
TEACHING SYLLABUS

1
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

2


Table of Contents

  ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͹
–”‘†—…–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͹
  ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳͷ
   ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳͷ
‘’‹…ͳǣ‡ŽŽ‹‘Ž‘‰›ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳͷ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ‡ŽŽ–”—…–—”‡ƒ†‹…”‘•…‘’›ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳͷ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ʹǣ‹˜‡”•‹–›‘ˆ’‡…‹ƒŽ‹•‡†‡ŽŽ•ƒ†‹••—‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳ͹
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͵ǣŠ”‘‘•‘‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳͺ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…Ͷǣ‡ŽŽ‹˜‹•‹‘ƒ†Š”‘‘•‘‡‘…‡’–ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳͻ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͷǣ”‘–‡‹›–Š‡•‹•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤʹͲ
‘’‹…ʹǣŠ‡‹…ƒŽ•‘ˆ‹ˆ‡ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤʹͳ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ…‹†•ǡƒ•‡•ƒ†ƒŽ–•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤʹͳ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ʹǣƒ–‡”ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤʹʹ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͵ǣ–”—…–—”‡‘ˆƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤʹ͵
—„Ǧ‘’‹…Ͷǣ–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ‹’‹†•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤʹͶ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͷǣ–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ”‘–‡‹•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤʹͷ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͸ǣ‹–ƒ‹•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤʹ͹
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͹ǣœ›‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤʹͺ

   ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͵Ͳ


‘’‹…͵ǣ‡ŽŽŠ›•‹‘Ž‘‰›ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͵Ͳ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ‘˜‡‡– ƒ†—–‘ˆ‡ŽŽ•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͵Ͳ
‘’‹…Ͷǣ‡˜‡Ž•‘ˆ”‰ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‹˜‡”•‹–›‘ˆ‹ˆ‡ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͵͵
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ‹˜‡”•‹–›‘ˆ‹˜‹‰Š‹‰•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͵͵
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ʹǣ‹”—•‡•ȋƒ”›‘–ƒ‡ȌǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͵ͷ



3
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

—„Ǧ‘’‹…͵ǣ‹‰†‘‘‡”ƒǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͵͸
—„Ǧ‘’‹…Ͷǣ‹‰†‘”‘–‘…–‹•–ƒǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͵͹
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͷǣ‹‰†‘ —‰‹ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͵ͺ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͸ǣ‹‰†‘Žƒ–ƒ‡ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͶͲ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͹ǣ‹‰†‘‹ƒŽ‹ƒǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͶͳ
‘’‹…ͷǣ…‘Ž‘‰›ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͶͶ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ‘’‘‡–•‘ˆ–Š‡˜‹”‘‡–ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͶͶ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ʹǣ‘…‡’–‘ˆ…‘•›•–‡ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͶͷ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͵ǣ‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ƒ†ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•‘—”…‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͶ͹
—„Ǧ‘’‹…Ͷǣ –‡”†‡’‡†‡…‡ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͶͺ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͷǣˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆ —ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•‘…‘•›•–‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͶͻ

    ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͷͳ
‘’‹…͸ǣ Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡ƒ†˜‘Ž—–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͷͳ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ
‡‡–‹…•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͷͳ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ʹǣŠ”‘‘•‘‡•ƒ†
‡‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͷ͵
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͵ǣƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͷͶ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…Ͷǣ‘’—Žƒ–‹‘
‡‡–‹…•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͷͷ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͷǣ”‹‰‹‘ˆ‹ˆ‡ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͷͷ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͸ǣ‡…Šƒ‹••‘ˆ˜‘Ž—–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͷ͸
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͹ǣ˜‹†‡…‡‘ˆ˜‘Ž—–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͷ͹
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͺǣ‡Ž‡…–‹‘ƒ†’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͷͺ
‘’‹…͹ǣ”ƒ•’‘”–ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͸Ͳ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ‡…‡••‹–›ˆ‘””ƒ•’‘”–›•–‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͸Ͳ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ʹǣƒ–‡”ƒ•ƒ‡†‹—‹Žƒ–•ƒ†‹ƒŽ•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͸Ͳ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͵ǣ‹”…—Žƒ–‘”››•–‡•‹‹ƒŽ•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͸ͳ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…Ͷǣ‡ˆ‡…‡ƒ‰ƒ‹•–‹•‡ƒ•‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͸͵
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͷǣƒ•…—Žƒ”›•–‡‘ˆ Ž‘™‡”‹‰Žƒ–•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͸Ͷ

4
   ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͸͹
‘’‹…ͺǣ—–”‹–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͸͹
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ—–‘–”‘’Š‹…—–”‹–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͸͹
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ʹǣ ‡–‡”‘–”‘’Š‹•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͸ͻ
‘’‹…ͻǣ
ƒ•‡‘—•š…Šƒ‰‡ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͹Ͷ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ”‹…‹’Ž‡•‘ˆ
ƒ•‡‘—•š…Šƒ‰‡›•–‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͹Ͷ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ʹǣ
ƒ•‡‘—•š…Šƒ‰‡‹Žƒ–•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͹ͷ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͵ǣ
ƒ•‡‘—•š…Šƒ‰‡‹‹ƒŽ•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͹͸
‘’‹…ͳͲǣ‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͹ͺ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ͹ͺ
‘’‹…ͳͳǣ ‘‡‘•–ƒ•‹•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͺͲ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ
‡‡”ƒŽ”‹…‹’Ž‡•‘ˆ ‘‡‘•–ƒ•‹•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͺͲ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ʹǣ‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ
Ž—…‘•‡ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͺͳ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͵ǣ‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‡•’‹”ƒ–‘”›
ƒ•‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͺʹ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…Ͷǣ‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͺ͵
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͷǣš…”‡–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͺͷ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͸ǣ•‘”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͺ͸


   ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͺͺ
‘’‹…ͳʹǣ‘‘”†‹ƒ–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͺͺ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ‘…‡’–•‘ˆ‡…‡’–‹‘ƒ†‡•’‘•‡‹Žƒ–•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͺͺ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ʹǣŽƒ– ‘”‘‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͺͻ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͵ǣ‡•’‘•‡ƒ†‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‹‹ƒŽ•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͻͲ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…Ͷǣ
‡‡”ƒŽ”‹…‹’Ž‡•‘ˆ‡…‡’–‹‘ƒ†‡•’‘•‡‹‹ƒŽ•ǤǤǤǤǤͻʹ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͷǣ‡”˜‘—•‘‘”†‹ƒ–‹‘‹‹ƒŽ•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͻ͵
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͸ǣ ‘”‘ƒŽ‘‘”†‹ƒ–‹‘‹‹ƒŽ•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͻͶ

5
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS


    ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͻ͸
‘’‹…ͳ͵ǣ—’’‘”–ƒ†‘˜‡‡–ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͻ͸
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ—’’‘”–›•–‡•‹Žƒ–•ƒ†‹ƒŽ•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͻ͸
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ʹǣ—•…Ž‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͻͺ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͵ǣ‘˜‡‡–Ȁ‘…‘‘–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͻͻ
‘’‹…ͳͶǣ‡’”‘†—…–‹‘ǡ
”‘™–Šƒ†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳͲͳ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ͳǣ•‡š—ƒŽ‡’”‘†—…–‹‘ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳͲͳ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…ʹǣ‡š—ƒŽ‡’”‘†—…–‹‘‹‹ƒŽ•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳͲʹ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…͵ǣ‡š—ƒŽ‡’”‘†—…–‹‘‹‘™‡””‰ƒ‹••ƒ†Žƒ–•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳͲͷ
—„Ǧ‘’‹…Ͷǣ
”‘™–Šƒ†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳͲ͹
’’‡†‹…‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳͳͲ
‡ˆ‡”‡…‡•ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳͳͻ





6
SECTION I
Introduction
Š‹• ‹‘Ž‘‰› ‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ›ŽŽƒ„—• ‹• ƒ ‰—‹†‡ –‘ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ‰ƒ†ƒ †˜ƒ…‡†
‡”–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ȋȌ ‹‘Ž‘‰› …‘—”•‡. ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ‘–Š‡”
•–ƒ‡Š‘Ž†‡”• ‘ˆ  Ž‡˜‡Ž ȋȌ ƒ› —•‡ ‹–ǡ ƒ• ‹– ‹• †‡•‹‰‡† –‘ ƒ••‹•– –Š‡
Ž‡ƒ”‹‰ ’”‘…‡••Ǥ Š‹• –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ‡’Šƒ•‹•‡• —†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰ǡ
ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ǡƒƒŽ›•‹•ǡ•›–Š‡•‹•ƒ†‡˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‹‘Ž‘‰›…‘…‡’–•”‡Žƒ–‹‰
–Š‡ –‘ †ƒ‹Ž› ‡š’‡”‹‡…‡•Ǥ Š‹• ‡…‡••‹–ƒ–‡• —•‡ ‘ˆ ƒ ˜ƒ”‹‡–› ‘ˆ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰
‡–Š‘†• Ž‹‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–•ǡ ’”‘Œ‡…–• –Š”‘—‰Š ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘•ǡ •—”˜‡›•ǡ ˆ‹‡Ž†
•–—†‹‡•ǡ †‹•…—••‹‘•ǡ ”‡•‡ƒ”…Šǡ ‡–…Ǥ – ‹• ‡š’‡…–‡† –‘ ’”‘‘–‡ Ž‡ƒ”‹‰ „›
’”‘˜‹†‹‰ ƒ ‰—‹†‡ –Šƒ– ”‡“—‹”‡• —•‡ ‘ˆ …ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‹‰ –ƒ••Ǥ Š‹• ‡…‘—”ƒ‰‡•
†‹•…‘˜‡”›ǡ…”‡ƒ–‹˜‹–›ǡ…”‹–‹…ƒŽ–Š‹‹‰ǡƒ†–‡ƒ™‘”ƒ‘‰–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Ǥ
Š‡ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ‡•—”‡• –Šƒ– ƒ……—”ƒ–‡ ˆƒ…–•ǡ …‘…‡’–• ƒ† ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ƒ”‡
’”‡•‡–‡† –‘ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ƒŽŽ‘™ ’”‘„Ž‡Ǧ•‘Ž˜‹‰ ™‹–Š ”‡‰ƒ”† –‘ ‡™
‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ•‹–—ƒ–‹‘•‹–Š‡…‘—‹–‹‡•ˆ‘”•—•–ƒ‹ƒ„Ž‡†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–Ǥ
Š‡ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ‹• †‹˜‹†‡† ‹–‘ ˆ‘—”–‡‡ –‘’‹…•Ǥ ƒ…Š ‹• •—„Ǧ†‹˜‹†‡†
‹–‘ •—„Ǧ–‘’‹…•ǡ ƒ””ƒ‰‡† ‹ ƒ …Š”‘‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ •‡“—‡…‡ –Šƒ– ’”‡•‡–•
…‘…‡’–•‹ƒŽ‘‰‹…ƒŽ™ƒ›ǡ„—–‘–”‡•–”‹…–‹‰–Š‡–‡ƒ…Š‹‰’”‘…‡†—”‡•ǡƒ†
•’‡…‹ˆ‹…‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡•Ǥ

Purpose of the Teaching Syllabus


 –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ‡ƒ„Ž‡• –‡ƒ…Š‡”• –‘ …‘˜‡” –Š‡ •›ŽŽƒ„—• …‘–‡– –‘ –Š‡
ƒ’’”‘’”‹ƒ–‡ †‡’–Š”‡“—‹”‡†„›–Š‡ ƒ…ƒ†‡‹…Ž‡˜‡Ž•–ƒ†ƒ”†ǤŠ‡ †‡•‹‰‘ˆ
–Š‹••›ŽŽƒ„—•‡’Šƒ•‹•‡•–Š‡–‡ƒ…Š‹‰ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š‡•–‘„‡—•‡†ˆ‘”‡ƒ…Š•—„Ǧ
–‘’‹…ˆ”‘ƒ‘‰–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š‡•‰‹˜‡„›–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•–‘ƒ…Š‹‡˜‡
–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡•‘ˆ–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•ǤŠ‡’‡”‹‘†•ƒŽŽ‘…ƒ–‡†‰—‹†‡–‡ƒ…Š‡”•
–‘ ƒ‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ ’Žƒ• •‘ –Šƒ– –Š‡› …ƒ …‘’Ž‡–‡ –Š‡ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ™‹–Š‹ –Š‡
”‡…‘‡†‡†•–—†›’‡”‹‘†‘ˆ.

General Objectives
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‹•…‘—”•‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”••Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
‹Ȍ †‡˜‡Ž‘’ ƒ ‹–‡”‡•– ‹ Ž‡ƒ”‹‰ ‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ƒ–—”ƒŽ –”‡†• ‘ˆ
‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒ†…‘—‹–‹‡•Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ƒ’’Ž› ‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ‹ –Š‡‹” †ƒ› –‘ †ƒ› Ž‹ˆ‡ ƒ† Šƒ˜‡ –Š‡
ƒ„‹Ž‹–›–‘—•‡‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ…‘…‡’–•–‘•‘Ž˜‡’”‘„Ž‡•Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ …‘—‹…ƒ–‡‘”†‹••‡‹ƒ–‡ƒ……—”ƒ–‡‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽˆƒ…–•Ǥ
‹˜Ȍ †‡˜‡Ž‘’ –Š‡ ƒ„‹Ž‹–› –‘ †‡•‹‰ ƒ† …ƒ””› ‘—– ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘•ǡ
‹–‡”’”‡–†ƒ–ƒƒ†™”‹–‡Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽǡ’”‡…‹•‡ƒ†…Ž‡ƒ””‡’‘”–•Ǥ
˜Ȍ —•‡ ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ ”‡•‘—”…‡•ǡ Ž‘…ƒŽ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• ƒ† ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–‹‡• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—–
’”‘Œ‡…–™‘”Ȁ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š–‘‘„–ƒ‹‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

7
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

˜‹Ȍ ”‡Žƒ–‡ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• …‘…‡’–• ƒ† ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡‹” ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ –‘ ƒ•’‡…–• ‹
–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ
˜‹‹Ȍ ”‡Žƒ–‡•…‹‡–‹ˆ‹…‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘–‘’”‹‘”‡š’‡”‹‡…‡•Ǥ
˜‹‹‹Ȍ ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ™ƒ›• „› ™Š‹…Š Š—ƒ „‡‹‰• ‹ˆŽ—‡…‡ –Š‡ ƒ–—”ƒŽ
–”‡†•‘ˆ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒ†…‘—‹–‹‡•Ǥ

Target
Š‹• ‹‘Ž‘‰› –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ƒ‹• ƒ– ‰—‹†‹‰ ƒ† ‡Šƒ…‹‰ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰
•–”ƒ–‡‰‹‡•ˆ‘”Ž‡˜‡Ž–‡ƒ…Š‡”•‘ˆ‹‘Ž‘‰›ƒ–•‡…‘†ƒ”›•…Š‘‘ŽǤ
‡ƒ…Š‡”• ƒ”‡ ‡š’‡…–‡† –‘ ’”‘˜‹†‡ †‡–ƒ‹Ž‡† …‘–‡– •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ˆ‘”  Ž‡˜‡Ž
Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ™‹–Š‹ –Š‡ ”ƒ‰‡ ‹†‹…ƒ–‡† ‹ –Š‡ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ƒ† —•‡ ƒ ˜ƒ”‹‡–› ‘ˆ
‡–Š‘†•–‘‡Šƒ…‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‹‰’”‘…‡••Ǥ

Scope and Depth


Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰–ƒ„Ž‡•—ƒ”‹•‡•–Š‡–‡ƒ…Š‹‰•‡“—‡…‡ˆ‘”‡˜‡Ž‹‘Ž‘‰›Ǥ
Š‡–‘’‹…•ƒ”‡†‡•‹‰‡†‹ƒˆ‘”ƒ––Šƒ–‡•—”‡•–Šƒ––Š‡–‡ƒ…Š‡”‹–‡‰”ƒ–‡•
–Š‡‘”›ƒ†’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”‹–Š‡–‡ƒ…Š‹‰ȀŽ‡ƒ”‹‰’”‘…‡••Ǥ

Topic Sub-Topic Period
s
1. Cell Biology ͳǤ ‡ŽŽ–”—…–—”‡ ͵
ʹǤ ‹˜‡”•‹–› ‘ˆ ’‡…‹ƒŽ‹•‡† ‡ŽŽ• ƒ† 
‹••—‡• 
͵Ǥ Š”‘‘•‘‡• 
ͶǤ ‡ŽŽ‹˜‹•‹‘ 
ͷǤ ”‘–‡‹›–Š‡•‹• 

2.Chemicals of x …‹†•ǡƒ•‡•ƒ†ƒŽ–• Ͷ͸


Life x ƒ–‡”
 x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•
x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆ‹’‹†•
x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆ”‘–‡‹•
x ‹–ƒ‹•
x œ›‡•
3. Cell Physiology ͳǤ ‘˜‡‡– ƒ†—–‘ˆ‡ŽŽ• ͳͺ


8
Topic Sub-Topic Period
s
4.Levels of ͳǤ ‹˜‡”•‹–›‘ˆ‹˜‹‰–Š‹‰• ͷ͸
Organisation ʹǤ ‹”—•ȋƒ”›‘–ƒ‡Ȍ
and Diversity ͵Ǥ ‹‰†‘‘‡”ƒ
of Life ͶǤ ‹‰†‘”‘–‘…‹•–ƒ
ͷǤ ‹‰†‘ —‰‹
͸Ǥ ‹‰†‘Žƒ–ƒ‡
͹Ǥ ‹‰†‘‹ƒŽ‹ƒ


5. Ecology ͳǤ ‘’‘‡–•‘ˆ˜‹”‘‡– ͵ͳ


ʹǤ ‘…‡’–‘ˆ…‘•›•–‡
͵Ǥ ‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ƒ–—”ƒŽ
‡•‘—”…‡•
ͶǤ –‡”†‡’‡†‡…‡
ͷǤ ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ —ƒ …–‹˜‹–‹‡• ‘
…‘•›•–‡•
6.Inheritance ͳǤ
‡‡–‹…• ͵Ͷ
and Evolution ʹǤ Š”‘‘•‘‡•ƒ†
‡‡•
͵Ǥ ƒ”‹
ƒ–‹‘
ͶǤ ‘’—Žƒ–‹‘
‡‡–‹…•
ͷǤ ”‹‰‹‘ˆ‹ˆ‡
͸Ǥ ‡…Šƒ‹••‘ˆ˜‘Ž—–‹‘
͹Ǥ ˜‹†‡…‡‘ˆ˜‘Ž—–‹‘
ͺǤ ‡Ž‡…–‹‘ƒ†’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘
7. Transport ͳǤ ‡…‡••‹–›ˆ‘””ƒ•’‘”–›•–‡• ͵͸
ʹǤ ƒ–‡” ƒ• ƒ ‡†‹— Žƒ–• ƒ†
‹ƒŽ•
͵Ǥ ‹”…—Žƒ–‘”››•–‡•‹‹ƒŽ•
ͶǤ ‡ˆ‡…‡ƒ‰ƒ‹•–‹•‡ƒ•‡•
ͷǤ ƒ•…—Žƒ” ›•–‡ ‘ˆ Ž‘™‡”‹‰
Žƒ–•

9
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Topic Sub-Topic Period


s
8. Nutrition ͳǤ —–‘–”‘’Š‹…—–”‹–‹‘ Ͷʹ
ʹǤ ‡–‡”‘–”‘’Š‹•
x ‘Ž‘œ‘‹…—–”‹–‹‘
x ƒ’”‘’Š›–‹•
x —–—ƒŽ‹•
x ƒ”ƒ•‹–‹•

9. Gaseous ͳǤ ”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ


ƒ•‡‘—• š…Šƒ‰‡ ʹͶ
Exchange ›•–‡•
ʹǤ
ƒ•‡‘—•š…Šƒ‰‡‹Žƒ–•
͵Ǥ
ƒ•‡‘—•š…Šƒ‰‡‹‹ƒŽ•

10. Respiration ͳǤ ‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘ Ͳͺ



11. Homeostasis ͳǤ
‡‡”ƒŽ”‹…‹’Ž‡•‘ˆ ‘‡‘•–ƒ•‹• ʹͺ
ʹǤ ‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ
Ž—…‘•‡
͵Ǥ ‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ”„‘‹‘š‹†‡
ͶǤ ‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘
ͷǤ š…”‡–‹‘
͸Ǥ •‘”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘
12. Coordination ͳǤ ‘…‡’–• ‘ˆ ‡…‡’–‹‘ ƒ†  ͷ͸
‡•’‘•‡‹Žƒ–•
ʹǤ Žƒ– ‘”‘‡•
͵Ǥ ‡•’‘•‡ ƒ† ‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” ‹
‹ƒŽ•
ͶǤ
‡‡”ƒŽ ”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ ‡…‡’–‹‘
ƒ†‡•’‘•‡‹‹ƒŽ•
ͷǤ ‡”˜‘—•‘‘”†‹ƒ–‹‘‹‹ƒŽ•
͸Ǥ ‘”‘ƒŽ ‘‘”†‹ƒ–‹‘ ‹
‹ƒŽ•
13. Support and ͳǤ —’’‘”– ›•–‡• ‹ Žƒ–• ƒ† ͵ͳ
Movement ‹ƒŽ•
ʹǤ —’’‘”– ›•–‡ ‹ ”‰ƒ‹••
ȋ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽȌ
͵Ǥ —•…Ž‡•
ͶǤ ‘˜‡‡–Ȁ‘…‘‘–‹‘

10
Topic Sub-Topic Period
s
14. ͳǤ •‡š—ƒŽ‡’”‘†—…–‹‘ Ͷͺ
Reproduction ʹǤ ‡š—ƒŽ‡’”‘†—…–‹‘‹‹ƒŽ•
, Growth and ͵Ǥ ‡š—ƒŽ‡’”‘†—…–‹‘‹‘™‡”
Development ”‰ƒ‹••ƒ†Žƒ–•
ͶǤ
”‘™–Šƒ†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–


Time Allocation
‹‡ƒŽŽ‘…ƒ–‹‘‹–Š‹••›ŽŽƒ„—•‹•„—‹Ž–‘–Š‡ƒ••—’–‹‘–Šƒ––Š‡”‡ƒ”‡–‡
ȋͳͲȌ ™‡‡• ‘ˆ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ‹ ƒ –‡”Ǥ  ’‡”‹‘† ‹• ͶͲ ‹—–‡• ‘ˆ
–‡ƒ…Š‹‰Ǥ – ‹• ”‡…‘‡†‡† –Šƒ– ͳʹ ’‡”‹‘†• ’‡” ™‡‡ „‡ ƒŽŽ‘…ƒ–‡† –‘ –Š‡
–‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ‘ˆ ‹‘Ž‘‰› ‘ –Š‡ •…Š‘‘Ž –‹‡–ƒ„Ž‡Ǣ ȋ‡‹‰Š– ȋͺȌ ˆ‘” ‹‘Ž‘‰› –Š‡‘”›
ƒ†ˆ‘—”ȋͶȌ’‡”‹‘†•ˆ‘”‹‘Ž‘‰›’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”Ǥ

How to Use the Biology Teaching Syllabus


Š‹• ‹‘Ž‘‰› ‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ›ŽŽƒ„—• ‹• ƒ‹‡† ƒ– ’”‘˜‹†‹‰ ›‘— ™‹–Š ‰—‹†ƒ…‡
”‡“—‹”‡† –‘ –‡ƒ…Š ‹‘Ž‘‰› ƒ– †˜ƒ…‡† Ž‡˜‡ŽǤ Š‡ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ‹• ƒ ‰—‹†‡
–Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ǡ‹–‹•‘–‡ƒ––‘Ž‹‹–›‘—”…”‡ƒ–‹˜‹–›Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ—•‡–Š‡ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡
–‹‡ƒŽŽ‘…ƒ–‡†–‘…‘˜‡”–Š‡…‘–‡–ƒ†–‘ƒ••‹•––Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•†‡˜‡Ž‘’•‹ŽŽ•
ƒ†…‘’‡–‡…‡•”‡“—‹”‡†‘ˆƒŽ‡˜‡Ž‰”ƒ†—ƒ–‡Ǥ

Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•Šƒ•–Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡•ǣ

a) General Objective(s)


Š‹•‹•ƒ•–ƒ–‡‡–‘ˆ–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽŽ‡ƒ”‹‰‘—–…‘‡‡š’‡…–‡†‘ˆƒŽ‡ƒ”‡”ƒ–
–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡–‘’‹…Ǥ

b) Specific Objectives
Š‡•‡ ˆ—”–Š‡” …Žƒ”‹ˆ› –Š‡ •…‘’‡ ƒ† †‡’–Š ‘ˆ …‘–‡–Ǥ ‘— •Š‘—Ž† —•‡ –Š‡
•’‡…‹ˆ‹… ‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡• –‘ ’Žƒ ˆ‘” –Š‡ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ȂŽ‡ƒ”‹‰ ’”‘…‡•• •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ˆ‘”
–Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” ƒ– †˜ƒ…‡† Ž‡˜‡ŽǤ ’‡…‹ˆ‹… ‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡• ƒŽ•‘ ™‹ŽŽ ‰—‹†‡ ›‘— ‹
‡˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‘ƒ––Š‡‡†‘ˆ…‘…‡’–‘”Ž‡ƒ”‹‰’”‘…‡••Ǥ

c) Content
–‡• ‹ –Š‡ …‘–‡– …‘Ž— Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ Ž‹•–‡† „—– •Š‘—Ž† „‡ Šƒ†Ž‡†
–‘‰‡–Š‡”™‹–Š–Š‡•’‡…‹ˆ‹…‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡•–‘†‡˜‡Ž‘’ƒ†‡–ƒ‹Ž‡†’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

d) Teaching Aids
Š‡•‡ ’”‘˜‹†‡ ›‘— ™‹–Š ‰—‹†ƒ…‡ǡ –‘ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡Ž› ’Žƒ ˆ‘” –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‹‰
‘—–…‘‡ǡ„—–•Š‘—Ž†‘–”‡•–”‹…––Š‡‹‘˜ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡–‡ƒ…Š‡”Ǥ

11
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

e) Number of periods per sub-topic


Š‡•—‰‰‡•–‡†—„‡”‘ˆ’‡”‹‘†•ˆ‘”‡ƒ…Š•—„Ǧ–‘’‹…‹•–Š‡‰—‹†‡–‘‡ƒ„Ž‡
›‘—…‘˜‡”–Š‡™‘”‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡Ž›ƒ†ƒ†‡“—ƒ–‡Ž›Ǥ

Mode of Assessment
Continuous Assessment (Formative assessment)
– ‹• ”‡…‘‡†‡† –Šƒ– ›‘— …ƒ””› ‘—– …‘–‹—‘—• ƒ••‡••‡– †—”‹‰ –Š‡
–‡ƒ…Š‹‰ǦŽ‡ƒ”‹‰’”‘…‡••ǤŠ‡ƒ••‡••‡–•Š‘—Ž†”‡ˆŽ‡…–ƒ…“—‹•‹–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡
ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰–‡•–ƒ„Ž‡…‘’‡–‡…‡•‘”Ž‡ƒ”‹‰‘—–…‘‡•ǣ

a) Knowledge of:
x …‘‘’”‹…‹’Ž‡•ƒ†‰‡‡”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘‹†‡–‹ˆ‹‡†‹–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•Ǥ
x –”‡†•ƒ†•‡“—‡…‡•‘ˆ’Š‡‘‡ƒǤ
x …Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ƒ†…ƒ–‡‰‘”‹•‹‰Ǥ
x ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘ǡ’”‘…‡†—”‡•ƒ†–‡…Š‹“—‡•‘”‡–Š‘†•–‘ƒ…“—‹”‡
†ƒ–ƒǤ
x …‘˜‡–‹‘•ƒ†’”‡•‡–‹‰ˆƒ…–•ƒ……—”ƒ–‡Ž›Ǥ
x ™ƒ›•ƒ†‡ƒ•‘ˆ†‡ˆ‹‹‰–‡”•ǡƒ†•’‡…‹ˆ‹…•Ǥ

„Ȍ Comprehension: Ability to:
x –”ƒ•Žƒ–‡ ˆƒ…–• ƒ† …‘—‹…ƒ–‡ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ƒ……—”ƒ–‡Ž› ‹ –Š‡
…‘””‡…–Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡Ǥ
x ‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ†‡š’Žƒ‹…‘…‡’–•Ǥ
x ‡š–”ƒ’‘Žƒ–‡ǡ†‡•…”‹„‡ƒ††‡–‡”‹‡‹’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•ǡƒ†‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆƒ
’Š‡‘‡‘Ǥ

c) Application: „‹Ž‹–›–‘—•‡ƒ„•–”ƒ…–‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘”•‹–—ƒ–‹‘•–‘•‘Ž˜‡
ƒ’”‘„Ž‡Ǥ

d) Analysis of:
x •…‹‡–‹ˆ‹…‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’•ƒ†‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ’”‹…‹’Ž‡•Ȁ…‘…‡’–•Ǥ
x ’”‹…‹’Ž‡•ǡ •›•–‡ƒ–‹… ƒ””ƒ‰‡‡–Ȁ‘”‰ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† •–”—…–—”‡
‘ˆ…‘…‡’–•Ǥ

e) Synthesis ability to:
x †‡˜‡Ž‘’‹†‡ƒ•ˆ”‘‡š’‡”‹‡…‡•Ȁ‘™Ž‡†‰‡Ǥ
x ’Žƒ Ȁ ’”‘’‘•‡ ƒ •‡– ‘ˆ ™‘” Ȁƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡• „ƒ•‹‰ ‘ •‹–—ƒ–‹‘• ‘”
‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘’”‘˜‹†‡†Ǥ
x †‡”‹˜‡Ȁƒ‡†‡†—…–‹‘•ˆ”‘–Š‡†ƒ–ƒ’”‘˜‹†‡†Ǥ

f) Evaluation of:

12
x –‡”•ƒ†Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ…‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‘™Ž‡†‰‡Ǥ
x Œ—†‰‡‡–‘ˆ‡š–‡”ƒŽ…”‹–‡”‹ƒȀƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•Ȁ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x ‡˜‹†‡…‡ǡƒ……—”ƒ…›ƒ†…‘•‹•–‡…›‘ˆ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

g) Affective and practical abilities to be developed include:
x ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‘™Ž‡†‰‡–‘’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ•‹–—ƒ–‹‘•
x ƒ‹’—Žƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ’’ƒ”ƒ–—•ǡ ’‡”ˆ‘”‹‰ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ƒ†
‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‰™‹–Š–Š‡‘”›
x ƒ‹‰ƒ†”‡…‘”†‹‰‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘•ƒ……—”ƒ–‡Ž›
x ‡‘•–”ƒ–‹‰—†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰‘ˆ‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘•
x ”‡•‡–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ†ƒ–ƒ‹ƒƒ’’”‘’”‹ƒ–‡ˆ‘”‘”•‡Ž‡…–‡†ˆ‘”ƒ–
x ”ƒ™‹‰…‘…Ž—•‹‘•ˆ”‘‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†‡‘””‡•’‘•‡•Ǥ
x ••‡••‹‰•—‹–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ’”‘…‡†—”‡ǡ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒ†‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘•
ƒ†‡‹•—’’‘”–‘ˆ–Š‡…‘…Ž—•‹‘
x ƒ‹‰†”ƒ™‹‰•‘ˆƒ–—”ƒŽ•–”—…–—”‡•ƒ……—”ƒ–‡Ž›

Summative Assessment
‰ƒ†ƒ ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ šƒ‹ƒ–‹‘• ‘ƒ”† ȋȌ ™‹ŽŽ ƒ†‹‹•–‡” ƒ ‹‘Ž‘‰›
’”‹…‹’ƒŽ •—„Œ‡…– ‡šƒ‹ƒ–‹‘ ƒ– –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ •‡…‘† ›‡ƒ” ‘ˆ •–—†›Ǥ Š‡
–‡•– „Ž—‡ ’”‹– †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡† ˆ‘” –Š‹• ‡šƒ‹ƒ–‹‘ ‹• „ƒ•‡† ‘ –Š‡ …—””‹…—Ž—
…‘–‡–•’‡…‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ™‹ŽŽƒŽ•‘’”‘˜‹†‡–Š‡‡šƒ‹ƒ–‹‘”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Examination Format
Š‡”‡ ™‹ŽŽ „‡ –Š”‡‡ ’ƒ’‡”•Ǥ ƒ’‡”• ‘‡ ƒ† –™‘ ƒ”‡ –Š‡‘”› ™Š‹Ž‡ ’ƒ’‡”
–Š”‡‡‹•’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽǤ

Paper 1: (2 ½ hours)
Š‡’ƒ’‡”™‹ŽŽ…‘•‹•–‘ˆtwo•‡…–‹‘•ǣA ƒ† BǤ
‡…–‹‘ A™‹ŽŽ…‘–ƒ‹40 compulsory—Ž–‹’Ž‡…Š‘‹…‡“—‡•–‹‘•„ƒ•‡†‘
ƒ›’ƒ”–‘ˆ–Š‡–‡ƒ…Š‹‰•›ŽŽƒ„—•Ǥ
‡…–‹‘B™‹ŽŽ…‘–ƒ‹ six compulsory•Š‘”–•–”—…–—”‡†ƒ•™‡”“—‡•–‹‘•
ƒŽ•‘„ƒ•‡†‘ƒ›’ƒ”–‘ˆ–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•Ǥ
ȋ‘–ƒŽǣ 100 marks)


Paper 2: (2 ½ hours)
Š‡’ƒ’‡”™‹ŽŽ…‘•‹•–‘ˆtwo•‡…–‹‘•ǣA ƒ†B. Six “—‡•–‹‘•™‹ŽŽ„‡•‡–ƒ•
ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
‡…–‹‘AǤOne compulsory“—‡•–‹‘ˆ”‘ƒ›ƒŒ‘”–‘’‹… (40 marks)
‡…–‹‘B.Five “—‡•–‹‘•Ǣƒ†‹†ƒ–‡•™‹ŽŽanswer only three“—‡•–‹‘•‹
–Š‹••‡…–‹‘Ǥƒ…Š“—‡•–‹‘…ƒ””‹‡•20 marks.
ȋ‘–ƒŽǣ100 marks)

13
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Paper 3: (31/4 hours)


Three compulsory “—‡•–‹‘• ™‹ŽŽ „‡ •‡–Ǥ ƒ†‹†ƒ–‡• ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ”‡“—‹”‡† –‘
ƒ•™‡”ALL “—‡•–‹‘•Ǥ
ȋ‘–ƒŽǣ100 marksȌ

14
  

SENIOR FIVE TERM ONE


Topic 1: Cell Biology
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣ͵͸‡”‹‘†•

Overview
Š‡…‡ŽŽ‹•ƒ„ƒ•‹…—‹–‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡Ǥ…‡ŽŽ…ƒ””‹‡•‘—–ƒ—„‡”‘ˆƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•
‹…Ž—†‹‰’”‘–‡‹•›–Š‡•‹•ǡ…‡ŽŽ†‹˜‹•‹‘ƒ†‹–‹•™Š‡”‡–Š‡Š‡”‡†‹–ƒ”›
ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ‹•Ǥ’‡…‹ƒŽ‹•‡†…‡ŽŽ•…‘•–‹–—–‡–‹••—‡•Ǥ

General Objective
› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘†‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡
•–”—…–—”‡ǡˆ—…–‹‘ƒ†‘”‰ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ…‡ŽŽ•‹ƒ‘”‰ƒ‹•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Cell Structure and Microscopy



Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ’Žƒ– ƒ† ƒ‹ƒŽ …‡ŽŽ x –”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ‹ƒŽ ƒ†
•–”—…–—”‡• ˜‹•‹„Ž‡ —†‡” –Š‡ ’Žƒ–…‡ŽŽƒ••‡‡—†‡”ƒŽ‹‰Š–
Ž‹‰Š–‹…”‘•…‘’‡Ǥ ‹…”‘•…‘’‡
x †”ƒ™ ƒ† Žƒ„‡Ž †‡–ƒ‹Ž‡† ƒ‹ƒŽ x ‡–ƒ‹Ž‡† ƒ‹ƒŽ ƒ† ’Žƒ–
ƒ†’Žƒ–…‡ŽŽ•Ǥ …‡ŽŽ•
x •–ƒ–‡ˆ—…–‹‘•‘ˆ…‡ŽŽ•–”—…–—”‡• x —…–‹‘• ‘ˆ †‡–ƒ‹Ž‡† …‡ŽŽ
ƒ• •‡‡ —†‡” ƒ ‡Ž‡…–”‘ •–”—…–—”‡• ‹†‹…ƒ–‹‰ –Š‡
‹…”‘•…‘’‡Ǥ ‹–‡””‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’
 
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ –Š‡ ’Žƒ– x ‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡•„‡–™‡‡’Žƒ–…‡ŽŽ
…‡ŽŽ ƒ† ƒ‹ƒŽ …‡ŽŽ —Ž–”ƒ ƒ† ƒ‹ƒŽ …‡ŽŽ —Ž–”ƒ
•–”—…–—”‡• ƒ• ˜‹•‹„Ž‡ —†‡” –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡•
‡Ž‡…–”‘‹…”‘•…‘’‡Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –Š‡‘”› „‡Š‹† –Š‡ x Š‡ –Š‡‘”› „‡Š‹† –Š‡
•–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’Žƒ•ƒ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’Žƒ•ƒ
‡„”ƒ‡Ǥ ‡„”ƒ‡
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡ˆŽ—‹†‘•ƒ‹…‘†‡Ž x Š‡ ˆŽ—‹† ‘•ƒ‹… ‘†‡ŽǦ
‘ˆ–Š‡’Žƒ•ƒ‡„”ƒ‡Ǥ ’Žƒ•ƒ‡„”ƒ‡

15
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ x Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰’”‹…‹’Ž‡•‘ˆƒ
’”‹…‹’Ž‡•‘ˆƒŽ‹‰Š–ƒ†‡Ž‡…–”‘ Ž‹‰Š–ƒ†‡Ž‡…–”‘‹…”‘•…‘’‡ǣ
‹…”‘•…‘’‡Ǥ ”‡•‘Ž˜‹‰’‘™‡”ǡ‡–…
x ’”‡’ƒ”‡ –‡’‘”ƒ”› ‘—–• ‘ˆ x ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –‡’‘”ƒ”›
…‡ŽŽƒ†–‹••—‡•Ž‹†‡•Ǥ ‘—–• ‘ˆ …‡ŽŽ ƒ† –‹••—‡
 •Ž‹†‡•
x —•‡ •‹’Ž‡ •–ƒ‹• ‹ •–—†›‹‰ x ‹’Ž‡•–ƒ‹‹‰‡–Š‘†•
…‡ŽŽ•ƒ†–‹••—‡•Ǥ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ’Žƒ– –‹••—‡• x –ƒ‹‹‰’Žƒ––‹••—‡•
—•‹‰ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› 
•–ƒ‹•Ǥ 
x †‡–‡”‹‡…‡ŽŽ•‹œ‡Ǥ x •–‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ…‡ŽŽ•‹œ‡
x †”ƒ™ ƒ† Žƒ„‡Ž –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– x ’‹–Š‡Ž‹ƒŽ –‹••—‡•
–›’‡•‘ˆ‡’‹–Š‡Ž‹ƒŽ–‹••—‡•Ǥ …Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘

Teaching/ Learning Resources


x ‡ŽŽ •–”—…–—”‡•ǣ …Šƒ”–•ǡ ‘†‡Ž•ǡ ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ ’Š‘–‘‹…”‘‰”ƒ’Š•ǡ –‡š–
„‘‘•ǡ•‹—Žƒ–‹‘•
x –ƒ‹‹‰ ”‡ƒ‰‡–•ǣ ‹‘†‹‡ •‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ ƒ…‹†‹ˆ‹‡† ’ŠŽ‘”‘‰Ž—…‹‘Žǡ ‡–Š›Ž‡‡
„Ž—‡ǡ‡‹•Šƒǯ••–ƒ‹
x ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡ •Ž‹†‡•ǡ …‘˜‡” •Ž‹’•ǡ ’Žƒ•–‹… ”—Ž‡” ‰”ƒ†—ƒ–‡† ‹ ‹ŽŽ‹‡–”‡•ǡ
‘‹‘ǡ…Š‡‡…‡ŽŽ•ǡ’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•‘ˆ…‡ŽŽ•ƒ†–‹••—‡•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• ‘ˆ ƒ‹ƒŽ ƒ† ’Žƒ– …‡ŽŽ• ƒ• •‡‡
™‹–Š–Š‡ƒ‹†‘ˆƒŽ‹‰Š–‹…”‘•…‘’‡Ǥ
x ‹•…—••–Š‡ǣ
 †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• ‹ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ ’”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ ƒ Ž‹‰Š– ƒ† ‡Ž‡…–”‘
‹…”‘•…‘’‡Ǥ
 …‡ŽŽ•–”—…–—”‡•ƒ••‡‡™‹–Š–Š‡ƒ‹†‘ˆƒ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹…”‘•…‘’‡—•‹‰
‹…”‘‰”ƒ’Š•ƒ†…Šƒ”–•Ǥ
 ˆ—…–‹‘• ‘ˆ …‡ŽŽ •–”—…–—”‡• —•‹‰ ‘†‡Ž•ǡ ƒ‹ƒ–‹‘•ǡ •‹—Žƒ–‹‘•ǡ
‡–….
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”—•‹‰–Š‡Ž‹‰Š–‹…”‘•…‘’‡–‘
•–—†›’Žƒ–ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ…‡ŽŽ•ƒ†–‹••—‡•Ǥ
x ‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –‡’‘”ƒ”› •Ž‹†‡• ‘ ’Žƒ– ƒ† ƒ‹ƒŽ
…‡ŽŽ•ƒ†–‹••—‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘•–—†›ƒ†‡šƒ‹‡’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•‘ˆ’Žƒ–ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ
–‹••—‡•Ǥ

16
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’Žƒ•ƒ ‡„”ƒ‡ —•‹‰ ‹…”‘‰”ƒ’Š• ƒ†
Ȁƒ‹ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”‘‡•–‹ƒ–‹‰–Š‡•‹œ‡‘ˆƒ
…‡ŽŽǤ

Assessment Strategy
x ˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‡ –Š‡ –‘’‹… „› ‰‹˜‹‰ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‡š‡”…‹•‡• ‘ Š‘™ –‘ —•‡ ƒ
‹…”‘•…‘’‡ ƒ• ™‡ŽŽ ƒ• ‘”ƒŽ ƒ† ™”‹––‡ “—‡•–‹‘• ‘ …‡ŽŽ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ†
ˆ—…–‹‘•Ǥ


Sub-Topic 2: Diversity of Specialised Cells and


Tissues
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ x ‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡’”‘ƒ”›‘–‡• ‡—ƒ”›‘–‹… …‡ŽŽ• ƒ†
ƒ†‡—ƒ”›‘–‡•Ǥ ’”‘ƒ”›‘–‹……‡ŽŽ•
 x ’‡…‹ƒŽ‹•‡† …‡ŽŽ• ƒ† –‹••—‡•ǣǦ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …‡ŽŽ ƒ† –‹••—‡ š›Ž‡ǡ ’ŠŽ‘‡ǡ –”ƒ…Š‡‹†•ǡ
•’‡…‹ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ •…Ž‡”‡…Š›ƒǡ …‘ŽŽ‡…Š›ƒǡ
 ’ƒ”‡…Š›ƒǡ  …‘‡…–‹˜‡ ƒ†
 •‡Ž‡–ƒŽ–‹••—‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹Š‘™‡’‹–Š‡Ž‹ƒŽ–‹••—‡•ƒ”‡ x —…–‹‘ ƒ† ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
ƒ†ƒ’–‡† –‘ †‹˜‡”•‹–› ‘ˆ ˆ—…–‹‘• ‡’‹–Š‡Ž‹ƒŽ–‹••—‡•
‹–Š‡„‘†›Ǥ 
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡– x ‡˜‡Ž• ‘ˆ ‘”‰ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘ǣ …‡ŽŽǡ
Ž‡˜‡Ž•‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ –‹••—‡ǡ‘”‰ƒƒ†‘”‰ƒ•›•–‡
 x †˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ƒ† †‹•ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡•
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ƒ† ‘ˆ„‡‹‰—‹…‡ŽŽ—Žƒ”
†‹•ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ „‡‹‰ x †˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ ƒ —Ž–‹…‡ŽŽ—Žƒ”
—‹…‡ŽŽ—Žƒ”Ǥ •–ƒ–‡

x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ „‡‹‰
—Ž–‹…‡ŽŽ—Žƒ”Ǥ

Teaching/Learning Resources
x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†Šƒ†‘—–•
x –ƒ‹‹‰ ‡ƒ‰‡–•ǣ ‘†‹‡ •‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ ƒ…‹†‹ˆ‹‡† ’ŠŽ‘”‘‰Ž—…‹‘Žǡ ‡–Š›Ž‡‡
„Ž—‡ǡ ‡‹•Šƒǯ• •–ƒ‹ǡ ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡ •Ž‹†‡•ǡ …‘˜‡” •Ž‹’•ǡ ‘‹‘ǡ …Š‡‡
…‡ŽŽ•ǡ’Žƒ•–‹…”—Ž‡”‰”ƒ†—ƒ–‡†‹‹ŽŽ‹‡–”‡•ǡ’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•‘ˆ…‡ŽŽ•ƒ†
–‹••—‡•

17
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• ™‹–Š ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘• –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡ ‡—ƒ”›‘–‹… ƒ†
’”‘ƒ”›‘–‹……‡ŽŽ•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‡šƒ‹‡„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒǡ’Žƒ–ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ–‹••—‡•—•‹‰ƒŽ‹‰Š–
‹…”‘•…‘’‡Ǥ
x ‹•…—••Ž‡˜‡Ž•‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x ˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‡–Š‡–‘’‹…„›‰‹˜‹‰ƒ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡‘‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ’Žƒ–
ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ–‹••—‡•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‘”ƒŽ “—‡•–‹‘• ‘ –‹••—‡• ƒ† †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡
„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒƒ†˜‹”—•‡•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 3: Chromosomes
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ …‘’‘•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ x ‘’‘•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ …Š”‘‘•‘‡•
…Š”‘‘•‘‡• ƒ† •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ƒ†•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ—…Ž‡‘–‹†‡•
—…Ž‡‘–‹†‡•Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ  x –”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ —…Ž‡‹… ƒ…‹†•
ƒ†Ǥ ƒ†
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Šƒ†Ǥ x ‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡   ƒ†
 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ–•‘ ”‹… x Š‡ƒ–•‘Ǧ”‹…Š›’‘–Š‡•‹•‘ˆ
Š›’‘–Š‡•‹•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ–—”‡‘ˆǤ –Š‡ƒ–—”‡‘ˆ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ  x ”‡’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘
”‡’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡ƒ–—”‡‘ˆ‰‡‡•Ǥ x ƒ–—”‡‘ˆ‰‡‡•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆ–Š‡‰‡‡–‹……‘†‡
‰‡‡–‹……‘†‡Ǥ

Teaching/Learning Resources
‘†‡Ž•ǡ ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ •‹—Žƒ–‹‘•ǡ •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ‘†‡Ž ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• ȋ™‘‘†Ȁ
’Žƒ•–‹…‹•ǡ –‘‘–Š’‹…•ǡ ”‹„„‘• ‡–…Ȍ ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‹…
™‹”‡•Ȁ–Š”‡ƒ†Ȁ•–”ƒ™•‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–…‘Ž‘—”•ǡ’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•‘‹–‘•‹•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ —…Ž‡‘–‹†‡ ƒ† ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ
—…Ž‡‹…ƒ…‹†•ȋƒ†Ȍ—•‹‰…Šƒ”–•ǡ‘†‡Ž•Ȁ•‹—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ƒ‡‘†‡Ž•‘ˆƒ†Ǥ

18
x ‹•…—••–Š‡ƒ–•‘Ǧ”‹…Š›’‘–Š‡•‹•ƒ†”‡’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ—…Ž‡‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 4: Cell Division and Chromosome Concept

Specific Objectives Content


Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡‹–‘•‹•ƒ†‡‹‘•‹•Ǥ x ‹–‘•‹•ƒ†‡‹‘•‹•
x …‘’ƒ”‡‹–‘•‹•ƒ†‡‹‘•‹•Ǥ x ‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ ‹–‘•‹• ƒ†
‡‹‘•‹•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ …Šƒ‰‡• x ‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡…‡ŽŽ†‹˜‹•‹‘
‹–Š‡—…Ž‡—•†—”‹‰…‡ŽŽ†‹˜‹•‹‘Ǥ ‡˜‡–• ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
 •’‹†Ž‡ ˆ‹„”‡•ǡ …Š‹ƒ•ƒ–ƒǡ
 •›ƒ’•‹•ǡ „‹˜ƒŽ‡–• ƒ†
 ‘˜‡‡– ‘ˆ …Š”‘‘•‘‡•ǡ
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ‹–‘•‹• ‡–…
ƒ†‡‹‘•‹•–‘Ž‹˜‹‰‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ‹–‘•‹• ƒ† ‡‹‘•‹• ‹
Ž‹˜‹‰‘”‰ƒ‹••
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› •–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ ‹–‘•‹• ˆ”‘ x ‡ŽŽ• ƒ– †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– •–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ
’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•Ǥ ‹–‘•‹•
x †”ƒ™ …‡ŽŽ• ƒ– †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– •–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ x ‘†‡Ž• ‘ˆ –Š‡ —…Ž‡‹… ƒ…‹†•ǣ
‹–‘•‹•Ǥ ȋȀȌǡ†‘—„Ž‡Š‡Ž‹š
x ’”‡’ƒ”‡ ‘†‡Ž• ‘” ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ
ƒ†Ǥ

Teaching/ Learning Resources


‹ƒ‰”ƒ•‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‰–Š‡‹–‘•‹•ƒ†‡‹‘•‹•ǡƒ‹ƒ–‹‘•ǡ’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•
‘”‘‘––‹’ǡ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡƒ†…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†Ž‡ƒ”‹‰ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡ǣ
 ’Šƒ•‡• ‹ ‹–‘•‹• ƒ† ‡‹‘•‹• „› ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‰ ™‹–Š †‹ƒ‰”ƒ• ƒ†
ƒ‹ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
 •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡‘ˆ…‡ŽŽ†‹˜‹•‹‘‡˜‡–•Ǥ
 ”‘Ž‡‘ˆ…‡ŽŽ†‹˜‹•‹‘‹Ž‹˜‹‰‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ

19
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‡šƒ‹‡’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡••Š‘™‹‰•–ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ‹–‘•‹•‹ƒ
”‘‘––‹’Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”ƒ†ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•–ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ
‹–‘•‹•ƒ†‡‹‘•‹•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘–Š‡‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ…‡ŽŽ†‹˜‹•‹‘‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ
(See appendix 1: This is an example of Cell Biology practical).

Sub-Topic 5: Protein Synthesis


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆǤ x ‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆȋȌ
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‘…‡••‘ˆ’”‘–‡‹ x ”‘…‡••‘ˆ’”‘–‡‹•›–Š‡•‹•
•›–Š‡•‹•Ǥ 
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ  ƒ†  x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ  ƒ†  ‹ ’”‘–‡‹
‹’”‘–‡‹•›–Š‡•‹•Ǥ •›–Š‡•‹•


Teaching/Learning Resources
x ‘†‡Ž•ǡ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ•‹—Žƒ–‹‘•ǡ…Šƒ”–•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡ǣ
 ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘  —•‹‰ ‘†‡Ž•ǡ ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …Šƒ”–• ƒ†
•‹—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
 ’”‘…‡••‘ˆ’”‘–‡‹•›–Š‡•‹•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
 ”‘Ž‡‘ˆƒ†‹’”‘–‡‹•›–Š‡•‹•Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘–Š‡’”‘…‡••‘ˆ’”‘–‡‹•›–Š‡•‹•Š‹‰ŠŽ‹‰Š–‹‰
–Š‡”‘Ž‡‘ˆ—…Ž‡‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ

20
Topic 2: Chemicals of Life
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͶ͸‡”‹‘†•

Overview
ŽŽ …‡ŽŽ• ƒ”‡ ƒ†‡ —’ ‘ˆ ƒ ˜ƒ”‹‡–› ‘ˆ •—„•–ƒ…‡• •‘‡ ‘ˆ ™Š‹…Š ƒ”‡
‘”‰ƒ‹…™Š‹Ž‡‘–Š‡”•ƒ”‡‹‘”‰ƒ‹…Ǥƒ–‡”ˆ‘”•–Š‡Žƒ”‰‡•–…‘’‘‡–
ƒ† ‹• ƒŽ•‘ ƒ ‡†‹— ˆ‘” ƒŽŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‹ ƒ …‡ŽŽǤ Š‡ ‘–Š‡” •—„•–ƒ…‡•
‹…Ž—†‡ ƒ…‹†•ǡ „ƒ•‡•ǡ •ƒŽ–•ǡ ˜‹–ƒ‹•ǡ …ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•ǡ Ž‹’‹†• ƒ† ’”‘–‡‹•Ǥ
Š‡”‡ ƒ”‡ ‡œ›‡• ƒ† —…Ž‡‹… ƒ…‹†• ™Š‹…Š ’‡”ˆ‘” ƒ ˜ƒ”‹‡–› ‘ˆ
ˆ—…–‹‘•Ǥ

General Objective
› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘†‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡
…‘’‘•‹–‹‘ǡ •–”—…–—”‡ǡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ† ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ‹‘”‰ƒ‹… ƒ†
‘”‰ƒ‹…•—„•–ƒ…‡•–‘–Š‡Ž‹ˆ‡‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Acids, Bases and Salts

Specific Objectives Content


Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒ…‹†• x ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒ…‹†•ǡ „ƒ•‡• ƒ†
„ƒ•‡•ƒ†•ƒŽ–•Ǥ •ƒŽ–•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ƒ…‹†•ǡ „ƒ•‡• x —…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ƒ…‹†•ǡ „ƒ•‡• ƒ†
ƒ† •ƒŽ–• ‹ ƒ‹–ƒ‹‹‰ ƒ •ƒŽ–•‹‘”‰ƒ‹••
•–ƒ„Ž‡‹–‡”ƒŽ‡˜‹”‘‡–ˆ‘”
’Š›•‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ’”‘…‡••‡•Ǥ
(Practical) 
Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ x ‡•–ˆ‘”’”‡•‡…‡‘ˆ‹‡”ƒŽ•ƒŽ–•
‹†‡–‹ˆ› •ƒŽ–• —•‹‰ “—ƒ–‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ ‹ ˆ‘‘† •ƒ’Ž‡• Ȁ‡š–”ƒ…–• ȋ”‡ˆ‡”
ƒ†“—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ƒƒŽ›•‹•Ǥ –‘ ‹‘”‰ƒ‹… ƒƒŽ›•‹• ‹
 Š‡‹•–”›’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽȌ

Teaching/ Learning Resources


Šƒ”–•ǡ•ƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ—”‹‡Ȁ‡‰‰›‘ŽȀŽ‹˜‡”‡š–”ƒ…–•ǡ–‡•––—„‡•ǡʹ‹–”‹…ƒ…‹†ǡ
•‹Ž˜‡”‹–”ƒ–‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ†‹Ž—–‡ƒ‘‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡ǡʹŠ›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹…ƒ…‹†ǡ
„ƒ”‹— •—Ž’Šƒ–‡ •‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ ƒ‘‹— ‘Ž›„†ƒ–‡ •‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ ’Žƒ–‹— ™‹”‡ǡ
…‘…Ǥ Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹… ƒ…‹†ǡ ’‘–ƒ••‹— Š‡šƒ…›ƒ‘ˆ‡””ƒ–‡ȋ Ȍ •‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ ˆ‹Ž–‡”
’ƒ’‡”ǡ‘”–ƒ”ƒ†’‡•–Ž‡ǡ•‘—”…‡‘ˆŠ‡ƒ–

21
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ••–—†‡–•–‘†‘’”‹‘””‡ƒ†‹‰‘ƒ…‹†•ǡ„ƒ•‡•ƒ†•ƒŽ–•Ǥȋ•ƒ‘—–‘ˆ
…Žƒ••ƒ…–‹˜‹–›ȌǤ
x ‹•…—••’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒ…‹†•ǡ„ƒ•‡•ƒ†•ƒŽ–•Ǥ
x ‹•…—••–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘•‘ˆƒ…‹†•ǡ„ƒ•‡•ƒ†•ƒŽ–•‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘–‡•–ˆ‘”‹‘•‹‘”‰ƒ‹…ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
(See Appendix 2 and carry out a test for ions in organic materials).

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡‘”ƒŽ“—‡•–‹‘•‘’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒ…‹†•ǡ„ƒ•‡•ƒ†•ƒŽ–•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡ƒ••‹‰‡–‘–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘•‘ˆƒ…‹†•ǡ„ƒ•‡•ƒ†•ƒŽ–•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Water
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” •–”—…–—”‡ x ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”
‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”Ǥ 
x •–ƒ–‡ˆ—…–‹‘•‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”Ǥ x —…–‹‘•‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ™ƒ–‡” x ƒ–‡”ƒ•ƒ•‘Ž˜‡–
ƒ•ƒ•‘Ž˜‡–Ǥ 
x ”‡Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ ™ƒ–‡” ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• –‘ ‹–• x ‘Ž‡ Ȁ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ™ƒ–‡” ‹ –Š‡
”‘Ž‡‹–Š‡Ž‹ˆ‡‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ Ž‹ˆ‡ ‘ˆ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ‹ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ –‘ ‹–•
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
(Practical)
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x –‡•–ˆ‘”™ƒ–‡”Ǥ x ‡•–‹‰ˆ‘”™ƒ–‡”
x †‡–‡”‹‡ ™ƒ–‡” …‘–‡– ‹ x ‡ƒ•—”‹‰™ƒ–‡”…‘–‡–‹–‹••—‡•
–‹••—‡• „› —•‹‰ †”› ™‡‹‰Š– 
‡–Š‘†Ǥ x ‹‡Ž†•–—†›‘™ƒ–‡”Šƒ„‹–ƒ–•ǤȋŠ‡
x ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ƒ–—”ƒŽ ƒ–—”ƒŽ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ‘ˆ ™ƒ–‡” ƒ†
”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ‘ˆ ™ƒ–‡” ƒ† ‘”‰ƒ‹••Ȍ
‘”‰ƒ‹•• ‹ ƒ Šƒ„‹–ƒ– ȋ‹…Ž—†‹‰
Š—ƒ•ȌǤ

Teaching/ Learning Resources


x ƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ’Žƒ–‘”‰ƒ•ǡ™‡‹‰Š‹‰„ƒŽƒ…‡ǡŠ‡ƒ–•‘—”…‡Ȁ‘˜‡ǡ…”—…‹„Ž‡•ǡ
†‹•Š‡•ǡ™ƒ–‡”Šƒ„‹–ƒ–ǡ…‘„ƒŽ–…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡’ƒ’‡”ȀƒŠ›†”‘—•…‘’’‡”•—Ž’Šƒ–‡
Ȁ…‘„ƒŽ––Š‹‘…›ƒƒ–‡’ƒ’‡”



22
Suggested Teaching Procedure
x ‹•…—••–Š‡‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”•–”—…–—”‡ǡ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ƒ†ˆ—…–‹‘•‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”—•‹‰
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ‘†‡Ž•ƒ†ƒ‹ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ –‡•– ˆ‘” ™ƒ–‡” ƒ† ‡ƒ•—”‡ ™ƒ–‡” …‘–‡– ‹ –‹••—‡•Ǥ

—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–ƒˆ‹‡Ž†•—”˜‡›‘™ƒ–‡”Šƒ„‹–ƒ–•ƒ•ƒ‘—–‘ˆ
…Žƒ••ƒ…–‹˜‹–›ǡ‡‹–Š‡”‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽŽ›‘”‹‰”‘—’•ƒ†’”‘†—…‡ƒ”‡’‘”–Ǥ
x ‡ƒ†ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘‘–Š‡•—”˜‡›”‡’‘”–•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘ˆ—…–‹‘•‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”‹”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘‹–•’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡‘”ƒŽ“—‡•–‹‘•‘ƒ–—”ƒŽ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’•‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”ƒ†‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ …‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”Šƒ„‹–ƒ–•–‘…‘•‡”˜‡„‹‘†‹˜‡”•‹–›Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ †”‹‹‰•—ˆˆ‹…‹‡–“—ƒ–‹–‹‡•‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”ˆ‘”‘”ƒŽ„‘†›ˆ—…–‹‘ȋ‹
Š—ƒ•ƒ†‘–Š‡”ƒ‹ƒŽ•ȌǤ
‹‹‹Ȍ ‹””‹‰ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Sub-Topic 3: Structure of Carbohydrates


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† …‘’‘‡–• ‘ˆ
…‘’‘‡–• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• …ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•
…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x ”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•
…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘• ‘ˆ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•ǣ
…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ ‘‘•ƒ……Šƒ”‹†‡ǯ•ǡ †‹•ƒ……Šƒ”‹†‡•ǡ
 ’‘Ž›•ƒ……Šƒ”‹†‡•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ …‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ x ‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•
…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ Š›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ x ›†”‘Ž›•‹•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•
…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•Ǥ
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ˆ‘‘† –‡•– ˆ‘” x ‡•–‹‰ˆ‘”…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•
…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡• ‘ ˆ‘‘† •ƒ’Ž‡• Ȁ 
‡š–”ƒ…–•Ǥ 
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ Š›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ ‘Ǧ x ›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ ‘Ǧ ”‡†—…‹‰ •—‰ƒ”•
”‡†—…‹‰•—‰ƒ”•Ǥ –‘”‡†—…‹‰•—‰ƒ”•



23
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Teaching/ Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘• ‘ …ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡• •–”—…–—”‡•ǡ –‡•– –—„‡•ǡ Š‡ƒ– •‘—”…‡•ǡ ˆ‘‘†
•ƒ’Ž‡•Ȁ‡š–”ƒ…–•ǡ™ƒ–‡”„ƒ–ŠȀ„‡ƒ‡”ƒ†™ƒ–‡”
x ‡ƒ‰‡–•ǣ‹‘†‹‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ‡‡†‹…–ǯ••‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ†‹Ž—–‡Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹…ȋ ŽȌ
ƒ…‹†ǡ†‹Ž—–‡•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡ȋƒ Ȍ•‘Ž—–‹‘

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡ǣ
 …‘’‘•‹–‹‘ǡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ† ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ‘‘•ƒ……Šƒ”‹†‡•ǡ
†‹•ƒ……Šƒ”‹†‡•ƒ†’‘Ž›•ƒ……Šƒ”‹†‡•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ 
 …‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‘‘•ƒ……Šƒ”‹†‡•ƒ†Š›†”‘Ž›•‹•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•Ǥ 
x
—‹†‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”‘–‡•–•ˆ‘”…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•
ƒ†Š›†”‘Ž›•‹•‘ˆ‘Ǧ”‡†—…‹‰•—‰ƒ”•–‘”‡†—…‹‰•—‰ƒ”•Ǥ 

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ …‘’‘•‹–‹‘ǡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ† ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ
…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ –‡•–• ˆ‘”
…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•ƒ†Š›†”‘Ž›•‹•‘ˆ‘Ǧ”‡†—…‹‰•—‰ƒ”•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 4: Structure of Lipids


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† …‘’‘‡–• ‘ˆ
…‘’‘‡–•‘ˆŽ‹’‹†‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•Ǥ Ž‹’‹†•‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•
x •–ƒ–‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆŽ‹’‹†•Ǥ x ”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆŽ‹’‹†•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘• ‘ˆ Ž‹’‹†• ‹ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ Ž‹’‹†• ‹
‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ ‘”‰ƒ‹••
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ•–‡”‘‹†•Ǥ x –”—…–—”‡•–‡”‘‹†•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆŽ‹’‹†•ƒ†•–‡”‘‹†• x ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ Ž‹’‹†• ƒ† •–‡”‘‹†• –‘
–‘‘”‰ƒ‹•• ‘”‰ƒ‹••
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ …‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ˆƒ––› x ‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ˆƒ––› ƒ…‹†• ƒ†
ƒ…‹†•ƒ†‰Ž›…‡”‘Ž–‘ˆ‘”Ž‹’‹†•Ǥ ‰Ž›…‡”‘Ž–‘ˆ‘”Ž‹’‹†•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ Š›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ Ž‹’‹†• –‘
x ›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ Ž‹’‹†• –‘ ˆƒ––›
ˆƒ––›ƒ…‹†•ƒ†‰Ž›…‡”‘ŽǤ ƒ…‹†•ƒ†‰Ž›…‡”‘Ž
x …‘’ƒ”‡™ƒš‡•ƒ†Ž‹’‹†•Ǥ x ‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ ™ƒš‡• ƒ†
 Ž‹’‹†•
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ …Š‘Ž‡•–‡”‘Ž x ’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ …Š‘Ž‡•–‡”‘Ž ‹
‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ ‘”‰ƒ‹••



24
(Practical) 
x Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ …ƒ””› x ‡•–•ˆ‘”Ž‹’‹†•
‘—– ˆ‘‘† –‡•–• ˆ‘” Ž‹’‹†• ‘ ˆ‘‘† 
•ƒ’Ž‡•Ȁ‡š–”ƒ…–•Ǥ

Teaching/ Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘• ‘ Ž‹’‹† •–”—…–—”‡• ƒ† ‡ˆˆ‡…–•ǡ –‡•– –—„‡•ǡ ‡–Šƒ‘Žǡ ˆ‘‘†
•ƒ’Ž‡•Ȁ‡š–”ƒ…–•ǡ™ƒ–‡”ǡ‘’ƒ“—‡’‹‡…‡‘ˆ’ƒ’‡”

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡ǣ
 …‘’‘•‹–‹‘ǡ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ƒ†‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆŽ‹’‹†•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
 ‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆŽ‹’‹†•–‘‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ 
 …‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆˆƒ––›ƒ…‹†•ƒ†‰Ž›…‡”‘ŽǤ† ›†”‘Ž›•‹•‘ˆŽ‹’‹†•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”‘–‡•–•ˆ‘”Ž‹’‹†•. 

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ …‘’‘•‹–‹‘ǡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ† ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ
Ž‹’‹†•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ƒ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡‘–‡•–•ˆ‘”Ž‹’‹†•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 5: Structure of Proteins


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† …‘’‘‡–• ‘ˆ
…‘’‘‡–•‘ˆ’”‘–‡‹•Ǥ ’”‘–‡‹•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x ”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ’”‘–‡‹•
’”‘–‡‹•Ǥ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ’”‘–‡‹•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x —…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ’”‘–‡‹• ‹
’”‘–‡‹•Ǥ ‘”‰ƒ‹••ǣ „—ˆˆ‡”ǡ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ’”‘–‡‹•‡œ›‡•Ȁ…ƒ–ƒŽ›–‹…ǡ Š‘”‘‡•ǡ
‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ •–”—…–—”ƒŽǡ ‰”‘™–Šǡ …ƒ””‹‡”•
 ‡–…
 x ‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ‹‘ ƒ…‹†•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ …‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ‹‘ –‘ˆ‘”’”‘–‡‹•
ƒ…‹†•–‘ˆ‘”’”‘–‡‹•Ǥ x ›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ ’”‘–‡‹• –‘
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ Š›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ ƒ‹‘ƒ…‹†•
’”‘–‡‹•–‘ƒ‹‘ƒ…‹†•Ǥ x ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ Š‡ƒ–Ȁ–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ Š‡ƒ– Ȁ ‘’”‘–‡‹•
–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡…Šƒ‰‡•‘’”‘–‡‹•Ǥ



25
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

(Practical) 
x Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ x ‡•–•ˆ‘”’”‘–‡‹•
…ƒ””› ‘—– ˆ‘‘† –‡•–• ˆ‘” ’”‘–‡‹•
‘ˆ‘‘†•ƒ’Ž‡•Ȁ‡š–”ƒ…–•Ǥ

Teaching/ Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘• ‘ ’”‘–‡‹ •–”—…–—”‡•ǡ –‡•– –—„‡•ǡ Š‡ƒ– •‘—”…‡•ǡ ˆ‘‘†
•ƒ’Ž‡•Ȁ ‡š–”ƒ…–•ǡ ”‡ƒ‰‡–•ǣ ͳΨ …‘’’‡” ȋ Ȍ •—Ž’Šƒ–‡ •‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ †‹Ž—–‡
•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡ƒ •‘Ž—–‹‘

Note: ‹ŽŽ‹‘ǯ•”‡ƒ‰‡–‹•…ƒ”…‹‘‰‡‹…ƒ†‹–•—•‡‹•†‹•…‘—”ƒ‰‡†Ǥ

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡ǣ
 …‘’‘•‹–‹‘ǡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ† ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ’”‘–‡‹• —•‹‰
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•
 …‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ‹‘ƒ…‹†•ƒ†Š›†”‘Ž›•‹•‘ˆ’”‘–‡‹•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”‘ˆ‘‘†–‡•–•ˆ‘”’”‘–‡‹Ǥ 

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ …‘’‘•‹–‹‘ǡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ƒ†
ˆ—…–‹‘•‘ˆ’”‘–‡‹•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•ƒ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡‘–‡•–ˆ‘”’”‘–‡‹•Ǥ




26


Sub-Topic 6: Vitamins
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x •–ƒ–‡–›’‡•‘ˆ˜‹–ƒ‹•Ǥ x ›’‡• ‘ˆ ˜‹–ƒ‹•ǣ ™ƒ–‡”
 •‘Ž—„Ž‡ ƒ† ˆƒ– •‘Ž—„Ž‡ǡ
 ‡••‡–‹ƒŽƒ†‘‡••‡–‹ƒŽ
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ˜‹–ƒ‹• ‹ –Š‡
˜‹–ƒ‹•‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ Ž‹ˆ‡ ‘ˆ ‘”‰ƒ‹••ǣ ’”‘–‡…–‹‘
 ƒ‰ƒ‹•– †‹•‡ƒ•‡•ǡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
 …‘‡œ›‡• ”‘Ž‡ ‹ „Ž‘‘†
…Ž‘––‹‰ ƒ† …‘’‘‡– ‘ˆ
˜‹•—ƒŽ’‹‰‡–
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x –‡•–ˆ‘”˜‹–ƒ‹Ǥ x ‡•–ˆ‘”˜‹–ƒ‹
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ ‘˜‡” x ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ‘˜‡”„‘‹Ž‹‰˜‡‰‡–ƒ„Ž‡•
„‘‹Ž‹‰˜‡‰‡–ƒ„Ž‡•Ǥ 
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ x ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ •–‘”ƒ‰‡ ‘ “—ƒŽ‹–› ‘ˆ
•–‘”ƒ‰‡ ‘ “—ƒŽ‹–› ‘ˆ ˆ”‡•Š ˆ”‡•Šˆ‘‘†•
ˆ‘‘†•Ǥ

Teaching/ Learning Resources


x  ǡ˜‡‰‡–ƒ„Ž‡•ǡ„‡ƒ‡”•ǡ–‡•––—„‡•ǡ†”‘’’‡”•ǡ•‘—”…‡‘ˆŠ‡ƒ–

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ••–—†‡–•–‘†‘’”‹‘””‡ƒ†‹‰‘˜‹–ƒ‹•Ǥȋ•ƒ‘—–‘ˆ…Žƒ••ƒ…–‹˜‹–›Ȍ
x ‹•…—••’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ˜‹–ƒ‹•Ǥ
x ‹•…—••–Š‡‹’‘”–ƒ…‡˜‹–ƒ‹•‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘–‡•–ˆ‘”ǣ‹‡”ƒŽ•ƒŽ–•‹‘”‰ƒ‹…ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ˜‹–ƒ‹‹
˜‡‰‡–ƒ„Ž‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ ƒ„—†ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ˜‹–ƒ‹  ‹
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ˆ‘‘†‡š–”ƒ…–•Ǥ
x ••‡••Ž‡ƒ”‡”•‘–Š‡˜ƒŽ—‡‘ˆ•–‘”ƒ‰‡…‘†‹–‹‘•‘“—ƒŽ‹–›‘ˆˆ‘‘†Ǥ



27
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆŠ‡ƒ–‹‰˜‹–ƒ‹ƒ†‘–Š‡”™ƒ–‡”•‘Ž—„Ž‡˜‹–ƒ‹•Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ•–‘”ƒ‰‡‘–Š‡“—ƒŽ‹–›‘ˆˆ”‡•Šˆ‘‘†Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ —•‡‘ˆƒ…‡–‹…ƒ…‹†Ȁ˜‹‡‰ƒ”ƒ••ƒŽƒ††”‡••‹‰Ǥ

Sub-Topic 7: Enzymes
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡…”‹–‡”‹ƒˆ‘”ƒ‹‰ x ”‹–‡”‹ƒ ˆ‘”  ƒ‹‰
‡œ›‡•Ǥ ‡œ›‡•ǣ•‡  –›’‡ ‘ˆ •—„•–”ƒ–‡ǡ
 –›’‡‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• x Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•Ȁ ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ
Ȁ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡œ›‡•Ǥ ‡œ›‡• ”‡Žƒ–‹‰ –‘ ˆƒ…–‘”•
ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ‡œ›‡ ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•ǣ
 ”‘–‡‹ ‹ ƒ–—”‡ǡ …ƒ „‡
 †‡ƒ–—”‡†ǡ …ƒ–ƒŽ›–‹… Ȁ…Šƒ‰‡
 ”ƒ–‡• ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ǡ ™‘” ‹ •ƒŽŽ
 ƒ‘—–•ǡ •’‡…‹ˆ‹… –‘ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
 –Š‡›…ƒ–ƒŽ›•‡ǡ…ƒ–ƒŽ›•‡”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡
 ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ǡ …ƒ „‡ ‹Š‹„‹–‡†ǡ
 ƒˆˆ‡…–‡† „› –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ǡ ’ ǡ
 …‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •—„•–”ƒ–‡  ƒ†
 •‘‡ ”‡“—‹”‡ …‘‡œ›‡•Ȁ
 …‘ˆƒ…–‘”•
x •–ƒ–‡ˆƒ…–‘”•–Šƒ–ƒˆˆ‡…–‡œ›‡ x ƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ‡œ›‡ ƒ…–‹‘ǣ
ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ ’ ǡ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ǡ ‹Š‹„‹–‘”•ǡ
•—„•–”ƒ–‡…‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘

x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡…Šƒ‹• ‘ˆ x Š‡‡œ›‡ƒ…–‹‘ǣŽ‘…ƒ†‡›
‡…Šƒ‹•ǡ‹†—…‡†ˆ‹–
‡œ›‡ ƒ…–‹‘ —•‹‰ –Š‡ Ž‘…
ƒ† ‡› ‡…Šƒ‹• ƒ† 
‹†—…‡†ˆ‹–Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ‡œ›‡• ‹ x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ‡œ›‡• ‹ Ž‹˜‹‰
–Š‡‘”‰ƒ‹•ǯ•Ž‹ˆ‡Ǥ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ‹…Ž—†‹‰ ‹Š‹„‹–‹‘ǡ
…‘’‡–‹–‹˜‡Ȁ‘ …‘’‡–‹–‹˜‡ǡ
 ”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡Ȁ‘”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡




28
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x œ›‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ”‡Žƒ–‹‰ –‘
‡œ›‡ ƒ…–‹‘ ‹ •’‡…‹ˆ‹… ˆƒ…–‘”• ȋ–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ƒ† ’ ǡ
–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ǡ ’  ”ƒ‰‡ǡ …‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •—„•–”ƒ–‡Ȍ
•—„•–”ƒ–‡…‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰‡œ›‡•ǯƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•
 x œ›‡•‹–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–’ƒ”–•‘ˆ
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ‡œ›‡• ‹ –Š‡ –Š‡‰—–„ƒ•‡†‘–Š‡‹”ƒ…–‹‘•‘
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ’ƒ”–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‰—– „ƒ•‡† †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ˆ‘‘†•—„•–ƒ…‡•
‘ –Š‡‹” ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– 
ˆ‘‘†•—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ
x ‘‘† –‡•–• —•‹‰ –Š‡ ƒ‹ƒŽ ‰—–
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ˆ‘‘† –‡•–• ‘ ‰—– …‘–‡–•ƒ†‡œ›‡•
…‘–‡–•Ǥ

Teaching/ Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘• ǡ ‘†‡Ž ‘ –Š‡ Ž‘… ƒ† ‡›  Š›’‘–Š‡•‹•ǡ ‡œ›‡ ‡š–”ƒ…–•ǡ
ˆ‘‘† Ȁ •—„•–”ƒ–‡ ‡š–”ƒ…–•ǡ ƒ…‹†•ǡ „ƒ•‡•ǡ •ƒŽ–• ƒ† ™ƒ–‡”ǡ —‹˜‡”•ƒŽ
‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•ǡ –Š‡”‘‡–‡”•ǡ Š‡ƒ– •‘—”…‡ǡ ‹…—„ƒ–‘”ǡ  …‘…”‘ƒ…Š‡• ȋ‰—–Ȍǡ
”ƒ–Ȁ–‘ƒ†ǡ†‹••‡…–‹‰‹–•ǡ”‡ƒ‰‡–•ȋ†‡’‡†‹‰‘–Š‡ˆ‘‘†•—„•–”ƒ–‡Ȍ

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡ǣ
 ƒ‹‰ƒ†’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡œ›‡•Ǥ
 ‘†‡‘ˆƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ‡œ›‡•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†‘†‡Ž•.
x ‹•…—•• ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ ‘ˆ ‡œ›‡•ǡ ‹…Ž—†‹‰ ‡œ›‡ ‹Š‹„‹–‘”•ǡ ƒŽŽ‘•–‡”‹…
‡œ›‡•ǡ…‘ˆƒ…–‘”•ƒ†’”‘•–Š‡–‹…‰”‘—’•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ™‘” ‘ ‡œ›‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
”‡Žƒ–‹‰ –‘ǣ ˆƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ‡œ›‡ ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•ǡ ˆ‘‘† –‡•–• ‘
…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•ƒ†’”‘–‡‹•—•‹‰‡œ›‡•‘ˆ‰—–…‘–‡–•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡•‘’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ƒ†ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰‘ˆ‡œ›‡•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡•‘‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆ‰—–‡œ›‡•‘ˆ‘‘†•—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ



29
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

   


Topic 3: Cell Physiology
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͳͺ‡”‹‘†•

Overview
ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• ‘˜‡ ‹ ƒ† ‘—– ‘ˆ …‡ŽŽ• „› –Š‡ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ ’”‘…‡••‡•ǣ Ǧ •‘•‹•ǡ
†‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ǡ ƒ…–‹˜‡ –”ƒ•’‘”–ǡ ’Šƒ‰‘…›–‘•‹• ƒ† ’‹‘…›–‘‹•Ǥ ‘‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡•‡
’”‘…‡••‡•”‡“—‹”‡‡‡”‰›™Š‹Ž‡‘–Š‡”•†‘‘–ǤŠ‡ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•‹…Ž—†‡™ƒ–‡”ǡ
‰ƒ•‡•ǡ‡œ›‡•ǡŠ‘”‘‡•ǡƒ–‹„‘†‹‡•ǡƒ‘‰‘–Š‡”•‘Ž˜‡–•ƒ†•‘Ž—–‡•Ǥ

General Objectives
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
L  ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ’”‘…‡••‡•„›™Š‹…Šƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•‘˜‡‹ƒ†
‘—–‘ˆ…‡ŽŽ•Ǥ
LL  ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡”‘Ž‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‡’”‘…‡••‡•‹–Š‡Ž‹ˆ‡‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Movement In and Out of Cells



Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ †‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ǡ ‘•‘•‹•ǡ x ‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ ƒ† ‘•‘•‹•ǡ ƒ…–‹˜‡
ƒ…–‹˜‡ –”ƒ•’‘”–ǡ ’Šƒ‰‘…›–‘•‹• –”ƒ•’‘”–ǡ ’Šƒ‰‘…›–‘•‹• ƒ†
ƒ†’‹‘…›–‘•‹•Ǥ ’‹‘…›–‘•‹•ǣ ‡š‘…›–‘•‹• ƒ†
 ‡†‘…›–‘•‹•
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• –Šƒ– ƒˆˆ‡…– –Š‡ x ƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ
’”‘…‡••‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ—•‹‘Ǥ †‹ˆˆ—•‹‘
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡••‡• ‘ˆ x ”‘…‡••‘ˆ‘•‘•‹•ǣ‹…Ž—†‹‰Ǣ
‘•‘•‹•Ǥ –—”‰‹†‹–›ǡ ’Žƒ•‘Ž›•‹•ǡ ™ƒ–‡”
 ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǡ ‘•‘–‹… ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǡ
 ™ƒŽŽ’”‡••—”‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x ‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡••‡•
†‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ ƒ† ‘•‘•‹• ‹ ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ ƒ† ‘•‘•‹• ‹
‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ ‘”‰ƒ‹••
x ‡š’Žƒ‹Š‘™•‘Ž˜‡–•ƒ†•‘Ž—–‡• x š…Šƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ •‘Ž˜‡–• ƒ†
ƒ”‡ ‡š…Šƒ‰‡† ‹ ƒ‹ƒŽ ƒ† •‘Ž—–‡• ‹ ’Žƒ– ƒ† ƒ‹ƒŽ
’Žƒ– –‹••—‡• ‘” …‡ŽŽ• ƒ…”‘•• –Š‡ –‹••—‡•‘”…‡ŽŽ•ƒ…”‘••–Š‡…‡ŽŽ
…‡ŽŽ ‡„”ƒ‡ ‹ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ –‘ ‹–• ‡„”ƒ‡ ‹ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ –‘ ‹–•



30
•–”—…–—”‡Ǥ •–”—…–—”‡
x †‡•…”‹„‡ Š‘™ —‹…‡ŽŽ—Žƒ” x ƒ›• „› ™Š‹…Š —‹…‡ŽŽ—Žƒ”
‘”‰ƒ‹•• ‘„–ƒ‹ ™ƒ–‡” ƒ† ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ‘„–ƒ‹ ™ƒ–‡” ƒ†
ˆ‘‘†Ǥ ˆ‘‘†
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’„‡–™‡‡ x ‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡
•–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ …‡ŽŽ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ
‡„”ƒ‡Ǥ …‡ŽŽ‡„”ƒ‡
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› Šƒ„‹–ƒ–• ™‹–Š •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ x ƒ„‹–ƒ–• ™‹–Š •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ‡†‹ƒ
‡†‹ƒˆ‘”‘”‰ƒ‹••ǯ•—”˜‹˜ƒŽǤ ˆ‘”‘”‰ƒ‹••ǯ•—”˜‹˜ƒŽ
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ —•‡ ‘ˆ •ƒŽ– ‹ ˆ‘‘† x •‡ ‘ˆ •ƒŽ– ‹ ˆ‘‘†
’”‡•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘Ǥ ’”‡•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ —•‡ ‘ˆ ˜‹•‹‰ x •‡ ‘ˆ ˜‹•‹‰ –—„‹‰ǡ ‰Žƒ••
–—„‹‰ǡ ‰Žƒ•• …‘Ž—•ǡ …‘Ž—• ƒ† ‹…”‘•…‘’‡ ‹
‹…”‘•…‘’‡ ‹ †‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ ƒ† †‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ ƒ† ‘•‘•‹•
‘•‘•‹•‡š’‡”‹‡–•Ǥ ‡š’‡”‹‡–•
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡…‘†‹–‹‘•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ x ‘†‹–‹‘• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ –Š‡ ”ƒ–‡
–Š‡”ƒ–‡‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ—•‹‘Ǥ ‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ—•‹‘
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ ‘•‘•‹• x ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ ‘•‘•‹• ‹ Ž‹˜‹‰
‘–Š‡…‡ŽŽ•Ȁ–‹••—‡•Ǥ …‡ŽŽ•Ȁ–‹••—‡•

Teaching/ Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘• ‘ ‘˜‡‡– ‘ˆ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• ‹ ƒ† ‘—– ‘ˆ …‡ŽŽ•ǡ ’‘–ƒ••‹—
’‡”ƒ‰ƒƒ–‡ǡ ‡–ŠŽ›‡‡ „Ž—‡ǡ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ •—…”‘•‡ •‘Ž—–‹‘•ǡ ’Žƒ– ‘”‰ƒ•ǣ
ȋ’‘–ƒ–‘–—„‡”•Ȁ’ƒ™’ƒ™’‡–‹‘Ž‡•—”‹’‡’ƒ™’ƒ™ˆ”—‹–•ǡbidens spǤ•–‡
…—––‹‰•ǤȌǡ ˆ‹Žƒ‡–‘—• ƒŽ‰ƒ‡ǡ •Ž‹†‡• ǡ ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡ ”ƒœ‘”ǡ …‡ŽŽ‘’Šƒ‡ Ȁ
˜‹•‹‰ –—„‹‰ǡ …‘”  „‘”‡”ǡ ‹ˆ‡ǡ ‘‹‘ ‡’‹†‡”‹• Ȁ Tradescantia
/ZebrinaŽ‡ƒˆ‡’‹†‡”‹•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• †‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ǡ ‘•‘•‹•ǡ ƒ…–‹˜‡ –”ƒ•’‘”–ǡ ’Šƒ‰‘…›–‘•‹• ƒ†
’‹‘…›–‘•‹•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ƒ††‡‘•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ™‘” ‘ …‘†‹–‹‘• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ –Š‡
”ƒ–‡‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ƒ†‘‘•‘•‹•‹Ž‹˜‹‰–‹••—‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ†ƒ–ƒȋ‹–ƒ„Ž‡Ȁ‰”ƒ’Šˆ‘”Ȍ
‘‘˜‡‡–‹ƒ†‘—–‘ˆ…‡ŽŽ•Ǥ



31
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

x
‹˜‡ƒ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡‘‘˜‡‡–‹ƒ†‘—–‘ˆ…‡ŽŽ•Ǥ

Practical Application
‘•‹†‡”’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡ǣ
‹Ȍ ˜‘‹†‡š’‘•‹‰Ž‹˜‹‰‘”‰ƒ‹••Ȁ–‹••—‡•–‘…‘…‡–”ƒ–‡†‡†‹ƒǤ
‹‹Ȍ ‘‘†’”‡•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘„›•ƒŽ–‹‰Ǥ



32
Topic 4: Levels of Organisation and Diversity of
Life
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͷ͸‡”‹‘†•

Overview
Š‹• –‘’‹… ‹˜‘Ž˜‡• ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ „‹‘•›•–‡ƒ–‹…• ’”‹…‹’Ž‡•Ǥ Š‡•‡ ‹…Ž—†‡
‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ǡ…Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡Ǥ –‹†‹…ƒ–‡•–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’
ƒ‘‰‘”‰ƒ‹•„ƒ•‹‰‘–Š‡‹”…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•Ǥ
– •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ‘–‡† –Šƒ– ƒŽ–Š‘—‰Š ˜‹”—•‡• Šƒ˜‡ ‘ Ž‹˜‹‰ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•
–Š‡› •Š‘™ •‘‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ Ž‹˜‹‰ –Š‹‰• ™Š‡ –Š‡› ƒ”‡ ™‹–Š‹ –Š‡
Ž‹˜‹‰…‡ŽŽ•‘ˆƒ‘”‰ƒ‹•.

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘–”ƒ…‡–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’•
„‡–™‡‡‰”‘—’•‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Diversity of Living Things



Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ x ”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ –ƒš‘‘›ǣ
–ƒš‘‘›Ǥ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ǡ …Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
 ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ x ”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ …Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ǣ
…Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ ƒ† ƒ–—”ƒŽ
 …Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ•–—†›‹‰†‹˜‡”•‹–›
•–—†›‹‰†‹˜‡”•‹–›Ǥ 
x Ž‹•– ͵ …”‹–‡”‹ƒ ˆ‘” …Žƒ••‹ˆ›‹‰ x ͵ ”‹–‡”‹ƒ ˆ‘” …Žƒ••‹ˆ›‹‰
‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ ‘”‰ƒ‹••ǣ ‘”’Š‘Ž‘‰›ǡ
 ƒƒ–‘›ǡ’Š›•‹‘Ž‘‰› 
x •–ƒ–‡–Š‡Š‹‡”ƒ”…Š›‘ˆ…Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ x ‹‡”ƒ”…Š› ‘ˆ …Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘
ƒ……‘”†‹‰–‘ƒ”Ž‹ƒ‡—•Ǥ ƒ……‘”†‹‰ –‘ ƒ”Ž ‹ƒ‡—•
 ȋ‹‰†‘Ǧ’Š›Ž—Ȁ †‹˜‹•‹‘ Ǧ
 …Žƒ••Ǧ‘”†‡”Ǧˆƒ‹Ž›Ǧ‰‡—•Ǧ
 •’‡…‹‡•Ȍ
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ •…‹‡–‹ˆ‹… ƒ† x …‹‡–‹ˆ‹…Ȁ„‹‘‹ƒŽ
Ž‘…ƒŽƒ‡•Ǥ ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ƒ†Ž‘…ƒŽƒ‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡‡† –‘ …‘•‡”˜‡ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ …‘•‡”˜‹‰



33
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

„‹‘†‹˜‡”•‹–›Ǥ „‹‘†‹˜‡”•‹–›
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ‘”‰ƒ‹•• —•‹‰ x †‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••—•‹‰
‘„•‡”˜ƒ„Ž‡ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡•Ǥ ‘„•‡”˜ƒ„Ž‡ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡•
x …‘•–”—…–•‹’Ž‡„‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ‡›•Ǥ x ‘•–”—…–‹‘ ƒ† —•‡ ‘ˆ •‹’Ž‡
„‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ‡›•

Teaching/ Learning Resources


•‡ •‹’Ž‡ ƒ† …‘‘ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ‘” ‘”‰ƒ• ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ ƒ”–Š”‘’‘†•ǡ Ž‡ƒ˜‡•ǡ
ˆŽ‘™‡”•ǡ ˆ”—‹–•ǡ ‘†‹ˆ‹‡† •–‡•Ȍǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ ǡ ’”‡•‡”˜‡† •’‡…‹‡• ƒ†
’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡ǣ
 ’”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ –ƒš‘‘› ƒ† ’”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ …Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ —•‹‰
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…Šƒ”–•ƒ†•’‡…‹‡•Ǥ
 †‹˜‡”•‹–›‘ˆŽ‹˜‹‰–Š‹‰•ƒ†•‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡‘ˆ•–—†›‹‰†‹˜‡”•‹–›—•‹‰
…Šƒ”–•ǡ ’”‡•‡”˜‡† •’‡…‹‡• ƒ† ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ‹ –Š‡ •…Š‘‘Ž
…‘’‘—†Ǥ
—‹†‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–ƒˆ‹‡Ž†•–—†›–‘‘„•‡”˜‡
„‹‘†‹˜‡”•‹–› ƒ† …‘ŽŽ‡…– •‘‡ •’‡…‹‡• ‹ –Š‡ •…Š‘‘Ž
•—””‘—†‹‰•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•‘–Š‡…‘•–”—…–‹‘ƒ†—•‡‘ˆ•‹’Ž‡„‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ‡›•Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‡š‡”…‹•‡• ‘ –ƒ„—Žƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘„•‡”˜ƒ„Ž‡ •–”—…–—”ƒŽ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡•
‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••ƒ†—•‹‰–Š‡ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡•–‘…‘•–”—…–†‹…Š‘–‘‘—•‡›•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”…‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ„‹‘†‹˜‡”•‹–›Ǥ



34
Sub-Topic 2: Viruses (Akaryotae)

Specific Objectives Content


Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆ˜‹”—•‡•
ƒ˜‹”—•Ǥ

x ‡š’Žƒ‹…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ˜‹”—•‡•Ǥ
x Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ˜‹”—•‡•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‡…‘‘‹… 
‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ˜‹”—•‡•Ǥ
x …‘‘‹…‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ˜‹”—•‡•
x ‘—–Ž‹‡ ‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ ’”‡˜‡–‹‰ 
–Š‡•’”‡ƒ†‘ˆ˜‹”ƒŽ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•Ǥ
x ‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ ’”‡˜‡–‹‰ –Š‡ •’”‡ƒ†
‘ˆ˜‹”ƒŽ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•

Teaching/ Learning Resources


x ‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ †‹•‡ƒ•‡† ’Žƒ–• ƒ† ƒ‹ƒŽ•
ȋȌǤ

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ǡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ƒ† ‡…‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ
˜‹”—•‡• —•‹‰ …Šƒ”–•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ ƒ† •’‡…‹‡• ‘ˆ
†‹•‡ƒ•‡†’Žƒ–•ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ƒ‘—–‘ˆ…Žƒ••ƒ…–‹˜‹–›‘’”‡˜‡–‹‘‘ˆ…‘‘˜‹”ƒŽ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘‘˜‹”ƒŽ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•‹–Š‡‡š–Ž‡••‘Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ‡…‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ
˜‹”—•‡•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”’”‡˜‡–‹‘‘ˆ˜‹”ƒŽ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•Ǥ



35
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Sub-Topic 3: Kingdom Monera



Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ƒ‡ ƒ Žƒ„‡ŽŽ‡† †‹ƒ‰”ƒ –‘ •Š‘™ x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆ„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒŽ…‡ŽŽ
–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒŽ…‡ŽŽǤ

x †‡•…”‹„‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ x Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ „ƒ…–‡”‹ƒǣ •Šƒ’‡ǡ
„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒǤ …‡ŽŽ™ƒŽŽǡ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘ǡ‘˜‡‡–
 x ‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡ „ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ ƒ†
x †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡„‡–™‡‡„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒƒ† ˜‹”—•‡•
˜‹”—•‡•Ǥ
x …‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ „ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ „ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ ‹ –Š‡ ‹–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–
‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †”ƒ™ǡ  Žƒ„‡Ž ƒ† •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ –›’‡• ‘ˆ x ›’‡•‘ˆ„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ
„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ

x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡–Š‡”‘Ž‡‘ˆ„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ‹ x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ „ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ ‹ ’”‘†—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ
–Š‡’”‘†—…–‹‘‘ˆ†ƒ‹”›’”‘†—…–•Ǥ
†ƒ‹”›’”‘†—…–•
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› …‘‘ „ƒ…–‡”‹ƒŽ

†‹•‡ƒ•‡•‹’Žƒ–•ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
x ‘‘ „ƒ…–‡”‹ƒŽ †‹•‡ƒ•‡• ‹
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ ‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ ’Žƒ–•ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ•
’”‡˜‡–‹‰ –Š‡ …‘‘ „ƒ…–‡”‹ƒŽ
†‹•‡ƒ•‡•Ǥ x ‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ ’”‡˜‡–‹‰ …‘‘
„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒŽ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•

Teaching/ Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ…Šƒ”–•ǡ’”‡’ƒ”‡†„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ
…—Ž–—”‡• ˆ”‘ ‹Žǡ •‘‹Ž ƒ† ’Žƒ– ’ƒ”– ‡š–”ƒ…–•ǡ •–ƒ‹•ǡ ‹…”‘•…‘’‡ǡ
‹…—„ƒ–‘”ǡˆ”‹†‰‡ǡ’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•ǡ…‘’—–‡”•‹—Žƒ–‹‘•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•ǡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ‡…‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ
„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ —•‹‰ ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” •‹—Žƒ–‹‘•ǡ ’”‡’ƒ”‡† •Ž‹†‡• ƒ†
…Šƒ”–•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–ƒˆ‹‡Ž†•–—†›‘‡…‘‘‹…‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ
„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒƒ•ƒ‘—–•‹†‡…Žƒ••ƒ…–‹˜‹–›ƒ†Ž‡ƒ††‹•…—••‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‹”ˆ‹†‹‰•Ǥ 



36
x ‡•…”‹„‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡––›’‡•‘ˆ„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•ǡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ‡…‘‘‹…
‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒǤ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ’”‡˜‡–‹‘‘ˆ„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒŽ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ”‘Ž‡‘ˆ„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ‹†‡…‘’‘•‹–‹‘‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹…ƒ––‡”Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ —•‡ ‘ˆ „ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ ‹ –Š‡ ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡ ‘ˆ †ƒ‹”› ’”‘†—…–• ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ „—––‡”ǡ
›‘‰Š—”–ǡ…Š‡‡•‡ǡ‰Š‡‡Ǥ

Sub-Topic 4: Kingdom Protoctista


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x •–ƒ–‡…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ”‘–‘…–‹•–ƒǤ x Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ”‘–‘…–‹•–ƒ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ’”‘–‘œ‘ƒ 
ƒ†ƒŽ‰ƒ‡Ǥ
x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆ’”‘–‘œ‘ƒƒ†ƒŽ‰ƒ‡
x ‘—–Ž‹‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ’”‘–‘œ‘ƒ ƒ†
ƒŽ‰ƒ‡‹–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ 

x …‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ
 ’”‘–‘œ‘ƒ ƒ† ƒŽ‰ƒ‡ ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ Amoeba,
 Euglena, Entamoeba,
x ƒ‡ …‘‘ †‹•‡ƒ•‡• …ƒ—•‡† „› Paramecium, Trypanosoma,
’”‘–‘œ‘ƒǤ Plasmodium
x —–Ž‹‡ ‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ ’”‡˜‡–‹‰ x ‘‘ †‹•‡ƒ•‡• …ƒ—•‡† „›
•’”‡ƒ† ‘ˆ †‹•‡ƒ•‡• …ƒ—•‡† „› ’”‘–‘œ‘ƒ
’”‘–‘…–‹•–•Ǥ x ‡–Š‘†•‘ˆ’”‡˜‡–‹‰–Š‡•’”‡ƒ†
‘ˆ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•…ƒ—•‡†„›’”‘–‘…–‹•–•
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ’”‡’ƒ”‡ –‡’‘”ƒ”› ‘—– ‘ˆ x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆ–Š‡Spirogy
Spirogyra ˆ‹Žƒ‡–•Ǥ
x †”ƒ™ ƒ† Žƒ„‡Ž •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ
Spirogyra ƒ• •‡‡ —†‡” ƒ Ž‹‰Š– x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆ’”‘–‘œ‘ƒ
‹…”‘•…‘’‡Ǥ

x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ƒ† †”ƒ™ ’”‘–‘œ‘ƒ ˆ”‘
’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•Ǥ



37
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Teaching/ Learning Resources


x ‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ‹…”‘•…‘’‡ǡ•Ž‹†‡•ǡ…‘˜‡”
•Ž‹’•ǡ’‹”‘‰›”ƒǡ’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•‘ˆ’”‘–‘œ‘ƒ

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ ’”‘–‘…–‹•–• —•‹‰ …Šƒ”–•ǡ
…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ƒ†’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‘„•‡”˜‡–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ’‹”‘‰›”ƒƒ••‡‡™‹–Š–Š‡ƒ‹†
‘ˆŽ‹‰Š–‹…”‘•…‘’‡Ǥ
x ‹•…—••‡…‘‘‹…‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡’”‘–‘…–‹•–•. 

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡‘•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ•’‹”‘‰›”ƒǤ
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘–Š‡‡…‘‘‹…‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ’”‘–‘…–‹•–•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”’”‡˜‡–‹‘‘ˆ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•…ƒ—•‡†„›’”‘–‘œ‘ƒǤ


Sub-Topic 5: Kingdom Fungi


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x •–ƒ–‡…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆˆ—‰‹Ǥ x Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ ˆ—‰‹ ȋˆ‡‡†‹‰ǡ
 ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘ȌǤ
x •–ƒ–‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ Rhizopus x Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ Rhizopus ‘”
‘” Mucor, ›‡ƒ•–ǡ ƒ† –Š‡ Mucor,›‡ƒ•–ǡƒ†–Š‡—•Š”‘‘
—•Š”‘‘Ǥ x …‘‘‹…‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆˆ—‰‹
x •–ƒ–‡–Š‡‡…‘‘‹…‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ 
ˆ—‰‹Ǥ x ‘‘ˆ—‰ƒŽ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•
x ƒ‡…‘‘ˆ—‰ƒŽ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•Ǥ x ‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ ’”‡˜‡–‹‰ –Š‡
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ •’”‡ƒ†‘ˆˆ—‰ƒŽ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•
’”‡˜‡–‹‰ –Š‡ •’”‡ƒ† ‘ˆ ˆ—‰ƒŽ 
†‹•‡ƒ•‡•Ǥ x •‡ ‘ˆ ›‡ƒ•– ‹ „”‡™‹‰ ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ —•‡ ‘ˆ ›‡ƒ•– ‹ ƒ†„”‡ƒ†ƒ‹‰
„”‡™‹‰ ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž ƒ† „”‡ƒ†
ƒ‹‰Ǥ



38
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ’”‡’ƒ”‡ –‡’‘”ƒ”› ‘—– ‘ˆ x –”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ ›‡ƒ•–ǡ
›‡ƒ•–ǡMucor/RhizopusǤ MucorȀRhizopus ƒ• •‡‡ —†‡”
 –Š‡Ž‹‰Š–‹…”‘•…‘’‡
x †”ƒ™ ƒ† Žƒ„‡Ž •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆ–Š‡—•Š”‘‘
Rhizopus ‘” Mucor, ›‡ƒ•– ƒ† –Š‡
—•Š”‘‘Ǥ

Teaching/ Learning Resources


x ‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…Šƒ”–•ǡƒ†•’‡…‹‡•Ǥ
x ‘—Ž†•ƒ’Ž‡•ǡ‹…”‘•…‘’‡ǡ•Ž‹†‡•ǡ…‘˜‡”•Ž‹’•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡ǡ…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•ƒ†‡…‘‘‹…‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆˆ—‰‹
—•‹‰ •’‡…‹‡•ǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ ’Š‘–‘‰”ƒ’Š•ǡ ƒ† …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†›
ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ™‘” ‘ —•Š”‘‘• ƒ†
–‡’‘”ƒ”›‘—–•‘ˆ›‡ƒ•–ǡrhizopus‘”mucorǤ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ǡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ƒ† ‡…‘‘‹…
‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆˆ—‰‹Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ƒ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡‘–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ›‡ƒ•–ǡ”Š‹œ‘’—•‘”—…‘”.

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ’”‡˜‡–‹‘‘ˆˆ—‰ƒŽ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•‹’Žƒ–•ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ —•Š”‘‘‰”‘™‹‰Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ —•‡‘ˆ›‡ƒ•–‹„”‡ƒ†ƒ‹‰ƒ†„”‡™‹‰ƒŽ…‘Š‘ŽǤ
‹˜Ȍ ’”‡•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘‘ˆˆ‘‘†„›†”›‹‰–‘’”‡˜‡–ˆ—‰ƒŽ‰”‘™–ŠǤ
˜Ȍ ’”‡˜‡–‹‘ ‘ˆ †‡–‡”‹‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ–—”ƒŽ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ Ž‡ƒ–Š‡” ƒ†
™‘‘†„›‡‡’‹‰–Š‡†”›–‘’”‡˜‡–ˆ—‰ƒŽ‰”‘™–ŠǤ



39
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Sub-Topic 6: Kingdom Plantae



Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ›Ž‘™‡”’Žƒ–•ƒ†Š‹‰Š‡” x –”—…–—”ƒŽˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ Ž‘™‡”’Žƒ–•
’Žƒ–•—•‹‰•–”—…–—”ƒŽˆ‡ƒ–—”‡•Ǥ ƒ†Š‹‰Š‡”’Žƒ–•
x ƒ‡–Š‡’Žƒ–‰”‘—’•–‘’Š›ŽƒǤ x ‘™‡”’Žƒ–•ǣ
 ”›‘’Š›–ƒ ƒ† –‡”‹†‘’Š›–ƒ
 ȋ ‡”•ȌȀ ‹Ž‹…‹‘’Š›–ƒ
 ‹‰Š‡” ’Žƒ–•ǣ ‘‹ˆ‡”‘’Š›–ƒǡ
 ’‡”ƒ–‘’Š›–ƒ
x ‘—–Ž‹‡ –Š‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ƒ† x Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ƒ† •–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ
•–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ‡† ’Žƒ– ƒ‡† ’Žƒ– ‰”‘—’•ǣ  ”›‘’Š›–ƒǡ
‰”‘—’•Ǥ ‹Ž‹…‹‘’Š›–ƒǡ ‘‹ˆ‡”‘’Š›–ƒǡ
 ’‡”ƒ–‘’Š›–ƒǣ ‰›‘•’‡”•
ƒ†ƒ‰‹‘•’‡”•–‘…Žƒ••Ž‡˜‡Ž

x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ’Žƒ–• ‹ –Š‡ x …‘‘‹…‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ’Žƒ–•‹
–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–
‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡–‹ˆ› †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š‹‰ x –”—…–—”ƒŽ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ Ž‘™‡”
•–”—…–—”ƒŽ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ ’Žƒ– ’Žƒ–•ǣ ”›‘’Š›–ƒǡ
‰”‘—’•‹Ž‘™‡”’Žƒ–•Ǥ –‡”‹†‘’Š›–‡•Ȁ ‹Ž‹…‹‘’Š›–ƒ
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š‹‰ x –”—…–—”ƒŽ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ Š‹‰Š‡”
•–”—…–—”ƒŽ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ ’Žƒ– ’Žƒ–•ǣ
‰”‘—’•‹Š‹‰Š‡”’Žƒ–•Ǥ ‘‹ˆ‡”‘’Š›–ƒǡ ’‡”ƒ–‘’Š›–ƒǣ
 ȋ‰›‘•’‡”•ǡƒ‰‹‘•’‡”•Ȍ

Teaching /Learning Resources


x Žƒ– •’‡…‹‡•ǡ ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ
•ƒ’Ž‡’Žƒ–‘”‰ƒ•ǡŠƒ†Ž‡•‡•ǡ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•ƒ†•–”—…–—”ƒŽˆ‡ƒ–—”‡•‘ˆ’Žƒ–‰”‘—’•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘†‘’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”‘•–”—…–—”ƒŽ…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ–Š‡
ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰’Žƒ–•:
 ‘••
 ˆ‡”•



40
 …‘‹ˆ‡”‘—•’Žƒ–
 ƒ‰‹‘•’‡”•
x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ƒ‡ –”ƒ•˜‡”•‡ •‡…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ”‘‘–• ƒ† •–‡• ‘ˆ
‘‘…‘–›Ž‡†‘‘—•ƒ††‹…‘–›Ž‡†‘‘—•’Žƒ–•Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‡…‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ’Žƒ–• —•‹‰ ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘• ƒ†
…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‘ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ’Žƒ–• ‹ –Š‡
Šƒ„‹–ƒ–Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ •–”—…–—”‡ǡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ƒ† ‡…‘‘‹…
‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ’Žƒ–•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ‰”‘™‹‰‘”ƒ‡–ƒŽ’Žƒ–•Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ‰”‘™–Š ‘ˆ ’Žƒ–• ˆ‘” ˆ‘‘†ǡ –‹„‡”ǡ ƒ–—”‡ …‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‡†‹…‹‡ǡ
”ƒ™ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽˆ‘”…”ƒˆ–•ǡˆ‹„”‡’”‘†—…‹‰’Žƒ–•ȋ•‹•ƒŽǡŠ‡’ǡ…‘––‘Ȍǡ
‡–…Ǥ

Sub-Topic 7: Kingdom Animalia



Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x •–ƒ–‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ x Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ
‹˜‡”–‡„”ƒ–‡•ƒ†˜‡”–‡„”ƒ–‡•Ǥ ‹˜‡”–‡„”ƒ–‡• ƒ†
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š‹‰ •–”—…–—”ƒŽ ˜‡”–‡„”ƒ–‡•
ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ‹ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– x ‹•–‹‰—‹•Š‹‰ •–”—…–—”ƒŽ
ƒ‹ƒŽ’Š›ŽƒǤ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• ƒ‹ƒŽ
 ’Š›Žƒǣ
  ’‘”‹ˆ‡”ƒ
  …‘‡Ž‡–‡”ƒ–ƒȀ…‹†ƒ”‹ƒ
  ’Žƒ–›Š‡Ž‹–Š‡•
  ‡ƒ–‘†ƒ
  ƒ‡Ž‹†ƒ
  ‘ŽŽ—•…ƒ
  ‡…Š‹‘†‡”ƒ–ƒ
  ƒ”–Š”‘’‘†ƒ †‘™ –‘
 …Žƒ••‡•Ǥ …‘•‹†‡” …Žƒ••
‹•‡…–ƒ†‘™–‘‘”†‡”



41
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

  …Š‘”†ƒ–ƒ †‘™ –‘


 ˜‡”–‡„”ƒ–‡…Žƒ••‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ƒ‹ƒŽ• ‹ –Š‡ x …‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ
‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ –Š‡ƒ‹ƒŽ‰”‘—’•
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ™‡Žˆƒ”‡ ‘ˆ †‘‡•–‹… x ‡Žˆƒ”‡ ‘ˆ †‘‡•–‹…
ƒ†™‹Ž†ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ ȋ…‘•‹†‡”…ƒ”‡ƒ†ˆ‡‡†‹‰Ȍ
ƒ† ™‹Ž† ƒ‹ƒŽ• ȋ‡–‹‘
’”‘–‡…–‹‘ ƒ†
…‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘Ȍ
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x …Žƒ••‹ˆ› ’Š›Ž— ”–Š”‘’‘†ƒ –‘ x –”—…–—”ƒŽ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ
…Žƒ•• Ž‡˜‡Ž —•‹‰ •–”—…–—”ƒŽ ”–Š”‘’‘†ƒ †‘™ –‘ …Žƒ••
ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡•Ǥ Ž‡˜‡Ž
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ›•–”—…–—”ƒŽˆ‡ƒ–—”‡•‘ˆ…Žƒ•• x –”—…–—”ƒŽ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ …Žƒ••
•‡…–ƒ†‘™–‘‘”†‡”Ž‡˜‡ŽǤ •‡…–ƒ†‘™–‘‘”†‡”Ž‡˜‡Ž
x •–ƒ–‡ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š‹‰ •–”—…–—”ƒŽ x –”—…–—”ƒŽ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ
ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ ƒ‹ƒŽ• ‘–Š‡” –Šƒ ƒ‹ƒŽ• ‘–Š‡” –Šƒ
”–Š”‘’‘†ƒǤ ƒ”–Š”‘’‘†•

Teaching /Learning Resources


x ‹ƒŽ •’‡…‹‡•ǡ ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ
’Š‘–‘‰”ƒ’Š•ǡ •ƒ’Ž‡ ‘”‰ƒ•ǡ Šƒ† Ž‡•‡•ǡ Ž‹‰Š– ‹…”‘•…‘’‡ǡ
‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‡›•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ •–”—…–—”ƒŽ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ ƒ‹ƒŽ• ‹ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ’Š›Žƒ —•‹‰
•’‡…‹‡•ǡ’Š‘–‘‰”ƒ’Š•ǡ•ƒ’Ž‡‘”‰ƒ•ǡ‡–…Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ™‘” —•‹‰ •–”—…–—”ƒŽ
…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•–‘…Žƒ••‹ˆ›ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‡…‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ƒ‹ƒŽ• —•‹‰ ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘• ƒ†
…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–”‡•‡ƒ”…Š‘ƒ‹ƒŽ™‡Žˆƒ”‡ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•ƒ•ƒ
‘—–‘ˆ…Žƒ••ƒ…–‹˜‹–›Ǥ
x Š‡Ž‡ƒ†ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘‘–Š‡‹”ˆ‹†‹‰•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡• ‘ •–”—…–—”‡ǡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ƒ† ‡…‘‘‹…
‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”‘…‘•–”—…–‹‘ƒ†—•‡‘ˆ†‹…Š‘–‘‘—•‡›•Ǥ



42
Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ™‡Žˆƒ”‡‘ˆ†‘‡•–‹…ƒ†™‹Ž†ƒ‹ƒŽ•
‹‹Ȍ —•‡‘ˆ„‡‡ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ‹•‡…–•
‹‹‹Ȍ ’Žƒ–ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ’‡•–•ƒ††‹•‡ƒ•‡•
‹˜Ȍ „‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ…‘–”‘Ž



43
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Topic 5: Ecology
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣ͵ͳ‡”‹‘†•

Overview
…‘Ž‘‰› ‹• –Š‡ •–—†› ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ‘ˆ Ž‹˜‹‰ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ™‹–Š ‡ƒ…Š ‘–Š‡”
ƒ†–Š‡‹”‘Ž‹˜‹‰‡˜‹”‘‡–ǤŠ‡•–—†›‘ˆ‡…‘Ž‘‰›Žƒ›•ƒˆ‘—†ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘”
—†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ǡˆ‘”‡•–”›ǡˆ‹•Š‡”‹‡•ǡ…‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘ǡ‹’ƒ…–‘ˆŠ—ƒ
ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•‘–Š‡‡…‘•›•–‡ƒ†Š‘™–‘”‡‡†›–Š‡•‡‹’ƒ…–•Ǥ

General Objectives
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
L  †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’•‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••™‹–Š‡ƒ…Š‘–Š‡”ƒ†–Š‡‹”‘
Ž‹˜‹‰‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ
LL  ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‹’ƒ…– ‘ˆ Š—ƒ• ‘ –Š‡ ‡…‘•›•–‡ ƒ† –Š‡ ‡‡† ˆ‘”
…‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘‹ƒ–—”‡Ǥ


Sub-Topic1: Components of the Environment


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ƒ„‹‘–‹… ƒ† „‹‘–‹… x „‹‘–‹… …‘’‘‡–•ǣ ƒ‹”ǡ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ
…‘’‘‡–•Ǥ •‘‹Ž
 ‹‘–‹……‘’‘‡–•ǣŽ‹˜‹‰–Š‹‰•
x •–ƒ–‡ƒ„‹‘–‹…ƒ†„‹‘–‹…ˆƒ…–‘”•Ǥ x „‹‘–‹…ˆƒ…–‘”•ǣŽ‹‰Š–ǡ–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ǡ
 Š—‹†‹–›ǡ ƒ–‘•’Š‡”‹… ’”‡••—”‡ǡ
 ”ƒ‹ˆƒŽŽǡ‡†ƒ’Š‹…ˆƒ…–‘”•
 ‹‘–‹… ˆƒ…–‘”•ǣ …‘’‡–‹–‹‘ǡ
 ’”‡†ƒ–‹‘ǡ„‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽƒ••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘•
 x ˆŽ—‡…‡ ‘ˆ ƒ„‹‘–‹… ƒ† „‹‘–‹…
…‘’‘‡–• ƒ† ˆƒ…–‘”• ‘ˆ –Š‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹Š‘™–Š‡…‘’‘‡–•ƒ†
‡˜‹”‘‡– ‘ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ ƒ†
‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ ˆƒ…–‘”• ‹ˆŽ—‡…‡
ƒ„—†ƒ…‡‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••
–Š‡ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ ƒ† ƒ„—†ƒ…‡
‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••‹ƒ‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ



44
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x …‘ŽŽ‡…–‹‘ ‘ˆ †ƒ–ƒ ˆ”‘ ˆ‹‡Ž† x ‘ŽŽ‡…–‹‘ ‘ˆ †ƒ–ƒ ‘ ‡…‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ
•–—†‹‡•Ǥ …‘’‘‡–• ƒ† ˆƒ…–‘”• ‘ˆ ƒ
 ‡…‘•›•–‡
x ƒƒŽ›•‡ ƒ† ‹–‡”’”‡– †ƒ–ƒ ‘” x ƒŽ›•‹• ƒ† ‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
Ž‹–‡”ƒ–—”‡ ‘ ‡…‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ †ƒ–ƒ ‘” Ž‹–‡”ƒ–—”‡ ‘ ‡…‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ
’”‹…‹’Ž‡•Ǥ ’”‹…‹’Ž‡•

Teaching /Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ ’Š‘–‘‰”ƒ’Š•ǡ
•…Š‘‘Ž ƒ† …‘—‹–› ƒ–—”ƒŽ ”‡•‘—”…‡•ǡȋ…Š‘‘•‡ ‘‡ ‘” –™‘ ƒ–—”ƒŽ
”‡•‘—”…‡•ˆ‘”–Š‡•–—†›Ȍ
x ƒ–ƒ ‹ ˆ‘” ‘ˆ ‰”ƒ’Š•ǡ –ƒ„Ž‡•ǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ ’Š‘–‘‰”ƒ’Š•ǡ ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ •ǡ
“—ƒ†”ƒ–•ǡ •–”‹‰ǡ –Š‡”‘‡–‡”•ǡ –ƒ’‡ ‡ƒ•—”‡ǡ †”› …‘„ƒŽ– …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡
’ƒ’‡”ǡŠƒ†Ž‡•‡•ǡ’‘‘–‡”•ǡ•™‡‡’‡–•ǡ‡–…Ǥ

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ƒ„‹‘–‹… ƒ† „‹‘–‹… …‘’‘‡–• ƒ† ˆƒ…–‘”• —•‹‰
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ ˆ‹‡Ž† •–—†› ‘ …‘ŽŽ‡…–‹‘ ƒ† ƒƒŽ›•‹• ‘ˆ
†ƒ–ƒ‘…‘’‘‡–•ƒ†ˆƒ…–‘”•‘ˆ–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–‘ˆ–Š‡‘”‰ƒ‹•Ǥ
(See Appendix 4 field activity.)

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•ƒ‡š‡”…‹•‡–‘ƒƒŽ›•‡ƒ†‹–‡”’”‡–†ƒ–ƒ‘”Ž‹–‡”ƒ–—”‡‘
…‘’‘‡–•ƒ†ˆƒ…–‘”•‘ˆ–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ…‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Concept of Ecosystem


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ƒ‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ x …‘•›•–‡ǣ†‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ –›’‡• ƒ† ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x “—ƒ–‹… ƒ† –‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽ
ƒ‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ ‡…‘•›•–‡• ƒ† ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒ
‡…‘•›•–‡ǣ ˆ‡‡†‹‰ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•ǡ



45
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

 …›…Ž‹‰ ‘ˆ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ •—……‡••‹‘ǡ


 …Ž‹ƒšǡ ƒ† Š‘‡‘•–ƒ•‹• ‘ˆ ƒ
 ‡…‘•›•–‡Ȁ„ƒŽƒ…‡‘ˆƒ–—”‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡…‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ˆƒ…–‘”• x …‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ˆƒ…–‘”• ‹ˆŽ—‡…‹‰ –Š‡
‹ˆŽ—‡…‹‰–Š‡Ž‹ˆ‡‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••‹ Ž‹ˆ‡‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••‹ƒ‡…‘•›•–‡ǣ
ƒ‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ ƒ„‹‘–‹…ǡ„‹‘–‹…ǡ‡†ƒ’Š‹…
x ‡š’Žƒ‹…Šƒ‰‡•‹ƒ‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ x Šƒ‰‡• ‹ ƒ ‡…‘•›•–‡ǣ
 ‡…‘•›•–‡ ’”‘†—…–‹˜‹–›ǡ
•—……‡••‹‘ƒ†…Ž‹ƒš

x †‡•…”‹„‡ ˆ‡‡†‹‰ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘• ‹ ƒ x  ‡‡†‹‰ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•ǣ ˆ‘‘† …Šƒ‹•ǡ
ˆ‘‘†™‡„•ǡ‡…‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ’›”ƒ‹†•
‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‡‡”‰› ˆŽ‘™ ƒ† ”‡…›…Ž‹‰ x ‡…›…Ž‹‰‘ˆ—–”‹‡–•ƒ†‡‡”‰›
ˆŽ‘™‹‡…‘•›•–‡•
‘ˆ—–”‹‡–•‹ƒ‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ
x †‡•…”‹„‡„‹‘‰‡‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ…›…Ž‡•Ǥ x ‹‘‰‡‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ …›…Ž‡•ǣ ‹–”‘‰‡ǡ
…ƒ”„‘ǡ™ƒ–‡”

Teaching /Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ–Š‡‡…‘•›•–‡—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‹ ƒ ˆ‹‡Ž† •–—†› ‘ –Š‡ ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ‹ ƒ
Šƒ„‹–ƒ–Ȁƒ‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ –‘ ƒƒŽ›•‡ ƒ† ‹–‡”’”‡– †ƒ–ƒ ”‡Žƒ–‡† –‘
‡…‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ’”‹…‹’Ž‡•‹ƒ‡…‘•›•–‡‘”Šƒ„‹–ƒ–Ǥ


Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ǡˆ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡŽ‹˜‹‰‹Šƒ”‘›™‹–Š‘—”
‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ




46


Sub-Topic 3: Population and Natural Resources


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x •–ƒ–‡’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•Ǥ x ‘’—Žƒ–‹‘…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•ǣ†‡•‹–›ǡ
ƒ‰‡ •–”—…–—”‡ǡ •‡šǡ ‰”‘™–Š ’ƒ––‡”ǡ
„‹”–Š”ƒ–‡ǡ†‡ƒ–Š”ƒ–‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ˆƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ x ‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ †‡•‹–› †‡’‡†‡–
’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘†‡•‹–›Ǥ ˆƒ…–‘”• ƒ† †‡•‹–› ‹†‡’‡†‡–
ˆƒ…–‘”•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ‡–Š‘†• ‘” –‡…Š‹“—‡• x ‡–Š‘†• ‘” –‡…Š‹“—‡• ‘ˆ
‘ˆ‡•–‹ƒ–‹‰’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ‡ƒ•—”‹‰ ƒ† ‡•–‹ƒ–‹‰
’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘†‡•‹–›
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ ‰”‘™–Š x ‘’—Žƒ–‹‘‰”‘™–Š’ƒ––‡”•
’ƒ––‡”•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–‡”•”‡‡™ƒ„Ž‡ƒ† x ƒ–—”ƒŽ ”‡•‘—”…‡• –›’‡•ǣ
‘Ǧ”‡‡™ƒ„Ž‡”‡•‘—”…‡•Ǥ ”‡‡™ƒ„Ž‡ ƒ† ‘Ǧ”‡‡™ƒ„Ž‡ǡ
‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ǡ…‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘
x †‹•…—••‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ x ˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ǣ †‡•‹–›
ƒ†Dz„ƒŽƒ…‡‘ˆƒ–—”‡dzǤ †‡’‡†‡– ˆƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰
Dz„ƒŽƒ…‡‘ˆƒ–—”‡dz
x †‹•…—••–Š‡‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆƒ–—”ƒŽ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆƒ–—”ƒŽ”‡•‘—”…‡•
”‡•‘—”…‡•Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ x ‡–Š‘†•‘ˆ…‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ–—”ƒŽ
…‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ–—”ƒŽ ”‡•‘—”…‡•
”‡•‘—”…‡•Ǥ
(Practical) 
x Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ x ‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ ‡•–‹ƒ–‹‰ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ǣ
†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡–Š‡‡–Š‘†•—•‡†‹ “—ƒ†”ƒ–ǡ Ž‹‡ –”ƒ•‡…–ǡ …ƒ’–—”‡Ǧ
‡•–‹ƒ–‹‰’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ”‡…ƒ’–—”‡

Teaching /Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ “—ƒ†”ƒ–ǡ •™‡‡’ ‡–ǡ
•–”‹‰ Ȁ ”‘’‡Ȁ’‡‰ǡ –”ƒ’•ǡ •’‡…‹‡ „‘––Ž‡• Ȁ…‘–ƒ‹‡”•ǡ „‡ƒ†• ‘ˆ
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–…‘Ž‘—”•ǡƒ”‡”•ǡ˜‹†‡‘•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ƒ†ƒ–—”ƒŽ”‡•‘—”…‡•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†˜‹†‡‘•Ǥ



47
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‹ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ™‘” ‘ ‡•–‹ƒ–‹‰ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘• —•‹‰
“—ƒ†”ƒ–•ǡŽ‹‡–”ƒ•‡…–Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ‡•–‹ƒ–‡ ƒ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ —•‹‰ …ƒ’–—”‡Ǧ”‡…ƒ’–—”‡
‡–Š‘†Ǥ
(See Appendix 3 simulation of capture-recapture).

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ ‹…”‡ƒ•‡ ‘ ƒ–—”ƒŽ
”‡•‘—”…‡•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ‹•‡—•‡‘ˆƒ–—”ƒŽ”‡•‘—”…‡•
‹‹Ȍ ‘’—Žƒ–‹‘…‘–”‘Ž

Sub-Topic 4: Interdependence
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘• x –‡”ƒ…–‹‘•ƒ‘‰‘”‰ƒ‹••
‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••‹ƒ–—”‡Ǥ ƒ† –Š‡‹” ‡ˆˆ‡…–•ǣ ‹–‡”•’‡…‹ˆ‹…
 ƒ†‹–”ƒ•’‡…‹ˆ‹…”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’•
 „‡–™‡‡ ‘”‰ƒ‹••ǣ
 …‘’‡–‹–‹‘ǡ ’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‹•ǡ
 ’”‡†ƒ–‹‘ǡ •ƒ’”‘’Š›–‹•ǡ
 —–—ƒŽ‹•ǡ…‘‡•ƒŽ‹• 
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x ‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ‘”‰ƒ‹••ǯ
‘”‰ƒ‹••ǯ ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘•  ‹ ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘•‹ƒ–—”‡
ƒ–—”‡Ǥ

Teaching /Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ˜‹†‡‘ǡ’Š‘–‘‰”ƒ’Š•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘•„‡–™‡‡‘”‰ƒ‹••—•‹‰’Š‘–‘‰”ƒ’Š•ǡ˜‹†‡‘ǡƒ†
…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–ƒˆ‹‡Ž†•–—†›‘‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••‹ƒ
Šƒ„‹–ƒ–Ȁƒ‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ 
(See Appendix 4 field activity)



48
Assessment Strategy
x • Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ƒ‡ ’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘• „‡–™‡‡ ‘”‰ƒ‹••
‹†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–Šƒ„‹–ƒ–•Ȁ‡…‘•›•–‡•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 5: Effects of Human Activities on


Ecosystems

Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‹•…—••–Š‡‹’ƒ…– ‘ˆŠ—ƒ x ’ƒ…– ‘ˆ Š—ƒ ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡• ‘
ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•‘ƒ‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ ƒ‡…‘•›•–‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ Š—ƒ xˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ Š—ƒ ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡• ‘
ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡• ‘ ‡…‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ‡…‘•›•–‡ …‘’‘‡–• ƒ†
…‘’‘‡–• ƒ† ˆƒ…–‘”• ‹ ƒ ˆƒ…–‘”•‹ƒŠƒ„‹–ƒ–ǣ
Šƒ„‹–ƒ–Ǥ  ‹–‡””—’–‹‘ ‘ˆ
 „‹‘‰‡‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ …›…Ž‡•ǡ
 ƒ–—”ƒŽ ”‡•‘—”…‡•
 ‹„ƒŽƒ…‡•ǡ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘
 ‹„ƒŽƒ…‡•ǡ•‘‹Ž‡”‘•‹‘ǡ•‘‹Ž
 ‡šŠƒ—•–‹‘ǡ ‡š–‹…–‹‘ǡ
 ’‘ŽŽ—–‹‘ǡ•’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x †‹•…—•• ƒ–—”ƒŽ ”‡•‘—”…‡ x ƒ–—”ƒŽ ”‡•‘—”…‡• —–‹Ž‹•ƒ–‹‘
—–‹Ž‹•ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† •—•–ƒ‹ƒ„Ž‡ ƒ†•—•–ƒ‹ƒ„Ž‡†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– 
†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–Ǥ 
(Practical)
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 

x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ …‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘ x ƒ–—”ƒŽ ”‡•‘—”…‡ …‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘


’”ƒ…–‹…‡•Ǥ ’”ƒ…–‹…‡•ǣ —Ž…Š‹‰ǡ –‡””ƒ…‹‰ǡ
…”‘’ ”‘–ƒ–‹‘ǡ ƒˆˆ‘”‡•–ƒ–‹‘ǡ
”‡ˆ‘”‡•–ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹š‡† ˆƒ”‹‰ǡ
ƒ‰”‘ ˆ‘”‡•–”›ǡ ™‹•‡ —•‡ ‘ˆ
”‡•‘—”…‡•ǡ‡–…Ǥ

Teaching /Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ˜‹†‡‘•ǡ’Š‘–‘‰”ƒ’Š•ǡƒ†
†ƒ–ƒǤ



49
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆŠ—ƒƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•‘‡…‘•›•–‡•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ƒ–—”ƒŽ”‡•‘—”…‡…‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘’”ƒ…–‹…‡•. 

x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …‘ŽŽ‡…– ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ Š—ƒ ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•
‘–Š‡‡…‘•›•–‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ Š—ƒ ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡• ‘ –Š‡
‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ

x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡ƒ••‹‰‡–‘†ƒ–ƒƒƒŽ›•‹•ƒ†‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
(See appendix 4b ecology)

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”…‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ–—”ƒŽ”‡•‘—”…‡•














50
SENIOR FIVE TERM THREE
Topic 6: Inheritance and Evolution
'XUDWLRQ3HULRGV

Overview
”‰ƒ‹•••Š‘™˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘•™Š‹…Šƒ›„‡ƒ•ƒ”‡•—Ž–‘ˆ–Š‡‹ˆŽ—‡…‡•‘ˆ
–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒ†‰‡‡–‹…ˆƒ…–‘”•ǤŠ‡•‡˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘•…ƒ„‡’ƒ••‡†‘
ˆ”‘‘‡‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‘–‘ƒ‘–Š‡”Ǥ
˜‘Ž—–‹‘ ƒ† ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘ ’”‘…‡••‡• ƒ”‡ Ž‹‡† „‡…ƒ—•‡ „‘–Š …ƒ—•‡
…Šƒ‰‡•‹‘”‰ƒ‹••.

General Objective
› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡
’ƒ––‡”•‘ˆ‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡ƒ†‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Genetics
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ x ‘…‡’–‘ˆ‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡
‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡Ǥ 
x †‡ˆ‹‡‰‡‡–‹…•–‡”•Ǥ x ‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‰‡‡–‹…• –‡”•
 ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ ‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡ǡ ‰‡‡ǡ ƒŽŽ‡Ž‡ǡ
 …Š”‘‘•‘‡ǡǡ–”ƒ‹–ǡ‡–…
x †‡•…”‹„‡‡†‡Žǯ•‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘• x ‡†‡Žǯ•™‘”‘Š‡”‡†‹–›
‘Š‡”‡†‹–›Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ –”ƒ‹–• x ‘‘Š›„”‹† ‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡ ƒ†
—•‹‰ –Š‡ ‘‘Š›„”‹† ƒ† †‹Š›„”‹†‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡Ǥ
†‹Š›„”‹†…”‘••‡•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–™‘‡†‡Žǯ•Žƒ™•‘ˆ x ‡†‡Žǯ• Žƒ™• ‘ˆ ‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡ǣ
‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡Ǥ Žƒ™‘ˆ‹†‡’‡†‡–ƒ••‘”–‡–
 ƒ†Žƒ™‘ˆ•‡‰”‡‰ƒ–‹‘
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ …ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡• ‘ˆ x ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡• ‘ˆ ‹Š‡”‹–ƒ„Ž‡
‹Š‡”‹–ƒ„Ž‡†‹•‘”†‡”•Ǥ †‹•‘”†‡”•



51
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ ‘‘Š›„”‹† ƒ† x ‘‘Š›„”‹† ‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡
†‹Š›„”‹†‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡Ǥ †‘‹ƒ– ƒ† ”‡…‡••‹˜‡ –”ƒ‹–•ǣ
 —•‹‰ —‹ˆ‘” ‘‡› …‘‹•Ȁ
 „‡ƒ†•Ȁ•‡‡†•Ǥ
x ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‡ƒ’‡†‹‰”‡‡Ǥ x ‡†‹‰”‡‡•–—†›ǣ„ƒŽ†‡••ǡ‡ƒ”Ž›
‰”‡›‹‰ ‘ˆ Šƒ‹”ǡ Šƒ‡‘’Š‹Ž‹ƒǡ
‡›‡…‘Ž‘—”ǡ•‹…Ž‡…‡ŽŽǡƒŽ„‹‹•

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ „‡ƒ Ȁ …‘™ ’‡ƒ
•‡‡†•ǡ—‹ˆ‘”‘‡›…‘‹•‘”†‹•…•ǡ„‡ƒ†•ǡ‰”‘—’‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••Ȁ‘”‰ƒ•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡ ƒ† ‡†‡Žǯ• ™‘” ‘ Š‡”‡†‹–› —•‹‰
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x ‹•…—••‘‘Š›„”‹†‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‰™‹–Š…”‘••‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ™‘” ‘—– †‹Š›„”‹† ‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡ ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‰ ™‹–Š
…”‘••‡•Ǥ
x ‹•…—••…ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡•‘ˆŠ‡”‹–ƒ„Ž‡†‹•‘”†‡”•ǡ—•‹‰”‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‡šƒ’Ž‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”‘‘‘Š›„”‹†ƒ††‹Š›„”‹†
‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡—•‹‰•‹—Žƒ–‹‘•ȋ•‡‡ƒ’’‡†‹šͷȌǤ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ†‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‡’‡†‹‰”‡‡•Ǥ
x • Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ‰ƒ–Š‡” ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ ’‡†‹‰”‡‡• ƒ• ƒ ‘—– ‘ˆ …Žƒ••
ƒ…–‹˜‹–›Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡™”‹––‡ƒ••‹‰‡–‘‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡‘ˆ…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡ƒ••‹‰‡–‘’‡†‹‰”‡‡ƒƒŽ›•‹•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ’ƒ–‡”‹–›Ȁƒ–‡”‹–›–‡•–•
‹‹Ȍ ‰‡‡–‹……‘—•‡ŽŽ‹‰




52


Sub-Topic 2: Chromosomes and Genes


Specific Objectives Content
x Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ x ‡”•ǣ
‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –‡”•ǣ ‰‡‡  ‰‡‡‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘•ǣ†‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘
‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘•ǡ •‡š Ž‹ƒ‰‡ǡ •‡š ƒ† ‡šƒ’Ž‡•ǣ Ž‹ƒ‰‡ǡ
†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ •‡š Ž‹‹–ƒ–‹‘ǡ —Ž–‹’Ž‡ ƒŽŽ‡Ž‡•ǡ …‘Ǧ
Ž‡–ŠƒŽ‰‡‡•ƒ†’‘Ž›‰‡‡•Ǥ †‘‹ƒ…‡ǡ ‹…‘’Ž‡–‡
 †‘‹ƒ…‡ǡ †‘‹ƒ– ƒ†
 ”‡…‡••‹˜‡–”ƒ‹–•ǡ‡’‹–ƒ•‹•ƒ†
 …‘’Ž‡‡–ƒ”›‰‡‡•
  •‡š Ž‹ƒ‰‡ †‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘ǡ
 ‡šƒ’Ž‡•ƒ†‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡
  •‡š †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ǣ
†‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘ ƒ† ‡šƒ’Ž‡• ‹

Š—ƒ•

 •‡š Ž‹‹–ƒ–‹‘ǣ †‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘
 ƒ†‡šƒ’Ž‡•
  Ž‡–ŠƒŽ ‰‡‡•ǣ †‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘ ƒ†
 ‡šƒ’Ž‡•ǣ’Š‡›Ž‡–‘—”‹ƒǡ
 ‡—”‘•’‘”ƒǡ‡–…
  ’‘Ž›‰‡‡ǣ †‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘ ƒ†
 ‡šƒ’Ž‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‰‡‡ ƒ† …Š”‘‘•‘‡ x
‡‡ƒ†…Š”‘‘•‘‡ƒ’’‹‰
ƒ’’‹‰Ǥ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••‰‡‡‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†‡šƒ’Ž‡•Ǥ
x ‘”‘—–’”‘„Ž‡•„ƒ•‡†‘‰‡‡‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
x ‹•…—••‰‡‡ƒ†…Š”‘‘•‘‡ƒ’’‹‰—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ™‘”‹‰ ‘—– …”‘••‡• „ƒ•‡† ‘ ‰‡‡
‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
x ŽŽ‘™Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘’”‡•‡–‘”ƒŽƒ•™‡”•‘‰‡‡‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘‰‡‡ƒ†…Š”‘‘•‘‡ƒ’’‹‰Ǥ



53
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Sub-Topic 3: Variation

Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ –”ƒ‹–• ƒ† –›’‡• x ‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ –”ƒ‹–• ƒ† –›’‡• ‘ˆ
‘ˆ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘•ǣ …‘–‹—‘—•
 ȋ“—ƒ–‹–ƒ–‹˜‡Ȍ ƒ† †‹•…‘–‹—‘—•
 ȋ“—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡Ȍ
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡…ƒ—•‡•‘ˆ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x ƒ—•‡•  ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘ǣ ‰‡‡–‹… ƒ†
 ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽˆƒ…–‘”•
x ‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘‘ˆ—–ƒ–‹‘
x †‡ˆ‹‡—–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x ›’‡• ‘ˆ —–ƒ–‹‘•ǣ ‰‡‡ ƒ†
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –›’‡• ƒ† …ƒ—•‡• ‘ˆ …Š”‘‘•‘ƒŽ—–ƒ–‹‘
—–ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x ƒ—•‡• ‘ˆ —–ƒ–‹‘ǣ …Šƒ…‡ǡ
 ”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ…Š‡‹…ƒŽ•
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ …Š”‘‘•‘ƒŽ x ‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡ –Š‡
ƒ†‰‡‡—–ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ …Š”‘‘•‘ƒŽƒ†‰‡‡—–ƒ–‹‘•
 x ‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡‘ˆ—–ƒ–‹‘•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ
—–ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ›˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘•‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ x ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘•ƒ‘‰‘”‰ƒ‹••
x …‘ŽŽ‡…– †ƒ–ƒ ‘ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘• ƒ‘‰ x ƒ–ƒ ‘ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘• ƒ‘‰
–Š‡•‡Ž˜‡•Ǥ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ •‡šǡ Š‡‹‰Š–ǡ
–‘‰—‡”‘ŽŽ‹‰Ȍ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ ’”‡•‡”˜‡†
•’‡…‹‡•ƒ†Ž‡ƒ”‡”•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••ǡ™‹–Š‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•–Š‡–›’‡•ǡ…ƒ—•‡•ƒ†•‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡‘ˆ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘
ƒ†—–ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…‘ŽŽ‡…–†ƒ–ƒ‘˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡™”‹––‡ƒ••‹‰‡–‘‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ†ƒ–ƒ‘˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ



54
Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”•‡Ž‡…–‹‘‘ˆ „‡––‡”˜ƒ”‹‡–‹‡• ‘ˆ…”‘’•ǡƒ‹ƒŽ•ƒ†‘”ƒ‡–ƒŽ
’Žƒ–•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 4: Population Genetics



Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‰‡‡ ˆ”‡“—‡…› ‹ –Š‡ ‰‡‡ x
‡‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›‹–Š‡‰‡‡’‘‘Ž
’‘‘Ž‘ˆƒ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘Ǥ ‘ˆƒ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘
 x ƒ—•‡• ‘ˆ …Šƒ‰‡• ‹ ‰‡‡
 ˆ”‡“—‡…›‹ƒ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ƒ”†› Ǧ‡‹„‡”‰ x ƒ”†›Ǧ‡‹„‡”‰‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—
‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—Ǥ  
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ Š‘™ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ˆƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…– x ƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ –Š‡ ƒ”†›Ǧ
–Š‡‰‡‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›‹ƒ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘Ǥ ‡‹„‡”‰ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—ǣ ƒ–—”ƒŽ
•‡Ž‡…–‹‘ǡ ‘ ”ƒ†‘ ƒ–‹‰ǡ
—–ƒ–‹‘ǡ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘ǡ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘
•‹œ‡

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡ ƒ”†›Ǧ‡‹„‡”‰‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—ƒ†‰—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡
‰‡‡ˆ”‡“—‡…‹‡•—•‹‰†ƒ–ƒˆ”‘”‡Ž‡˜ƒ––‡š–•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•„ƒ•‡†‘–Š‡ ƒ”†›Ǧ‡‹„‡”‰‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—Ǥ
x
‹˜‡™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘ˆƒ…–‘”•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰‰‡‡ˆ”‡“—‡…‹‡•Ǥ


Sub-Topic 5: Origin of Life


Specific Objectives Content
x Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ x Š‡‘”‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘”‹‰‹ ‘ˆ Ž‹ˆ‡ǣ
‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –Š‡‘”‹‡• ”‡Žƒ–‡† –‘ –Š‡ •’‡…‹ƒŽ …”‡ƒ–‹‘ǡ •’‘–ƒ‡‘—•
‘”‹‰‹‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡Ǥ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‘ǡ„‹‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘



55
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡–Š‡‘”‹‡•‘ˆ‘”‹‰‹‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡”‡ƒ†‹‰ƒ†™”‹––‡ƒ••‹‰‡–•‘–Š‡–Š‡‘”‹‡•‘ˆ‘”‹‰‹‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡Ǥ

Sub-Topic 6: Mechanisms of Evolution


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‹•…—••  ƒƒ”…ǯ• –Š‡‘”› ‘ˆ x ƒƒ”…ǯ• –Š‡‘”› ‘ˆ ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ ‘ˆ
‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ ƒ…“—‹”‡† …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”• –Š”‘—‰Š —•‡
 ƒ††‹•—•‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ƒ”™‹ǯ• –Š‡‘”› ‘ˆ ƒ–—”ƒŽ x ƒ”™‹ǯ• –Š‡‘”› ‘ˆ ƒ–—”ƒŽ
•‡Ž‡…–‹‘Ǥ •‡Ž‡…–‹‘ǣ ‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘• ƒ†
 †‡†—…–‹‘•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‹
‹‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘
x †‹•…—••‡‘Ǧƒ”™‹‹•Ǥ x ‡‘Ǧ ƒ”™‹‹• ȋ’”‡•‡– †ƒ›
 –Š‡‘”›‘ˆ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘Ȍ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …ƒ—•‡• ‘ˆ ’”‡•‡– †ƒ› x ƒ—•‡• ‘ˆ ’”‡•‡– †ƒ› ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ǣ
‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ …‘’‡–‹–‹‘ǡ …Šƒ‰‡• ‹ –Š‡
‡˜‹”‘‡–ǡ •‡š—ƒŽ
”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘ǡ —–ƒ–‹‘•ǡ ‰‡‡
”‡…‘„‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘ǡ
‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ †”—‰ Ȁ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ
”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ǡ ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ •‡Ž‡…–‹‘ǡ
’‘Ž›’Ž‘‹†›

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡‡…Šƒ‹••‘ˆ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ…‘’‡–‹–‹˜‡“—‹œ„ƒ•‡†‘–Š‡‘—–‘ˆ…Žƒ••”‡ƒ†‹‰ƒ••‹‰‡–Ǥ
x
‹˜‡™”‹––‡ƒ••‹‰‡–‘‡…Šƒ‹••‘ˆ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ



56
Sub-Topic 7: Evidence of Evolution
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ 
x †‹•…—•• ‡˜‹†‡…‡ ‘ˆ x ˜‘Ž—–‹‘ ‡˜‹†‡…‡ „ƒ•‡† ‘ǣ ˆ‘••‹Ž‹•ƒ–‹‘ǡ
‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ …‘’ƒ”ƒ–‹˜‡ •–—†› ‘ˆ ƒƒ–‘›ǡ
‡„”›‘Ž‘‰›ǡ …›–‘Ž‘‰›ǡ „‹‘…Š‡‹•–”›ǡ
–ƒš‘‘›ǡ ‰‡‘‰”ƒ’Š‹…ƒŽ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ǡ
˜‡•–‹‰‹ƒŽ •–”—…–—”‡•ǡ ƒƒŽ‘‰‘—• •–”—…–—”‡•ǡ
Š‘‘Ž‘‰‘—••–”—…–—”‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡‡”‰‡…‡ ‘ˆ x ‡”‰‡…‡‘ˆ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘•ƒ‘‰‘”‰ƒ‹••
˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘• ƒ‘‰
‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ ’Š‘–‘‰”ƒ’Š• ‘ˆ ˆ‘••‹Ž•ǡ
ˆ‘••‹Ž•ǡ˜‹†‡‘•ǡ…Šƒ”–•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• …Šƒ‰‡• ‹ Ž‹˜‹‰ –Š‹‰• ƒ† ‡‡”‰‡…‡ ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘• ƒ‘‰
‘”‰ƒ‹••—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•.

Assessment Strategies
x ”‰ƒ‹•‡ƒ“—‹œ‘–Š‡–‡”•”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ
x
‹˜‡™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘‡˜‹†‡…‡‘ˆ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡””‡•‹•–ƒ…‡–‘†‹•‡ƒ•‡•ǡ†”—‰•ǡ’‡•–‹…‹†‡•ƒ†Š‡”„‹…‹†‡•Ǥ



57
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Sub-Topic 8: Selection and Speciation



Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ƒ–—”ƒŽ •‡Ž‡…–‹‘ ƒ† x ƒ–—”ƒŽ •‡Ž‡…–‹‘ ƒ† ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ
ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ•‡Ž‡…–‹‘Ǥ •‡Ž‡…–‹‘
x †‡ˆ‹‡•’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x ‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘‘ˆ•’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ƒŽŽ‘’ƒ–”‹… •’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† x ŽŽ‘’ƒ–”‹… •’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
•›’ƒ–”‹…•’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ •›’ƒ–”‹…•’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡• ‘ˆ ƒ–—”ƒŽ •‡Ž‡…–‹‘ x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ƒ–—”ƒŽ •‡Ž‡…–‹‘ ƒ†
ƒ†ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ•‡Ž‡…–‹‘‹•’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ•‡Ž‡…–‹‘‹•’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ‡…Šƒ‹•• ”‡Žƒ–‡† –‘ x ‡…Šƒ‹•• ”‡Žƒ–‡† –‘
•’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ •’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘ǣ …‘–‹‡–ƒŽ †”‹ˆ–ǡ
 ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ƒ†ƒ’–‹˜‡ ”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ
 †‹˜‡”‰‡– ƒ† …‘˜‡”‰‡–
 ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ ‹•‘Žƒ–‹‘ ‹Ǥ‡Ǥ
 ‡…‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽǡ ”‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡ ƒ†
 ‰‡‡–‹…
x ‡š’Žƒ‹‡š–‹…–‹‘Ǥ x š–‹…–‹‘ǣ ‡ƒ‹‰ǡ …ƒ—•‡• ƒ†
‡ˆˆ‡…–•

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ…Šƒ”–•ǡ’Š‘–‘‰”ƒ’Š•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••ƒ–—”ƒŽƒ†ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ•‡Ž‡…–‹‘—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•.
x ‹•…—••‹•‘Žƒ–‹‰‡…Šƒ‹••‰‹˜‹‰‡šƒ’Ž‡•Ǥ
x ••‹‰ ‰”‘—’• ‘ˆ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ”‡ƒ† ƒ„‘—– ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ” ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‘ˆ
•’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘ƒ•ƒ‘—–‘ˆ…Žƒ••ƒ…–‹˜‹–›Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•‹–Š‡’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‹”ˆ‹†‹‰•Ǥ
x ‹•…—••‡š–‹…–‹‘‰‹˜‹‰‡šƒ’Ž‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x ”‰ƒ‹•‡ƒ“—‹œ‘–Š‡–‡”•”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘•‡Ž‡…–‹‘ƒ†•’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡ƒ••‹‰‡–‘–Š‡‡…Šƒ‹••‘ˆ•’‡…‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ



58
Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ‡‡”‰‡…‡ ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹‡–‹‡• ”‡•‹•–ƒ– –‘ †‹•‡ƒ•‡•ǡ †”—‰•ǡ ’‡•–‹…‹†‡• ƒ†
Š‡”„‹…‹†‡•
‹‹Ȍ ‰‡‡–‹…‡‰‹‡‡”‹‰
(See appendix 6: Genetics)



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BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Topic 7: Transport
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣ͵͸‡”‹‘†•

Overview
Š‡ ‘†‡ ‘ˆ –”ƒ•’‘”– ‘ˆ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• Žƒ”‰‡Ž› †‡’‡†• ‘ –Š‡ •‹œ‡ ‘ˆ ƒ
‘”‰ƒ‹•Ǥ ”ƒ•’‘”– •›•–‡• Šƒ˜‡ ƒ††‹–‹‘ƒŽ ˆ—…–‹‘• ‘–Š‡” –Šƒ
‘˜‡‡– ‘ˆ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• ™‹–Š‹ –Š‡ ‘”‰ƒ‹•Ǥ Š‡•‡ ‹…Ž—†‡ ’”‘–‡…–‹‘ ƒ†
•—’’‘”–Ǥ

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘†‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡
ƒ†ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰‘ˆ–”ƒ•’‘”–•›•–‡•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Necessity for Transport Systems


Specific Objective Content
x Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ x ‹‹–ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ •‹’Ž‡ †‹ˆˆ—•‹‘
‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡Ž‹‹–ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ•‹’Ž‡ ’”‘…‡••ǣ…‘…‡’–‘ˆ•—”ˆƒ…‡ƒ”‡ƒǣ
†‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ ‹ –Š‡ –”ƒ•’‘”– ˜‘Ž—‡ ”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ‹–• ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘
’”‘…‡••Ǥ †‹ˆˆ—•‹‘”ƒ–‡

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ…Šƒ”–•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‡…‡••‹–› ˆ‘” –”ƒ•’‘”– •›•–‡• —•‹‰ ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘ ‘”
†‡‘•–”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ 

Assessment Strategy
x ŽŽ‘™ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ‰‹˜‡ ‘”ƒŽ ƒ•™‡”• –‘ “—‡•–‹‘• ‘ –Š‡ ‡‡† ˆ‘” ƒ
–”ƒ•’‘”–•›•–‡Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Water as a Medium in Plants and Animals


Specific Objective Content
x Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ x ‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”‹–”ƒ•’‘”–ǣ
‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ™ƒ–‡” •‘Ž˜‡–ǡ‡†‹—‘ˆ–”ƒ•’‘”–
‹–”ƒ•’‘”–Ǥ



60
Teaching / Learning Resources
x Šƒ”–•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ™ƒ–‡” ƒ• ƒ ‡†‹— ‘ˆ –”ƒ•’‘”– ‹ ’Žƒ–• ƒ†
ƒ‹ƒŽ•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ 

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘–Š‡”‘Ž‡‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”‹–Š‡–”ƒ•’‘”–‘ˆƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•
™‹–Š‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡” ‘”ƒŽ ”‡Š›†”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹””‹‰ƒ–‹‘ †—”‹‰ †”› •‡ƒ•‘ǡ ™ƒ–‡”‹‰
ƒ‹ƒŽ•ǡ‡•—”‡•—ˆˆ‹…‹‡–‹–ƒ‡‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”„›Š—ƒ•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 3: Circulatory Systems in Animals


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡–›’‡•‘ˆ…‹”…—Žƒ–‘”›•›•–‡•Ǥ x ›’‡• ‘ˆ …‹”…—Žƒ–‘”›
 •›•–‡•ǣ ‘’‡ ƒ† …Ž‘•‡†ǡ
 •‹‰Ž‡ƒ††‘—„Ž‡
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ …‹”…—Žƒ–‘”› •›•–‡• ‹ x ‹”…—Žƒ–‘”› •›•–‡• ‹
‹•‡…–•ǡƒ‡Ž‹†•ƒ†ƒƒŽ•Ǥ ‹•‡…–•ǡ ƒ‡Ž‹†• ƒ†
 ƒƒŽ•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ƒ† x †˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ƒ†
†‹•ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ ‘’‡ ƒ† …Ž‘•‡† †‹•ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ ‘’‡ ƒ†
•›•–‡•‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ …Ž‘•‡†•›•–‡•‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•
x …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ x •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ
˜‡‹•ǡƒ”–‡”‹‡•ƒ†…ƒ’‹ŽŽƒ”‹‡•Ǥ ˜‡‹•ǡ ƒ”–‡”‹‡• ƒ†
 …ƒ’‹ŽŽƒ”‹‡•
x …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ …‹”…—Žƒ–‘”› •›•–‡• ‘ˆ x –”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –”ƒ•’‘”–
ˆ‹•Šƒ†ƒƒŽ•Ǥ •›•–‡• ‹ ˆ‹•Š ƒ†
 ƒƒŽ•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ x —…–‹‘‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡
ƒƒŽ‹ƒŠ‡ƒ”–Ǥ ƒƒŽ‹ƒ Š‡ƒ”–ǣ …ƒ”†‹ƒ…
…›…Ž‡ǡ „Ž‘‘† ’”‡••—”‡

…Šƒ‰‡•ǡ ›‘‰‡‹…
 ’”‘’‡”–›ǡ …‘–”‘Ž ‘ˆ –Š‡
 Š‡ƒ”–„‡ƒ–
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‡•’‘•‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š‡ƒ”– –‘ x ‡•’‘•‡ ‘ˆ Š‡ƒ”– –‘ „‘†›



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BIOLOGY
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TEACHING SYLLABUS

„‘†›ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•Ǥ ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ Š‘™ –Š‡ Š‡ƒ”– „‡ƒ– ”ƒ–‡ ‹• x ‘–”‘Ž‘ˆŠ‡ƒ”–„‡ƒ–”ƒ–‡
…‘–”‘ŽŽ‡†Ǥ 
x ”‡Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ ƒ…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ†”‡ƒŽ‹ ƒ† x …–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ†”‡ƒŽ‹ ƒ†
ƒ…‡–›Ž…Š‘Ž‹‡ –‘ –Š‡ ‹‡”˜ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ…‡–›Ž…Š‘Ž‹‡ ‘ –Š‡
Š‡ƒ”–Ǥ ‹‡”˜ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡Š‡ƒ”–
x ‹–‡”’”‡– ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ x ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ †”—‰• ƒ†
†”—‰•ƒ†˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡‘ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘• ‘
–Š‡…ƒ”†‹ƒ…ˆ”‡“—‡…›Ǥ –Š‡…ƒ”†‹ƒ…ˆ”‡“—‡…›
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡”‘Ž‡‘ˆ„Ž‘‘†…‘’‘‡–• x Ž‘‘† …‘•–‹–—‡–• ƒ†
‹–Š‡–”ƒ•’‘”–’”‘…‡••Ǥ ˆ—…–‹‘•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ †‹•‡ƒ•‡• ”‡Žƒ–‡† –‘ –Š‡ x ‘‘ †‹•‡ƒ•‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
…‹”…—Žƒ–‘”›•›•–‡Ǥ „Ž‘‘† ƒ† Š‡ƒ”–ǡ ‹…Ž—†‹‰ǡ
•‹…Ž‡ …‡ŽŽ ƒƒ‡‹ƒ ƒ†
…‘”‘ƒ”›ƒ”–‡”›†‹•‡ƒ•‡

(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› •–”—…–—”ƒŽ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ „Ž‘‘† x –”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ „Ž‘‘† ˜‡••‡Ž•
˜‡••‡Ž•Ǥ ȋ˜‡‹•ǡƒ”–‡”‹‡•ǡ…ƒ’‹ŽŽƒ”‹‡•Ȍ
x †‹•’Žƒ› ƒ† †”ƒ™ ƒŒ‘” •–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ x ‹”…—Žƒ–‘”› •›•–‡• ‹
–Š‡ …‹”…—Žƒ–‘”› •›•–‡• ‹ ‹•‡…–•ǡ ‹•‡…–•ǡ –‘ƒ†• ƒ†
–‘ƒ†•ǡƒ†ƒƒŽ•Ǥ ƒƒŽ•ǣ ‰”‘•• •–”—…–—”‡
 ƒ†ˆ‹‡•–”—…–—”‡
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‹•‡…–•ǯǡ –‘ƒ†•ǯ ƒ† x •‡…–•ǡ–‘ƒ†•ƒ†ƒƒŽ•
ƒƒŽ•ǯ …‹”…—Žƒ–‘”› •›•–‡ ‹ …‹”…—Žƒ–‘”› •›•–‡• ‹
”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘–Š‡‹”ˆ—…–‹‘•Ǥ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘ˆ—…–‹‘•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”ƒŽ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ x –”—…–—”ƒŽ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
–Š‡ —•…Ž‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‹”…—Žƒ–‘”› •›•–‡ …ƒ”†‹ƒ… —•…Ž‡ ƒ† •‘‘–Š
‘ˆƒƒŽ•Ǥ —•…Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‹”…—Žƒ–‘”›
•›•–‡‘ˆƒƒŽ•

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ ‘†‡Ž•ǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ ˜‹†‡‘ǡ
’”‡’ƒ”‡† •Ž‹†‡• ‘ˆ „Ž‘‘† •‡ƒ”ǡ ’”‡’ƒ”‡† •Ž‹†‡• ‘ˆ „Ž‘‘† ˜‡••‡Ž• ƒ†
…ƒ”†‹ƒ… —•…Ž‡ǡ ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡ †‹••‡…–‹‰ •‡–•Ȁ‹–•ǡ  ’Š‘–‘‰”ƒ’Š•ǡ  ’‹•ǡ
„‘ƒ”†•ǡ†‹•Š‡•ǡƒ‹ƒŽ•’‡…‹‡•ǡ†‹••‡…–‹‘‰—‹†‡•ǡ…ŠŽ‘”‘ˆ‘”ǡ…‘––‘
™‘‘Žǡ–Š”‡ƒ†



62
Suggested Teaching Procedure
x ‹•…—••–Š‡ǣ
 •–”—…–—”‡ǡ –›’‡• ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‹”…—Žƒ–‘”› •›•–‡ ‹
ƒ‹ƒŽ•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
 „Ž‘‘† …‘•–‹–—‡–• ƒ† –Š‡‹” ˆ—…–‹‘•ǡ …‘‘ †‹•‡ƒ•‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
„Ž‘‘†ƒ†–Š‡Š‡ƒ”–—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ™‘” ‘ †‹••‡…–‹‘• ƒ†
‹…”‘•…‘’›‘ˆ–Š‡…‹”…—Žƒ–‘”›•›•–‡•Ǥ 

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘…‹”…—Žƒ–‘”›•›•–‡•‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡‘†‹••‡…–‹‘ǡ†‹•’Žƒ›‹‰ǡ†”ƒ™‹‰ƒ†Žƒ„‡ŽŽ‹‰
„Ž‘‘†˜‡••‡Ž•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ™‘” ‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ›‹‰ǡ †”ƒ™‹‰ ƒ† Žƒ„‡ŽŽ‹‰ „Ž‘‘† …‡ŽŽ•
ƒ†„Ž‘‘†˜‡••‡Ž•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ˆ‹”•–ƒ‹†–‘•–‘’„Ž‡‡†‹‰Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ’”‡˜‡–‹‘‘ˆ†‹•‡ƒ•‡•‘ˆ–Š‡…‹”…—Žƒ–‘”›•›•–‡ƒ†„Ž‘‘†Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ „Ž‘‘†–”ƒ•ˆ—•‹‘Ǥ


Sub-Topic 4: Defence against Diseases


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‡…Šƒ‹• ‘ˆ x ‡…Šƒ‹•‘ˆ„Ž‘‘†…Ž‘––‹‰
„Ž‘‘†…Ž‘––‹‰Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ‹—‡ ”‡•’‘•‡• x —‡ ”‡•’‘•‡• ‹ Š—ƒ•ǣ
‹Š—ƒ•Ǥ †‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘ǡ’”‹ƒ”›ǡ•‡…‘†ƒ”›
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ –Š›—• x Š‡”‘Ž‡‘ˆ–Š‡–Š›—•‰Žƒ†‹
‰Žƒ†‹‹—‹–›Ǥ ‹—‹–›
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‹—‡ x Ž‘‘† ‰”‘—’• ƒ† „Ž‘‘†
”‡•’‘•‡• †—”‹‰ „Ž‘‘† –”ƒ•ˆ—•‹‘
–”ƒ•ˆ—•‹‘Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ x ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š‡•—• ˆƒ…–‘”
Š‡•—• ˆƒ…–‘” †—”‹‰ †—”‹‰’”‡‰ƒ…›
’”‡‰ƒ…›Ǥ



63
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ‘†‡Ž•ǡ…Šƒ”–•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••‡…Šƒ‹•‘ˆ„Ž‘‘†…Ž‘––‹‰ǡ‹—‡”‡•’‘•‡•ǡ–Š‡”‘Ž‡‘ˆ–Š‡
–Š›—•‰Žƒ†—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x š’Žƒ‹ƒ–‹‰‡Ǧƒ–‹„‘†›”‡ƒ…–‹‘•—•‹‰„Ž‘‘†‰”‘—’•ƒ†–Š‡Š‡•—•
ˆƒ…–‘”ƒ•ƒ‡šƒ’Ž‡Ǥ 

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘†‡ˆ‡…‡ƒ‰ƒ‹•–†‹•‡ƒ•‡•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”
‹Ȍ ‹—‹•ƒ–‹‘
‹‹Ȍ „Ž‘‘†–”ƒ•ˆ—•‹‘
‹‹‹Ȍ ƒŽŽ‡”‰›


Sub-Topic 5: Vascular System of Flowering Plants


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”ƒŽ ƒ† x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ•…—Žƒ”
˜ƒ•…—Žƒ” –‹••—‡• –‘ –Š‡ –”ƒ•’‘”– –‹••—‡• ‹
’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• ‹ ‘‘…‘–›Ž‡†‘‘—• ƒ†
‘‘…‘–›Ž‡†‘‘—• ƒ† †‹…‘–›Ž‡†‘‘—•’Žƒ–•
†‹…‘–›Ž‡†‘‘—•’Žƒ–•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡…Šƒ‹• ‘ˆ x ‡…Šƒ‹• ‘ˆ –”ƒ•’‘”–‹‰
–”ƒ•’‘”–‹‰ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•‹’Žƒ–•Ǥ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•‹’Žƒ–•
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡‡˜‹†‡…‡ˆ‘”–Š‡’ƒ–Š x ˜‹†‡…‡ ˆ‘” –Š‡ ’ƒ–Š ‘ˆ
‘ˆƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•‹’Žƒ–•Ǥ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•‹’Žƒ–•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –”ƒ•Ž‘…ƒ–‹‘  ƒ† x ’–ƒ‡ ‘ˆ ™ƒ–‡” ƒ†
—’–ƒ‡‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”ƒ†‹‡”ƒŽ•ƒŽ–• ‹‡”ƒŽ•ƒŽ–•‹’Žƒ–•
‹’Žƒ–•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –”ƒ•’‹”ƒ–‹‘ x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –”ƒ•’‹”ƒ–‹‘ ‹
‹ –”ƒ•’‘”– ‘ˆ ™ƒ–‡” ƒ† –”ƒ•’‘”– ‘ˆ ™ƒ–‡” ƒ†
†‹••‘Ž˜‡†‹‡”ƒŽ•ƒŽ–•‹’Žƒ–•Ǥ †‹••‘Ž˜‡† ‹‡”ƒŽ •ƒŽ–• ‹
’Žƒ–•



64

(Practical) 
x ‹–‡”’”‡– †ƒ–ƒ ”‡Žƒ–‡† –‘ x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘
–”ƒ•’‘”–‘ˆƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•Ǥ ’ƒ––‡” ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˜ƒ•…—Žƒ”
 –‹••—‡• ‹
 ‘‘…‘–›Ž‡†‘‘—• ƒ†
 †‹…‘–›Ž‡†‘‘—•’Žƒ–•
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –›’‡• ƒ† –Š‡ ’ƒ––‡” ‘ˆ x ”ƒ•˜‡”•‡ ȋǤȌ ƒ†
†‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ ‘ˆ ˜ƒ•…—Žƒ” „—†Ž‡• Ž‘‰‹–—†‹ƒŽ •‡…–‹‘• ȋǤȌ
‹’Žƒ–‘”‰ƒ•Ǥ ‘ˆǣ •–‡•ǡ ”‘‘–• ƒ†ǡ Ǥ ‘ˆ
x •–ƒ‹ ƒ† ƒ‡ –‡’‘”ƒ”› Ž‡ƒ˜‡•‘ˆ‘‘…‘–›Ž‡†‘‘—•
‘—–• ‘ˆ –”ƒ•˜‡”•‡ •‡…–‹‘• ƒ† Š‡”„ƒ…‡‘—•
ȋǤȌ ƒ† Ž‘‰‹–—†‹ƒŽ •‡…–‹‘• ȋ †‹…‘–›Ž‡†‘‘—•’Žƒ–•
ǤȌ ‘ˆǣ •–‡•ǡ ”‘‘–• ƒ† Ǥ ‘ˆ 
Ž‡ƒ˜‡• ˆ”‘ Š‡”„ƒ…‡‘—• ’Žƒ– 
‘”‰ƒ•Ǥ 
x ‹–‡”’”‡– Ǥ  ƒ†  Ǥ ‘ˆ •–‡•ǡ x ƒ„‡ŽŽ‡††‹ƒ‰”ƒ•‘ˆǤƒ†
”‘‘–•ƒ†Ǥ‘ˆŽ‡ƒ˜‡•Ǥ Ǥ‘ˆ•–‡•ǡ”‘‘–•ƒ†Ǥ‘ˆ
x †”ƒ™ ƒ† Žƒ„‡Ž Ž‘™ ’‘™‡” ’Žƒ• Ž‡ƒ˜‡•
–‘ •Š‘™ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ ‘ˆ –‹••—‡• ‹ 
Ǥƒ†Ǥ‘ˆ•–‡•ǡ”‘‘–•ƒ†Ǥ
‘ˆŽ‡ƒ˜‡•Ǥ
x ƒ‡ Š‹‰Š ’‘™‡” Žƒ„‡ŽŽ‡†
†”ƒ™‹‰• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ•…—Žƒ” –‹••—‡• ‹
Ǥƒ†Ǥ‘ˆ•–‡•ǡ”‘‘–•ƒ†Ǥ
‘ˆŽ‡ƒ˜‡•Ǥ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• ǡ  ‘†‡Ž•ǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ •‹’Ž‡
•–ƒ‹•ǡ ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡ •Ž‹†‡•ǡ …‘˜‡” •Ž‹’•ǡ •–‡•ǡ ”‘‘–•ǡ Ž‡ƒ˜‡• ‘ˆ
Š‡”„ƒ…‡‘—•’Žƒ–•ǡ”ƒœ‘”„Žƒ†‡•ǡ…‘…‡–”ƒ–‡†Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹…ƒ…‹†ȋ ŽȌ
ƒ†•—Ž’Š—”‹…ƒ…‹†ȋ ʹͶȌ™‹–Š’ŠŽ‘”‘‰Ž—…‹‘Ž

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˜ƒ•…—Žƒ” •›•–‡ ‘ˆ
ˆŽ‘™‡”‹‰’Žƒ–•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”‘•–”—…–—”‡ƒ††‹•–”‹„—–‹‘
‘ˆ˜ƒ•…—Žƒ”–‹••—‡•‹’Žƒ–‘”‰ƒ•Ǥ 



65
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡•‘†‹•–”‹„—–‹‘‘ˆ˜ƒ•…—Žƒ”–‹••—‡•‹‘‘…‘–•
ƒ††‹…‘–•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡•‘˜ƒ•…—Žƒ”•›•–‡•‘ˆˆŽ‘™‡”‹‰’Žƒ–•Ǥ



66
   
Topic 8: Nutrition
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͶʹ‡”‹‘†•

Overview
”‰ƒ‹•• ”‡“—‹”‡ ˆ‘‘† ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• –Šƒ– •—’’Ž› –Š‡ ™‹–Š —–”‹‡–•Ǥ
—–‘–”‘’Š• ƒ”‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡ ˆ‘‘† ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• ™Š‹Ž‡ –Š‡
Š‡–‡”‘–”‘’Š‹‡•‘„–ƒ‹ƒŽ”‡ƒ†›ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡†ˆ‘‘†Ǥ

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‘†‡•‘ˆ
‘„–ƒ‹‹‰—–”‹‡–•„›†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ


Sub-Topic 1: Autotrophic Nutrition


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–›’‡•‘ˆƒ—–‘–”‘’Š‹… x ›’‡• ‘ˆ ƒ—–‘–”‘’Š‹… —–”‹–‹‘ǣ
—–”‹–‹‘Ǥ …Š‡‘•›–Š‡•‹•  ƒ†
 ’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹•
x †‡•…”‹„‡…Š‡‘•›–Š‡•‹•Ǥ x Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹• ‹…Ž—†‹‰
x †‡•…”‹„‡’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹•Ǥ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ͵ǡ Ͷ ƒ†  –‘
 †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ
 …‘†‹–‹‘• 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆ…ŠŽ‘”‘’Žƒ•–•
…ŠŽ‘”‘’Žƒ•–•Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ƒ„•‘”’–‹‘ ƒ† x „•‘”’–‹‘ ƒ† ƒ…–‹‘ •’‡…–”—
ƒ…–‹‘•’‡…–”—‘ˆ…ŠŽ‘”‘’Š›ŽŽǤ ‘ˆ…ŠŽ‘”‘’Š›ŽŽ
x ‹–‡”’”‡– ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ ‡˜‹†‡…‡ x ˜‹†‡…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ž‹‰Š– ƒ† †ƒ”
ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‡š‹•–‡…‡ ‘ˆ ƒ Ž‹‰Š– ƒ† •–ƒ‰‡• ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ
†ƒ” •–ƒ‰‡ ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ ’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹•
’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ ƒ† x ˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ ƒ† ‹–‡”ƒŽ
‹–‡”ƒŽ ˆƒ…–‘”• ‹ˆŽ—‡…‹‰ –Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• ‹ˆŽ—‡…‹‰ –Š‡ ”ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ
”ƒ–‡‘ˆ’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹•Ǥ ’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹• ȋ‡’Šƒ•‹•‡
 …‘…‡’–‘ˆŽ‹‹–‹‰ˆƒ…–‘”•Ȍ 
x ‹–‡”’”‡– ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ ”‡•—Ž–• x ƒ–ƒ ‘ ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ ”‡•—Ž–•
…‘…‡”‹‰ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–• ‘ˆ …‘…‡”‹‰ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–• ‘ˆ
’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡–‹…”ƒ–‡



67
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡–‹…”ƒ–‡Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ƒ—–‘–”‘’Š‹…
ƒ—–‘–”‘’Š‹… —–”‹–‹‘ ‹ ƒ —–”‹–‹‘‹–Š‡‡…‘•›•–‡
‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•‹‰ ƒ† …ƒ””› ‘—– x š’‡”‹‡–•–‘‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡ˆƒ…–‘”•
‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡ ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹•ǣ  Ž‹‰Š–ǡ
ˆƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ –Š‡ ”ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘ †‹‘š‹†‡ǡ ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ
’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹•Ǥ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ…ŠŽ‘”‘’Š›ŽŽǡ–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡Ǥ
x …ƒ””›‘—–‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘–‡•–ˆ‘” x ‡•–• ˆ‘” •–ƒ”…Š ‹ –‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽ
•–ƒ”…Š ’”‘†—…–‹‘ ‹ –‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽ ’Žƒ–• ƒ† –‡•–• ˆ‘” ‘š›‰‡ ‹
’Žƒ–• ƒ† ‘š›‰‡ ‹ ƒ“—ƒ–‹… ƒ“—ƒ–‹…’Žƒ–•Ǥ
’Žƒ–•Ǥ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ†ƒ–ƒˆ”‘‡š’‡”‹‡–•ǡƒ“—ƒ–‹…
’Žƒ–•ǡŽ‹‰Š–•‘—”…‡ǡ…Ž‘…ǡˆ‹Ž–‡”ˆ—‡Ž•ǡ–‡•––—„‡•ǡŠ‡ƒ–•‘—”…‡ǡ„‡ƒ‡”•ǡ
™ƒ–‡”ǡ™Š‹–‡–‹Ž‡•ǡ‹‘†‹‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ‡–Šƒ‘Žǡ•‘†‹—Š›†”‘‰‡…ƒ”„‘ƒ–‡ǡ
–”‹’‘†•ǡ™‹”‡‰ƒ—œ‡•ǡ†”‘’’‡”•Ǥ

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••ƒ—–‘–”‘’Š‹…—–”‹–‹‘’”‘…‡••‹’Žƒ–•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
 ‹–‡”’”‡–†ƒ–ƒ‘ˆƒ…–‘”•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹•. 
 …ƒ””›‘—–‡š’‡”‹‡–•‘ˆƒ…–‘”•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰”ƒ–‡‘ˆ’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹•Ǥ
 –‡•–ˆ‘”•–ƒ”…Š‹–‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽ’Žƒ–•ƒ†‘š›‰‡‹ƒ“—ƒ–‹…’Žƒ–•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘ǣ
L  ‹–‡”’”‡–‹‰†ƒ–ƒ…‘ŽŽ‡…–‡†ˆ”‘‡š’‡”‹‡–•‘’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹•Ǥ
LL  ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆŽ‹‹–‹‰ˆƒ…–‘”•‘–Š‡”ƒ–‡‘ˆ’Š‘–‘•›–Š‡•‹•Ǥ
LLL  …‘’ƒ”‹‰͵ƒ†Ͷƒ†’Žƒ–•Ǥ


Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ —•‡‘ˆ‰”‡‡Š‘—•‡•‹Š‘”–‹…—Ž–—”‡
‹‹Ȍ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ–”‡‡•ƒ”‘—†Š‘‡•‹’—”‹ˆ›‹‰ƒ‹”



68
Sub-Topic 2: Heterotrophism
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡ˆ‹‡Š‡–‡”‘–”‘’Š‹•Ǥ x ‡–‡”‘–”‘’Š‹•
x •–ƒ–‡–›’‡•‘ˆŠ‡–‡”‘–”‘’Š‹•Ǥ x ›’‡• ‘ˆ Š‡–‡”‘–”‘’Š‹•ǣ
 Š‘Ž‘œ‘‹…ǡ •ƒ’”‘’Š›–‹•ǡ
 —–—ƒŽ‹•ǡ’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‹•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ˆ‘‘† ‹ x ‘‘† ˜ƒŽ—‡•ǡ †‹‡–ǡ ƒ† ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ
–Š‡„‘†›Ǥ †‡ˆ‹…‹‡…‹‡•

2.1 Holozoic Nutrition 
x †‡ˆ‹‡Š‘Ž‘œ‘‹…—–”‹–‹‘Ǥ x ‘Ž‘œ‘‹…—–”‹–‹‘
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡••‡• ‘ˆ x ”‘…‡••‡• ‘ˆ †‹‰‡•–‹‘ǡ
†‹‰‡•–‹‘ǡ ƒ„•‘”’–‹‘ǡ ƒ••‹‹Žƒ–‹‘ ƒ„•‘”’–‹‘ǡ ƒ••‹‹Žƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
ƒ†•–‘”ƒ‰‡‘ˆ†‹‰‡•–‡†ˆ‘‘†Ǥ •–‘”ƒ‰‡‘ˆ†‹‰‡•–‡†ˆ‘‘†
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ ˆ‡‡†‹‰ ‹ x ‡‡†‹‰ ‡–Š‘†• ‹ ƒƒŽ•
ƒƒŽ•ƒ†‹•‡…–•Ǥ ȋŠ‡”„‹˜‘”‡•ǡ ‘‹˜‘”‡•ǡ
 …ƒ”‹˜‘”‡•Ȍǡƒ†‹•‡…–• 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ —–”‹–‹‘ ‹ ‹•‡…–‹˜‘”‘—• x Žƒ–• ƒ• Š‡–‡”‘–”‘’Š•
’Žƒ–•Ǥ ȋ‹•‡…–‹˜‘”‘—•’Žƒ–•Ȍ 
x ”‡Žƒ–‡•–”—…–—”‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒŽ‹‡–ƒ”› x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
…ƒƒŽ–‘–Š‡‹”ˆ—…–‹‘•Ǥ ƒŽ‹‡–ƒ”› …ƒƒŽǣ ‘—–Šǡ
 •–‘ƒ…Šǡ ‹–‡•–‹‡ǡ Ž‹˜‡”ǡ
 ’ƒ…”‡ƒ• 
x š’Žƒ‹–Š‡”‘Ž‡‘ˆ–Š‡‡”˜‘—•ƒ† x Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡”˜‘—• ƒ†
Š‘”‘ƒŽ •›•–‡• ‹ –Š‡
Š‘”‘ƒŽ•›•–‡•‹†‹‰‡•–‹‘Ǥ
”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘Ȁ…‘–”‘Ž‘ˆ†‹‰‡•–‹‘

(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‘’‡—’–Š‡ƒ‹ƒŽƒ††‹•’Žƒ›–Š‡ x Š‡ †‹‰‡•–‹˜‡ •›•–‡ ‘ˆ
†‹‰‡•–‹˜‡•›•–‡Ǥ …‘…”‘ƒ…Šǡ –‘ƒ†Ȁˆ”‘‰ǡ „‹”†•ǡ
 ”ƒ–Ȁ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ…‘™Ȁ‰‘ƒ–
x ‡šƒ‹‡ǡ†”ƒ™ƒ†Žƒ„‡Ž–Š‡ƒŒ‘” x ƒ”–•‘ˆ–Š‡†‹‰‡•–‹˜‡•›•–‡
’ƒ”–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ‹ƒŽ•ǯ †‹‰‡•–‹˜‡ 
•›•–‡•Ǥ 
x ‘„•‡”˜‡ ƒ† •–ƒ–‡ •–”—…–—”ƒŽ x —…–‹‘ ƒ† •–”—…–—”ƒŽ
ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’ƒ”–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‹‰‡•–‹˜‡
†‹‰‡•–‹˜‡•›•–‡Ǥ •›•–‡’ƒ”–•



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x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ˆ‘‘† •—„•–ƒ…‡• ‹ –Š‡ x ‘‘†–‡•–•‘‰—–…‘–‡–


†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–’ƒ”–•‘ˆ–Š‡‰—–Ǥ 
x †‡–‹ˆ› ‡œ›‡• ‹ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– x
—– ‡š–”ƒ…–• ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–
’ƒ”–•‘ˆ–Š‡‰—–Ǥ ˆ‘‘†•
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ›ǡ †”ƒ™ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ’ƒ”–• x –”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ‘—–Š ’ƒ”–• ‘ˆ
–Šƒ–ƒ‡—’–Š‡‘—–Š‘ˆ‹•‡…–•ǡ ‹•‡…–•ǡƒƒŽ•ƒ†–‘ƒ†
ƒƒŽ•ƒ†–‘ƒ†Ǥ 
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‘—–Š ’ƒ”–• x —…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‘—–Š ’ƒ”–• ‘ˆ
‘ˆ‹•‡…–•ǡƒƒŽ•ƒ†–‘ƒ†Ǥ ‹•‡…–•ǡƒƒŽ•ƒ†–‘ƒ†
x …‘’ƒ”‡†‡–‹–‹‘‹–Š‡ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ x ‡–‹–‹‘‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ ƒ‹ƒŽ •’‡…‹‡•ǡ †‹••‡…–‹‰
„‘ƒ”†• Ȁ†‹•Šǡ †‹••‡…–‹‰ •‡–Ȁ‹–ǡ ’‹•ǡ ˆ‘‘† –‡•– ”‡ƒ‰‡–•ǡ ‰—– ‡š–”ƒ…–
ȋ‡œ›‡•Ȍǡ ‰—–  …‘–‡–ȋˆ‘‘†Ȍǡ …ŠŽ‘”‘ˆ‘”ǡ …‘––‘ ™‘‘Ž –Š”‡ƒ†ǡ
‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡ•Ž‹†‡•ǡ…‘˜‡”•Ž‹’•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡Š‘Ž‘œ‘‹…—–”‹–‹‘’”‘…‡••‹‘”‰ƒ‹••—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”‘ǣ
L  †‹••‡…–‹‰ǡ †‹•’Žƒ›‹‰ ƒ† †”ƒ™‹‰ ‘ˆ  †‹‰‡•–‹˜‡ •›•–‡ ’ƒ”–• ‹
…‘…”‘ƒ…Šǡ–‘ƒ†Ȁˆ”‘‰ƒ†”ƒ–Ȁ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ
—‹‡ƒ’‹‰Ǥ
LL  ˆ‘‘†–‡•–•‘‰—–…‘–‡–•Ǥ
LLL  ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‰‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ‰—–‡š–”ƒ…–•‘†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ˆ‘‘†•Ǥ
iv) ‹†‡–‹ˆ›‹‰‘—–Š’ƒ”–•‘ˆƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘ǣ
L  Š‘”‘ƒŽƒ†‡”˜‘—•…‘–”‘Ž‘ˆ†‹‰‡•–‹‘Ǥ
LL  ‹–‡”’”‡–‹‰†ƒ–ƒ‘ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ‰—–‡œ›‡•‘†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ˆ‘‘†•Ǥ

Practical Application
‘•‹†‡”„ƒŽƒ…‡††‹‡–ǡ…ƒ”‹‰ˆ‘”–Š‡–‡‡–Šƒ††‹‰‡•–‹˜‡•›•–‡Ǥ




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2.2 Saprophytism 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡ˆ‹‡•ƒ’”‘’Š›–‹•Ǥ x ‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘‘ˆ•ƒ’”‘’Š›–‹•Ǥ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ˆ—‰‹ x ‘Ž‡‘ˆˆ—‰‹ƒ†„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ‹–Š‡
ƒ† „ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ ƒ• †‡…‘’‘•‡”• ‹ ƒ †‡…‘’‘•‹–‹‘’”‘…‡••
‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ •ƒ’”‘’Š›–‡• ‹ x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ •ƒ’”‘’Š›–‡• ‹ –Š‡
–Š‡…ƒ”„‘ƒ†‹–”‘‰‡…›…Ž‡•Ǥ …ƒ”„‘ƒ†‹–”‘‰‡…›…Ž‡•
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› „ƒ…–‡”‹ƒ ƒ† ‘—Ž†• x
”‘™–Š‘ˆ…‘‘„ƒ…–‡”‹ƒƒ†
‰”‘™‹‰‘‘”‰ƒ‹…ƒ––‡”Ǥ ‘—Ž†‘„”‡ƒ†Ȁ…‘™†—‰
x ‡šƒ‹‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ
ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ…‘‘‘—Ž†Ǥ …‘‘‘—Ž†
x ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡ ‡…‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ x …‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ
•ƒ’”‘’Š›–‡•‹ƒŠƒ„‹–ƒ–Ǥ •ƒ’”‘’Š›–‡•

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡ•Ž‹†‡•ǡ…‘˜‡”•Ž‹’•ǡ
„”‡ƒ†Ȁ…‘™†—‰

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•••ƒ’”‘’Š›–‹•—•‹‰‡šƒ’Ž‡•ƒ†‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ™‘” ‘ ‰”‘™–Šǡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ†
ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ‘—Ž†•Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‡…‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ‹…”‘‘”‰ƒ‹•• —•‹‰
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘–Š‡”‘Ž‡‘ˆ•ƒ’”‘’Š›–‡•‹–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ

Practical Application
‘•‹†‡”ǣ
L  •–‘”ƒ‰‡‘ˆŽ‡ƒ–Š‡”’”‘†—…–•ǡˆ‘‘†ǡ–‹„‡”’”‘†—…–•ǡ…Ž‘–Š‡•ǡ‡–…Ǥ
LL  …‘’‘•–ƒ—”‡Ǥ
LLL  •‡™ƒ‰‡–”‡ƒ–‡–Ǥ



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2.3 Mutualism
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡ˆ‹‡—–—ƒŽ‹•Ǥ x ‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘‘ˆ—–—ƒŽ‹•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ —–—ƒŽ‹•–‹… x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ —–—ƒŽ‹•–‹… ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ‹
‘”‰ƒ‹••‹–Š‡‹–”‘‰‡…›…Ž‡Ǥ –Š‡‹–”‘‰‡…›…Ž‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’• ‘ˆ x —–—ƒŽ‹•–‹… ƒ••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘• „‡–™‡‡
—–—ƒŽ‹•–‹…   ƒ••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘• ‹ ƒ ‘”‰ƒ‹••
‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ 
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‡…‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ x …‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ
‘ˆ—–—ƒŽ‹•–‹…ƒ••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ —–—ƒŽ‹•–‹…ƒ••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘•

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••—–—ƒŽ‹•‰‹˜‹‰‡šƒ’Ž‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘–Š‡•‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡‘ˆ—–—ƒŽ‹•–‹…”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’‹
ƒ‡…‘•›•–‡Ǥ

2.4 Parasitism 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡ˆ‹‡’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‹•Ǥ x ‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘‘ˆ’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‹•
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‹… ‘†‡ ‘ˆ x ƒ”ƒ•‹–‹…‘†‡‘ˆ—–”‹–‹‘
—–”‹–‹‘Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ †‹•‡ƒ•‡ x †ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ †‹•‡ƒ•‡ …ƒ—•‹‰
…ƒ—•‹‰ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ‹ ’Žƒ–•  ƒ† ‘”‰ƒ‹••‹’Žƒ–•ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ•
ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆŠ‘•–Ǧ’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‡ x –‡””‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡
”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‡• ƒ† Š‘•–• ‘ˆ –Š‡
 ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ǣ ‹–‡•–‹ƒŽ ™‘”•, ƒ
 –‹…ƒ†‘‡’Žƒ–’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‡
x ‹–‡”’”‡– †ƒ–ƒ ‘ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ x ƒ–ƒ ‘ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ ’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‡• ‘
’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‡•‘–Š‡‹”Š‘•–•Ǥ –Š‡‹”Š‘•–•

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ˜‹†‡‘ǡ†ƒ–ƒˆ”‘‡š’‡”‹‡–



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Suggested Teaching Procedure
x ‹•…—••’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‹•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ƒ††‡‘•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‹–‡”’”‡–†ƒ–ƒ‘‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆ’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‡•‘–Š‡‹”Š‘•–•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ”‡ƒ†‹‰ ƒ••‹‰‡– ‘ …—””‡– ‡’‹†‡‹…• …ƒ—•‡† „› ’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‡•ǡ
ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‡†„›’Ž‡ƒ”›•‡••‹‘Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ƒ‡† ’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‡• –‘ –Š‡‹”
‘†‡‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”„‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ…‘–”‘Ž‘ˆ’‡•–•ƒ†˜‡…–‘”•Ǥ



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Topic 9: Gaseous Exchange


—”ƒ–‹‘ǣʹͶ‡”‹‘†•

Overview
•‘”‰ƒ‹••„‡…‘‡Žƒ”‰‡”–Š‡›†‡˜‡Ž‘’‰ƒ•‡‘—•‡š…Šƒ‰‡•—”ˆƒ…‡•™Š‹…Š
ƒ”‡ ‘†‹ˆ‹‡† –‘ ƒŽŽ‘™ ‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡…›Ǥ ‘‡ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ƒ› —–‹Ž‹œ‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–
‰ƒ•‡‘—•‡š…Šƒ‰‡•—”ˆƒ…‡•ƒ–†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–•–ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–Ǥ

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘‡š’Žƒ‹‡…Šƒ‹••‘ˆ
‰ƒ•‡‘—•‡š…Šƒ‰‡‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Principles of Gaseous Exchange Systems


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ x ‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ •‹œ‡ ƒ†
„‡–™‡‡ •‹œ‡ ƒ† •—”ˆƒ…‡ ƒ”‡ƒ •—”ˆƒ…‡ ƒ”‡ƒ –‘ ˜‘Ž—‡ ”ƒ–‹‘
–‘˜‘Ž—‡”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ ’”‹…‹’Ž‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ ‹
x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ ‹ ‰ƒ•‡‘—•
‰ƒ•‡‘—•‡š…Šƒ‰‡Ǥ ‡š…Šƒ‰‡ ’”‘…‡•• „‡–™‡‡
 ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ƒ† –Š‡‹”
 ‡˜‹”‘‡– ƒ…”‘•• ƒ ‰ƒ•‡‘—•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ Š‘™ ƒ ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‘”› ‡š…Šƒ‰‡•—”ˆƒ…‡
•—”ˆƒ…‡‹•‘†‹ˆ‹‡†–‘•’‡‡†—’ x ‘†‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‰ƒ•‡‘—•
†‹ˆˆ—•‹‘’”‘…‡••Ǥ ‡š…Šƒ‰‡ •—”ˆƒ…‡ –‘ •’‡‡† —’
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ ƒ †‹ˆˆ—•‹‘
‰ƒ•‡‘—•‡š…Šƒ‰‡•—”ˆƒ…‡Ǥ 
x Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ ƒ ‰ƒ•‡‘—•
‡š…Šƒ‰‡•—”ˆƒ…‡

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡’”‹…‹’Ž‡•‘ˆ‰ƒ•‡‘—•‡š…Šƒ‰‡—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ 

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ‘”ƒŽ Ȁ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ’”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ ‰ƒ•‡‘—• ‡š…Šƒ‰‡
•›•–‡•Ǥ



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Sub-Topic 2: Gaseous Exchange in Plants
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡…Šƒ‹• ‘ˆ x ‡…Šƒ‹• ‘ˆ ‘’‡‹‰ ƒ†
‘’‡‹‰ ƒ† …Ž‘•—”‡ ‘ˆ ƒ …Ž‘•—”‡‘ˆ•–‘ƒ
•–‘ƒǤ x ‘†‹–‹‘•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …‘†‹–‹‘• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ‘ˆ•–‘ƒ–ƒ
–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰‘ˆ•–‘ƒ–ƒǤ x –”—…–—”ƒŽ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ Š‘™ •–‘ƒ–ƒǡ Ž‡–‹…‡Ž• ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ •–‘ƒ–ƒǡ
ƒ† „”‡ƒ–Š‹‰ ”‘‘–• ƒ”‡ Ž‡–‹…‡Ž•ƒ†„”‡ƒ–Š‹‰”‘‘–•
ƒ†ƒ’–‡†–‘–Š‡‹”ˆ—…–‹‘Ǥ x ‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ ‰ƒ•‡‘—•
x …‘’ƒ”‡ ‰ƒ•‡‘—• ‡š…Šƒ‰‡ ‡š…Šƒ‰‡•–”—…–—”‡•‹’Žƒ–•‹
•–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ ƒ“—ƒ–‹… ƒ† –‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽƒ†ƒ“—ƒ–‹…Šƒ„‹–ƒ–•
–‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽ’Žƒ–•Ǥ x –”—…–—”ƒŽƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ“—ƒ–‹…
x ”‡Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡ ƒ†ƒ‡”‹ƒŽŽ‡ƒ˜‡•–‘ƒŠƒ„‹–ƒ–
–Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ƒ“—ƒ–‹… ƒ†
ƒ‡”‹ƒŽŽ‡ƒ˜‡•–‘ƒŠƒ„‹–ƒ–Ǥ
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ›ǡ †”ƒ™ ƒ† Žƒ„‡Ž x –”—…–—”‡•‘ˆ•–‘ƒ–ƒ
•–‘ƒ–ƒǤ x ”‹…‹’Ž‡• ”‡Žƒ–‡† –‘ …‘–”‘Ž ‘ˆ
x ‡šƒ‹‡ ’”‹…‹’Ž‡• ”‡Žƒ–‡† –‘ ‰ƒ•‡‘—•‡š…Šƒ‰‡‹’Žƒ–•
…‘–”‘Ž‘ˆ‰ƒ•‡‘—•‡š…Šƒ‰‡‹ 
’Žƒ–•Ǥ x —”ˆƒ…‡ ƒ”‡ƒ –‘ ˜‘Ž—‡ ”ƒ–‹‘ ‹
x †‡–‡”‹‡ •—”ˆƒ…‡ ƒ”‡ƒ –‘ Žƒ”‰‡ ƒ† •ƒŽŽ ’‹‡…‡• ‘ˆ ’Žƒ–
˜‘Ž—‡”ƒ–‹‘‹Žƒ”‰‡ƒ†•ƒŽŽ ‘”‰ƒ•
‘„Œ‡…–•Ǥ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ ‘†‡Ž•ǡ ‹…”‘•…‘’‡ǡ
•Ž‹†‡•ǡ…‘˜‡”•Ž‹’•ǡ’‘–ƒ–‘Ȁ—”‹’‡’ƒ™’ƒ™ǡ”—Ž‡”ǡ‹ˆ‡ǡ’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•
ȋŽ‡–‹…‡Ž•Ȍ

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••‰ƒ•‡‘—•‡š…Šƒ‰‡‹’Žƒ–•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ™‘” ‘ •–”—…–—”‡ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ǡ
†‡•‹–› ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ ‘ˆ •–‘ƒ–ƒǡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ Ž‡–‹…‡Ž•ǡ †‡–‡”‹‹‰
•—”ˆƒ…‡ƒ”‡ƒ–‘˜‘Ž—‡”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ 



75
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡‘•–”—…–—”‡ƒ†ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰‘ˆ•–‘ƒ–ƒǤ
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘–Š‡‘”‹‡•‘ˆ•–‘ƒ–ƒ‘’‡‹‰Ǥ

Sub-Topic 3: Gaseous Exchange in Animals



Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ x Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ ‰ƒ•‡‘—•
‰ƒ•‡‘—• ‡š…Šƒ‰‡ •—”ˆƒ…‡• ‹ ‡š…Šƒ‰‡•—”ˆƒ…‡•‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•
ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡…› ‘ˆ x –”—…–—”ƒŽ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
‰ƒ•‡‘—•‡š…Šƒ‰‡•—”ˆƒ…‡•ƒ† ‰ƒ•‡‘—• ‡š…Šƒ‰‡ •—”ˆƒ…‡• ‹
•–”—…–—”‡•Ǥ ’”‘–‘œ‘ƒǡ ™‘”•ǡ ‹•‡…–•ǡ ˆ‹•Šǡ
 ƒ’Š‹„‹ƒ•ƒ†ƒƒŽ•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ x ‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‘—–‡”
…‘—–‡”…—””‡–ˆŽ‘™•›•–‡Ǥ …—””‡–ˆŽ‘™•›•–‡
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ „”ƒ‹ x Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ „”ƒ‹ ‹
‹…‘–”‘ŽŽ‹‰„”‡ƒ–Š‹‰Ǥ …‘–”‘ŽŽ‹‰„”‡ƒ–Š‹‰
x …‘’ƒ”‡–Š‡‰ƒ•‡‘—•‡š…Šƒ‰‡ x ‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ ‰ƒ•‡‘—•
•—”ˆƒ…‡• ‹ ƒ“—ƒ–‹… ƒ† ‡š…Šƒ‰‡ •—”ˆƒ…‡• ‹ Žƒ† ƒ†
–‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ ™ƒ–‡”ƒ‹ƒŽ•
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‹••‡…–ǡ †‹•’Žƒ› ƒ† †”ƒ™ x –”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ‰ƒ•‡‘—• ‡š…Šƒ‰‡
‰ƒ•‡‘—• ‡š…Šƒ‰‡ •›•–‡• ‹ •›•–‡• ‹ –ƒ†’‘Ž‡•ǡ –‘ƒ†ǡ ˆ‹•Šǡ
ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ ‹•‡…–ǡƒ†ƒƒŽ
 x ƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ”ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ
x …‘ŽŽ‡…– ƒ† ƒƒŽ›•‡ †ƒ–ƒ ‘ „”‡ƒ–Š‹‰‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•
ˆƒ…–‘”•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰„”‡ƒ–Š‹‰”ƒ–‡
‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ƒ’Ž‡ ‘”‰ƒ‹••ǡ †‹••‡…–‹‘ •‡–Ȁ‹–•ǡ ’‹•ǡ †‹•ŠȀ„‘ƒ”†ǡ …ŠŽ‘”‘ˆ‘”ǡ
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡƒ†…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• ‰ƒ•‡‘—• ‡š…Šƒ‰‡ ‹ Ž‘™‡” ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ƒ† ƒ‹ƒŽ• —•‹‰
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ™‘” ‘ ‰ƒ•‡‘—• ‡š…Šƒ‰‡
•›•–‡•‹–ƒ†’‘Ž‡•ǡ–‘ƒ†Ȁˆ”‘‰ǡˆ‹•Šǡ‹•‡…–ǡƒƒŽǤ 



76
Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ †‹•‡ƒ•‡•‘ˆ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‘”›•›•–‡•Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ•‘‹‰‘Ž—‰•Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ ˜‡–‹Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ„—‹Ž†‹‰•ǡƒ“—ƒ”‹ƒǡ‡–…Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘‰ƒ•‡‘—•‡š…Šƒ‰‡‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡ȋ•Ȍ‘‰ƒ•‡‘—•‡š…Šƒ‰‡•›•–‡•‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ



77
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Topic 10: Respiration


—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͲͺ‡”‹‘†•

Overview
‡”‰›‹•”‡Ž‡ƒ•‡†ˆ”‘ˆ‘‘†„›”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘™Š‹…Š‘……—”•‹ƒŽŽŽ‹˜‹‰…‡ŽŽ•Ǥ
ŽŽ Ž‹˜‹‰ –Š‹‰• ‡‡† —•ƒ„Ž‡ ‡‡”‰› –‘ ‘˜‡ǡ ‰”‘™ǡ ”‡’”‘†—…‡ ƒ† ”‡’ƒ‹”
†ƒƒ‰‡† •–”—…–—”‡•Ǥ  Š‹• ‡‡”‰› ‹• ‘„–ƒ‹‡† –Š”‘—‰Š ‡‹–Š‡” ƒ‡”‘„‹… ‘”
ƒƒ‡”‘„‹…’”‘…‡••‡•.

General Objective
› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘‡š’Žƒ‹ Š‘™ Ž‹˜‹‰
‘”‰ƒ‹••‘„–ƒ‹‡‡”‰›ˆ”‘ˆ‘‘†Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Respiration
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ x ‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’„‡–™‡‡‰ƒ•‡‘—•
„‡–™‡‡ ‰ƒ•‡‘—• ‡š…Šƒ‰‡ ƒ† ‡š…Šƒ‰‡ƒ†”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘
”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ‹–‘…Š‘†”‹‘
ˆ—…–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‹–‘…Š‘†”‹‘Ǥ x ›’‡• ‘ˆ ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘ǣ ƒ‡”‘„‹…
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ ƒ‡”‘„‹… ƒ†ƒƒ‡”‘„‹…
ƒ†ƒƒ‡”‘„‹…”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡…–”‘ –”ƒ•’‘”–
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡…–”‘ •›•–‡ǡ Š›†”‘‰‡ ƒ……‡’–‘”•ǡ
–”ƒ•’‘”– •›•–‡ǡ Š›†”‘‰‡ ƒ…‡–›Ž …‘‡œ›‡  ƒ†
ƒ……‡’–‘”•ǡ ƒ…‡–›Ž …‘‡œ›‡  ’›”—˜‹…ƒ…‹†
ƒ†’›”—˜‹…ƒ…‹†Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ƒ…‡–›Ž x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ƒ…‡–›Ž …‘‡œ›‡  ‹
…‘‡œ›‡  ‹ –Š‡ –Š‡ ‡–ƒ„‘Ž‹• ‘ˆǣ
…ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡ǡ Ž‹’‹† ƒ† ’”‘–‡‹ …ƒ”„‘Š›†”ƒ–‡•ǡ Ž‹’‹†•ǡ
‡–ƒ„‘Ž‹•Ǥ ’”‘–‡‹•
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ’”‘†—…–• ‘ˆ x ”‘†—…–• ‘ˆ ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘ǣ
”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ …ƒ”„‘ †‹‘š‹†‡ǡ ‡‡”‰›ǡ
 ‡–Šƒ‘Žǡ™ƒ–‡”ǡŽƒ…–‹…ƒ…‹†
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ˆ‡”‡–ƒ–‹‘’”‘…‡••Ǥ x ‡”‡–ƒ–‹‘’”‘…‡••
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ x ”‘†—…–• ‘ˆ ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘ǣ
†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ ’”‘†—…–• ‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘ †‹‘š‹†‡ǡ ‡‡”‰›ǡ
”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ



78
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ •Š‘™ ‡–Šƒ‘Žǡ™ƒ–‡”ǡŽƒ…–‹…ƒ…‹†
–Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ƒ† x ƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ –Š‡ ”ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ
ƒ…–‹˜‹–›‘”ƒ–‡‘ˆ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘ǣ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ƒ†
 ƒ…–‹˜‹–›
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ƒ† x ƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ƒ‡”‘„‹… ƒ†
ƒƒŽ›•‡†ƒ–ƒ‘ˆƒ…–‘”•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ƒƒ‡”‘„‹… ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘
ƒ‡”‘„‹… ƒ† ƒƒ‡”‘„‹… ’”‘…‡••‡•
”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘’”‘…‡••‡•Ǥ 
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ ˆ‡”‡–ƒ–‹‘ x ‡”‡–ƒ–‹‘ ’”‘…‡••ǣ —•‡ ‹
’”‘…‡••‹›‡ƒ•–…‡ŽŽ•Ǥ ›‡ƒ•–…‡ŽŽ•

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ ‰Ž—…‘•‡ǡ ›‡ƒ•–ǡ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ
ˆŽƒ•ǡ”—„„‡”„—‰ǡ–Š‡”‘‡–‡”ǡ•–‘’…Ž‘…

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‡˜‹‡™ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ƒ ‹–‘…Š‘†”‹‘ ƒ† †‹•…—•• ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘ —•‹‰
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡–Š‡’”‘†—…–•‘ˆƒƒ‡”‘„‹…”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ •Š‘™ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ
–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ƒ†ƒ…–‹˜‹–›‘”ƒ–‡‘ˆ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡–•ǡ …‘ŽŽ‡…– ƒ† ƒƒŽ›•‡ †ƒ–ƒ ‘
ˆƒ…–‘”•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ƒ‡”‘„‹…ƒ†ƒƒ‡”‘„‹…”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘’”‘…‡••‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ …‘’ƒ”‹•‘ „‡–™‡‡ ƒ‡”‘„‹… ƒ† ƒƒ‡”‘„‹…
”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x
‹˜‡‘”ƒŽ“—‡•–‹‘•‘–Š‡’”‘…‡••‘ˆ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘†ƒ–ƒƒƒŽ›•‹•Ǥ

Practical Application
‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ „”‡™‹‰ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž
‹‹Ȍ „”‡ƒ†ƒ‹‰
‹‹‹Ȍ ˜‡–‹Žƒ–‹‘‹Š‘—•‡•



79
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Topic 11: Homeostasis


—”ƒ–‹‘ǣʹͺ‡”‹‘†•

Overview
‹–Š‹–Š‡„‘†›‘ˆƒ‘”‰ƒ‹•…‘’‘‡–•‘ˆƒ‹–‡”ƒŽ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒ”‡
…‘•–ƒ–Ž›”‡‰—Žƒ–‡†–‘‡•—”‡ƒ•–ƒ„Ž‡‹–‡”ƒŽ‡˜‹”‘‡–ǤŠ‹•‹•†‘‡
„›‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ˆ‡‡†„ƒ…ƒ†‡Ž‹‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ™ƒ•–‡•Ǥ

General Objective
› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡ ™Š› ƒ†
Š‘™–Š‡‹–‡”ƒŽ‡˜‹”‘‡–‘ˆƒ‘”‰ƒ‹•‹•‡’–…‘•–ƒ–Ǥ


Sub-Topic 1: General Principles of Homeostasis


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ƒ x ‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ƒ …‘•–ƒ–
…‘•–ƒ–‹–‡”ƒŽ‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ ‹–‡”ƒŽ‡˜‹”‘‡–
x •–ƒ–‡–Š‡ˆƒ…–‘”•™Š‹…Š—•–„‡ x ƒ…–‘”• ™Š‹…Š —•– „‡ ‡’–
‡’– …‘•–ƒ– ‹ –Š‡ ‹–‡”ƒŽ …‘•–ƒ– ‹ –Š‡ „‘†›ǣ ‰Ž—…‘•‡ǡ
‡˜‹”‘‡–‘ˆ–Š‡„‘†›Ǥ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ǡ ’ ǡ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ ‹‘•ǡ
 ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‘”› ‰ƒ•‡•ǡ ‘•‘–‹…
 ’”‡••—”‡‘ˆ„‘†›ˆŽ—‹†•
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ ˆ‡‡†„ƒ…
ˆ‡‡†„ƒ…‡…Šƒ‹•Ǥ ‡…Šƒ‹•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆ‡‡†„ƒ… x ‡‡†„ƒ… ‡…Šƒ‹• ”‡Žƒ–‡†
‡…Šƒ‹• ”‡Žƒ–‡† –‘ –Š‡ –‘ –Š‡ ‡†‘…”‹‡ ƒ† ‡”˜‘—•
‡†‘…”‹‡ƒ†‡”˜‘—••›•–‡•Ǥ •›•–‡• ‹ Š‘‡‘•–ƒ–‹…
 ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ ƒ‹ ‹–‡”ƒŽ ƒ† x ƒ—•‡• ‘ˆ …Šƒ‰‡• ‹ –Š‡
‡š–‡”ƒŽ …ƒ—•‡• ‘ˆ …Šƒ‰‡• ‹ ‹–‡”ƒŽ‡˜‹”‘‡–
–Š‡‹–‡”ƒŽ‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ǡ x ‘”ƒ–‹‘ǡ …‘’‘•‹–‹‘ ƒ†
…‘’‘•‹–‹‘ ƒ† ‘˜‡‡– ‘ˆ ‘˜‡‡– ‘ˆ –‹••—‡ ˆŽ—‹† ƒ†
–‹••—‡ ˆŽ—‹† ƒ† ‹–• ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ‹–• ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ –‘ –Š‡ „Ž‘‘†
–‘–Š‡„Ž‘‘†ƒ†Ž›’ŠǤ ƒ†Ž›’Š
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘”‡Žƒ–‡ x †ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• –‘
‘”‰ƒ‹••ǯ ™ƒ›• ‘ˆ Ž‹ˆ‡ –‘ –Š‡‹” †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ
‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ…‘†‹–‹‘•Ǥ …‘†‹–‹‘•



80
Teaching / Learning Resources
x Šƒ”–•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‡ˆ‹‡Š‘‡‘•–ƒ•‹•Ǥ
x ‹•…—••–Š‡ǣ
 ˆƒ…–‘”• ™Š‹…Š —•– „‡ ‡’– …‘•–ƒ– ‹ –Š‡ ‹–‡”ƒŽ ‡˜‹”‘‡–
—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
 ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ ˆ‡‡†„ƒ… ‡…Šƒ‹• ‹ Š‘‡‘•–ƒ•‹• —•‹‰
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‘ ˆ‹‡Ž† •–—†› ‘ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• –‘
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ…‘†‹–‹‘•Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ƒ“—‹œ‘–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ’”‹…‹’Ž‡•‘ˆŠ‘‡‘•–ƒ•‹•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”Ž‹˜‡”†‹•‡ƒ•‡•ƒ†•‘…‹ƒŽŠƒ„‹–•‡Ǥ‰Ǥ‡š…‡••‹˜‡…‘•—’–‹‘‘ˆ
ƒŽ…‘Š‘Žǡ†”—‰ƒ„—•‡ǡ‡–…

Sub-Topic 2: Regulation of Glucose



Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ Š‘”‘‡• ‹ x …–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹•—Ž‹ǡ ‰Ž—…ƒ‰‘ ƒ†
•—‰ƒ””‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘Ǥ ƒ†”‡ƒŽ‹‹„Ž‘‘†•—‰ƒ”…‘–”‘ŽǤ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ ˆ‡‡†„ƒ… x Š‡ ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ ˆ‡‡†„ƒ…
‡…Šƒ‹• ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ ‡…Šƒ‹• ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ
„Ž‘‘†‰Ž—…‘•‡…‘–”‘ŽǤ „Ž‘‘†‰Ž—…‘•‡…‘–”‘Ž
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ …ƒ—•‡• ƒ† ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ x ƒ—•‡•ƒ†‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆ„Ž‘‘†•—‰ƒ”
„Ž‘‘† •—‰ƒ” ‹„ƒŽƒ…‡• ‹ –Š‡ ‹„ƒŽƒ…‡•‹–Š‡„‘†›
„‘†›Ǥ 
x ”‡Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ ‹…”‘•–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ x ‹…”‘•–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ž‹˜‡”ǡ
Ž‹˜‡” ƒ† ’ƒ…”‡ƒ• –‘ –Š‡‹” ’ƒ…”‡ƒ•ƒ†–Š‡‹”ˆ—…–‹‘•
ˆ—…–‹‘•Ǥ 
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ž‹˜‡” x ‘Ž‡‘ˆ–Š‡Ž‹˜‡”ƒ†–Š‡’ƒ…”‡ƒ•
ƒ† –Š‡ ’ƒ…”‡ƒ• ‹ ”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹‰Ž—…‘•‡”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘
‰Ž—…‘•‡‹–Š‡„‘†›Ǥ



81
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x –‡•–—”‹‡•ƒ’Ž‡•ˆ‘”•—‰ƒ”Ǥ x †‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•—‰ƒ”‹—”‹‡
x ”‡Žƒ–‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ Ž‹˜‡” ƒ† x ‹•–‘Ž‘‰› ‘ˆ Ž‹˜‡” ƒ† ’ƒ…”‡ƒ•ǣ
’ƒ…”‡ƒ•–‘–Š‡‹”ˆ—…–‹‘Ǥ ‹…”‘•–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† –Š‡‹”
ˆ—…–‹‘

Teaching / Learning Resources


x Šƒ”–•Ȁ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ•ƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ—”‹‡
ˆ”‘ ’‡”•‘• ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ”ƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ ƒ‰‡ ƒ† ™‡‹‰Š–Ǥ  ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• —•‡† –‘
–‡•–ˆ‘”•—‰ƒ”ǡ•‡…–‹‘•‘ˆ’ƒ…”‡ƒ•ƒ†Ž‹˜‡”ǡ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‰Ž—…‘•‡‹–Š‡„‘†›—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ –‡•– ˆ‘” •—‰ƒ” ‹ —”‹‡ •ƒ’Ž‡• ˆ”‘ ’‡”•‘• ‘ˆ
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–”ƒ‰‡•‘ˆƒ‰‡ƒ†™‡‹‰Š–Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‡šƒ‹‡•‡…–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡Ž‹˜‡”ƒ†’ƒ…”‡ƒ•Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ƒ••‹‰‡– ‘ –Š‡ …ƒ—•‡•ǡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ƒ† …‘–”‘Ž ‘ˆ „Ž‘‘†
•—‰ƒ”‹„ƒŽƒ…‡•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ƒƒ‰‡‡–‘ˆ†‹ƒ„‡–‡•‡ŽŽ‹–—•Ǥ


Sub-Topic 3: Regulation of Respiratory Gases



Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ x ‘–”‘Ž‘ˆ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‘”›‰ƒ•‡•
”‡•’‹”ƒ–‘”›‰ƒ•‡•Ǥ 
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ˆ‡‡†„ƒ… x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ˆ‡‡†„ƒ… ‡…Šƒ‹•
‡…Šƒ‹• ‹ ”‡•’‘•‡ –‘ ‹ ”‡•’‘•‡ –‘ ‘š›‰‡
‘š›‰‡†‡’”‹˜ƒ–‹‘Ǥ †‡’”‹˜ƒ–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ x ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ ˆŽ—…–—ƒ–‹‘• ‹
ˆŽ—…–—ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‘”› ‘š›‰‡ ƒ† …ƒ”„‘ †‹‘š‹†‡
‰ƒ•‡•‘–Š‡”ƒ–‡‘ˆ„”‡ƒ–Š‹‰Ǥ ‰ƒ•‡•‘–Š‡”ƒ–‡‘ˆ„”‡ƒ–Š‹‰
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‘”› x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ‡†—ŽŽƒ”› …‡–”‡• ‹
…‡–”‡ ‹ –Š‡ „”ƒ‹ ‹ …‘–”‘ŽŽ‹‰ ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†



82
…‘–”‘ŽŽ‹‰ ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† „Ž‘‘†…‹”…—Žƒ–‹‘
„Ž‘‘†…‹”…—Žƒ–‹‘Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– x Š›•‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ …Šƒ‰‡• –Šƒ–
’Š›•‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ …Šƒ‰‡• –Šƒ– –ƒ‡ –ƒ‡’Žƒ…‡†—”‹‰‡š‡”…‹•‡ƒ†
’Žƒ…‡ †—”‹‰ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ƒ† ƒ– ƒ–Š‹‰ŠƒŽ–‹–—†‡
Š‹‰ŠƒŽ–‹–—†‡Ǥ
(Practical) 
x Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ x ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– Ž‡˜‡Ž• ‘ˆ
†‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡”ƒ–‡‘ˆ„”‡ƒ–Š‹‰ ƒ…–‹˜‹–› ‘ –Š‡ ”ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ
ƒ–†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–Ž‡˜‡Ž•‘ˆƒ…–‹˜‹–›Ǥ „”‡ƒ–Š‹‰

Teaching / Learning resources


x Šƒ”–•ǡ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡŠ—ƒ„‡‹‰•ǡ•–‘’…Ž‘…

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘†‹‘š‹†‡‹–Š‡„‘†›—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡–Š‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ’Š›•‹…ƒŽƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•‘–Š‡”ƒ–‡
‘ˆ„”‡ƒ–Š‹‰Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ‹–‡”’”‡–‹‰ †ƒ–ƒ ‘ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ
’Š›•‹…ƒŽƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•‘–Š‡”ƒ–‡‘ˆ„”‡ƒ–Š‹‰Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ Šƒ‡‘‰Ž‘„‹ —†‡” †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–
‘š›‰‡–‡•‹‘•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”˜‡–‹Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆŠ‘—•‡•

Sub-Topic 4: Temperature Regulation



Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡
–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘Ǥ ”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‘”’Š‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽǡ x ‘”’Š‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽǡ ’Š›•‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ƒ†
’Š›•‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ƒ† „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”ƒŽ „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”ƒŽ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘• –‘
ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘• –‘ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ …Šƒ‰‡• ‹ –Š‡
…Šƒ‰‡•‹–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ ‡˜‹”‘‡–
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ”‡•’‘•‡• –‘ …‘Ž† x ‡•’‘•‡ –‘ …‘Ž† ƒ† Š‘–



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TEACHING SYLLABUS

ƒ† Š‘– …‘†‹–‹‘• „› …‘†‹–‹‘• „› ‡†‘–Š‡”‹… ƒ†


‡†‘–Š‡”‹… ƒ† ‡…–‘–Š‡”‹… ‡…–‘–Š‡”‹…ƒ‹ƒŽ•
ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡”‘Ž‡‘ˆ–Š‡„”ƒ‹ƒ† x Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ „”ƒ‹ǣ
–Š‡”‘”‡…‡’–‘”• ‹ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ Š›’‘–ŠƒŽƒ—• ƒ†
”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘Ǥ –Š‡”‘”‡…‡’–‘”• ‹ Š‡ƒ–
 ”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ’”‘…‡••‡• x ‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡…‘–”‘Ž‹’Žƒ–•
‹ ™Š‹…Š ’Žƒ–• ‹‹‹•‡
‘˜‡”Š‡ƒ–‹‰Ǥ
(Practical) 
x Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ x ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ …‘†‹–‹‘•
…‘ŽŽ‡…–ƒ†‹–‡”’”‡–†ƒ–ƒ”‡Žƒ–‡† ‘ƒ‹ƒŽ„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”Ǥ
–‘ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ‘
ƒ‹ƒŽ„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”Ǥ


Teaching / Learning resources


x Šƒ”–•ǡ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ†ƒ–ƒ”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘ ‹ ‡…–‘–Š‡”• ƒ† ‡†‘–Š‡”• —•‹‰
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …‘ŽŽ‡…– ƒ† ƒƒŽ›•‡ †ƒ–ƒ ‘ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡
…‘†‹–‹‘•‘ƒ‹ƒŽ„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”ƒ•ƒ‘—–‘ˆ…Žƒ••ƒ…–‹˜‹–›Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ƒƒŽ›•‡†ƒ–ƒ”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Assessment Strategy
x ”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ‹–‡”’”‡–‹‰ †ƒ–ƒ ”‡Žƒ–‡† –‘ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡
”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ƒ……Ž‹ƒ–‹•ƒ–‹‘–‘†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‡˜‹”‘‡–•






84

Sub-Topic 5: Excretion

Specific Objectives Content


Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ”‘Ž‡ x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘• ‘ˆ
‘ˆ‡š…”‡–‘”›‘”‰ƒ•‹ƒƒŽ•Ǥ ‡š…”‡–‘”› ‘”‰ƒ• ‹ ƒƒŽ•ǣ
 ‹†‡›ǡŽ‹˜‡”ǡ•‹ƒ†Ž—‰•Ǥ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
ˆ—…–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‡’Š”‘Ǥ ‡’Š”‘
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ —”‡ƒ x ‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ—”‡ƒƒ†—”‹‡
ƒ†—”‹‡Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ‡š…”‡–‹‘ ’”‘…‡•• ‹ x š…”‡–‹‘ ‹ ‘–Š‡” ‘”‰ƒ‹••ǣ
‘–Š‡”‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ ’”‘–‘…–‹•–ƒǡ ‹•‡…–•ǡ ˆ‹•Šǡ
 ƒ’Š‹„‹ƒ•ƒ†„‹”†•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹‡š…”‡–‹‘‹’Žƒ–•Ǥ x š…”‡–‹‘‹’Žƒ–•
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ƒ† †”ƒ™ •‡…–‹‘• ‘ˆ x ‹•–‘Ž‘‰› ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹†‡›ǣ …‘”–‡šǡ
’ƒ”–•‘ˆ‹†‡›Ǥ ‡†—ŽŽƒǡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ”‡‰‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡
 ‡’Š”‘
x †‹••‡…–ǡ †‹•’Žƒ›ǡ †”ƒ™ ƒ† Žƒ„‡Ž x ”‹ƒ”› •›•–‡ ‘ˆ ƒ –‘ƒ†ǡ ”ƒ–Ȁ
–Š‡—”‹ƒ”›•›•–‡Ǥ ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ‰‘ƒ–Ȁ…ƒ––Ž‡

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ‹…”‘•…‘’‡ǡ’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•‘ˆ
‹†‡›•‡…–‹‘•ǡ‹•‡…–ǡ”ƒ–ǡƒ†–‘ƒ†ǡ†‹••‡…–‹‰Ǣ‹–ǡ„‘ƒ”†•ƒ††‹•Š‡•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••‡š…”‡–‹‘—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‹••‡…– ƒ‹ƒŽ• ƒ† †‹•’Žƒ› —”‹ƒ”› •–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ ƒ
‹•‡…–ǡ–‘ƒ†Ȁˆ”‘‰ƒ†”ƒ–Ȁ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ
—‹‡ƒ’‹‰Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ‡šƒ‹‡ ƒ† †”ƒ™ •‡…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‹†‡› —•‹‰ ƒ
‹…”‘•…‘’‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x ••‡•• Ž‘™ ’‘™‡” †”ƒ™‹‰• ‘ˆ •‡…–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹†‡›• ƒ† †‹••‡…–‹‘•
‘ˆ—”‹ƒ”›•›•–‡•Ǥ



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BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡š…”‡–‘”›
‘”‰ƒ•‹ƒƒŽ•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡‘”ƒŽ“—‡•–‹‘•‘‡š…”‡–‹‘‹’”‘–‘…–‹•–ƒǡ‹•‡…–•ǡƒ’Š‹„‹ƒ•ǡˆ‹•Š
ƒ†„‹”†•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ‹†‡›ˆƒ‹Ž—”‡ƒ†–”ƒ•’Žƒ–Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ Š›‰‹‡‡‘ˆ–Š‡—”‹ƒ”›•›•–‡Ǥ

Sub-Topic 6: Osmoregulation
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ „”ƒ‹ǡ x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š›’‘–ŠƒŽƒ—•ǡ
‡†‘…”‹‡ ‰Žƒ†• ƒ† ‡’Š”‘• ’‹–—‹–ƒ”›‰Žƒ†ǡƒ†”‡ƒŽ‰Žƒ†ƒ†
‹‘•‘”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘Ǥ ‡’Š”‘• ‹ ˜ƒ”›‹‰ ‘•‘–‹…
 ’”‡••—”‡‘ˆ„Ž‘‘†
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ ˆ‡‡†„ƒ… x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ ˆ‡‡†„ƒ…
‡…Šƒ‹• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ƒ–‹Ǧ ‡…Šƒ‹•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ƒ–‹Ǧ†‹—”‡–‹…
†‹—”‡–‹…Š‘”‘‡ȋ ȌǤ Š‘”‘‡ȋ Ȍ
x †‹•…—•• ’”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ x ”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ ‘•‘”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘ ‹
‘•‘”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘ ‹ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ƒ”‹‡ǡ ˆ”‡•Š ™ƒ–‡” ƒ†
Ž‹˜‹‰‹ƒ”‹‡ǡˆ”‡•Š™ƒ–‡”ƒ† –‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽ‘”‰ƒ‹••
–‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽŠƒ„‹–ƒ–•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ƒ‹ƒŽ•ǯ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘• –‘ x †ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ƒ‹ƒŽ• –‘ ˜ƒ”›‹‰
˜ƒ”›‹‰ ™ƒ–‡” ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‹ ™ƒ–‡”ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„‹Ž‹–›‹Šƒ„‹–ƒ–•
–Š‡‹”Šƒ„‹–ƒ–•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹‘•‘”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘‹’Žƒ–• x •‘”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘ ‹  ’Žƒ–•
ƒ† Š‘™ ’Žƒ–• ƒ”‡ ƒ†ƒ’–‡† –‘ ȋš‡”‘’Š›–‡•ǡ Š›†”‘’Š›–‡•ǡ
˜ƒ”›‹‰ ™ƒ–‡” ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‹ ‡•‘’Š›–‡•ǡŠƒŽ‘’Š›–‡•Ȍ
–Š‡‹”Šƒ„‹–ƒ–•Ǥ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••‘•‘”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘‹‘”‰ƒ‹••—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ



86
Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ‹–‡”’”‡–‹‰ †ƒ–ƒ ‘ ‘•‘”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘ ‹
‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ƒ••‹‰‡– ‘ …‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ •–”—…–—”‡• ˆ‘”
ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘•‹’Žƒ–•ˆ”‘†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‡˜‹”‘‡–•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”•—ˆˆ‹…‹‡–‹–ƒ‡‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”Ǥ



87
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

SENIOR SIX TERM TWO


Topic 12: Coordination
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͷ͸‡”‹‘†•

Overview
ŽŽ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• Šƒ˜‡ –Š‡ ƒ„‹Ž‹–› –‘ †‡–‡…– ƒ† ”‡•’‘† –‘ …Šƒ‰‡• ‹ –Š‡
‡š–‡”ƒŽ ƒ† ‹–‡”ƒŽ ‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ Žƒ–• ƒ† ƒ‹ƒŽ• Šƒ˜‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡†
…‘–”‘Ž•›•–‡•–Šƒ–”‡…‡‹˜‡•–‹—Ž‹ǡ’”‘…‡••–Š‡ƒ†‹‹–‹ƒ–‡ƒ’’”‘’”‹ƒ–‡
”‡•’‘•‡•Ǥ

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘‡š’Žƒ‹Š‘™‘”‰ƒ‹••
’‡”…‡‹˜‡ƒ†”‡•’‘†–‘•–‹—Ž‹Ǥ


Sub-Topic 1: Concepts of Reception and Response in


Plants
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• x ‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ –›’‡• ‘ˆ
„‡–™‡‡ –›’‡• ‘ˆ ’Žƒ– ”‡•’‘•‡• ‹ ’Žƒ–•ǣ ”‘’‹…ǡ ƒ•–‹…
”‡•’‘•‡•Ǥ ƒ† ’Š‘–‘’‡”‹‘†‹… ”‡•’‘•‡•ȋ‰‹˜‡
 ‡šƒ’Ž‡• ‘ˆ ’Žƒ– ”‡•’‘•‡• –‘
 •–‹—Ž‹Ȍ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ •‹’Ž‡ x ‹’Ž‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡
‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ –”‘’‹••
†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡–”‘’‹••Ǥ 
x ’”‡†‹…– –”‘’‹… ”‡•’‘•‡• x ƒ”–• –Šƒ– ”‡…‡‹˜‡ •–‹—Ž‹ ȋ‡”‹•–‡ǡ
‹ ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ Ž‡ƒ˜‡•ǡ’‡–ƒŽ•Ȍ
•‹–—ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ 
x ‹–‡”’”‡– †ƒ–ƒ ˆ”‘ x ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ †ƒ› Ž‡‰–Š ‘ ˆŽ‘™‡”‹‰
‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ Š‘™ †ƒ› ’”‘…‡••
Ž‡‰–Š ƒˆˆ‡…–• –Š‡
ˆŽ‘™‡”‹‰’”‘…‡••Ǥ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ Mimosa pudicaǡ •‡‡†Ž‹‰•ǡ
…Ž‹‘•–ƒ–•ƒ††ƒ”„‘š™‹–Š™‹†‘™‘‘‡•‹†‡



88
Suggested Teaching Procedure
x ‹•…—••–Š‡•–‹—Ž‹ǡ–Š‡’ƒ”––Šƒ–”‡…‡‹˜‡•–Š‡ƒ†”‡•’‘•‡‹’Žƒ–•ǡ
—•‹‰†‡‘•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ȁ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘†‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡ƒ•–‹…‘˜‡‡–•ƒ†–”‘’‹••Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ’‡”ˆ‘” ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ ƒ•–‹…
‘˜‡‡–•ƒ†–”‘’‹••.

Assessment Strategy
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ †ƒ–ƒ ‘ –”‘’‹•• ƒ† ‘
Š‘™†ƒ›Ž‡‰–Šƒˆˆ‡…–•–Š‡ˆŽ‘™‡”‹‰’”‘…‡••Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ˆŽ‘”‹…—Ž–—”‡
‹‹Ȍ ’”‘˜‹†‹‰ •—’’‘”– ˆ‘” …Ž‹„‹‰ ’Žƒ–• ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ ˜ƒ‹ŽŽƒǡ …Ž‹„‹‰ „‡ƒ•ǡ
’ƒ••‹‘ˆ”—‹–•
‹‹‹Ȍ ‘–™‡‡†‹‰’‡ƒ•

Sub-Topic 2: Plant Hormones


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ Š‘™ ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ x ˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ ˆƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–
ˆƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…– †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ ‘ˆ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘‘ˆ’Žƒ–Š‘”‘‡•
’Žƒ–Š‘”‘‡•Ǥ 
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‹ˆŽ—‡…‡ ‘ˆ x ˆŽ—‡…‡ ‘ˆ Š‘”‘‡• ‘ ’Žƒ–
Š‘”‘‡• ‘ ’Žƒ– ‰”‘™–Š ƒ† ‰”‘™–Šǣ ‘Ž‡ ƒ† ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ ’Žƒ–
”‡Žƒ–‡†’”‘…‡••‡•Ǥ Š‘”‘‡• ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ ƒ—š‹•ǡ …›–‘‹‹•ǡ
 ‰‹„„‡”‡ŽŽ‹•ǡ ƒ„•…‹•‹… ƒ…‹†ǡ ƒ†
 ‡–Šƒ‡Ȍ‹”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‰’”‘…‡••‡•
 x ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ †ƒ–ƒ ‘ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ
x ‹–‡”’”‡– ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ †ƒ–ƒ ‘ Š‘”‘‡• ‘ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ‰”‘™–Š
–Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ Š‘”‘‡• ‘ ’”‘…‡••‡•
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‰”‘™–Š’”‘…‡••‡•Ǥ x …‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ’Žƒ–
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡…‘‘‹… Š‘”‘‡•
‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ’Žƒ–Š‘”‘‡•Ǥ
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•‹‰ ƒ† ’‡”ˆ‘” x ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ ’Žƒ– Š‘”‘‡• ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ
‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ ’Žƒ– —š‹• Ȁ †‘Ž‡ ƒ…‡–‹… ƒ…‹† ȋ Ȍǡ



89
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Š‘”‘‡• ‘ ’Žƒ– ‰”‘™–Š ‰‹„„‡”‡ŽŽ‹… ƒ…‹† ‘ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ’Žƒ–


’”‘…‡••‡•Ǥ ‰”‘™–Š ’”‘…‡••ǣ †‘”ƒ…›ǡ ™‡‡†
 …‘–”‘ŽǡˆŽ‘™‡”‹‰ǡˆ”—‹–‹‰‡–…
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ‡…‘‘‹… x …‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ’Žƒ–
‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ’Žƒ–Š‘”‘‡•Ǥ Š‘”‘‡•

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ ’Š‘–‘‰”ƒ’Š•ǡ
•‡‡†•Ȁ•‡‡†Ž‹‰•Ȁ’Žƒ–•ƒ’Ž‡•ǡŠ‘”‘‡•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š ‹ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‘” „”ƒ‹•–‘”‹‰ ƒ†
†‹•…—••‹‘ ‘ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ǡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ƒ† ‡…‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ’Žƒ–
Š‘”‘‡•Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ǡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ƒ† ‡…‘‘‹… ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ’Žƒ– Š‘”‘‡•
—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ƒ††‡‘•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ ’Žƒ– Š‘”‘‡• ‘ ’Žƒ–
’”‘…‡••‡•—•‹‰‹†‘Ž‡ƒ…‡–‹…ƒ…‹†ȋ ȌǤ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ ’Žƒ– Š‘”‘‡• ‘ ’Žƒ–
‰”‘™–ŠǤ
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘–Š‡‡…‘‘‹…‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ’Žƒ–Š‘”‘‡•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ’”—‹‰
‹‹Ȍ —•‡‘ˆ’Žƒ–Š‘”‘‡•‡Ǥ‰Ǥ”‘‘–‹‰Š‘”‘‡‹—”•‡”‹‡•–‘’”‘‘–‡
—‹ˆ‘”•’”‘—–‹‰‘ˆ„—†•


Sub-Topic 3: Response and Behaviour in Animals


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹”‡ˆŽ‡š”‡•’‘•‡•Ǥ x ‡ˆŽ‡š”‡•’‘•‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ Š‘™ –›’‡• ‘ˆ x ›’‡• ‘ˆ „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”ǣ
„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” ”‡•—Ž– ˆ”‘ ‘”‹‡–ƒ–‹‘ ȋ‹‡•‹•ǡ –ƒš‹•ǡ
•‡“—‡–‹ƒŽ”‡•’‘•‡•Ǥ –‡””‹–‘”‹ƒŽǡ „”‡‡†‹‰ǡ ‹•–‹…–
 ƒ† ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘Ȍ Ž‡ƒ”‹‰



90
 ȋŠƒ„‹–—ƒŽǡ …‘†‹–‹‘‡† ”‡ˆŽ‡šǡ
 ‹’”‹–‹‰‡š’Ž‘”ƒ–‹‘ǡ‹•‹‰Š–ǡ
 –”‹ƒŽƒ†‡””‘”
x ”‡Žƒ–‡ Ž‡ƒ”‹‰ ƒ† ”‡•’‘•‡ x ‡ƒ”‹‰ ƒ† ”‡•’‘•‡• ˆ‘”
ȋ‹‡•‹• ƒ† –ƒš‹•ǡ ‘”‹‡–ƒ–‹‘ •—”˜‹˜ƒŽ‹–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–
„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”Ȍ ˆ‘” •—”˜‹˜ƒŽ ‹ –Š‡ 
‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ
x š’Žƒ‹™‡Žˆƒ”‡‘ˆƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ x ‹ƒŽ ™‡Žˆƒ”‡ǣ ’”‘’‡”
Šƒ†Ž‹‰‘ˆƒ‹ƒŽ•‹”‡Žƒ–‹‘
–‘„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ™‡Žˆƒ”‡ ‘ˆ x ”ƒ…–‹…‡•‘ˆƒ‹ƒŽ™‡Žˆƒ”‡
ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ 
x †‡•‹‰ ƒ† ’‡”ˆ‘” x ”‹‡–ƒ–‹‘„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”
‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ ‘”‹‡–ƒ–‹‘
„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”Ǥ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ •ƒ’Ž‡ ƒ‹ƒŽ•ǡ ȋ™‡‡˜‹Ž•ǡ
‹ŽŽ‹’‡†‡•ǡ ™‘‘†Ž‹…‡ǡ –‡”‹–‡•Ȍǡ ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ •–‹—Ž‹ ȋ‡Ž‡…–”‹…‹–›ǡ Ž‹‰Š–ǡ ‡–…Ȍ
‘” ƒ–—”ƒŽ •–‹—Ž‹ ‹ –Š‡ ‡˜‹”‘‡–ǡ …Š‘‹…‡ …Šƒ„‡”ǡ …ƒŽ…‹—
…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡ǡ…‘––‘™‘‘Žǡ™‹”‡‰ƒ—œ‡

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••”‡•’‘•‡ƒ†„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡”‡•’‘•‡•‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ

Assessment strategy
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ †ƒ–ƒ ‘ ”‡•’‘•‡ ƒ†
„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ

Practical application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ •–‘”ƒ‰‡‘ˆ’”‘†—…–•‡Ǥ‰Ǥ•‡‡†•ǡ–‹„‡”
‹‹Ȍ –”ƒ’’‹‰‘ˆ‰”ƒ••Š‘’’‡”•ǡ–‡”‹–‡•



91
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Sub-Topic 4: General Principles of Reception and


Response in Animals
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡…‡••‹–› ‘ˆ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ”‡•’‘•‡•–‘–Š‡
”‡•’‘†‹‰ –‘ ‹–‡”ƒŽ ƒ† ‹–‡”ƒŽ ƒ† ‡š–‡”ƒŽ
‡š–‡”ƒŽ …Šƒ‰‡• ‹ –Š‡ ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ…Šƒ‰‡•
‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡–›’‡•‘ˆ•–‹—Ž‹Ǥ x ›’‡•‘ˆ…Š‡‹…ƒŽƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ
 •–‹—Ž‹
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ”‘Ž‡ x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ •‹’Ž‡ ƒ† …‘’Ž‡š
‘ˆ”‡…‡’–‘”‘”‰ƒ•‹”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘ ”‡…‡’–‘”• ȋ‹…Ž—†‹‰ ”‡…‡’–‹‘
–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ•–‹—Ž‹Ǥ ‡…Šƒ‹••Ȍ‹”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘–Š‡
 ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ•–‹—Ž‹
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‘”• ‹
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‡ˆˆ‡…–‘”•‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ ‘”‰ƒ‹••
x ‹–‡”’”‡– †ƒ–ƒ †‡”‹˜‡† ˆ”‘ x ‹ƒŽ ”‡•’‘•‡ –‘ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”
‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ ƒ‹ƒŽ •–‹—Ž‹ ƒ† ‘ ‡‘”›
”‡•’‘•‡• –‘ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ” •–‹—Ž‹ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘
ƒ†‘‡‘”›ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
(Practical) 
The learner should be able to: 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› •‡…–‹‘• ‘ˆǣ •‹ǡ ‡›‡ǡ x –”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆǣ •‹ǡ ‡›‡ǡ ”‡–‹ƒǡ
”‡–‹ƒǡ …‘…ŠŽ‡ƒ ˆ”‘ ’”‡’ƒ”‡† …‘…ŠŽ‡ƒˆ”‘’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•
•Ž‹†‡•Ǥ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› Ž‘…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– x ‘…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –ƒ•–‡ „—†• ‘ –Š‡
–ƒ•–‡„—†•‘–Š‡–‘‰—‡Ǥ –‘‰—‡Ǥ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ •ƒ’Ž‡ ƒ‹ƒŽ•ǣ –‘ƒ† Ȁ ˆ”‘‰ǡ
…‘™Ȁ ”ƒ–Ȁ ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ ‰—‹‡ƒ ’‹‰ǡ ƒ”–Š”‘’‘†ǡ ˆ‹•Šǡ ”‡’–‹Ž‡ǡ ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡ
’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•‘ˆ•‹ǡ‡›‡ǡ”‡–‹ƒǡƒ†…‘…ŠŽ‡ƒ
x ‘Ž—–‹‘•‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡––ƒ•–‡•ǣ•™‡‡–ǡ„‹––‡”ǡ•‘—”ǡ•ƒŽ–›
x ‘†‡Ž•‘ˆǣ‡›‡ǡ‡ƒ”ǡ•‹

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ’”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ ”‡…‡’–‹‘ ƒ† ”‡•’‘•‡• ‹ ƒ‹ƒŽ•
—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ



92
‹Ȍ ‘„•‡”˜‡”‡•’‘•‡•‹•ƒ’Ž‡ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ‡šƒ‹‡ •Ž‹†‡• ‘ˆ •‡…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ’ƒ”–• ‘ˆ ”‡…‡’–‘” ‘”‰ƒ• —•‹‰
‹…”‘•…‘’‡•Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ ’‡”ˆ‘”ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡––‘Ž‘…ƒ–‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡––›’‡•‘ˆ–ƒ•–‡„—†•‘–Š‡
–‘‰—‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategy

‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ‹–‡”’”‡–‹‰ †ƒ–ƒ ‘ ƒ‹ƒŽ ”‡•’‘•‡• –‘
’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”•–‹—Ž‹ƒ†‡‘”›ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Practical Application
‘•‹†‡”…ƒ”‹‰ˆ‘”•‡•‘”›‘”‰ƒ•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 5: Nervous Coordination in Animals


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ ‘ˆ
ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰‘ˆƒ‡—”‘Ǥ ƒ‡—”‘
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’ƒ”–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ x ‡”˜‘—• •›•–‡ •–”—…–—”‡
‡”˜‘—••›•–‡Ǥ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘ ȋ…‡–”ƒŽǣ „”ƒ‹ǡ
 •’‹ƒŽ …‘”† ƒ† ƒ—–‘‘‹…ǣ
 …”ƒ‹ƒŽ ‡”˜‡•ǡ •’‹ƒŽ
 ‡”˜‡•Ȍ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡”˜‘—• x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡”˜‘—• •›•–‡
•›•–‡‹”‡•’‘•‡•Ǥ ‹”‡•’‘•‡•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ƒ—–‘‘‹… x —–‘‘‹… ”‡•’‘•‡•
”‡•’‘•‡•Ǥ ȋ•‹’Ž‡”‡ˆŽ‡š‡•ǡ…‘†‹–‹‘‡†
 ”‡ˆŽ‡š‡•Ȍ
x •–ƒ–‡ ‡šƒ’Ž‡• ‘ˆ ƒ—–‘‘‹… x šƒ’Ž‡• ‘ˆ ƒ—–‘‘‹…
”‡•’‘•‡•Ǥ ”‡•’‘•‡•
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡• ‘ˆ x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ—–‘‘‹… ƒ†
–Š‡ ƒ—–‘‘‹… ƒ† ‘–Š‡” ’‡”‹’Š‡”ƒŽ‡”˜‡•
’‡”‹’Š‡”ƒŽ‡”˜‡•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡˜‡–• ‘ˆ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‰ x ˜‡–• ‘ˆ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‰ ƒ†
ƒ†–”ƒ•‹––‹‰‹’—Ž•‡•Ǥ –”ƒ•‹––‹‰‹’—Ž•‡•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† x ›ƒ’•‡ ƒ† ‡—”‘—•…—Žƒ”
ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ •›ƒ’•‡ ƒ† Œ—…–‹‘  •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ†
‡—”‘—•…—Žƒ”Œ—…–‹‘Ǥ ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ –”ƒ•‹––‡”
–”ƒ•‹––‡”•—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ •—„•–ƒ…‡•



93
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

x ‡š’Žƒ‹ •—ƒ–‹‘ǡ ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‹‘ x ›•–‡ ˆ—…–‹‘•ǣ


ƒ†‹Š‹„‹–‹‘Ǥ •—ƒ–‹‘ǡ ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
‹Š‹„‹–‹‘
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‘„•‡”˜‡ ƒ† ”‡…‘”† Š—ƒ x ‡ˆŽ‡š ƒ…–‹‘• ‹ Š—ƒ
”‡•’‘•‡•–‘†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–•–‹—Ž‹Ǥ „‡‹‰•
x †‹••‡…–ǡ †‹•’Žƒ›ǡ †”ƒ™ ƒ† Žƒ„‡Ž 
–Š‡ ƒŒ‘” ’ƒ”–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹•‡…–ǯ• Ȁ x ‡”˜‘—• •›•–‡ ‘ˆ ƒ
–‘ƒ†ǯ•Ȁ ˆ”‘‰ǯ•ǡ ƒƒŽǯ• ‡”˜‘—• …‘…”‘ƒ…ŠȀ–‘ƒ† Ȁˆ”‘‰Ȁ”ƒ–Ȁ
•›•–‡„‡Ž‘™–Š‡Š‡ƒ†Ǥ ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ
—‹‡ƒ’‹‰

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ•ƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆƒ‹ƒŽ•ǡ•–‹—Ž‹‡Ǥ‰Ǥ
Š‡ƒ–ǡ …‘Ž†ǡ –‘—…Šǡ •‘—†Ǥ …‘…”‘ƒ…Š‡•ǡ –‘ƒ† Ȁˆ”‘‰ǡ ”ƒ–Ȁ ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ
—‹‡ƒ
’‹‰ǡ †‹••‡…–‹‰ „‘ƒ”†• Ȁ†‹•Š‡•ǡ †‹••‡…–‹‰ •‡–ǡ –Š”‡ƒ†ǡ ’‹•ǡ …ŠŽ‘”‘ˆ‘”ǡ
†‹••‡…–‹‰‰—‹†‡

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••‡”˜‘—•…‘‘”†‹ƒ–‹‘‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
 ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡ ”‡•’‘•‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ •ƒ’Ž‡ ƒ‹ƒŽ• ȋ™‡‡˜‹Ž•ǡ ‹ŽŽ‹’‡†‡•ǡ
™‘‘†Ž‹…‡ǡ–‡”‹–‡•ǡŠ—ƒ•Ȍ–‘•–‹—Ž‹Ǥ
 †‹••‡…–ǡ †‹•’Žƒ›ǡ †”ƒ™ ƒ† Žƒ„‡Ž –Š‡ ƒŒ‘” ’ƒ”–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡”˜‘—•
•›•–‡‘ˆƒ…‘…”‘ƒ…Šǡ–‘ƒ†Ȁˆ”‘‰ǡ”ƒ–Ȁ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ‰—‹‡ƒ’‹‰Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘‡”˜‘—•…‘‘”†‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x ••‡••–Š‡†”ƒ™‹‰•‘ˆ†‹••‡…–‹‘••Š‘™‹‰ƒŒ‘”’ƒ”–•‘ˆ–Š‡‡”˜‘—•
•›•–‡‘ˆ–Š‡•ƒ’Ž‡ƒ‹ƒŽ•ȋ…‘…”‘ƒ…Šǡ–‘ƒ†Ȁˆ”‘‰ǡ”ƒ–Ȁ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ‰—‹‡ƒ
’‹‰ȌǤ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”•—”˜‹˜ƒŽ”‡ˆŽ‡š‡•

Sub-Topic 6: Hormonal Coordination in Animals


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ



94
ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡†‘…”‹‡ ‡†‘…”‹‡ •›•–‡ǣ Ž‘…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
•›•–‡Ǥ ‡†‘…”‹‡ ‰Žƒ†• ƒ†
 ˆ—…–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡‹”•‡…”‡–‹‘•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’”‹…‹’Ž‡‘ˆ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ x ”‹…‹’Ž‡•‘ˆ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ˆ‡‡†„ƒ…
ˆ‡‡†„ƒ… ‡…Šƒ‹• ‘ˆ ‡…Šƒ‹• ‘ˆ Š‘”‘ƒŽ
Š‘”‘ƒŽƒ…–‹‘Ǥ ƒ…–‹‘ǣ „‡–™‡‡ ’‹–—‹–ƒ”› ƒ†
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ™Š› Š‘”‘ƒŽ „ƒŽƒ…‡ –Š›”‘‹†
‹• ‡…‡••ƒ”› ˆ‘” …‘‘”†‹ƒ–‹‰ x ‡…‡••‹–› ‘ˆ Š‘”‘ƒŽ
ˆ—…–‹‘•‹–Š‡„‘†›Ǥ „ƒŽƒ…‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ Š‘”‘ƒŽ 
‹„ƒŽƒ…‡•Ǥ 
 x ‘”‘ƒŽ ‹„ƒŽƒ…‡• ‡ˆˆ‡…–•ǣ
x …‘’ƒ”‡ ƒ† …‘–”ƒ•– –Š‡ †‹ƒ„‡–‡•ǡ ‰‘‹–”‡ǡ †™ƒ”ˆ‹•ǡ
ƒ…–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡†‘…”‹‡ ƒ† ‰‹‰ƒ–‹•
‡”˜‘—••›•–‡•‹–Š‡„‘†›Ǥ x ‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡
 Š‘”‘ƒŽ ƒ† ‡”˜‘—•
•›•–‡•Ǥ‡ˆ‡”–‘ǣ–Š›”‘š‹ǡ•‡š
Š‘”‘‡•ǡ‹•—Ž‹

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••–Š‡ǣ
‹Ȍ Ž‘…ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‡†‘…”‹‡ ‰Žƒ†• —•‹‰ ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•
Ȁ…Šƒ”–•Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ˆ‡‡†„ƒ…‡…Šƒ‹•‘ˆŠ‘”‘ƒŽƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ ‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆŠ‘”‘ƒŽ‹„ƒŽƒ…‡‹ƒƒŽ•Ǥ
‹˜Ȍ •‹‹Žƒ”‹–‹‡• ƒ† †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ†
ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰‘ˆ‡”˜‘—•ƒ†Š‘”‘ƒŽ•›•–‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ …‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š‘”‘ƒŽ ƒ† ‡”˜‘—•
…‘‘”†‹ƒ–‹‘‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ …‘’ƒ”‹•‘ „‡–™‡‡ Š‘”‘ƒŽ …‘–”‘Ž ‹
’Žƒ–•ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”Š‘”‘ƒŽ–Š‡”ƒ’›Ǥ



95
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

    


Topic 13: Support and Movement
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣ͵ͳ‡”‹‘†•

Overview
‹˜‹‰–Š‹‰••—’’‘”––Š‡•‡Ž˜‡•ƒ†ƒ‹–ƒ‹’‘•‹–‹‘•‹™Š‹…Š–Š‡›…ƒ
…ƒ””› ‘—– Ž‹ˆ‡ ’”‘…‡••Ǥ  ƒŽŽ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• –Š‡ •—’’‘”– •›•–‡• ƒ‹–ƒ‹ –Š‡
•Šƒ’‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ „‘†› –Šƒ– ‹• ‡••‡–‹ƒŽ ˆ‘” …‘•‹•–‡– ƒ† …‘‘”†‹ƒ–‡†
ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ ‘ˆ ‹–• ’ƒ”–•Ǥ  Žƒ– …‡ŽŽ• ƒ”‡ •—””‘—†‡† „› ƒ …‡ŽŽ ™ƒŽŽ ™Š‹…Š
…‘ˆ‡”• ”‹‰‹†‹–› ƒ† •—’’‘”– ‹ –—”‰‹† …‡ŽŽ•ǡ ™Š‡”‡ƒ• —Ž–‹…‡ŽŽ—Žƒ” ƒ‹ƒŽ•
ƒ”‡ •—’’‘”–‡† ƒ† ’”‘–‡…–‡† „› ƒ •‡Ž‡–‘Ǥ  ‘˜‡‡– …ƒ ‘……—” ƒ– …‡ŽŽ
Ž‡˜‡Žǡ‘”‰ƒŽ‡˜‡Žƒ†‘”‰ƒ‹•Ž‡˜‡Ž.

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡–Š‡”‘Ž‡‘ˆ
•—’’‘”–ƒ†‘˜‡‡–•›•–‡•‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Support Systems in Plants and Animals



Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ ‘ˆ x ‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ ‘ˆ ™‘‘†›
™‘‘†›–‹••—‡•‹’Žƒ–•Ǥ –‹••—‡•‹’Žƒ–•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •—’’‘”– ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ x —’’‘”– ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ™‘‘†›
™‘‘†›–‹••—‡•‹’Žƒ–•Ǥ –‹••—‡•‹’Žƒ–•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ …‡ŽŽ –—”‰‘” ‹ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ …‡ŽŽ –—”‰‘”  ‹
‘™‘‘†›’Žƒ–•ƒ†Š›†”‘•–ƒ–‹… ‘ ™‘‘†› –‹••—‡• ƒ†
•‡Ž‡–‘•‹Ž‘™‡”‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ Š›†”‘•–ƒ–‹… •‡Ž‡–‘•  ‹
 ’”‘–‘œ‘ƒǡ …‘‡Ž‡–‡”ƒ–‡• ƒ†
 ’Žƒ–›Š‡Ž‹–Š‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡”‘Ž‡‘ˆ‘†‹ˆ‹‡†”‘‘–• x ’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ’Žƒ– ‘”‰ƒ•
Ž‡ƒ˜‡•ƒ†•–‡•‹•—’’‘”–Ǥ ‘†‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆǣ –‡†”‹Ž•ǡ
 ’”‘’ ”‘‘–•ǡ …Žƒ•’‹‰ ”‘‘–•ǡ
 „—––”‡••”‘‘–•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ •‡…‘†ƒ”› x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ •‡…‘†ƒ”› ‰”‘™–ŠȀ
‰”‘™–ŠȀ–Š‹…‡‹‰‹•—’’‘”–Ǥ –Š‹…‡‹‰‹•—’’‘”–
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡ƒ†”‘Ž‡‘ˆ x ›’‡• ‘ˆ •‡Ž‡–‘•ǣ
•‡Ž‡–‘•Ǥ ›†”‘•–ƒ–‹…ǡ ‡š‘•‡Ž‡–‘ǡ
‡†‘•‡Ž‡–‘



96
x …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– –›’‡• ‘ˆ x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡
•‡Ž‡–‘•Ǥ •‡Ž‡–‘ǣ Š›†”‘•–ƒ–‹…ǡ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‹…”‘ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ‡š‘•‡Ž‡–‘ ƒ†
…ƒ”–‹Žƒ‰‡ ƒ† „‘‡ ƒ† ”‡Žƒ–‡ ‡†‘•‡Ž‡–‘ 
–Š‡‹”•–”—…–—”‡–‘ˆ—…–‹‘Ǥ x ‹…”‘•–”—…–—”‡ƒ†ˆ—…–‹‘
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ Ž‹„• ƒ• ‘ˆ…ƒ”–‹Žƒ‰‡ƒ†„‘‡
’”‘’• ƒ† ˜‡”–‡„”ƒŽ …‘Ž— ƒ• 
‰‹”†‡”Ǥ x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ Ž‹„• ƒ• ’”‘’• ȋˆ‘”
˜‡”–‹…ƒŽ •—’’‘”–Ȍ ƒ† –Š‡
˜‡”–‡„”ƒŽ …‘Ž— ƒ• ‰‹”†‡”
ȋˆ‘”Š‘”‹œ‘–ƒŽ•—’’‘”–Ȍ
Support Systems in Organisms 
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‘„•‡”˜‡ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– x —’’‘”–‹‰ •›•–‡• ƒ†
•‹œ‡• ƒ† ”‡Žƒ–‡ –Š‡‹” •—’’‘”– ‘”‰ƒ‹•ǯ••‹œ‡
•›•–‡•–‘–Š‡‹”•‹œ‡•Ǥ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ƒ† †”ƒ™ •—’’‘”– x —’’‘”– •–”—…–—”‡• ƒ†
•–”—…–—”‡• ƒ† –‹••—‡• ‹ ’Žƒ–• –‹••—‡•‹’Žƒ–•ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ•
ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ ‘†‡Ž•ǡ •ƒ’Ž‡ •–—†›
‘”‰ƒ‹•• ȋ’Žƒ–•ǡ ‡ƒ”–Š™‘”•ǡ ‹•‡…–•ǡ ˆ‹•Šǡ –‘ƒ†• Ȁ ˆ”‘‰•ǡ ƒƒŽ•ǡ
„‹”†•Ȍǡ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡ’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•‘ˆ…ƒ”–‹Žƒ‰‡ƒ†„‘‡

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•••—’’‘”–•›•–‡•‹’Žƒ–•ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
‹Ȍ ‡šƒ‹‡’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•‘ˆ…ƒ”–‹Žƒ‰‡ǡ„‘‡ǡǤǤ•–‡Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ‘„•‡”˜‡’Žƒ–’ƒ”–•‘†‹ˆ‹‡†ˆ‘”•—’’‘”–Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘”‡Žƒ–‹‰–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ•—’’‘”–•›•–‡•‹
‘”‰ƒ‹••–‘–Š‡‹”ˆ—…–‹‘•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ›‹‰ •—’’‘”– •–”—…–—”‡• ‹ ’Žƒ–•ǡ
‹˜‡”–‡„”ƒ–‡•ƒ†˜‡”–‡„”ƒ–‡•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ”‘’‡”ˆ‡‡†‹‰–‘‡•—”‡’”‘’‡”„‘‡ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘



97
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

‹‹Ȍ ‹”•–ƒ‹†ˆ‘”ˆ”ƒ…–—”‡•
‹‹‹Ȍ
‘‘†’‘•–—”‡
‹˜Ȍ ‹•‡ƒ•‡•‘ˆ•—’’‘”–•–”—…–—”‡•

Sub-Topic 2: Muscles
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ƒ x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆ—•…Ž‡•ƒ†Œ‘‹–•
—•…Ž‡ƒ†ƒŒ‘‹–Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡ƒ””ƒ‰‡‡–ƒ† x ””ƒ‰‡‡– ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ
ˆ—…–‹‘‘ˆ—•…Ž‡•ƒ†Œ‘‹–•Ǥ —•…Ž‡•ƒ†Œ‘‹–•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡•Ž‹†‹‰Š›’‘–Š‡•‹• x Š‡ •Ž‹†‹‰ ˆ‹Žƒ‡– Š›’‘–Š‡•‹•
‘ˆ—•…—Žƒ”…‘–”ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ ‘ˆ—•…Ž‡…‘–”ƒ…–‹‘

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘• …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ ‘†‡Ž•ǡ ’”‡’ƒ”‡† •Ž‹†‡•
‘ˆ•‡Ž‡–ƒŽ—•…Ž‡ˆ‹„”‡•ƒ†ǤǤ—•…Ž‡ǡ‹…”‘•…‘’‡Ǥ

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† …‘–”ƒ…–‹‘ ‘ˆ •‡Ž‡–ƒŽ —•…Ž‡ —•‹‰
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ‡šƒ‹‡ ’”‡’ƒ”‡† •Ž‹†‡• ‘ˆ •‡Ž‡–ƒŽ —•…Ž‡• ƒ†
•‡Ž‡–ƒŽ—•…Ž‡ˆ‹„”‡Ǥ 

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘‡…Šƒ‹•‘ˆ—•…—Žƒ”…‘–”ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
x ••‡••–Š‡†”ƒ™‹‰•‘ˆ•‡Ž‡–ƒŽ—•…Ž‡Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ —•…Ž‡’—ŽŽ–Š‡”ƒ’›
‹‹Ȍ ’”‘’‡”™ƒ”‹‰—’„‡ˆ‘”‡‡š‡”…‹•‡ƒ†…‘‘Ž‹‰†‘™ƒˆ–‡”‡š‡”…‹•‡



98


Sub-Topic 3: Movement / Locomotion


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‘Ǧ—•…—Žƒ” x ‘Ǧ —•…—Žƒ” ‘˜‡‡–• ‘”
‘˜‡‡–•‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ ‘˜‡‡– ™‹–Š‘—– —•…Ž‡•ǣ
 ƒ‘‡„‘‹†ǡ …‹Ž‹ƒ–‡†ǡ ˆŽƒ‰‡ŽŽƒǡ
 ‡—‰Ž‡‘‹†
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ƒ””ƒ‰‡‡– ‘ˆ x ””ƒ‰‡‡–‘ˆ—•…Ž‡•‹ˆ‹•Š
—•…Ž‡•‹ˆ‹•ŠǤ 
 x ‘˜‡‡– ƒ† •—’’‘”– ‘ˆ ˆ‹•Š
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ Š‘™ ‘˜‡‡–• ƒ† ‹™ƒ–‡”ǣ’”‘’—Ž•‹‘ǡ•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›
•—’’‘”–‘ˆˆ‹•Šƒ”‡„”‘—‰Š–ƒ„‘—– 
‹™ƒ–‡”Ǥ x —’’‘”–ƒ†‘˜‡‡–‘Žƒ†
x †‡•…”‹„‡ •—’’‘”– ƒ† ‘˜‡‡– Ȁ —•…—Žƒ” •‡Ž‡–ƒŽ „ƒ•‹• ‘ˆ
‘Žƒ†Ǥ Ž‘…‘‘–‹‘ǡ ’”‘’—Ž•‹‘ ‹ –Š‡ǣ
 ™ƒŽ‹‰ –‡–”ƒ’‘†• ȋƒƒŽ•Ȍǡ
 „‹”†•ƒ†ƒ‡Ž‹†•
 x  Ž‹‰Š– Ȁ‘˜‡‡– ‹ ƒ‹” ‹
 „‹”†•ƒ†‹•‡…–•
x …‘’ƒ”‡ ˆŽ‹‰Š– ‹ „‹”†• ƒ† x ‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ Œ—’‹‰
‹•‡…–•Ǥ ‘˜‡‡–• ‹ ‰”ƒ••Š‘’’‡”•
x …‘’ƒ”‡ Œ—’‹‰ ‘˜‡‡–• ‹ ƒ†–‘ƒ†•
‰”ƒ••Š‘’’‡”•ƒ†–‘ƒ†•Ǥ
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‘„•‡”˜‡ ƒ† ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ x ‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ —•…Ž‡•ǡ
”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ —•…Ž‡•ǡ Œ‘‹–• ƒ† —•…—Ž‘Ǧ•‡Ž‡–ƒŽ
Œ‘‹–• ƒ† —•…—Ž‘Ǧ•‡Ž‡–ƒŽ ƒ––ƒ…Š‡–•ǣ –ƒ‰‘‹•–‹…
ƒ––ƒ…Š‡–•Ǥ —•…Ž‡• ‹ ƒ‹ƒŽ•ǣ ˆ‹•Š
 ›‘–‘‡•ǡ ’‡…–‘”ƒŽ —•…Ž‡• ‹
 „‹”†•ǡ Š‹† Ž‹„ —•…Ž‡• ƒ†
 —•…Ž‡• ‹ –Š‡ ’‡Ž˜‹… ”‡‰‹‘ ‘ˆ
 ƒ’Š‹„‹ƒ•ƒ†ƒƒŽ•
 x ‘”‡ Ž‹„ ƒ† •–‡”—
x ‘„•‡”˜‡ ƒ† †‡•…”‹„‡ •‡Ž‡–ƒŽ ‘†‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‹„‹”†•
‘†‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘•‹„‹”†•Ǥ x —’’‘”– •–”—…–—”‡• ‹ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘
x ‘„•‡”˜‡ ƒ† ‡š’Žƒ‹ Š‘™ –Š‡ –‘ –Š‡ ‡˜‹”‘‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡
•—’’‘”– •–”—…–—”‡• ƒ”‡ ”‡Žƒ–‡† –‘ ƒ‹ƒŽ
–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‹ƒŽǤ



99
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘• …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ ‘†‡Ž•ǡ •ƒ’Ž‡ •–—†›
ƒ‹ƒŽ•ǡ„‘ƒ”†•ǡ†‹•Š‡•ǡ’‹•ǡ…ŠŽ‘”‘ˆ‘”ǡ…‘––‘™‘‘Žǡ–Š”‡ƒ†Ǥ

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••‘˜‡‡–ȀŽ‘…‘‘–‹‘™‹–Š‘—–—•…Ž‡•ǡ‘˜‡‡–‹™ƒ–‡”ǡ
‘Žƒ†ǡƒ†‹–Š‡ƒ‹”ǡ—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–†‹••‡…–‹‘–‘•Š‘™’‡”‹’Š‡”ƒŽ—•…Ž‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ …‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ ˆŽ‹‰Š– ‹ „‹”†• ƒ† ‹•‡…–•ǡ
Œ—’‹‰‘˜‡‡–•‹‰”ƒ••Š‘’’‡”•ƒ†–‘ƒ†•Ȁˆ”‘‰•Ǥ
x ••‡••–Š‡†‹•’Žƒ›‹‰ǡ†”ƒ™‹‰ƒ†Žƒ„‡ŽŽ‹‰‘ˆ—•…Ž‡•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ •–”—…–—”ƒŽ‡‰‹‡‡”‹‰
‹‹Ȍ ‘˜‡‡–•‹•’‘”–•ƒ††ƒ…‹‰
‹‹‹Ȍ …ƒ”‡ˆ‘”–Š‡—•…—Ž‘Ǧ•‡Ž‡–ƒŽ•›•–‡



100
Topic 14: Reproduction, Growth and
Development
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͶͺ‡”‹‘†•

Overview
”‰ƒ‹••ƒ”‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘—Ž–‹’Ž›–‘ƒ‹–ƒ‹—„‡”•ƒ†ƒ˜‘‹†‡š–‹…–‹‘Ǥ
Š‡›‰‘–Š”‘—‰ŠŽ‹ˆ‡…›…Ž‡•™Š‹…Š‡•—”‡…‘–‹—‹–›‘ˆ•’‡…‹‡•Ǥ

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘†‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‘…‡••‡•
‘ˆ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘ǡ‰”‘™–Šƒ††‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–‹‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Asexual Reproduction


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• x ‡–Š‘†•‘ˆ ƒ•‡š—ƒŽ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘
‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ ƒ•‡š—ƒŽ ‹Ž‘™‡”ƒ†Š‹‰Š‡”‘”‰ƒ‹••
”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘ ‹ Ž‘™‡” ƒ† 
Š‹‰Š‡”‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ 
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ƒ† x †˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡•ƒ††‹•ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ
†‹•ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ ƒ•‡š—ƒŽ ƒ•‡š—ƒŽ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘
”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• x Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ ˜‡‰‡–ƒ–‹˜‡
‘ˆ ˜‡‰‡–ƒ–‹˜‡ ”‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡ ”‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡ ’ƒ”–• ‹ ˆŽ‘™‡”‹‰
’ƒ”–•‹ƒˆŽ‘™‡”‹‰’Žƒ–Ǥ ’Žƒ–
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ƒ•‡š—ƒŽ x •‡š—ƒŽ ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘ ‹ Ž‘™‡”
”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘ ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‹ ‘”‰ƒ‹••ǣ  ˆ”ƒ‰‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‹
Ž‘™‡”‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ Spirogyraǡ „—††‹‰ ‹ ›‡ƒ•–ǡ
 •’‘”‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ Mucor /
 Rhizopus
x —•‡ –Š‡ ˜‡‰‡–ƒ–‹˜‡ x ‡‰‡–ƒ–‹˜‡ ’”‘’ƒ‰ƒ–‹‘
’”‘’ƒ‰ƒ–‹‘ –‡…Š‹“—‡• –‘ –‡…Š‹“—‡•ǣ ƒ–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’ƒ‰ƒ–‹‘
’”‘†—…‡ ‡…‘‘‹…ƒŽŽ› ‹Š‹‰Š‡”’Žƒ–•
‹’‘”–ƒ–’Žƒ–•Ǥ x ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ
’”‘’ƒ‰ƒ–‹‘ ‹ ‰”‘™‹‰
‹’”‘˜‡†˜ƒ”‹‡–‹‡•‘ˆ’Žƒ–•



101
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ ƒ…–‹˜‹–› •Š‡‡–ǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ
•ƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ•‘ˆ’Žƒ–•–Šƒ–”‡’”‘†—…‡˜‡‰‡–ƒ–‹˜‡Ž›ȋ…‘•‹†‡”ˆ‘‘†
…”‘’•ǡ‘”ƒ‡–ƒŽƒ†‡†‹…‹ƒŽ’Žƒ–•’‡…‹‡•ȌǡSpirogyra, ›‡ƒ•–, Mucor
/Rhizopus, ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡ ’”‡’ƒ”‡† •Ž‹†‡• ‘ „—††‹‰ǡ ˆ‹••‹‘ ƒ†
•’‘”—Žƒ–‹‘

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—••ƒ•‡š—ƒŽ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘‹Ž‘™‡”‘”‰ƒ‹••ƒ†Š‹‰Š‡”’Žƒ–•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”–‘ǣ
‹Ȍ ‘„•‡”˜‡ƒ•‡š—ƒŽ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘‹Ž‘™‡”‘”‰ƒ‹••ƒ†™”‹–‡”‡’‘”–•
ƒ•ƒ‘—–‘ˆ…Žƒ••ƒ…–‹˜‹–›Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ‡šƒ‹‡ ’”‡’ƒ”‡† •Ž‹†‡• ‘ ƒ•‡š—ƒŽ ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘ ‹ Ž‘™‡”
‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ ‡šƒ‹‡•ƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ’Žƒ–‘”‰ƒ•–Šƒ–”‡’”‘†—…‡˜‡‰‡–ƒ–‹˜‡Ž›Ǥ
‹˜Ȍ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ ˆ‹‡Ž† •–—†› ‘ ƒ–—”ƒŽ ƒ† ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ ’”‘’ƒ‰ƒ–‹‘
‡–Š‘†•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘ƒ•‡š—ƒŽ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘Ǥ
x ••‡••”‡’‘”–•‘ǣ
‹Ȍ ƒ•‡š—ƒŽ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘‹Ž‘™‡”‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ˆ‹‡Ž†•–—†›‘‡šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ’Žƒ–•‰”‘™‹‰˜‡‰‡–ƒ–‹˜‡Ž›Ǥ

Practical Application
‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ˜‡‰‡–ƒ–‹˜‡’”‘†—…–‹‘‘ˆ’Žƒ–•‘ˆ‡…‘‘‹…‹’‘”–ƒ…‡
‹‹Ȍ …‘–”‘Ž‘ˆ™‡‡†•–Šƒ–’”‘†—…‡˜‡‰‡–ƒ–‹˜‡Ž›


Sub-Topic 2: Sexual Reproduction in Animals


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘• ‘ˆ x ‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡ •›•–‡ ‹
”‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡ •›•–‡ ƒ‹ƒŽ•ǣ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ†
•–”—…–—”‡•Ȁ’ƒ”–•‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ ˆ—…–‹‘ȋ•Ȍ‘ˆ’ƒ”–•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† x
ƒ‡–‡•–”—…–—”‡ƒ†ˆ—…–‹‘
ˆ—…–‹‘‘ˆ‰ƒ‡–‡•Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡•–ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ‘‘‰‡‡•‹• x –ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ ‘‘‰‡‡•‹• ƒ†



102
ƒ†•’‡”ƒ–‘‰‡‡•‹•’”‘…‡••‡•Ǥ •’‡”ƒ–‘‰‡‡•‹•’”‘…‡••‡•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ x ‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡
„‡–™‡‡ •–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ ‰ƒ‡–‘‰‡‡•‹•–‘‡‹‘•‹•
‰ƒ‡–‘‰‡‡•‹•ƒ†‡‹‘•‹•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x ‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡‘ˆ‰ƒ‡–‘‰‡‡•‹•
‰ƒ‡–‘‰‡‡•‹•Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ …‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ǡ x ‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ǡ ˆ‡”–‹Ž‹•ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
ˆ‡”–‹Ž‹•ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‹’Žƒ–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ ‹’Žƒ–ƒ–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’Žƒ…‡–ƒ x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ’Žƒ…‡–ƒ ‹ –Š‡
‹ –Š‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‘ˆ ƒ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–‘ˆƒ‡„”›‘
‡„”›‘Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ x Š›•‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ …Šƒ‰‡• ‹
…Šƒ‰‡• ‹ ˆ‡ƒŽ‡• †—”‹‰ ˆ‡ƒŽ‡•†—”‹‰’”‡‰ƒ…›
’”‡‰ƒ…›Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‰‡•–ƒ–‹‘ ’‡”‹‘† ƒ† x
‡•–ƒ–‹‘’‡”‹‘†ƒ†„‹”–Š
„‹”–ŠǤ

x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‡˜‡–• ƒ† ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ
x ˜‡–•ƒ†”‘Ž‡‘ˆŠ‘”‘‡•‹
Š‘”‘‡•‹‡•–”—ƒŽ…›…Ž‡Ǥ
–Š‡ ‡•–”—ƒŽ …›…Ž‡ǣ
 ‡•–”—ƒ–‹‘ǡ ˆ‘ŽŽ‹…—Žƒ”
 †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–ǡ ‘˜—Žƒ–‹‘ǡ
 …‘”’—• Ž—–‡–‹—Ǥ †  ǡ  ǡ
 ‘‡•–”‘‰‡ ƒ† ’”‘‰‡•–‡”‘‡Ǥ
 ‡–‹‘–Š‡‘‡•–”‘—•…›…Ž‡
x †‹•…—•• „‹”–Š …‘–”‘Ž ‡–Š‘†• x ‹”–Š …‘–”‘Ž ‡–Š‘†• ƒ†
ƒ†–Š‡‹”Ž‹‹–ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ Ž‹‹–ƒ–‹‘•
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ …ƒ—•‡• ƒ† ™ƒ›• ‘ˆ x ƒ—•‡• ƒ† ’”‡˜‡–‹‘ ‘ˆ
’”‡˜‡–‹‘‘ˆ•Ǥ ‡š—ƒŽŽ› ”ƒ•‹––‡† ‹•‡ƒ•‡•
 ȋ•Ȍ Ǥ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ ‹ˆ‡…–‹‘• „›
 ˆ—‰ƒŽ „ƒ…–‡”‹ƒŽ ƒ† ˜‹”ƒŽ ȋ 
 ƒ† ȌǤ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‡š–‡”ƒŽ ƒ† ‹–‡”ƒŽ x ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ ‡š–‡”ƒŽ ƒ†
ˆ‡”–‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘Ǥ ‹–‡”ƒŽˆ‡”–‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘
x ‘—–Ž‹‡ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x ’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ‡š–‡”ƒŽ ƒ†
‡š–‡”ƒŽ ƒ† ‹–‡”ƒŽ ‹–‡”ƒŽˆ‡”–‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘
ˆ‡”–‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ Š‘‡‘•–ƒ–‹… x ‘‡‘•–ƒ–‹… ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‹
‡…Šƒ‹•• ‹ ƒ’Š‹„‹ƒ• ƒ† ƒ’Š‹„‹ƒ• ƒ† „‹”†• „‡ˆ‘”‡
„‹”†•„‡ˆ‘”‡Šƒ–…Š‹‰Ǥ Šƒ–…Š‹‰
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡†‹’Ž‘‹†ƒ† x ƒ”–Š‡‘‰‡‡•‹•ǣ †‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘ǡ
Šƒ’Ž‘‹†’ƒ”–Š‡‘‰‡•‹•Ǥ †‹’Ž‘‹† ‹ ƒ’Š‹†•ǡ Šƒ’Ž‘‹† ‹
„‡‡•



103
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ’”‡’ƒ”‡ ‘” —•‡ ’”‡’ƒ”‡† •Ž‹†‡• x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆ‰ƒ‡–‡•
–‘•–—†›•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ‰ƒ‡–‡•Ǥ ‘…”‘ƒ…Š
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ƒ† †”ƒ™ –Š‡ ‡š–‡”ƒŽ x ‡š–‡”ƒŽ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ˆ‘” •‡š
ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‘…”‘ƒ…Š ˆ‘” ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘
•‡š‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ 
x †‹••‡…–ǡ‘„•‡”˜‡ǡ†”ƒ™ƒ†Žƒ„‡Ž x ‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡ •›•–‡ ‘ˆ ƒ
–Š‡ ƒŒ‘” ’ƒ”–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹•‡…–ǯ• …‘…”‘ƒ…Š
”‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡•›•–‡ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ƒ† †”ƒ™ –Š‡ ‡š–‡”ƒŽ x š–‡”ƒŽ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ ƒ –‘ƒ† ‘”
ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‘ƒ†Ȁ ˆ”‘‰ ˆ‘” ˆ”‘‰ˆ‘”•‡š‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘
•‡š‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

x †‹••‡…–ǡ ‡šƒ‹‡ǡ †”ƒ™ ƒ† x ‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡ •›•–‡ ‘ˆ ƒ
Žƒ„‡Ž –Š‡ ƒŒ‘” ’ƒ”–• ‘ˆ –Š‡
–‘ƒ†Ȁˆ”‘‰
–‘ƒ†ǯ•”‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡•›•–‡Ǥ

x ”‡Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ

”‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡ ’ƒ”–• –‘ –Š‡‹”
ˆ—…–‹‘•Ǥ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ƒ† †”ƒ™ –Š‡ ‡š–‡”ƒŽ x ƒ–Ȁ ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ‰—‹‡ƒ ’‹‰
ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”ƒ– Ȁ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ ‡š–‡”ƒŽȀˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ˆ‘” •‡š

—‹‡ƒ ’‹‰ ˆ‘” •‡š ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘
‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ 
x †‹••‡…–ǡ ‡šƒ‹‡ǡ †”ƒ™ ƒ† x ‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡ •›•–‡ ‘ˆ ƒ
Žƒ„‡Ž–Š‡ƒŒ‘”’ƒ”–•‘ˆ–Š‡”ƒ–ǯ• ”ƒ–Ȁ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ
—‹‡ƒ’‹‰
”‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡•›•–‡Ǥ
x ”‡Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ
”‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡ ’ƒ”–• –‘ –Š‡‹”
ˆ—…–‹‘•Ǥ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡ •Ž‹†‡•ǡ
•ƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ‰ƒ‡–‡•Ȁ’”‡’ƒ”‡†•Ž‹†‡•‘ˆ‰ƒ‡–‡•ǡŠƒ†Ž‡•ǡ…‘…”‘ƒ…Šǡ
–‘ƒ†Ȁˆ”‘‰Ȁ”ƒ–ǡ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ‰—‹‡ƒ’‹‰

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•••‡š—ƒŽ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•—•‹‰‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
L  …ƒ””› ‘—– ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ™‘” ‘ ”‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡ •–”—…–—”‡• ȋ‡š–‡”ƒŽ ƒ†
‹–‡”ƒŽȌ ‘ˆ ƒ ƒŽ‡ ƒ† ˆ‡ƒŽ‡ǣ …‘…”‘ƒ…Šǡ –‘ƒ†Ȁˆ”‘‰  ƒ†  ”ƒ–
Ȁ”ƒ„„‹–Ȁ‰—‹‡ƒ’‹‰Ǥ



104
ii) ‡šƒ‹‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ‰ƒ‡–‡•—•‹‰‹…”‘•…‘’‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘•‡š—ƒŽ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘‹ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
x ••‡••–Š‡†‹•’Žƒ›ǡ†”ƒ™‹‰ ƒ†Žƒ„‡ŽŽ‹‰‘ˆ”‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‡•›•–‡• ƒ†
‰ƒ‡–‡•Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ …‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ Š‘‡‘•–ƒ–‹… ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‹
„‹”†•ƒ†ƒƒŽ•—–‹Ž–Š‡–‹‡‘ˆŠƒ–…Š‹‰Ȁ„‹”–ŠǤ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ’”‡˜‡–‹‘‘ˆ•‡š—ƒŽŽ›–”ƒ•‹––‡††‹•‡ƒ•‡•
‹‹Ȍ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘…‘–”‘Žƒ†ˆƒ‹Ž›’Žƒ‹‰
‹‹‹Ȍ ƒ‹–‡ƒ…‡‘ˆˆ‡”–‹Ž‹–›

Sub-Topic 3: Sexual Reproduction in Lower Organisms


and Plants
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ …‘Œ—‰ƒ–‹‘ ‹ x ‘Œ—‰ƒ–‹‘ ‹ Ž‘™‡”
Ž‘™‡”‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ ‘”‰ƒ‹••ǣ Paramecium. ƒ†
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ƒŽ‰ƒ‡
ƒŽ–‡”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ x Ž–‡”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‘• ‹
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ –›’‡• ƒ† ”›‘’Š›–‡•ƒ†–‡”‹†‘’Š›–‡•
•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆˆŽ‘™‡”•Ǥ x ›’‡•ƒ†•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆˆŽ‘™‡”•ǣ
 ȋ‹•‡…– ƒ† ™‹† ’‘ŽŽ‹ƒ–‡†
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ’‘ŽŽ‹ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ˆŽ‘™‡”•Ȍ
ˆ‡”–‹Ž‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‹ ˆŽ‘™‡”‹‰ x ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‘ˆ ’‘ŽŽ‹ƒ–‹‘ ȋ•‡Žˆ
’Žƒ–•Ǥ ƒ† …”‘•• ’‘ŽŽ‹ƒ–‹‘Ȍ ƒ†
 †‘—„Ž‡ˆ‡”–‹Ž‹•ƒ–‹‘‹ˆŽ‘™‡”‹‰
 ’Žƒ–•. ‡–‹‘ ‡…Šƒ‹•• –‘
 ‡•—”‡ ‘” ’”‡˜‡– •‡Žˆ
 ’‘ŽŽ‹ƒ–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡˜‡–• –Šƒ– –ƒ‡ x ˜‡–• ‹ ƒ ˆŽ‘™‡” ƒˆ–‡”
’Žƒ…‡ ‹ ƒ ˆŽ‘™‡” ƒˆ–‡” ˆ‡”–‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘
ˆ‡”–‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ –›’‡• ƒ† x ›’‡• ƒ† •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ •‡‡†•
•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ•‡‡†•ƒ†ˆ”—‹–•Ǥ ƒ†ˆ”—‹–•



105
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ”‡Žƒ–‡ ˆŽ‘”ƒŽ •–”—…–—”‡• –‘ –Š‡ x –”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ ƒ ˆŽ‘™‡” ƒ†
‘†‡‘ˆ’‘ŽŽ‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ ‹ˆŽ‘”‡•…‡…‡ ‹ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ –‘
 ’‘ŽŽ‹ƒ–‹‘
x ‘„•‡”˜‡ƒ††”ƒ™’‘ŽŽ‡‰”ƒ‹Ǥ x ‘ŽŽ‡ ‰”ƒ‹ •–”—…–—”‡ ‹
 ”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘’‘ŽŽ‹ƒ–‹‘
x †‡•…”‹„‡ˆŽ‘”ƒŽ’ƒ”–•Ǥ x ””ƒ‰‡‡– ‘ˆ ˆŽ‘”ƒŽ ’ƒ”–• ‹
 ˆŽ‘™‡”• ™‹–Š ˆ”‡‡ ’‡–ƒŽ•ǡ ˆ—•‡†
 ’‡–ƒŽ•ǡ ‡‡Ž ƒ† •–ƒ†ƒ”† ™‹‰ǡ
 ƒ†ƒ‰”ƒ••ˆŽ‘™‡”
x ”‹–‡ ˆŽ‘”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒ‡ ‘ˆ x Ž‘”ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‡
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ˆŽ‘™‡”•Ǥ 
x †”ƒ™ ˆŽ‘”ƒŽ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ• ‘ˆ x Ž‘”ƒŽ†‹ƒ‰”ƒ• 
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ˆŽ‘™‡”•Ǥ 
x †”ƒ™ ƒ† Žƒ„‡Ž •–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ x ›’‡• ƒ† •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ˆ”—‹–•
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ˆ”—‹–•ƒ†•‡‡†•Ǥ ƒ†•‡‡†•
x †‹••‡…– ˆ”—‹–• –‘ †‹•’Žƒ› ƒ† x Žƒ…‡–ƒ–‹‘
†”ƒ™ƒ””ƒ‰‡‡–‘ˆ•‡‡†•Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‘ˆ x ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‘ˆ ˆ”—‹– ƒ† •‡‡†
ˆ”—‹–ƒ†•‡‡††‹•’‡”•ƒŽǤ †‹•’‡”•ƒŽ
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ x †‘•’‡”‹… ƒ† ‘
‡†‘•’‡”‹… ƒ† ‘ ‡†‘•’‡”‹…•‡‡†•
‡†‘•’‡”‹…•‡‡†•Ǥ

Teaching / Learning resources


x ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ …‘’—–‡” ƒ‹†‡† •–—†› ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ ’”‡’ƒ”‡† •Ž‹†‡•ǡ
‹…”‘•…‘’‡•ǡ Spirogyra, •ƒ’Ž‡ ˆŽ‘™‡” –›’‡•ǡ Šƒ† Ž‡•ǡ ‡‡†Ž‡Ȁ’‹ǡ
•…ƒŽ’‡ŽȀ”ƒœ‘” „Žƒ†‡ǡ ‹ˆŽ‘”‡•…‡…‡• ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ ‰—‹‡ƒ ‰”ƒ••Ȁƒ‹œ‡ǡ
•—ˆŽ‘™‡”Ȁ„Žƒ… Œƒ…Ȁ „ƒƒƒǡ ”‹†ƒšǡ Bougainvilleaǡ Lantana camaraǡ
Ž‘™‡”• ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ Hibiscusǡ ‘”‹‰ ‰Ž‘”›Ȁ•™‡‡– ’‘–ƒ–‘ǡ Cassiaǡ ’‡ƒȀ„‡ƒ
ˆƒ‹Ž›ǡˆŽ‘™‡”™‹–Š’‡”‹ƒ–Šǡ•ƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆˆ”—‹–•ƒ†•‡‡†•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ”ƒ‹•–‘”–Š‡’”‹…‹’Ž‡•‘ˆ•‡š—ƒŽ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• •‡š—ƒŽ ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘ ‹ Ž‘™‡” ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ƒ† ’Žƒ–• —•‹‰
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ‡šƒ‹‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ˆŽ‘™‡”•ǡ ‹ˆŽ‘”‡•…‡…‡•ǡ
ˆ”—‹–•ƒ†•‡‡†•Ǥ



106
Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡‘•‡š—ƒŽ”‡’”‘†—…–‹‘‹Ž‘™‡”‘”‰ƒ‹••ƒ†
’Žƒ–•Ǥ
x ••‡•• Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ǡ †”ƒ™‹‰ ƒ† Žƒ„‡ŽŽ‹‰ ‘ˆ ˆŽ‘™‡”•ǡ
‹ˆŽ‘”‡•…‡…‡•ǡˆ”—‹–•ƒ†•‡‡†•Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ ‰”‘™‹‰‘ˆ‘”ƒ‡–ƒŽ’Žƒ–•
‹‹Ȍ ‰”‘™‹‰ˆ”—‹–„‡ƒ”‹‰’Žƒ–•
‹‹‹Ȍ ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡‘ˆ‹•‡…–‹…‹†‡•ǡ’‡”ˆ—‡•ǡ’Š‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•
‹˜Ȍ ƒ’‹…—Ž–—”‡ȋ„‡‡‡‡’‹‰Ȍ

Sub-Topic 4: Growth and Development


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡ˆ‹‡ ‰”‘™–Š ƒ† x ‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‰”‘™–Š ƒ†
†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–Ǥ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ ‰”‘™–Š x ‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡ ‰”‘™–Š
ƒ††‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–Ǥ ƒ††‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ˆƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ x ƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰  ‰”‘™–Šǣ
‰”‘™–ŠǤ ‹–‡”ƒŽƒ†‡š–‡”ƒŽ
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”• ‘ˆ x ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”• —•‡† ‹
‡ƒ•—”‹‰ ‰”‘™–Š ‹ ’Žƒ–• Ȁ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡– ‘ˆ ‰”‘™–Š ‹ ƒ
ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ ‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ ’Žƒ– Ȁƒ‹ƒŽǣ
 ™‡‹‰Š–ǡ Ž‡‰–Šǡ Š‡‹‰Š–ǡ ˜‘Ž—‡ǡ
 ƒ”‡ƒ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹’ƒ––‡”•‘ˆ‰”‘™–ŠǤ x ƒ––‡”• ‘ˆ ‰”‘™–Šǣ ‹•‘‡–”‹…ǡ
x ‹–‡”’”‡– †ƒ–ƒ ”‡Žƒ–‡† –‘ –Š‡ ƒŽŽ‘‡–”‹…ǡ Ž‹‹–‡† —Ž‹‹–‡†
‰”‘™–Š’”‘…‡••Ǥ ƒ†‹–‡”‹––‡–
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ Š‘”‘‡• x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ Š‘”‘‡• ‹ ‰”‘™–Š
‹ ’Žƒ– ƒ† ƒ‹ƒŽ ‰”‘™–Š ”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘ ƒ† …‘–”‘Ž ‹
ƒ††‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–Ǥ ’Žƒ–•ƒ†ƒ‹ƒŽ•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹‡–ƒ‘”’Š‘•‹•Ǥ x ‡–ƒ‘”’Š‘•‹• ‹ ‹•‡…–• ƒ†
 ƒ’Š‹„‹ƒ•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ –›’‡• ƒ† •–ƒ‰‡• x ›’‡• ƒ† •–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ
‘ˆ‰‡”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ ‰‡”‹ƒ–‹‘
 



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x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ˜‹ƒ„‹Ž‹–›ǡ •‡‡† x ‹ƒ„‹Ž‹–›ǡ †‘”ƒ…› ƒ†


†‘”ƒ…›ƒ†…Šƒ‰‡•†—”‹‰ ‰‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•‡‡†•
‰‡”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ 
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ ’”‹ƒ”› x ”‹ƒ”› ƒ† •‡…‘†ƒ”›
ƒ†•‡…‘†ƒ”›‡”‹•–‡•Ǥ ‡”‹•–‡•‹’Žƒ–•
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ ’”‹ƒ”› x ”‹ƒ”›ƒ†•‡…‘†ƒ”›‰”‘™–Š
ƒ†•‡…‘†ƒ”›‰”‘™–ŠǤ ‹’Žƒ–•
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ‡”‹•–‡• x ‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ ‡”‹•–‡• ‹ ’Žƒ–
‹’Žƒ–‰”‘™–ŠǤ ‰”‘™–Š
(Practical) 
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ƒ””› ‘—– ‰‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ x ’‹‰‡ƒŽ ƒ† Š›’‘‰‡ƒŽ •‡‡†
•‡‡†•–Šƒ–‡šŠ‹„‹–‡’‹‰‡ƒŽƒ† ‰‡”‹ƒ–‹‘
Š›’‘‰‡ƒŽ‰‡”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ 
x ‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ x ƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ‰”‘™–Š ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ
‰”‘™–ŠǤ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ǡŽ‹‰Š–ǡ™ƒ–‡”ǡ‡–…
x šƒ‹‡ ƒ† †”ƒ™ •‡…–‹‘• x ’‹…ƒŽ ‰”‘™–Šǡ •‡…‘†ƒ”›
•Š‘™‹‰ ƒ’‹…ƒŽ ‡”‹•–‡• ‰”‘™–Š
ƒ† •‡…‘†ƒ”› –Š‹…‡‹‰ ‹ 
†‹…‘–›Ž‡†‘‘—••–‡•Ǥ
x ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”• ‘ˆ ‡ƒ•—”‹‰
x ƒ‡ƒ……—”ƒ–‡‡ƒ•—”‡‡–• ‰”‘™–Š
‘ˆ‰”‘™–Š‹ƒ‘”‰ƒ‹•ƒ†

”‡…‘”†Ǥ
x ‘”‘ƒŽ …‘–”‘Ž ‘ˆ ’Žƒ–
x ‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ Š‘”‘ƒŽ
‰”‘™–Š
…‘–”‘Ž‘ˆ’Žƒ–‰”‘™–ŠǤ

Teaching / Learning Resources


x Šƒ”–•ǡ…‘’—–‡”ƒ‹†‡†•–—†›ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ‹…”‘•…‘’‡ǡ•Ž‹†‡•ǡ…‘˜‡”•Ž‹’•ǡ
•ƒ’Ž‡•‡‡†•‡Ǥ‰Ǥ„‡ƒ•ǡƒ‹œ‡Ȁ‹ŽŽ‡–Ȁ•‘”‰Š—Ȁ”‹…‡ǡ…‘––‘™‘‘Žǡ’‡–”‹
†‹•Š‡•ǡ „‡ƒ‡”•ǡ ’”‡’ƒ”‡† •Ž‹†‡•ǡ ›‘—‰ •‘ˆ– •–‡•ǡ •–ƒ‹‹‰ ”‡ƒ‰‡–•ǡ
”‡ƒ‰‡–•ˆ‘”ˆ‘‘†–‡•–•

Suggested Teaching Procedure


x ‹•…—•• ‰”‘™–Š ƒ† †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‹ ’Žƒ–• ƒ† ƒ‹ƒŽ• —•‹‰
‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡•‡‡†‰‡”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‡šƒ‹‡ǡ†”ƒ™ƒ†Žƒ„‡Ž‡”‹•–‡•Ǥ 

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ƒ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡‘‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ƒ††”ƒ™‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡•–ƒ‰‡•‹
Ž‹ˆ‡…›…Ž‡‘ˆ‹•‡…–•ƒ†ƒ’Š‹„‹ƒ•Ǥ



108
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ˆ‘‘† …‘–‡– ‹
‰‡”‹ƒ–‹‰•‡‡†•ƒ–˜ƒ”‹‘—•†—”ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ‰‡”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ™”‹––‡ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‘ ‡š’Žƒƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ …Šƒ‰‡• ‹ ˆ‘‘† …‘–‡–
†—”‹‰‰‡”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Practical Application
x ‘•‹†‡”ǣ
‹Ȍ …”‘’‰”‘™–Šƒ††‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–
‹‹Ȍ ’‘—Ž–”›„‹”†•”‡ƒ”‹‰
‹‹‹Ȍ …‘–”‘Žˆƒ…–‘”•’”‘‘–‹‰˜‡…–‘”‰”‘™–Šƒ††‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–



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Appendices
Appendix 1: Cell Biology
Aim
‘ƒ‡–‡’‘”ƒ”›•Ž‹†‡••Š‘™‹‰˜ƒ”‹‘—••–ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ‹–‘•‹•‹’Žƒ–•

Materials and Apparatus


‹‘ȋAllium cepa)‘”„”‘ƒ†„‡ƒ•ȋVicia faba)–Šƒ–Šƒ˜‡„‡‡‰”‘™ˆ‘”
ͷǦ͹†ƒ›•ǡȋ…‡–‘ǦƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž‹–Š‡”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆͳǣ͵”‡•’‡…–‹˜‡Ž›–‘‹ŽŽ–Š‡…‡ŽŽ•
ƒ† ’”‡•‡”˜‡ …‡ŽŽ •–”—…–—”‡•Ȍǡ ˆ‹Ž–‡” ’ƒ’‡”ǡ ™ƒ–…Š ‰Žƒ••ǡ ‹…”‘•…‘’‡ •Ž‹†‡•ǡ
…‘˜‡”•Ž‹’•ǡ†”‘’’‡”•ǡͳ Žǡ•‘—”…‡‘ˆŠ‡ƒ–ǡ•…ƒŽ’‡Ž„Žƒ†‡ǡ‹…”‘•…‘’‡ƒ†
•ƒˆ”ƒ‹•–ƒ‹Ǥ

What to do
•‡”‘‘––‹’•–‘•Š‘™‹–‘•‹•„›ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰–Š‡’”‘…‡†—”‡‰‹˜‡„‡Ž‘™ǣ
ͳǤ Žƒ…‡–™‘†”‘’•‘ˆͳŠ›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹…ƒ…‹†‘ƒ‹…”‘•…‘’‡•Ž‹†‡ƒ†ƒ††
ƒ†”‘’‘ˆ•ƒˆ”ƒ‹•–ƒ‹Ǥ
ʹǤ —–ƒ„‘—–ʹˆ”‘–Š‡–‹’‘ˆƒ‘‹‘Ȁ„”‘ƒ†„‡ƒ”‘‘–ƒ†’Žƒ…‡‹–‹
–Š‡•–ƒ‹Ȁƒ…‹†‹š–—”‡Ǥ
͵Ǥ ƒ” –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘˜‡” ƒ —•‡ „—”‡” ˆŽƒ‡Ǥ NB. Do not boil.
Š‡ƒ…‹†™‹ŽŽŠ‡Ž’–‘ƒ…‡”ƒ–‡–Š‡…‡ŽŽ••‘–Šƒ––Š‡•–ƒ‹…ƒ’‡‡–”ƒ–‡
‘”‡‡ƒ•‹Ž›Ǥ
ͶǤ ‡–‹–•–ƒ†ˆ‘”ˆ‹˜‡‹—–‡•Ǥ
ͷǤ ”ƒ™‘ˆˆ–Š‡•–ƒ‹Ȁƒ…‹†‹š–—”‡…ƒ”‡ˆ—ŽŽ›—•‹‰ƒ’‹‡…‡‘ˆ„Ž‘––‹‰’ƒ’‡”
ƒ––Š‡‡†‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡Ž‹“—‹†Ǥ
͸Ǥ †† ‘‡ †”‘’ ‘ˆ •ƒˆ”ƒ‹ •–ƒ‹ ƒ† ’Žƒ…‡ ƒ …‘˜‡” •Ž‹’ ‘˜‡” –Š‡
’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
͹Ǥ
‡–Ž›–ƒ’–Š‡…‘˜‡”•Ž‹’™‹–Šƒ’‹‘”–‘‘–Š’‹…Ǥ
ͺǤ ‘˜‡” –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ™‹–Š ˆ‹Ž–‡” ’ƒ’‡” ƒ† ‰‡–Ž› •“—ƒ•Š ™‹–Š ›‘—”
–Š—„–‘‘„–ƒ‹ƒ–Š‹•“—ƒ•ŠǤƒ‡…ƒ”‡‘––‘„”‡ƒ–Š‡…‘˜‡”•Ž‹’‘”
•Ž‹†‡Ǥ
ͻǤ ‡‘˜‡ –Š‡ ˆ‹Ž–‡” ’ƒ’‡” ƒ† ‡šƒ‹‡ –Š‡ •“—ƒ•Š‡† ”‘‘– –‹’ —†‡” ƒ
‹…”‘•…‘’‡ƒ†‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡˜ƒ”‹‘—••–ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ‹–‘•‹•Ǥ



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Appendix 2: Tests for Minerals in Organic
Materials
Test on urine

What to do
ͳǤ „–ƒ‹ƒ•ƒ’Ž‡‘ˆ—”‹‡Ǥ ˆ‹–‹•…Ž‘—†›ǡˆ‹Ž–‡”‹–Ǥ‡‡’–Š‡ˆ‹Ž–”ƒ–‡Ǥ
ʹǤ ‹˜‹†‡–Š‡…Ž‡ƒ”—”‹‡‘”ˆ‹Ž–”ƒ–‡‹–‘ˆ‘—”’ƒ”–•Ǥ
͵Ǥ ‡•–‡ƒ…Š’ƒ”–•‡’ƒ”ƒ–‡Ž›ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
‹Ȍ …‹†‹ˆ› ™‹–Š ʹ ‹–”‹… ƒ…‹† ƒ† –Š‡ ƒ†† •‹Ž˜‡” ‹–”ƒ–‡ •‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ 
™Š‹–‡’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‡ǡ•‘Ž—„Ž‡‹†‹Ž—–‡ƒ‘‹ƒǡ‹†‹…ƒ–‡•  Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ …‹†‹ˆ› ™‹–Š ʹ Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹… ƒ…‹† ƒ† –Š‡ ƒ†† „ƒ”‹— ‹–”ƒ–‡
•‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ™Š‹–‡’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‡‹†‹…ƒ–‡• Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ ‘ ƒ„‘—– ͲǤͷ Ž —”‹‡ ƒ†† ʹǦ͵ Ž ƒ‘‹— ‘Ž›„†ƒ–‡ •‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ
ƒ”‹ˆ‡…‡••ƒ”›„—–†‘‘–„‘‹ŽǤ›‡ŽŽ‘™ǡ…”›•–ƒŽŽ‹‡’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‡
‹†‹…ƒ–‡•  Ǥ
‹˜Ȍ Ž‡ƒƒ’Žƒ–‹—™‹”‡„›†‹’’‹‰‹…‘…‡–”ƒ–‡†Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹…ƒ…‹†
ƒ† Š‡ƒ–‹‰ ‹ ƒ —•‡ ˆŽƒ‡ —–‹Ž –Š‡ ˆŽƒ‡ ‹• …‘Ž‘—”Ž‡••Ǥ ‹’ ‹
—”‹‡ ƒ† Š‘Ž† –Š‡ ™‹”‡ ‹ –Š‡ —•‡ ˆŽƒ‡Ǥ  ‡ŽŽ‘™ ‹†‹…ƒ–‡•
 Ǥ

Test on liver extract


What to do
ͳǤ „–ƒ‹•‘‡Œ—‹…‡Ȁ„Ž‘‘†ˆ”‘Ž‹˜‡”–Šƒ–Šƒ•„‡‡…”—•Š‡†‹‘”–ƒ”Ǥ
ʹǤ ”‡ƒ–•‡’ƒ”ƒ–‡•ƒ’Ž‡•ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
‹Ȍ ‹Ž–‡” •‘‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Œ—‹…‡Ȁ„Ž‘‘† ƒ† –‡•– ˆ‘” …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡ǡ •—Ž’Šƒ–‡
ƒ†•‘†‹—ƒ•ƒ„‘˜‡ȋ‹Ǧ‹˜ȌǤ
‹‹Ȍ ‘ ƒ Ž‹––Ž‡ ˆ‹Ž–”ƒ–‡ ƒ†† ʹ Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹… ƒ…‹† ƒ† ‘„•‡”˜‡
…ƒ”‡ˆ—ŽŽ›Ǥ  ƒŽŽ „—„„Ž‡• ȋ‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘ †‹‘š‹†‡ ‰ƒ• …‘ˆ‹” –Š‹•Ȍ
‹†‹…ƒ–‡ Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ ‘‹Ž ƒ Ž‹––Ž‡ Œ—‹…‡Ȁ„Ž‘‘† ™‹–Š ƒ Ž‹––Ž‡ …‘…‡–”ƒ–‡† ‹–”‹… ƒ…‹†Ǥ
ȋȌ
‹˜Ȍ ‹Ž–‡” ƒ† –‘ ˆ‹Ž–”ƒ–‡ ƒ†† ƒ ˆ‡™ †”‘’• ‘ˆ ’‘–ƒ••‹—
Š‡šƒ…›ƒ‘ˆ‡””ƒ–‡ ȋ Ȍ •‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ  „Ž—‡ …‘Ž‘—” ‘” ’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‡
‹†‹…ƒ–‡• Ǥ
”›–Š‹•–‡•–‘Œ—‹…‡Ȁ„Ž‘‘†ˆ‹Ž–”ƒ–‡„—–†‘‘–„‘‹Ž™‹–Šƒ…‹†Ǥ

Test on egg yolk


ͳǤ ‘‹ŽƒŽ‹––Ž‡‡‰‰›‘Ž™‹–Šʹ‹–”‹…ƒ…‹†–Š‡ƒ††•‹Ž˜‡”‹–”ƒ–‡•‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ
™Š‹–‡’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‡ǡ•‘Ž—„Ž‡‹†‹Ž—–‡ƒ‘‹ƒǡ‹†‹…ƒ–‡•  Ǥ



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ʹǤ ‘ ƒ„‘—– ͲǤͷ Ž ‡‰‰ ›‘Ž ƒ†† ʹǦ͵ Ž ƒ‘‹— ‘Ž›„†ƒ–‡ •‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ
ƒ” ‹ˆ ‡…‡••ƒ”› „—– †‘ ‘– „‘‹ŽǤ   ›‡ŽŽ‘™ǡ …”›•–ƒŽŽ‹‡ ’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‡
‹†‹…ƒ–‡•  



112
Appendix 3: Estimating Population Density
‘— …ƒ —•‡ …ƒ’–—”‡ ƒ† ”‡…ƒ’–—”‡ ‡–Š‘† –‘ ‡•–‹ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
ˆ‹•Š‹ƒ’‘†ǡ‰”ƒ••Š‘’’‡”•‹ƒˆ‹‡Ž†ǡ„‹”†•‹ƒ’ƒ”ǡˆŽ›‹‰‹•‡…–•‡–…Ǥ

What to do
ƒ ƒ””›‘—––Š‹••‹—Žƒ–‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‹–›‘ˆ…ƒ’–—”‡Ǧ”‡…ƒ’–—”‡–‡…Š‹“—‡Ǥ

What you need


‹Ȍ ‘ŽŽ‘™‡ƒ†•ȋ–™‘…‘Ž‘—”•Ȍ
‹‹Ȍ Žƒ•–‹…„‡ƒ‡”•ȋͷͲͲŽȌ
Š‡’”‘…‡‡†ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
‹Ȍ ‹ŽŽƒŽƒ”‰‡„‡ƒ‡”™‹–ŠƒŽƒ”‰‡—„‡”‘ˆ„‡ƒ†•ƒŽŽ‘ˆ–Š‡•ƒ‡
…‘Ž‘—”ƒ†•‹œ‡Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ‹…‘”Dzƒ’–—”‡dzƒ•ƒ’Ž‡‘ˆƒ„‘—–ͷͲ„‡ƒ†•(N1)
‹‹‹Ȍ Ǯƒ”ǯ–Š‡’‹…‡†‘”Dz…ƒ’–—”‡†dz„‡ƒ†•ƒ†”‡…‘”†ǤŠ‡„‡•–™ƒ›
–‘†‘–Š‹•‹•–‘•–ƒ‹‘”‡š…Šƒ‰‡–Š‡™‹–Š„‡ƒ†•‘ˆƒ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–
…‘Ž‘—”Ǥ
‹˜Ȍ ‡–—”–Š‡ƒ”‡†„‡ƒ†•–‘–Š‡„‡ƒ‡”‹Ǥ‡Ǥ–‘–Š‡Dz’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘dzǤ
˜Ȍ Š‘”‘—‰ŠŽ›‹š–Š‡ƒ”‡†„‡ƒ†•‹–Š‡”‡•–‘ˆ–Š‡Dz’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘dzǤ
˜‹Ȍ ‹…ƒ‰ƒ‹‘”Dz”‡…ƒ’–—”‡dzƒ•‡…‘†•ƒ’Ž‡‘ˆ„‡ƒ†•ǤŠ‡•ƒ’Ž‡
•Š‘—Ž† „‡ “—‹–‡ Žƒ”‰‡ ƒ† ”ƒ†‘ ‘” —•‡ ƒ „Ž‹† ˆ‘Ž† –‘ ‡•—”‡
”ƒ†‘‡••Ǥ
˜‹‹Ȍ ‘—––Š‡–‘–ƒŽ—„‡”‘ˆ„‡ƒ†•‹–Š‡•‡…‘†•ƒ’Ž‡(N2)ƒ†
–Š‡—„‡”‘ˆƒ”‡†„‡ƒ†•(N3)‹–Š‹••ƒ’Ž‡Ǥ
˜‹‹‹Ȍ‘” ‘—– –Š‡ ‡•–‹ƒ–‡† Dz’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘dz(P) ‘ˆ „‡ƒ†• ‹ –Š‡ „‡ƒ‡”
—•‹‰–Š‡ˆ‘”—Žƒ„‡Ž‘™ǣ
P = N1 x N2
N3



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Appendix 4: Field Activities


What to do
ͳǤ ƒ””› ‘—– –Š‹• ƒ…–‹˜‹–› –‘ •Š‘™ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• –‘ –Š‡‹”
Šƒ„‹–ƒ–•Ǥ
2. ‘ŽŽ‘™–Š‡’”‘…‡†—”‡„‡Ž‘™ǣ
‹Ȍ ‡Ž‡…–ƒ•—‹–ƒ„Ž‡Šƒ„‹–ƒ–Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ƒ‡ ƒ Ž‹•– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ˆƒ…–‘”• ‹ –Š‡ Šƒ„‹–ƒ–ǡ ™Š‹…Š ‹‰Š–
ƒˆˆ‡…––Š‡Ž‹ˆ‡‘ˆ‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ ‘ŽŽ‡…–ƒ†‘„•‡”˜‡•‡˜‡”ƒŽƒ‹ƒŽƒ†’Žƒ–•’‡…‹‡•ˆ”‘›‘—”
Šƒ„‹–ƒ–Ǥ
‹˜Ȍ ‹•– †‘™ –Š‡ ƒ†ƒ’–‹˜‡ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ƒ† ‡š’Žƒ‹
Š‘™ ‡ƒ…Š ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡• ‡–‹‘‡† ƒ†ƒ’–• –Š‡ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• –‘
•—”˜‹˜‡‹–Š‹•Šƒ„‹–ƒ–Ǥ
˜Ȍ „•‡”˜‡ –Š‡ ‘”‰ƒ‹•• ƒ† …‘•–”—…– •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ˆ‘‘† …Šƒ‹• ƒ†
ˆ‘‘†™‡„•–‘•Š‘™–Š‡ˆ‡‡†‹‰”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’‘ˆ–Š‡•‡‘”‰ƒ‹••Ǥ
– ‹‰Š– „‡ ‡…‡••ƒ”› ‹ •‘‡ …ƒ•‡• –‘ †‹••‡…– –Š‡ ‰—– ƒ†
‘„•‡”˜‡ –Š‡ …‘–‡–•Ǥ ‘— …ƒ ƒŽ•‘ ‡šƒ‹‡ –Š‡ ˆ‡‡†‹‰
•–”—…–—”‡•–‘‰‡–ƒ…Ž—‡‘ˆ™Šƒ––Š‡‘”‰ƒ‹•ˆ‡‡†•‘Ǥ



114
Appendix 5: Ecology
Take an example of the ecology of millipedes.
‹ŽŽ‹’‡†‡• „‡Ž‘‰ –‘ ’Š›Ž— ”–Š”‘’‘†ƒ ƒ† …Žƒ•• ›”‹ƒ’‘†ƒǤ Š‡› ƒ”‡
™‹†‡Ž› †‹•–”‹„—–‡† ƒ† ƒ„—†ƒ– –Š”‘—‰Š‘—– ˆ”‹…ƒǤ Š‡› ƒ”‡ Š‡”„‹˜‘”‘—•
‘” †‡–”‹–—• ˆ‡‡†‡”• ƒ† ‘•– •’‡…‹‡• ƒ”‡ ‘…–—”ƒŽ ‹ Šƒ„‹–ǡ •’‡†‹‰ –Š‡
†ƒ›Š‹††‡—†‡”’‹Ž‡•‘ˆ˜‡‰‡–ƒ–‹‘‘”•–‘‡‘”Ž‘‰•Ǥ

What to do
x Follow the procedure below:
ͳǤ ‡Ž‡…–ƒ‘†‡Ž…‘—‹–›‡ƒ”„›‘”•‡–—’‘‡—•‹‰ƒ–ƒƒ”‡ƒǤ
ʹǤ ƒ‹‰ ‹‹— †‹•–—”„ƒ…‡ǡ Ž‘…ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ‹ŽŽ‹’‡†‡• ‹ –Š‡ ‘†‡Ž
…‘—‹–›‘”–Š‡‘‡–Šƒ–Šƒ•„‡‡•‡–—’‹–Š‡–ƒƒ”‡ƒǤ
͵Ǥ ‡…‘”†–Š‡‹”™Š‡”‡ƒ„‘—–•‘ƒ”‘—‰Š’Žƒ‘ˆ–Š‡–ƒƒ”‡ƒǤ
ͶǤ •‹‰•–ƒ†ƒ”†…‘„ƒŽ–…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡’ƒ’‡”ǡ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡–Š‡Š›’‘–Š‡•‹•–Šƒ–
‹ŽŽ‹’‡†‡• •‡Ž‡…– ’Žƒ…‡• ™‹–Š Š‹‰Š ‘‹•–—”‡ …‘–‡– ‹ ™Š‹…Š –‘
•’‡†–Š‡†ƒ›Ǥ‡…‘”†›‘—””‡•—Ž–•‹ƒ•—‹–ƒ„Ž‡™ƒ›‘–Š‡’Žƒ‘ˆ
–Š‡–ƒƒ”‡ƒǤ

Questions
ͳǤ ‘™ †‘‡• –Š‡ ‹ŽŽ‹’‡†‡•ǯ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ ‹ –Š‹• ‘†‡Ž …‘—‹–›
…‘’ƒ”‡ ™‹–Š ƒ› ‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘ –Šƒ– ›‘— Šƒ˜‡ ƒ†‡ —†‡” ƒ–—”ƒŽ
…‘†‹–‹‘•ǫ
ʹǤ ƒ˜‡›‘—•Š‘™ƒ›”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’„‡–™‡‡‘‹•–—”‡…‘–‡–ƒ†–Š‡
’Žƒ…‡•™Š‡”‡›‘—ˆ‘—†‹ŽŽ‹’‡†‡•ǫ
͵ǤŠƒ–‘–Š‡”’Š›•‹…ƒŽˆƒ…–‘”•‹‰Š–†‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡•‡Ž‡…–‹‘‘ˆ†ƒ›–‹‡
Šƒ„‹–ƒ–•ǫ
ͶǤ –Š‡Ž‹‰Š–‘ˆ–Š‹•ǡŠƒ˜‡›‘—…‘ˆ‹”‡†–Š‡Š›’‘–Š‡•‹••–ƒ–‡†‹‘ǤͶ
‘ˆ–Š‡’”‘…‡†—”‡ǫ
Š‡’”‘„Ž‡‘ˆ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡•‹••–‹ŽŽ™‹–Š—•‹–Š‹•‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
– ‹• “—‹–‡ ’‘••‹„Ž‡ –Šƒ– Š—‹†‹–› ‘” ‘‹•–—”‡ Šƒ• ƒ ‹’‘”–ƒ– ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘
‹ŽŽ‹’‡†‡•ǯ„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”„—–™‡Šƒ˜‡‘–„‡‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘‡š…Ž—†‡‘–Š‡”’‘••‹„Ž‡
ˆƒ…–‘”•Ǥ ˆ’‘••‹„Ž‡‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡Š—‹†‹–›‘”‡ˆ—ŽŽ›–Š‡ǡ›‘—‡‡†–‘…ƒ””›
‘—– Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ™‘” ™Š‡”‡ ‘‡ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡ …ƒ „‡ …Šƒ‰‡† ƒ† –Š‡ ”‡•–
…‘–”‘ŽŽ‡†Ǥ



115
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Appendix 6: Genetics
What to do
ͳǤ
—‹†‡–Š‡•–—†‡–•–‘…ƒ””›‘—––Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ƒ…–‹˜‹–› ǣ•‹‰„‡ƒ†•
–‘‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‡‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡
ʹǤ ‹˜‹†‡–Š‡…Žƒ••‹–‘‰”‘—’•ƒ†…‘ŽŽ‡…–ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•‡‡†‡†ǣ‡ƒ‡”•‘”
„Žƒ… ‘Ž›–Š‡‡ „ƒ‰• ȋͷ ’‡” ‰”‘—’Ȍǡ „Ž—‡ „‡ƒ†• ȋͳͲͲȌǡ ”‡† „‡ƒ†•
ȋͳͲͲȌǡŽƒ„‡Ž•Ǥ
͵Ǥ Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™–Š‡’”‘…‡†—”‡„‡Ž‘™ǣ
‹Ȍ ƒ„‡ŽͶ„‡ƒ‡”•ͳ–‘Ͷ
‹‹Ȍ —–ͷͲ„Ž—‡„‡ƒ†•‹–‘„‡ƒ‡”ͳǤ
‹‹‹Ȍ —– ʹͷ „Ž—‡ ƒ† ʹͷ ”‡† „‡ƒ†• ‹–‘ „‡ƒ‡” ʹ ƒ† ‹š –Š‡ —’
–Š‘”‘—‰ŠŽ›Ǥ
‹˜Ȍ Ž‘•‡›‘—”‡›‡•ƒ†–ƒ‡ƒ„‡ƒ†ˆ”‘‡ƒ…Š„‡ƒ‡”Ǥ
˜Ȍ —––Š‡–™‘„‡ƒ†•–‘‰‡–Š‡”ȋ‘ˆˆ•’”‹‰ȌǤ
˜‹Ȍ ’‡›‘—”‡›‡•Ǥ
˜‹‹Ȍ ˆ –Š‡ ‘ˆˆ•’”‹‰ ‹• Š‘‘œ›‰‘—• ȋ‡‹–Š‡” „Ž—‡ ‘” ”‡†Ȍ –Š‡ ’—– ‹–
‹–‘„‡ƒ‡”͵ƒ†‹ˆŠ‡–‡”‘œ›‰‘—•–Š‡’—–‹–‘„‡ƒ‡”ͶǤ
˜‹‹‹Ȍ ‡’‡ƒ– •–‡’• Ͷǡ ͷǡ ͸ ƒ† ͹ —–‹Ž ƒŽŽ –Š‡ „‡ƒ†• Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡
–”ƒ•ˆ‡””‡†Ǥ

‹˜‡–Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡ǣ
ͳǤ ‘—–ƒ†”‡…‘”†–Š‡—„‡”‘ˆǢ
‹Ȍ ‘‘œ›‰‘—•‘ˆˆ•’”‹‰Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ‡–‡”‘œ›‰‘—•‘ˆˆ•’”‹‰Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ Šƒ–†‘–Š‡„‡ƒ†•”‡’”‡•‡–ǫ
‹˜Ȍ ƒ‡„‡ƒ‡”ͳǡʹǡ͵ƒ†ͶǤ
ʹǤ Šƒ–…‘…Ž—•‹‘†‘›‘—ƒ‡ˆ”‘–Š‡”‡•—Ž–•‘„–ƒ‹‡†‹ͻƒ„‘˜‡ǫ
͵Ǥ ••—‡–Šƒ––Š‡…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•Š‘™„›–Š‡„Ž—‡„‡ƒ†‹•†‘‹ƒ–ƒ†
‹•”‡’”‡•‡–‡†„›Ǥˆ‹ŽŽ–Š‡•’ƒ…‡•„‡Ž‘™ͳǡʹǡ͵ƒ†Ͷƒ”‡–Š‡„‡ƒ‡”•ǣ
ƒ”‡–•

‡‘–›’‡  ͳǥǥǥǥ  ʹǥǥǥǥǤ

ƒ‡–‡•  ǥǥǥǥǤ  ǥǥǥǥǥ
ˆˆ•’”‹‰ȋ ͳȌ

‡‘–›’‡• ͵ǥǥǥǥǥ  Ͷǥǥǥǥǥ
ƒ–‹‘  ǥǥǥǥǥ
‡–•–—†‡–•’”ƒ…–‹…‡–Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ƒ…–‹˜‹–›ƒ•ƒ‘—–‘ˆ…Žƒ••ƒ••‹‰‡–ǣ



116
ͳǤ —–ͷͲ„Ž—‡ƒ†ͷͲ”‡†„‡ƒ†•‹–‘‡ƒ…Š‘ˆ–Š‡–™‘„‡ƒ‡”•ͳƒ†ʹ
ƒ†‹š–Š‡–Š‘”‘—‰ŠŽ›Ǥ
ʹǤ Ž‘•‡›‘—”‡›‡•ƒ†–Š‡–ƒ‡ƒ„‡ƒ†ˆ”‘‡ƒ…Š„‡ƒ‡”Ǥ
͵Ǥ —––Š‡–™‘„‡ƒ†•–‘‰‡–Š‡”Ǥ
ͶǤ ˆ –Š‡ ‘ˆˆ•’”‹‰ ‹• Š‘‘œ›‰‘—• †‘‹ƒ– ȋ„‘–Š „Ž—‡Ȍ ’—– ‹– ‹–‘
„‡ƒ‡”• ͵ ƒ† ‹ˆ ‹– ‹• Š‡–‡”‘œ›‰‘—• ’—– ‹– ‹–‘ „‡ƒ‡”• ͶǤ ˆ ‹– ‹•
Š‘‘œ›‰‘—•”‡…‡••‹˜‡ȋ„‘–Š”‡†Ȍ–Š‡’—–‹–‹–‘„‡ƒ‡”•ͷǤ
ͷǤ ‡’‡ƒ– •–‡’• ʹ ƒ† ͵ —–‹Ž ƒŽŽ –Š‡ „‡ƒ†• Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ –”ƒ•ˆ‡””‡†ǡ ƒ
’ƒ‹”ƒ–ƒ–‹‡‹–‘„‡ƒ‡”•͵ǡͶǡƒ†ͷǤ
͸Ǥ ‘™…‘—––Š‡—„‡”‘ˆǢ
‹Ȍ ‘‘œ›‰‘—•†‘‹ƒ–‘ˆˆ•’”‹‰Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ‡–‡”‘œ›‰‘—•‘ˆˆ•’”‹‰Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ ‘‘œ›‰‘—•”‡…‡••‹˜‡‘ˆˆ•’”‹‰Ǥ
͹Ǥ Šƒ–…‘…Ž—•‹‘™‘—Ž†›‘—ƒ‡ˆ”‘–Š‡—„‡”•…‘—–‡†ǫ
ͺǤ ••—‡ –Šƒ– –Š‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹… •Š‘™ „› –Š‡ „Ž—‡ „‡ƒ† ‹• –Š‡
†‘‹ƒ–ƒ†‹•”‡’”‡•‡–‡†„›Ǥ‘’Ž‡–‡–Š‡…”‘••„‡Ž‘™ǣ
ƒ”‡–•

‡‘–›’‡•  ͳǤǥǥǥǥǤ ʹǤǥǥǥǥǥ

ƒ‡–‡•ǥǥǥǥǥǥǥǥǥ
ˆˆ•’”‹‰

‡‘–›’‡• ͵ǥǥǥǥǤǤͶǥǥǥǥǤ ͷǥǥǥǥǤǤ
ƒ–‹‘ ǥǥǥǥ ǥǥǥǥǥǥǥǥǤǤ 

4. Another activity II: on Human Genetics



‹˜‡•–—†‡–•–‘…ƒ””›‹–‘—–ƒ•ƒ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š™‘”‘’Š‡‘–›’‡•
ƒ† ‰‡‘–›’‡• ‘ˆ Š—ƒ –”ƒ‹–•Ǥ –ƒ–‡ –Šƒ– –Š‡ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ –”ƒ‹–•
ƒ”‡†‡–‡”‹‡†„›ƒ•‹‰Ž‡‰‡‡‹Š—ƒ•ǣ
i) Widow’s peak Ǧ –Š‡ W ƒŽŽ‡Ž‡ ˆ‘” ™‹†‘™ǯ• ’‡ƒ ȋ‹Ǥ‡Ǥ ƒ ’‘‹–‡†
Šƒ‹”Ž‹‡Ȍ‹•†‘‹ƒ––‘–Š‡wƒŽŽ‡Ž‡ˆ‘”ƒ•–”ƒ‹‰Š–Šƒ‹”Ž‹‡Ǥ
ii) Bent little finger-Žƒ››‘—”Šƒ†•ˆŽƒ–‘–Š‡–ƒ„Ž‡ƒ†”‡Žƒš–Š‡Ǥ ˆ
–Š‡Žƒ•–Œ‘‹–‘ˆ›‘—”Ž‹––Ž‡ˆ‹‰‡”„‡†•–‘™ƒ”†–Š‡ˆ‘—”–Šˆ‹‰‡”ǡ›‘—
Šƒ˜‡–Š‡†‘‹ƒ–ƒŽŽ‡Ž‡BǤ
iii)Attached earlobes – –Š‡ A ƒŽŽ‡Ž‡ ˆ‘” ˆ”‡‡ ‡ƒ”Ž‘„‡• ‹• †‘‹ƒ– –‘
–Š‡”‡…‡••‹˜‡aƒŽŽ‡Ž‡ˆ‘”ƒ––ƒ…Š‡†‡ƒ”Ž‘„‡•Ǥ
‹˜Ȍ Tongue rolling – –Š‡RƒŽŽ‡Ž‡ƒŽŽ‘™•›‘—–‘”‘ŽŽ›‘—”–‘‰—‡‹–‘ƒ
•Šƒ’‡ǡƒ†‹•†‘‹ƒ––‘–Š‡rƒŽŽ‡Ž‡ˆ‘”Žƒ…‘ˆ–Š‹•ƒ„‹Ž‹–›



117
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

˜Ȍ Hitchhiker’s thumbǦ „‡† ›‘—” –Š—„ „ƒ…™ƒ”†• ƒ• ˆƒ” ƒ•
’‘••‹„Ž‡Ǥ ˆ›‘—…ƒ„‡†–Š‡Žƒ•–Œ‘‹–‘ˆ–Š‡–Š—„„ƒ…ƒ–ƒƒ‰Ž‡
‘ˆ͸Ͳ‘”‘”‡ǡ›‘—ƒ”‡•Š‘™‹‰–Š‡”‡…‡••‹˜‡ƒŽŽ‡Ž‡hǤ
˜‹Ȍ Interlacing fingers Ȃ…ƒ•—ƒŽŽ›ˆ‘Ž†›‘—”Šƒ†•–‘‰‡–Š‡”•‘–Šƒ–›‘—”
ˆ‹‰‡”• ‹–‡”Žƒ…‡Ǥ Š‡ C ƒŽŽ‡Ž‡ ˆ‘” …”‘••‹‰ –Š‡ Ž‡ˆ– –Š—„ ‘˜‡” –Š‡
”‹‰Š––Š—„™Š‡›‘—‹–‡”Žƒ…‡›‘—”ˆ‹‰‡”•‹•†‘‹ƒ–‘˜‡”–Š‡c
ƒŽŽ‡Ž‡ˆ‘”…”‘••‹‰›‘—””‹‰Š––Š—„‘˜‡”›‘—”Ž‡ˆ–Ǥ
˜‹‹ȌMid-digital hairǦ –Š‡ ƒŽŽ‡Ž‡ M ˆ‘” Šƒ‹” ‘ –Š‡ ‹††Ž‡ •‡‰‡– ‘ˆ
›‘—” ˆ‹‰‡”• ‹• †‘‹ƒ– –‘ –Š‡  ƒŽŽ‡Ž‡ ˆ‘” ‘ ‹†Ǧ†‹‰‹–ƒŽ Šƒ‹”Ǥ ˆ
Šƒ‹”‹•’”‡•‡–‘–Š‡‹†Ǧ†‹‰‹–‘ˆƒ›ˆ‹‰‡”›‘—Šƒ˜‡–Š‡†‘‹ƒ–
ƒŽŽ‡Ž‡Ǥ
ͷǤ ‡– •–—†‡–• …ƒ””› ‘—– –Š‡ ƒ„‘˜‡ ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘• ƒ† ”‡…‘”† –Š‡
”‡•—Ž–•‹–Š‡–ƒ„Ž‡„‡Ž‘™Ǥ

‘ Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹… ‘—” ‘••‹„Ž‡ Š‡‘–›’‡•‘ˆ…Žƒ••


Ǥ ’Š‡‘–›’‡ ‰‡‘–›’‡ ‘‹ƒ– ‡…‡••‹˜‡

‹Ǥ ‹†‘™ǯ• 
’‡ƒ
‹‹Ǥ ‡– Ž‹––Ž‡ 
ˆ‹‰‡”
‹‹‹Ǥ ––ƒ…Š‡† 
‡ƒ”Ž‘„‡•
‹˜Ǥ ‘‰—‡ 
”‘ŽŽ‹‰
˜Ǥ ‹–…ŠŠ‹‡”ǯ 
•–Š—„
˜‹Ǥ –‡”Žƒ…‹‰ 
ˆ‹‰‡”•
˜‹‹Ǥ ‹†Ǧ†‹‰‹–ƒŽ 
Šƒ‹”



118
References
”ƒ…‡‰‹”†Ž‡ǡǤƒ†‹Ž‡•ǡǤǡȋͳͻͺͳȌǤAn Atlas of Plant Structureǡ‘Ž—‡•ͳƒ†ʹǣ
’ƒ‹ ‡‹‡ƒ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽǤ

‘”†‘ǡǤǤƒ†”‡‡†›ǡ ǤǡȋͳͻͻͶȌǤExperimental BiologyManualǤǤǣ ‡‹‡ƒ


†—…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽǤ
Šƒ’ƒǡ ǤǤ ƒ† ‡‹••ǡ Ǥ Ǥǡ ȋͳͻͻͷȌǤ Ecology: Principles and ApplicationǤ
ƒ„”‹†‰‡ǣƒ„”‹†‰‡‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••Ǥ
Ž‡‰‰ǡǤ Ǥƒ†ƒ…‡ƒǡǤ
ǤǡȋʹͲͲͲȌǤAdvanced Biology Principles and ApplicationsǤ
ʹ††‹–‹‘ǡ‘†‘ǣ ‘††‡”†—…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
Ž‡‰‰ǡǤ Ǥƒ…‡ƒǡǤ
Ǥ‡–ƒŽǡȋͳͻͻ͸ȌǤAdvanced Biology Principles andApplicationsǣ
–—†›
—‹†‡ǡ‘†‘ ‘††‡”†—…ƒ–‹‘ǡ
”‡‡ƒǡ Ǥ Ǥ ƒ† ”ƒ…‡‰‹”†Ž‡ǡ Ǥǡ ȋͳͻͺ͵ȌǢ An Atlas of Histologyǡ ‹…Š‹‰ƒǣ
‡‹ƒ†—…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽǤ
‘‘Ž‡ǡ
Ǥƒ†‘‘Ž‡ǡǤǡȋͳͻͻͻȌǤNew Understanding Biology forAdvanced Level. Ͷ–Š
†‹–‹‘ǡǣ‡Ž•‘Š‘”‡•Ǥ
‹‰‡Ž
ǤǤǤ‡–ƒŽȋͳͻͻͲȌǢBiological Scienceǡ͵”††‹–‹‘ǡƒ„”‹†‰‡‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡ
ƒ„”‹†‰‡
‘„‡”–•ǡǤǤǤǡȋͳͻͺ͸ȌǤBiology: A Functional Approach. Ͷ–Š†‹–‹‘ǡ‘‰Š‘”‡•Ǥ
‡–ǡǤǡȋʹͲͲͲȌǤAdvanced BiologyǤͳ•–†‹–‹‘ǡšˆ‘”†ǡ‡™‘”
‘™‡––ǡ Ǥ
ǤǤǡȋͳͻͻʹȌǤDissection GuideǤ‘†‘ǣ”ƒ•Ǧ–Žƒ–‹…’—„Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•ǡ‹…Ǥ
‘™‡––ǡ Ǥ
ǤǤǡȋͳͻͻʹȌǤDissection GuideǣThe FrogǤ‘†‘ǣ—””ƒ›Ǥ
‘™‡––ǡ Ǥ
ǤǤǡȋͳͻͻʹȌǤDissection Guide: The InvertebratesǤ‘†‘ǣ—””ƒ›Ǥ
‘™‡–– Ǥ
ǤǤǡȋͳͻͻʹȌǤ Dissection Guide: The Rat. ‘†‘ǣ‹‡Šƒ”–Ǥ
‹‡•ǡǤǤƒ†‡‡•ǡȋͳͻ͹͹ȌǤPlant and Animal BiologyǤ‘Ž—‡ͳǡ‘†‘ǣ‹–ƒ
—„Ž‹•Š‹‰Ǥ
‹‡•ǡǤǤǡƒ†‡‡•ǡȋͳͻ͹͹ȌǤPlant and Animal BiologyǤ‘Ž—‡ʹǡ‘†‘ǣ‹–ƒ
—„Ž‹•Š‹‰Ǥ



119
BIOLOGY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

120
Uganda Advanced
‡”–‹ϐ‹…ƒ–‡‘ˆ†—…ƒ–‹‘

Chemistry
TEACHING SYLLABUS

121
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

CONTENTS

 ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤͳʹ͹

Introduction .................................................................................................................127

SECTION B...................................................................................................................... 136

Part I: Physical Chemistry ....................................................................................... 136

SENIOR FIVE  TERM I ........................................................................................... 136

Topic 1: Matter ............................................................................................................ 136


Sub-Topic 1: Atoms, Molecules and Ions........................................................................... 136
Sub-Topic 2: Mole Concept..................................................................................................... 138
Sub-Topic 3: Measurement of Concentration and introduction to
volumetric analysis..................................................................................................................... 139
Sub-Topic 4: Empirical formula and Molecular Formula and Percentage
Composition by Mass ................................................................................................................. 141
Sub-Topic 5: Oxidation– Reduction (Redox) Reactions) ........................................... 142
Sub-Topic 6: Stoichiometry: Quantitative Relation in Reactions ........................ 143
Sub-Topic 7: Redox Titrations ............................................................................................... 144
Sub-Topic 8: Physical states of matter .............................................................................. 145
Sub-Topic 9: Gaseous State of Matter ................................................................................ 145
Sub-Topic10: Liquid State of matter .................................................................................. 148
Sub-Topic 11: Solid State of Matter .................................................................................... 149

Topic 2: Atomic Structure and Periodic Table ................................................. 151


Sub-Topic 1: Fundamental Particles of the Atom and Radioactivity .................. 151
Sub-Topic 2: Electronic Structure of Atoms .................................................................... 152
Sub-Topic 3: The Periodic Table........................................................................................... 155
SENIOR FIVE TERM III ............................................................................................. 157

Topic 3: Structure and Bonding............................................................................ 157


Sub-Topic 1: Chemical Bonding ............................................................................................ 157
Sub-Topic 2: Structure: Drawing Lewis Structures of Molecules and
Polyatomic Ions ............................................................................................................................ 160

122
Sub-Topic 3: Shapes of Molecules ........................................................................................ 162

Topic 4: Thermochemistry (Chemical Energetics) ......................................... 164


Sub-Topic 1 Chemical Energy ................................................................................................ 164
Sub-Topic 2: Types of Heat of Reactions........................................................................... 166
Sub-Topic 3: Calorimetry ......................................................................................................... 167
Sub-Topic 4: Types of Enthalpy Changes.......................................................................... 168

Topic 5: Physical Equilibria .................................................................................... 173


Sub-Topic 1: Systems, Phases and Component ............................................................. 173
Sub-Topic 1: Component System (Types of component systems) ......................... 174
Sub-Topic 2: Types of Solutions ............................................................................................ 175
Sub-Topic 3: Colligative Properties .................................................................................... 178

Topic 6: Chemical Equilibria .................................................................................. 183


Sub-Topic 1: The concept of Chemical Equilibrium .................................................... 183
Sub-Topic 2: Comparison between Kc and Kp ............................................................... 184
Sub-Topic 3: Factors affecting the position of equilibrium in accordance
with the Le’ Chatelier’s Principle ......................................................................................... 186
Sub-Topic 4: Applications of factors on industrial processes ................................. 187

SENIOR SIX TERM II ................................................................................................... 188

Topic 7: Ionic Equilibria ........................................................................................... 188


Sub-Topic 1: Acids, Bases and Salts .................................................................................... 188
Sub-Topic 2: Hydrolysis of Salts............................................................................................ 191
Sub-Topic 3: Buffer Solutions ................................................................................................ 192
Sub-Topic 4: Acid–Base Titrations ...................................................................................... 193
Sub-Topic 5: Solubility Equilibria ........................................................................................ 195

Topic 8: Chemical Kinetics ...................................................................................... 198


Sub-Topic 1: Simple Rate Equations................................................................................... 198
Sub-Topic 2: Factors Affecting Rates of Reactions ..................................................... 199

Topic 9: Electrochemistry ....................................................................................... 202



123
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Sub-Topic 1: Electrolysis .......................................................................................................... 202


Sub-Topic 2: Conductance and its Measurements ....................................................... 203
Sub-Topic 3: Electrochemical Cells ..................................................................................... 205

Part II: INORGANIC CHEMISTRY ............................................................................ 207

SENIOR FIVE  TERM I ................................................................................................ 207

Topic 10: Third Short Period of the Periodic Table ....................................... 207
Sub-Topic 1: Trends in Atomic and Physical properties of the Elements .......... 207
Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Reactions of the Elements ....................................................... 208
Sub-Topic 3: Compounds of the Elements ........................................................................ 209

SENIOR FIVE TERM II ................................................................................................. 212

Topic 11: The Chemistry of Group II Elements (Alkaline Earth Metals). 212
Sub-Topic 1: Trends in Physical Properties of the Elements of Group II ........... 212
Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Reactions of Group II Elements ............................................. 213
Sub-Topic 3: Compounds of Group II Elements ............................................................. 214

SENIOR FIVE TERM II ................................................................................................. 216

Topic 12: The Chemistry of Group IV Elements ............................................... 216


Sub-Topic 1: Trends in Physical Properties of Group IV Elements ....................... 216
Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Reactions of the Elements ....................................................... 217
Sub-Topic 3: Compounds of the Group IV Elements .................................................... 218

SENIOR SIX TERM I ..................................................................................................... 221

Topic 13: The Chemistry of Group VII Elements ............................................. 221


Sub-Topic 1: Trends in Physical Properties of the Elements ................................... 221
Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Reactions of the Elements of Group II of Periodic
Table .................................................................................................................................................. 222
Sub-Topic 3: Compounds of the Elements ........................................................................ 223

SENIOR SIX TERM II ................................................................................................... 224

Topic 14: The Chemistry of the d-block Transition Elements .................... 224



124
Sub-Topic 1: The d-Block Transition Elements ............................................................. 224
Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties of the Elements and their Compounds........ 226

Part III: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ............................................................................... 228

SENIOR FIVE  TERM I ................................................................................................ 228

Topic 15: Introduction to Organic Chemistry .................................................. 228


Sub-Topic 1: Introduction ....................................................................................................... 228

Topic 16: Hydrocarbons (Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes).......................... 230


Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Alkanes and their Physical Properties .................. 230
Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties and uses of Alkanes ............................................. 231
Sub-Topic 3: Introduction to Alkenes and their Physical Properties .................. 232
Sub-Topic 4: Chemical Properties and Uses of Alkenes ............................................. 233

SENIOR FIVE  TERM II .............................................................................................. 234


Sub-Topic 5: Introduction to Alkynes and their Physical Properties .................. 234
Sub-Topic 6: Chemical Properties and Uses of Alkynes ............................................. 235

Topic 17: Halogen compounds (Alkyl halides) ................................................ 236

General Objective ....................................................................................................... 236


Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Halogen Compounds and Their Physical
Properties........................................................................................................................................ 236
Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties and Uses of Halogen Compounds .................. 237

Topic 18: Benzene and methyl benzene ............................................................. 239


Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Benzene and its Physical properties of
Benzene ............................................................................................................................................ 239
Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties of Benzene................................................................ 240
Sub-Topic 2: Introduction to Methyl benzene ................................................................ 241
Sub-Topic 3: Physical properties of methyl benzene .................................................. 242

SENIOR FIVE  TERM III ........................................................................................... 243

Topic 19: Alcohols and Phenols............................................................................. 243



125
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Alcohols and their Physical Properties ................. 243


Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties of Alcohols................................................................ 244
Sub-Topic 3: Introduction to Phenol and its physical properties ......................... 245
Sub-Topic 4: Chemical Properties and Uses of Phenols ............................................. 246

SENIOR SIX  TERM I ................................................................................................ 248

Topic 20: Carbonyl compounds (Ketones and Aldehydes) ......................... 248


Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Carbonyl Compounds and their Physical
Properties........................................................................................................................................ 248
Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties and Uses of Carbonyl Compounds................. 249

Topic 21: Carboxylic (Alkanoic) acids................................................................. 251


Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Carboxylic Acids and their Physical Properties 251
Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties and Uses Carboxylic Acids ................................ 252
Sub-Topic 3: Soaps and Soapless Detergents ................................................................. 253

Topic 22: Esters ........................................................................................................... 255


Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Esters and their Physical properties ...................... 255
Sub-Topic 2: Chemical properties and uses of Esters ................................................. 256

SENIOR SIX  TERM II............................................................................................. 257

Topic 23: Amines ........................................................................................................ 257


Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Amines and their physical properties ................... 257
Sub-Topic 2: Chemical properties and uses of Amines ............................................... 258

Topic 24: Polymers and Polymerisation ............................................................ 260


Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to polymers ............................................................................. 260
Sub-Topic 2: Rubber ................................................................................................................... 261
Sub-Topic 3: Fibres ..................................................................................................................... 261
Sub-Topic 4: Plastics .................................................................................................................. 262

References ..................................................................................................................... 264






126
 

Introduction
Š‹• Š‡‹•–”› ‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ›ŽŽƒ„—• ‹• ‡ƒ– –‘ ƒ‹† –‡ƒ…Š‡”• Šƒ†Ž‹‰
Š‡‹•–”› ƒ– ‰ƒ†ƒ †˜ƒ…‡† ‡”–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ †—…ƒ–‹‘ ȋȌǤ – ‹•
†‡•‹‰‡† –‘ „—‹Ž† ‘ ƒ† ƒŽ•‘ –ƒ‡ –‘ ‹…Ž—†‡ –Š‡ Š‡‹•–”› ›ŽŽƒ„—• ƒ–
‰ƒ†ƒ‡”–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‡‘ˆ†—…ƒ–‹‘ȋȌǤ‘™Ž‡†‰‡„‡›‘†–Šƒ–”‡“—‹”‡†ˆ‘”
ǤǤǤ‹•‘–‡š’‡…–‡†—Ž‡•••’‡…‹ˆ‹…ƒŽŽ›‡–‹‘‡†‹–‘’‹…•‹–Š‡ǤǤǤ
Ǥ •›ŽŽƒ„—•Ǥ Š‡ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ‹• †‹˜‹†‡† ‹–‘ –Š”‡‡ „”‘ƒ† •‡…–‹‘•Ǣ ǡ ǡ ƒ† Ǥ
ƒ…Š‘ˆ–Š‡‡…–‹‘•ƒ†‹•†‹˜‹†‡†‹–‘•‡˜‡”ƒŽ‘’‹…•ƒ†—„Ǧ‘’‹…•
™Š‹…Š ƒ”‡ ƒ””ƒ‰‡† ‹ ƒ •‡“—‡…‡ –Šƒ– ’”‡•‡–• –‡”•ǡ …‘…‡’–• ƒ†
’”‘…‡†—”‡•™Š‹…Š•Š‘—Ž†„‡Ž‡ƒ”‡†„‡ˆ‘”‡–Š‘•‡–Šƒ–„—‹Ž†‘ǡ ‡š–‡†‘”
ƒ’’Ž›–Š‡‘™Ž‡†‰‡‰ƒ‹‡†Ǥ

Purpose of the Teaching Syllabus


Š‹• –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ™‹ŽŽ ‡ƒ„Ž‡ –‡ƒ…Š‡”• …‘˜‡” –Š‡ •›ŽŽƒ„—• …‘–‡–
ƒ†‡“—ƒ–‡Ž›—’–‘ƒ’’”‘’”‹ƒ–‡†‡’–Šƒ–‡ƒ…ŠŽ‡˜‡Ž‘ˆ•–—†›ǤŠ‡†‡•‹‰‘ˆ–Š‹•
•›ŽŽƒ„—•‹•–‘‡’Šƒ•‹•‡–Š‡–‡ƒ…Š‹‰ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š‡•–‘„‡—•‡†ˆ‘”‡ƒ…Š•—„Ǧ
–‘’‹…ˆ”‘ƒ‘‰–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š‡•‰‹˜‡„›–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•–‘ƒ…Š‹‡˜‡
–Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ •›ŽŽƒ„—•Ǥ Š‡ ’‡”‹‘†• ƒŽŽ‘…ƒ–‡† •Š‘—Ž† ƒŽ•‘
‰—‹†‡ –‡ƒ…Š‡”• –‘ ƒ‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ ’Žƒ• •‘ –Šƒ– –Š‡› …ƒ …‘’Ž‡–‡ –Š‡
•›ŽŽƒ„—• ™‹–Š‹ –Š‡ ”‡…‘‡†‡† ’‡”‹‘†Ǥ Š‡ ”‡…‘‡†‡† ‡–Š‘†•
—•– ƒŽŽ „‡ „ƒ•‡† ‘ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ƒ† ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽǦ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡
ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š‡•™Š‡”‡•–—†‡–•…ƒ’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–‡‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽŽ›‘”‹‰”‘—’•Ǥ

Aims of Teaching Chemistry


ͳǤƒ„Ž‹‰–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‘™ǣ
‹Ȍ –Š‡„ƒ•‹…’”‹…‹’Ž‡•ƒ†…‘…‡’–•‘ˆŠ‡‹•–”›Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ Š‘™ –Š‡‘”‹‡• ƒ† ‘†‡Ž• ƒ”‡ —•‡† –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ …‘…‡’–• ‹
Š‡‹•–”›Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ –Š‡ ”‡•‘—”…‡• ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‡ †‹•…‘˜‡”› ƒ„‘—– —ˆƒ‹Ž‹ƒ”
’”‹…‹’Ž‡•ƒ†…‘…‡’–•‹Š‡‹•–”›Ǥ
‹˜Ȍ –Š‡—•‡‘ˆ‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡’”‹…‹’Ž‡•ƒ†…‘…‡’–•‘ˆŠ‡‹•–”›
‹‡˜‡”›†ƒ›Ž‹ˆ‡•‹–—ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

ʹǤ ƒ‹‰–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•ƒ™ƒ”‡‘ˆ–Š‡‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆ•…‹‡–‹ˆ‹…†‹•…‘˜‡”‹‡•ƒ†
‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘‡˜‡”›†ƒ›Ž‹ˆ‡–Š”‘—‰Š•‘‡ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ
Š‡‹•–”›




127
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

͵Ǥ ƒ„Ž‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
‹Ȍ †‡˜‡Ž‘’ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽƒ––‹–—†‡„›’‡”ˆ‘”‹‰‡š’‡”‹‡–•‹
•…Š‘‘Ž•
‹‹Ȍ ˆƒ‹Ž‹ƒ”‹•‡–Š‡•‡Ž˜‡•™‹–Š•…‹‡–‹ˆ‹…‡–Š‘†•Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ †‡˜‡Ž‘’ –Š‡ ‡…‡••ƒ”› •‹ŽŽ• –‘ †‡•‹‰ ƒ† …ƒ””› ‘—– ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ
‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘•„ƒ•‡†‘–Š‡‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘ˆŠ‡‹•–”›Ǥ

ͶǤ ”‡’ƒ”‹‰ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ˆ‘” ˆ—”–Š‡” •–—†‹‡• ‹ Š‡‹•–”› ƒ† ”‡Žƒ–‡†
ˆ‹‡Ž†•

ͷǤ ƒ„Ž‹‰–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡–Š‡ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆŠ‡‹•–”›‹
‘–Š‡”†‹•…‹’Ž‹‡•

͸Ǥ ƒ„Ž‹‰–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘†‡˜‡Ž‘’ǣ
‹Ȍ ƒ‹‹–‹ƒ–‹˜‡ˆ‘”‹˜‡–‹˜‡‡••Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ •‹ŽŽ•ˆ‘”’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‡š’Ž‘”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ …ƒ’ƒ…‹–› –‘ †‡•‹‰ ‘†‡Ž• ƒ† ƒƒŽ›–‹…ƒŽ •…Š‡‡• ˆ‘” —•‡ ‹
’”‘„Ž‡•‘Ž˜‹‰•…Š‡‡•Ǥ

General Objectives
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”••Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
ͳǤ ”‡…‘‰‹•‡ ’”‘„Ž‡• –Šƒ– …ƒ „‡ †‡ƒŽ– ™‹–Š —•‹‰ ‡–Š‘†•ǡ …‘…‡’–•ǡ
’”‹…‹’Ž‡•ǡ‘†‡Ž•ƒ†–Š‡‘”‹‡•‘ˆŠ‡‹•–”›Ǥ
ʹǤ ”‡…‘‰‹•‡ –Š‡ —•‡ ‘ˆǡ ƒ† ƒ‹’—Žƒ–‡ ƒ’’ƒ”ƒ–—• ƒ† ‡“—‹’‡–
…‘‘‹ƒŠ‡‹•–”›Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›Ǥ
͵Ǥ †‡•‹‰ƒ†…ƒ””›‘—–’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†‡š’‡”‹‡–•ǡ†‡•…”‹„‡
ƒ†‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’”‘…‡†—”‡•—•‡†ƒ•™‡ŽŽƒ•–Š‡‹”‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡‡••ƒ†–Š‡‹”
Ž‹‹–ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
ͶǤ Šƒ†Ž‡ ƒŽŽ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ™‘” ™‹–Š –Š‡ ƒ……—”ƒ…› ”‡“—‹”‡† –‘ ‘„–ƒ‹ –Š‡
†‡•‹”‡†”‡•—Ž–•Ǥ
ͷǤ †‡ˆ‹‡–‡”•”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘˜ƒ”‹‘—•…‘…‡’–•‹Š‡‹•–”›ƒ†‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‹”
”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’–‘ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ƒ†’Š‡‘‡ƒ‹–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ
͸Ǥ †‹•…—•• –Š‡ —•‡ ƒ† ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡‡•• ‘ˆ –Š‡‘”‹‡• ‘” ‘†‡Ž• ‹ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰
’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’Š‡‘‡ƒ ƒ• ™‡ŽŽ ƒ• ‡˜‡–• ‹ –Š‡ Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ƒ† ‹ –Š‡
‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ

Target
Š‹• –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ‹• ƒ‹‡† ƒ– ‡”‹…Š‹‰ –Š‡ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ •–”ƒ–‡‰‹‡•
‡’Ž‘›‡†„›–‡ƒ…Š‡”•‘ˆŠ‡‹•–”›‹•…Š‘‘Ž•Ǥ

Scope and Depth


Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•Šƒ•„‡‡†‹˜‹†‡†‹–‘ˆ‘—”„”‘ƒ†—‹–•ǡƒ‡Ž›



128
ͳǤ Š›•‹…ƒŽŠ‡‹•–”›
ʹǤ ‘”‰ƒ‹…Š‡‹•–”›
͵Ǥ ”‰ƒ‹…Š‡‹•–”›
ͶǤ ’’Ž‹‡†Š‡‹•–”›


Teaching Sequence

Section Topic/Sub-Topic
Senior Five Term I
Physical ‘’‹…ͳǣƒ––‡”ǣ–‘•ǡ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•ƒ† ‘•ǡ‘Ž‡‘…‡’–ǡ
Chemistry ‡ƒ•—”‡‡– ‘ˆ ‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ‹–”‘†—…–‹‘
–‘ ˜‘Ž—‡–”‹… ƒƒŽ›•‹•ǡ ’‹”‹…ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒ ƒ†
‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ‘”—Žƒ ƒ† ‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡ ‘’‘•‹–‹‘
„› ƒ••ǡ š‹†ƒ–‹‘Ȃ ‡†—…–‹‘ ȋ‡†‘šȌ
‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ȍǡ –‘‹…Š‹‘‡–”›ǣ  —ƒ–‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ ‡Žƒ–‹‘
‹ ‡ƒ…–‹‘•ǡ ‡†‘š ‹–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ Š›•‹…ƒŽ •–ƒ–‡• ‘ˆ
ƒ––‡”ǡ
ƒ•‡‘—• –ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ ƒ––‡”ǡ ‹“—‹† –ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ
ƒ––‡”ǡ‘Ž‹†–ƒ–‡‘ˆƒ––‡”
Senior Five Term II
‘’‹… ʹǣ –‘‹… –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ‡”‹‘†‹… ƒ„Ž‡ǣ
—†ƒ‡–ƒŽ ƒ”–‹…Ž‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‘ ƒ†
ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‹–›ǡ Ž‡…–”‘‹… –”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –‘• ǡ Š‡
‡”‹‘†‹…ƒ„Ž‡
Senior Five Term III
‘’‹… ͵ǣ –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ‘†‹‰ǣ Š‡‹…ƒŽ ‘†‹‰ǡ
”ƒ™‹‰ ‡™‹• –”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡• ƒ†
‘Ž›ƒ–‘‹… ‘•ǤŠƒ’‡•‘ˆ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•
‘’‹…ͶǣŠ‡”‘…Š‡‹•–”›ȋŠ‡‹…ƒŽ‡”‰‡–‹…•ȌǣŠ‡‹…ƒŽ
‡”‰›ǡ ›’‡• ‘ˆ ‡ƒ– ‘ˆ ‡ƒ…–‹‘•ǡ  ƒŽ‘”‹‡–”›ǡ
›’‡•‘ˆ–ŠƒŽ’›Šƒ‰‡•
Senior Six Term I
‘’‹… ͷǣ Š›•‹…ƒŽ “—‹Ž‹„”‹ƒǣ ›•–‡•ǡ Šƒ•‡• ƒ†
‘’‘‡–ǡ ‘’‘‡– ›•–‡ ȋ›’‡• ‘ˆ
…‘’‘‡– •›•–‡•Ȍǡ ›’‡• ‘ˆ ‘Ž—–‹‘•ǡ
‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡”‘’‡”–‹‡•
‘’‹… ͸ǣ Š‡‹…ƒŽ “—‹Ž‹„”‹ƒǢ Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ Š‡‹…ƒŽ
“—‹Ž‹„”‹—ǡ ‘’ƒ”‹•‘ „‡–™‡‡ … ƒ† ’ǡ
ƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ –Š‡ ’‘•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹— ‹
ƒ……‘”†ƒ…‡ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‡ǯ Šƒ–‡Ž‹‡”ǯ• ”‹…‹’Ž‡ǡ
’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆˆƒ…–‘”•‘‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ’”‘…‡••‡•
Senior Six Term II



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‘’‹…͹ǣ ‘‹…“—‹Ž‹„”‹ƒǢ…‹†•ǡƒ•‡•ƒ†ƒŽ–•ǡ —ˆˆ‡”


‘Ž—–‹‘•ǡ …‹†Ȃƒ•‡ ‹–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ ‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›
“—‹Ž‹„”‹ƒ
‘’‹…ͺǣŠ‡‹…ƒŽ‹‡–‹…•Ǣ‹’Ž‡ƒ–‡“—ƒ–‹‘•ǡ ƒ…–‘”•
ˆˆ‡…–‹‰ƒ–‡•‘ˆ‡ƒ…–‹‘•
‘’‹… ͻǣ Ž‡…–”‘…Š‡‹•–”›Ǣ Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•ǡ ‘†—…–ƒ…‡ ƒ†
‹–•‡ƒ•—”‡‡–•ǡŽ‡…–”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ‡ŽŽ•
Inorganic Senior Five Term Iǡ
Chemistry ‘’‹…ͳͲǣŠ‹”†Š‘”–‡”‹‘†‘ˆ–Š‡‡”‹‘†‹…ƒ„Ž‡ǡ”‡†•
  ‹–‘‹…ƒ†Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡Ž‡‡–•ǡ
Š‡‹…ƒŽ ‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ž‡‡–•ǡ ‘’‘—†•
‘ˆ–Š‡Ž‡‡–•
‘’‹… ͳͳǣ Š‡ Š‡‹•–”› ‘ˆ ‰”‘—’  ‡Ž‡‡–• ȋŽƒŽ‹‡
‡ƒ”–Š ‡–ƒŽ•ȌǢ ”‡†• ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ
–Š‡ ‡Ž‡‡–• ‘ˆ ‰”‘—’ ǡ Š‡‹…ƒŽ ‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ
‰”‘—’  ‡Ž‡‡–•ǡ ‘’‘—†• ‘ˆ
”‘—’ 
Ž‡‡–•
Senior Five Term II
‘’‹…ͳʹǣŠ‡Š‡‹•–”› ‘ˆ
”‘—’  Ž‡‡–•Ǣ ”‡†•‹
Š›•‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ
”‘—’  Ž‡‡–•ǡ
Š‡‹…ƒŽ‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡Ž‡‡–•ǡ‘’‘—†•
‘ˆ–Š‡
”‘—’ Ž‡‡–•
Senior Six Term I
‘’‹…ͳ͵ǣŠ‡Š‡‹•–”›‘ˆ
”‘—’ Ž‡‡–•Ǣ”‡†•‹
Š›•‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ž‡‡–•ǡ Š‡‹…ƒŽ
‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡Ž‡‡–•‘ˆ
”‘—’ ‘ˆ‡”‹‘†‹…
ƒ„Ž‡ǡ‘’‘—†•‘ˆ–Š‡Ž‡‡–•
Senior Six Term II
‘’‹… ͳͶǣ Š‡ Š‡‹•–”› ‘ˆ –Š‡ †Ǧ„Ž‘… ”ƒ•‹–‹‘
Ž‡‡–•Ǣ Š‡ †ǦŽ‘… ”ƒ•‹–‹‘ Ž‡‡–•ǡ
Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ž‡‡–• ƒ† –Š‡‹”
‘’‘—†•
Organic Senior Five Term I
Chemistry ‘’‹…ͳͷǣ –”‘†—…–‹‘–‘”‰ƒ‹…Š‡‹•–”›Ǣ –”‘†—…–‹‘
‘’‹… ͳ͸ǣ ›†”‘…ƒ”„‘• ȋŽƒ‡•ǡ Ž‡‡• ƒ† ƒŽ›‡•ȌǢ
–”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘ Žƒ‡• ƒ† –Š‡‹” Š›•‹…ƒŽ
”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ† —•‡• ‘ˆ
Žƒ‡•ǡ –”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘ Ž‡‡• ƒ† –Š‡‹”
Š›•‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ†
•‡•‘ˆŽ‡‡•ǡ
Senior Five Term II
–”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘ Ž›‡• ƒ† Š‡‹” Š›•‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ



130
Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‘’‡”–‹‡•ƒ†•‡•‘ˆŽ›‡•
‘’‹… ͳ͹ǣ ƒŽ‘‰‡ …‘’‘—†• ȋŽ›Ž ŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ȍǣ
–”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘ ƒŽ‘‰‡ ‘’‘—†• ƒ† Š‡‹”
Š›•‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ†
•‡•‘ˆ ƒŽ‘‰‡‘’‘—†•
‘’‹… ͳͺǣ ‡œ‡‡ ƒ† ‡–Š›Ž „‡œ‡‡ǣ –”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘
‡œ‡‡ ƒ† ‹–• Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡œ‡‡ǡ
Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡œ‡‡ǡ –”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘
‡–Š›Ž „‡œ‡‡ǡ Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡–Š›Ž
„‡œ‡‡
Senior Five Term III
‘’‹… ͳͻǣ Ž…‘Š‘Ž• ƒ† Š‡‘Ž•Ǣ –”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘ Ž…‘Š‘Ž•
ƒ† –Š‡‹” Š›•‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ Š‡‹…ƒŽ
”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ Ž…‘Š‘Ž•ǡ –”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘ Š‡‘Ž
ƒ† ‹–• ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡•
ƒ†•‡•‘ˆŠ‡‘Ž•
Senior ix Term I
‘’‹… ʹͲǣ ƒ”„‘›Ž …‘’‘—†• ȋ‡–‘‡• ƒ† Ž†‡Š›†‡•ȌǢ
–”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘ ƒ”„‘›Ž ‘’‘—†• ƒ† Š‡‹”
Š›•‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ†
•‡•‘ˆƒ”„‘›Ž‘’‘—†•
‘’‹… ʹͳǣ ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹… ȋŽƒ‘‹…Ȍ ƒ…‹†•Ǣ –”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘
ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹… …‹†• ƒ† –Š‡‹” Š›•‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ
Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ† •‡• ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹… …‹†•ǡ
‘ƒ’•ƒ†‘ƒ’Ž‡••‡–‡”‰‡–•
‘’‹…ʹʹǣ•–‡”•Ǣ –”‘†—…–‹‘–‘•–‡”•ƒ†–Š‡‹”Š›•‹…ƒŽ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ† —•‡• ‘ˆ
•–‡”•
Senior Six Term II
‘’‹… ʹ͵ǣ ‹‡•Ǣ –”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘ ‹‡• ƒ† –Š‡‹”
’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ†
—•‡•‘ˆ‹‡•
‘’‹… ʹͶǣ ‘Ž›‡”• ƒ† ‘Ž›‡”‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǣ –”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘
’‘Ž›‡”•ǡ—„„‡”ǡ ‹„”‡•Žƒ•–‹…•

Practical
Š‡’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ•‹ŽŽ•™‹ŽŽ„‡†‡”‹˜‡†ˆ”‘ƒ›‘ˆ–Š‡„”ƒ…Š‡•‘ˆŠ‡‹•–”›Ǥ
Š‹•ƒ•’‡…–™‹ŽŽ…‘˜‡”–Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ƒ”‡ƒ•ǣ
‹Ȍ –”‘†—…–‹‘
‹‹Ȍ …‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•‹Ǥ‡Ǥ
x •–”‘‰ƒ…‹†Ǧ•–”‘‰„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•ȋ”‡˜‹•‹‘‘ˆǦŽ‡˜‡Ž’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ
‘ˆ–‹–”ƒ–‹‘‹Ǥ‡Ǥ•–ƒ†ƒ”†‹•ƒ–‹‘Ȍ



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x •‹Ž—–‹‘ˆƒ…–‘”•ȋƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘Ȍ
x „ƒ…–‹–”ƒ–‹‘
x †‘—„Ž‡‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•
‹‹‹Ȍ ‡†‘š–‹–”ƒ–‹‘ǣ
x –”‘†—…–‹‘ǣ„ƒŽƒ…‹‰”‡†‘š‡“—ƒ–‹‘•
x ‡”ƒ‰ƒƒ–‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•
x Š‹‘•—Ž’Šƒ–‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•
x ‘†‘‡–”›ƒ†‹†‹‘‡–”›
‹˜Ȍ ‹‡–‹…•
˜Ȍ ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ’ƒ”–‹–‹‘…‘‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–
˜‹Ȍ ‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
˜‹‹Ȍ ”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
˜‹‹‹ȌŠ‡”‘‡–”‹…–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•
‹šȌ —ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ƒƒŽ›•‹•
x ‘”‰ƒ‹…ȋ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ‹‘•ƒ†…ƒ–‹‘•Ȍ
x ”‰ƒ‹… ȋ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’• ƒ† ƒ–—”‡ ‘ˆ
‘”‰ƒ‹……‘’‘—†•Ȍ

Time Allocation
Š‡ ƒŽŽ‘…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ’‡”‹‘†• ˆ‘” ‡ƒ…Š –‘’‹… ƒ† ˆ‘” ‡ƒ…Š –‡” ƒ••—‡• –Šƒ–
–Š‡”‡ ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ‹‡ ȋͲͻȌ ™‡‡• ‘ˆ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ ’‡” –‡” ˆ‘”
–™‘ ›‡ƒ”• ‡š…‡’– ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹”•– ‡” ‘ˆ ‡‹‘” ‹˜‡ ƒ† –Š‡ Š‹”† ‡” ‘ˆ
‡‹‘”‹šǤ –‹•ƒŽ•‘”‡…‘‡†‡†–Šƒ––Š‡”‡™‹ŽŽ„‡•‹šȋ͸Ȍ’‡”‹‘†•ǡ‡ƒ…Š‘ˆ
ͶͲ ‹—–‡• ‘ˆ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ’‡” ™‡‡ ˆ‘” Š‡‹•–”› –Š‡‘”› ƒ† –Š”‡‡ ȋ͵Ȍ
’‡”‹‘†•‘ˆŽƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”‘–Š‡•…Š‘‘Ž–‹‡–ƒ„Ž‡Ǥ

How to Use the Syllabus


Š‡ Š‡‹•–”› ‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ›ŽŽƒ„—• ‹• ƒ‹‡† ƒ– ’”‘˜‹†‹‰ –Š‡ –‡ƒ…Š‡” ™‹–Š
‰—‹†ƒ…‡ ”‡“—‹”‡† –‘ –‡ƒ…Š Š‡‹•–”› ƒ– †˜ƒ…‡† ‡˜‡Ž …Žƒ••‡•Ǥ – ‹• ‘–
‡ƒ––‘•—„•–‹–—–‡–Š‡…”‡ƒ–‹˜‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡…Žƒ••”‘‘–‡ƒ…Š‡”ǤŠ‡Š‡‹•–”›
‡ƒ…Š‹‰›ŽŽƒ„—•Šƒ•–Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡•ǣ

Learning Objectives(s)
Š‹•‹•ƒ•–ƒ–‡‡–‘ˆ–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽŽ‡ƒ”‹‰‘—–…‘‡‡š’‡…–‡†‘ˆƒŽ‡ƒ”‡”ƒ–
–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡–‘’‹…Ǥ

Objectives
Š‡•‡ …Žƒ”‹ˆ› –Š‡ …‘–‡– ƒ† •…‘’‡Ǥ Š‡ –‡ƒ…Š‡” •Š‘—Ž† —•‡ –Š‡
…‘’‡–‡…‡• –‘ ’Žƒ –Š‡ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ •–”ƒ–‡‰‹‡• •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ˆ‘” –Š‡ Ž‡••‘Ǥ
‘’‡–‡…‡•ƒŽ•‘‰—‹†‡‹‡˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‘ƒ––Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‹‰’”‘…‡••Ǥ




132
Content
–‡•‹–Š‡…‘–‡–…‘Ž—Šƒ˜‡„‡‡•‹’Ž›Ž‹•–‡†„—–•Š‘—Ž†„‡Šƒ†Ž‡†
–‘‰‡–Š‡”™‹–Š–Š‡•’‡…‹ˆ‹…‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡•ƒ†–Š‡‘–‡•‘–Š‡–‘’‹…Ǥ

Teaching/Learning Strategies
Š‡•‡ ’”‘˜‹†‡ –Š‡ –‡ƒ…Š‡” ™‹–Š ‰—‹†ƒ…‡ǡ ˆ‘” ‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ ‘ˆ •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡
‡–Š‘†‘Ž‘‰›ǡ‡š’‡”‹‡–•ƒ†•–”ƒ–‡‰‹‡•™Š‹…Š–Š‡–‡ƒ…Š‡”ƒ›‡’Ž‘›Ǥ

Notes
Š‡•‡ˆ—”–Š‡”…Žƒ”‹ˆ›–Š‡•…‘’‡ƒ††‡’–ŠǤ

Number of Periods per Topic


Š‡ —„‡” ‘ˆ ’‡”‹‘†• •—‰‰‡•–‡† ˆ‘” ‡ƒ…Š –‘’‹… ‹• ‘Ž› –‘ „‡ —•‡† ƒ• ƒ
‰—‹†‡–‘‡ƒ„Ž‡–Š‡–‡ƒ…Š‡”…‘˜‡”–Š‡™‘”ƒ†‡“—ƒ–‡Ž›Ǥ

Assessment
Continuous Assessment
– ‹• ”‡…‘‡†‡† –Šƒ– –Š‡ –‡ƒ…Š‡” …ƒ””‹‡• ‘—– …‘–‹—‘—• ƒ••‡••‡–
„ƒ•‹‰ ‘ ‡ƒ…Š –‘’‹…Ǥ Š‡ “—‡•–‹‘• ‹ –Š‡ ƒ••‡••‡– •Š‘—Ž† ”‡ˆŽ‡…–
ƒ…“—‹•‹–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰–‡•–ƒ„Ž‡…‘’‡–‡…‡•ǣ
ƒȌ Knowledge
‹Ȍ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘ˆ–‡”‹‘Ž‘‰›
‹‹Ȍ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘ˆ•’‡…‹ˆ‹…ˆƒ…–•
‹‹‹Ȍ ˆƒ‹Ž‹ƒ”‹–›™‹–Š‡š’‡”‹‡–••—‰‰‡•–‡†‹–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•
‹˜Ȍ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘ˆ…‘‘’”‹…‹’Ž‡•ƒ†‰‡‡”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘‹†‡–‹ˆ‹‡†
‹–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•

„Ȍ Comprehension
„‹Ž‹–›–‘ǣ
‹Ȍ ‡š’Žƒ‹ •–ƒ†ƒ”† ’Š‡‘‡ƒ ˆ”‘ Žƒ™• ƒ† ‘†‡Ž• ƒ† –‘
†‡•…”‹„‡•–ƒ†ƒ”†‡š’‡”‹‡–•‡–™‹–Š„‡ˆ‘”‡Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ –”ƒ•Žƒ–‡„‡–™‡‡˜ƒ”‹‘—•ˆ‘”•‘ˆ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ —•‡ •–ƒ†ƒ”† ‡–Š‘†• –‘ •‘Ž˜‡ ˆƒ‹Ž‹ƒ” —‡”‹…ƒŽ –›’‡• ‘ˆ
’”‘„Ž‡•Ǥ
‹˜Ȍ †”ƒ™…‘…Ž—•‹‘ˆ”‘‡š’‡”‹‡–•‘ˆƒ•–”ƒ‹‰Š–ˆ‘”™ƒ”†–›’‡Ǥ

…Ȍ Application and Higher Abilities


„‹Ž‹–›–‘ǣ
‹Ȍ ƒƒŽ›•‡’”‡•‡–‡†‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ •›–Š‡•‹•‹†‡ƒ•ˆ”‘’”‡•‡–‡†ƒƒŽ›•‡•ƒ†‘–Š‡”™‹•‡Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ ƒ’’Ž› Žƒ™• ƒ† ‰‡‡”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘• ƒŽ”‡ƒ†› Ž‡ƒ”– –‘ ‡™
•‹–—ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ



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CHEMISTRY
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TEACHING SYLLABUS

‹˜Ȍ †‡˜‹•‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ –‡•– Š›’‘–Š‡•‡• ƒ† •–ƒ–‡‡–• ‘ˆ


‘†‡Ž•Ǥ
˜Ȍ ‡š‡”…‹•‡ ‡˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹˜‡ Œ—†‰‡– ‘ •—‹–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ƒ† ”‡•—Ž–• ‘ˆ
•…‹‡–‹ˆ‹…’”‘…‡†—”‡•Ǥ

†Ȍ Practical Abilities
Š‡ ™”‹––‡ –‡•–• ™‹ŽŽ †‡ƒ† ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ‘ˆǡ ƒ† ˆƒ‹Ž‹ƒ”‹–› ™‹–Š
‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‹ Š‡‹•–”› ”‡Ž‡˜ƒ– ƒ– –Š‹• Ž‡˜‡ŽǤ Š‡ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ
…‘’‘‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡šƒ‹ƒ–‹‘ ™‹ŽŽ ˆ—”–Š‡” –‡•– ƒ…“—‹•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ƒ„‹Ž‹–‹‡•ǣ
‹Ȍ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‘™Ž‡†‰‡–‘’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ•‹–—ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
‹‹Ȍ ƒ‹’—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ’’ƒ”ƒ–—•ƒ†’‡”ˆ‘”‹‰‡š’‡”‹‡–•Ǥ
‹‹‹Ȍ ƒ‹‰ƒ†”‡…‘”†‹‰‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘•ƒ……—”ƒ–‡Ž›Ǥ
‹˜Ȍ ’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ†ƒ–ƒ‹ƒƒ’’”‘’”‹ƒ–‡ˆ‘”Ǥ
˜Ȍ †”ƒ™‹‰…‘…Ž—•‹‘•ˆ”‘‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†‡Ǥ
˜‹Ȍ ƒ••‡••‹‰ •—‹–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ ’”‘…‡†—”‡ǡ ‡š’‡”‹‡– ƒ†
‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†‡‹•—’’‘”–‘ˆ–Š‡…‘…Ž—•‹‘Ǥ

Valuable Mathematical Skills to be acquired by Learners in


the Study of Chemistry
Š‡‡š’‡…–‡†ƒ–Š‡ƒ–‹…ƒŽ•‹ŽŽ•–‘„‡ƒ…“—‹”‡†„›–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•‹…Ž—†‡ǣ
x ƒ„‹Ž‹–› –‘ –”ƒ•Žƒ–‡ –‘ ‰”ƒ’Š‹…ƒŽ ˆ‘” ƒ† ‹–‡”’”‡– ‰”ƒ’Š‹…ƒŽ
”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ†ƒ–ƒ
x ƒ„‹Ž‹–› –‘ ’‡”ˆ‘” •‹’Ž‡ ‘’‡”ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘
x ˆƒ‹Ž‹ƒ”‹•‡™‹–ŠŽ‘‰ƒ”‹–Š‹…ˆ—…–‹‘•–‘„ƒ•‡–‡ƒ†–‘„ƒ•‡‡
x ƒ„‹Ž‹–›–‘˜‹•—ƒŽ‹•‡‹–Š”‡‡†‹‡•‹‘•
x ƒ—†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰‘ˆ‡Ž‡‡–ƒ”›ƒ•’‡…–•‘ˆƒ–Š‡ƒ–‹…ƒŽ‡””‘”•ȋ‹Ǥ‡Ǥ
άȌ

Summative Assessment
‰ƒ†ƒƒ–‹‘ƒŽ šƒ‹ƒ–‹‘•‘ƒ”†ȋȌ™‹ŽŽƒ†‹‹•–‡” ƒŠ‡‹•–”›
ȋ”‹…‹’ƒŽ—„Œ‡…–Ȍ‡šƒ‹ƒ–‹‘ƒ––Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡•‡…‘†›‡ƒ”‘ˆ•–—†›Ǥ

Examination Format
Š‡”‡™‹ŽŽ„‡three’ƒ’‡”•ǣ
Paper 1 (2 ¾ hours)
Š‡’ƒ’‡”™‹ŽŽ…‘•‹•–‘ˆ–™‘•‡…–‹‘•ǣƒ†Ǥ‡˜‡–‡‡“—‡•–‹‘•™‹ŽŽ„‡
•‡–ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
‡…–‹‘ǣ‹‡“—‡•–‹‘•ˆ”‘ƒ›’ƒ”–‘ˆ–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•
‡…–‹‘ǣ‡‹‰Š–“—‡•–‹‘•ˆ”‘ƒ›’ƒ”–‘ˆ–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•



134
ƒ†‹†ƒ–‡•™‹ŽŽ„‡”‡“—‹”‡†–‘ƒ––‡’–ƒ–‘–ƒŽ‘ˆˆ‹ˆ–‡‡“—‡•–‹‘•‹…Ž—†‹‰
ƒŽŽ “—‡•–‹‘• ‹ ‡…–‹‘  ȋͶ͸ ƒ”•Ȍ ƒ† ͸ ȋͷͶ ƒ”•Ȍ “—‡•–‹‘• ˆ”‘
‡…–‹‘ Ǥ ƒ†‹†ƒ–‡• ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ‡š’‡…–‡† –‘ ™”‹–‡ –Š‡ ƒ•™‡”• ‹ –Š‡ •’ƒ…‡•
’”‘˜‹†‡†‘–Š‡“—‡•–‹‘’ƒ’‡”Ǥ

Paper 2 (2 ½ hours)
Š‡’ƒ’‡”™‹ŽŽ…‘•‹•–‘ˆ–™‘•‡…–‹‘•ǣƒ†Ǥ‹‰Š–“—‡•–‹‘•™‹ŽŽ„‡•‡–
ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
‡…–‹‘ǣ ‘—”“—‡•–‹‘•ˆ”‘ƒ›’ƒ”–‘ˆ–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•
‡…–‹‘ǣ ‘—”“—‡•–‹‘•ˆ”‘ƒ›’ƒ”–‘ˆ–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•
ƒ†‹†ƒ–‡• ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ”‡“—‹”‡† –‘ ƒ––‡’– ƒ –‘–ƒŽ ‘ˆ ˆ‹˜‡ “—‡•–‹‘• ‹…Ž—†‹‰
–Š”‡‡ˆ”‘‡…–‹‘ƒ†‘–‘”‡–Šƒ–™‘ˆ”‘•‡…–‹‘Ǥƒ…Š“—‡•–‹‘
…ƒ””‹‡•–™‡–›ƒ”•Ǥȋ‘–ƒŽǣͳͲͲƒ”•Ȍ
Paper 3 (3 ¼ hours)
Š”‡‡ “—‡•–‹‘• ™‹ŽŽ „‡ •‡–Ǥ ƒ†‹†ƒ–‡• ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ”‡“—‹”‡† –‘ ƒ––‡’– –Š‡
–Š”‡‡“—‡•–‹‘•Ǥ
ǤǤ —‹–•ƒ† ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡™‹ŽŽ„‡—•‡†‹ƒŽŽ“—‡•–‹‘’ƒ’‡”•Ǥ



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Part I: Physical Chemistry
    
Topic 1: Matter

'XUDWLRQ3HULRGV

General Objective
› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‹• –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡
’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ–‡ ƒ–—”‡ ‘ˆ ƒ––‡” ƒ† —•‡ –Š‡ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ‹ “—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ ƒ†
“—ƒ–‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Atoms, Molecules and Ions


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆƒ––‡”Ǥ x Šƒ–‹•ƒ––‡”ǫ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ƒ x –‘•ǡ ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡• ƒ† ‹‘• ƒ•
ƒ–‘Ǥ „—‹Ž†‹‰„Ž‘…•‘ˆƒ––‡”
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ „—‹Ž†‹‰ „Ž‘…• ‘ˆ x Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆƒƒ–‘
ƒ––‡”Ǥ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ›•—„Ǧƒ–‘‹…’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•Ǥ x —„Ǧƒ–‘‹…ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•ƒ† •‘–‘’‹…
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ •—„Ǧ ‘–ƒ–‹‘
ƒ–‘‹…’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆ—†ƒ‡–ƒŽ x —†ƒ‡–ƒŽ ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ–‘Ǥ ƒ–‘ǣ ‡Ž‡…–”‘ǡ ’”‘–‘ ƒ†
 ‡—–”‘
  Š‡—…Ž‡—•
  ”‘–‘—„‡”ȋȌǡ—…Ž‡‘
x ™”‹–‡‹•‘–‘’‹…‘–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ —„‡”ȋȌ
  •‘–‘’‡•
x —•‡’”‘’‡”‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡Ǥ x •‘–‘’‹…‘–ƒ–‹‘
 x ‘•ƒ†‹‘ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘
 x  ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ ˆ‘” …ƒ–‹‘•ǡ
 ƒ‹‘•ƒ†•ƒŽ–•
x ƒ••‹‰ …‘””‡…– ƒ† x ƒ‹‰ ‘ƒ–‘‹… ‹‘• Ȃ
—ƒ„‹‰—‘—• ƒ‡ –‘ ‡˜‡”› …ƒ–‹‘•ǡƒ‹‘•



136
Specific Objectives Content
…Š‡‹…ƒŽ…‘’‘—†Ǥ x ƒ‹‰‹‘‹……‘’‘—†•Ȃƒ†‡
‘ˆ –™‘  ‡Ž‡‡–• ȋ„‹ƒ”›Ȍǡ •–‘…
•›•–‡ ȋ•›•–‡‹… ƒ‡Ȍǡ
…‘‘ ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡  •›•–‡ǡ
–Š‡ •‡Ž‡…–‹‘ ‘ˆ …‘””‡…– ‘ƒ
—‡”ƒŽǡ ™”‹–‹‰ –Š‡ ˆ‘”—Žƒ ‘ˆ
ƒ‹‘‹……‘’‘—†Ǥ
x†‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‡••‡–‹ƒŽ ’ƒ”–• ƒ† x ƒ•• •’‡…–”‘‡–‡” ƒ† ƒ–‘‹…
‘’‡”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘†‡” ƒ•• ƒ••
•’‡…–”‘‡–‡”Ǥ 
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ —•‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ•• x Š‡ ‡••‡–‹ƒŽ …‘’‘‡–• ‘ˆ ƒ
•’‡…–”‘‡–‡”Ǥ ‘†‡”ƒ•••’‡…–”‘‡–‡”
x ‹–‡”’”‡– –Š‡ ƒ•• •’‡…–”— x ’‡”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ••
‘„–ƒ‹‡† ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ”‡•—Ž–• ‘ˆ ƒ •’‡…–”‘‡–‡”
ƒ•••’‡…–”‘‡–‡”ƒƒŽ›•‹•Ǥ x Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ƒ„—†ƒ…‡
 x Š‡—•‡‘ˆƒ•••’‡…–”—
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ƒ„‹Ž‹–› –‘ 
…‘””‡…–Ž› —•‡ –Š‡ †ƒ–ƒ ‘„–ƒ‹‡† x ˜‡”ƒ‰‡ƒ–‘‹…ƒ••
ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ƒ•• •’‡…–”‘‡–‡” ‹
α 
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•ǣǦ ƒ˜‡”ƒ‰‡ ƒ–‘‹…
ƒ••ǡ ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ•• ƒ† 
”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”ƒ••Ǥ x ‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ƒ–‘‹…ƒ••
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–‡”•ǡǤ ” α



‡Žƒ–‹˜‡‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”ƒ••ȋ”Ȍ


Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ”ƒ‹•–‘” ƒ† †‹•…—•• ™Šƒ– ƒ––‡” ‹•ǡ ƒ–‘•ǡ ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•ǡ ‹‘• ƒ•
„—‹Ž†‹‰ „Ž‘…• ‘ˆ ƒ––‡”ǡ ˆ—†ƒ‡–ƒŽ ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•ǡ –Š‡ —…Ž‡—•ǡ ’”‘–‘
—„‡” ȋȌǡ —…Ž‡‘ —„‡” ȋȌǡ ‹•‘–‘’‡•ǡ ‹•‘–‘’‹… ‘–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ 
‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ˆ‘”…ƒ–‹‘•ǡƒ‹‘•ƒ†•ƒŽ–•Ǥ
x ‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ•• •’‡…–”‘‡–‡”Ǥ •‡ ‘†‡Ž• ‘”
…‘’—–‡”•‹—Žƒ–‹‘•–‘‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘•‘ˆ‹–•…‘’‘‡–•Ǥ



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x
—‹†‡ ƒ †‹•…—••‹‘ ‘ –Š‡ ‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ †ƒ–ƒ ˆ”‘ •’‡…–”ƒ ƒ†
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‡†Ǥ
x ‘— ƒ› —•‡ ‘†‡Ž•ǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ …‘’—–‡” •‹—Žƒ–‹‘ –‘ Š‡Ž’ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡
™‘”‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ•••’‡…–”‘‡–‡”Ǥ
x ‘— ƒ› –ƒ‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ”‡•‘—”…‡ …‡–‡”• ™Š‡”‡ –Š‡› …ƒ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽŽ›
•–—†›ƒ„‘—––Š‡ƒ•••’‡…–”‘‡–‡”Ǥ

Suggested Assessment
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•–Šƒ–”‡“—‹”‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ•• •’‡…–”‘‡–‡” ƒ†
‡š’Žƒ‹‹–•ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ•••’‡…–”‘‡–‡”Ǥ
Ǧ ‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ†ƒƒŽ›•‡•’‡…–”ƒŽ†ƒ–ƒǤ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•—•‹‰•’‡…–”ƒŽ†ƒ–ƒǤ

Sub-Topic 2: Mole Concept


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡  ‘Ž‡ ƒ• ƒ —‹– ‘ˆ x Š‡ ‘Ž‡ ‘…‡’– ƒ†
‡ƒ•—”‡‡–  —•‹‰ ˜‘‰ƒ†”‘ ˜‘‰ƒ†”‘…‘•–ƒ–
…‘•–ƒ–Ǥ x Šƒ––Š‡‘Ž‡‹•
 x ˜‘‰ƒ†”‘…‘•–ƒ–
 x ‘Ž‡• ‘ˆ ƒ–‘• ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡‡–• ‹
 ‘‡‘ˆƒ…‘’‘—†
x…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡ ‘Žƒ” ƒ••‡• ‘ˆ x ‘Žƒ” ƒ•• ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡‡–• ƒ†
‡Ž‡‡–•ƒ†…‘’‘—†•Ǥ …‘’‘—†•
xƒ’’Ž›–Š‡…‘˜‡”•‹‘ˆƒ…–‘”•‹ x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‰ —„‡”• ‘ˆ ƒ–‘ǡ
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ‘Ž‡• ƒ† ƒ•• „› —•‹‰
…‘˜‡”•‹‘ˆƒ…–‘”•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡ ƒ †‹•…—••‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘Ž‡ ƒ• ƒ —‹– ‘ˆ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–ǡ —•‡ ‘ˆ
˜‘‰ƒ†”‘ǯ• …‘•–ƒ– ‹ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹–‡”…‘˜‡”•‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ‘Ž‡•
ƒ†ƒ••Ǥ

Practical Problem
x ‘— ƒ› —•‡ ƒ ™‡‹‰Š‹‰ „ƒŽƒ…‡ –‘ ‡ƒ„Ž‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ™‡‹‰Š ƒ••‡• ‘ˆ
’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”…‘’‘—†•ƒ†—•‡…‘˜‡”•‹‘ˆƒ…–‘”•–‘…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡‘Ž‡•Ǥ



138
x ‡ƒ”‡”•ƒ›™‘”‘—–’”‘„Ž‡•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰‹–‡”…‘˜‡”•‹‘•‘ˆ‘Ž‡•ǡ
ƒ••ƒ†‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”ƒ••Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡‹‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰…‘‘–‡”•—•‡†—†‡”–Š‡‘Ž‡ƒ•
ƒ—‹–‘ˆ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–Ǥ
x ƒ””›‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‘‘Žƒ”ƒ••Ǧ‘Ž‡‹–‡”…‘˜‡”•‹‘•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 3: Measurement of Concentration and


introduction to volumetric analysis
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡
–‘ǣ x ƒ†Ž‹‰‘ˆƒ’’ƒ”ƒ–—•ƒ†…Š‡‹…ƒŽ•
x —•‡ ƒ’’ƒ”ƒ–—• x ‡…Š‹“—‡• ‘ˆ Šƒ†Ž‹‰ ƒ’’ƒ”ƒ–—• ƒ†
ƒ’’”‘’”‹ƒ–‡Ž›Ǥ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ•
 
x ƒ„‹†‡ „› –Š‡ Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› x ‡Ž‡…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ’’ƒ”ƒ–—• ˆ‘” †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–
•ƒˆ‡–› ”—Ž‡• ™Š‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–•
Šƒ†Ž‹‰ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ• ƒ† x ƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›”—Ž‡•ƒ†”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘•
ƒ’’ƒ”ƒ–—•Ǥ 
x •‡Ž‡…– ƒ’’”‘’”‹ƒ–‡ 
ƒ’’ƒ”ƒ–—•Ǥ 
 x ‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ  š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ
…‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ –‡”• ‘ˆ …‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
ƒ‘—– ‘ˆ –Š‡ •—„•–ƒ…‡ 
ȋ•‘Ž‹† ‘” Ž‹“—‹†Ȍ †‹••‘Ž˜‡† x ‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡„›ƒ••ǡΨ™Ȁ™
‹ƒ•‘Ž˜‡–Ǥ 
x ‹–‡”’”‡– ˜Ȁ˜Ǣ ™Ȁ™
’‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡•Ǥ 
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•
‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰…‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x ‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡„›˜‘Ž—‡ǡΨȀ
x †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡ „‡–™‡‡
‘ŽƒŽ‹–›ƒ†‘Žƒ”‹–›Ǥ 
 Ǧ ‘Žƒ”‹–›ǡȋ‘ŽǦͳ‘”‘Ž†Ǧ͵Ȍ
 



 x ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •–ƒ†ƒ”† •‘Ž—–‹‘• ˆ”‘
 •–‘…•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ
 x ‘‘ –‡”• —•‡† ‹ ˜‘Ž—‡–”‹…




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Specific Objectives Content


 ƒƒŽ›•‹•ǡ ȋ‹–”ƒ–ǡ ‹–”ƒ†ǡ ƒƒŽ›–‡ǡ ‡†Ǧ
 ’‘‹–ǡ ±“—‹˜ƒŽ‡…‡ ’‘‹–ǡ •–ƒ†ƒ”†
 •‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ‡–…ǤȌ
 x ‘Ž—‡–”‹…ƒŽ›•‹•
 x ‘…‡’–‘ˆ˜‘Ž—‡–”‹…ƒƒŽ›•‹•
 x …‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•
x ’”‡’ƒ”‡ •–ƒ†ƒ”†
•‘Ž—–‹‘• ˆ”‘ •–‘…
•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘‘
–‡”• —•‡† ‹ ˜‘Ž—‡–”‹…
ƒƒŽ›•‹•Ǥ



x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ
˜‘Ž—‡–”‹…ƒƒŽ›•‹•Ǥ
…ƒ””›‘—–ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡
–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‘ Šƒ†Ž‹‰ ƒ’’ƒ”ƒ–—• ƒ† ’”‡’ƒ”‹‰ •‘Ž—–‹‘• ‘ˆ
’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ” …‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘• ˆ”‘ •–‘… •‘Ž—–‹‘• ƒ† „› †‹••‘Ž˜‹‰
•‘Ž—–‡•Ǥ
x –”‘†—…‡˜‘Ž—‡–”‹…ƒƒŽ›•‹•Ȁ–‹–”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x ƒ””›‘—–‡š’‡”‹‡–•ƒ„‘—–ǣ
Ǧ ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•
Ǧ –‹–”ƒ–‹‘‘”‡†‘š”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
Ǧ „ƒ…–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•

Practical Problem
x ”‡’ƒ”‡ •–ƒ†ƒ”† •‘Ž—–‹‘• ‘ˆ Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹… ƒ…‹†ǡ •—Ž’Š—”‹… ƒ…‹† „›
†‹Ž—–‹‘‘ˆ•–‘…•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ
x ”‡’ƒ”‡•–ƒ†ƒ”†•‘Ž—–‹‘•„›™‡‹‰Š‹‰ƒ††‹••‘Ž˜‹‰•‘Ž‹†•‹™ƒ–‡”Ǥ
x ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡ –‹–”ƒ–‹‘• ƒ† —•‡ –Š‡ †ƒ–ƒ ‘„–ƒ‹‡† –‘ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡
…‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •‘Ž—–‹‘•ǡ ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ •–ƒ†ƒ”†‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹… ƒ…‹†
—•‹‰‘”ƒšȌǤ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡•‘ǣ’”‡’ƒ”‹‰•‘Ž—–‹‘•ǡ•–ƒ†ƒ”†‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•‘…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰•–ƒ†ƒ”†‹•ƒ–‹‘ƒ††‹Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ



140
Sub-Topic 4: Empirical formula and Molecular Formula
and Percentage Composition by Mass
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ ’‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡ x ‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡„›ƒ••‘ˆƒ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”
…‘’‘•‹–‹‘ „› ƒ••  ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡‡–
‡ƒ…Š ‡Ž‡‡– ‹ ƒ 
…‘’‘—†Ǥ

 n α —„‡” ‘ˆ ƒ–‘• ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡‡–
 ‹–Š‡ˆ‘”—Žƒ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ x ’‹”‹…ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒ ƒ• –Š‡ •‹’Ž‡•–
‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒ ƒ† ˆ‘”—Žƒ–Šƒ–‡š’”‡••‡•–Š‡”ƒ–‹‘‹
‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”ˆ‘”—Žƒ‡Ǥ ™Š‹…Š‡ƒ…Š‡Ž‡‡–‹•’”‡•‡–‹ƒ
 ‰‹˜‡…‘’‘—†
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‘ x ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ
‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ ƒ† ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ˆ‘”—Žƒ
ˆ‘”—Žƒ‡Ǥ 
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ x ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ˆ‘”—Žƒ ƒ• ‘‡ –Šƒ–
†‡–‡”‹‡ ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ •Š‘™• –Š‡ —„‡” ƒ† ‹† ‘ˆ
ˆ‘”—ŽƒǤ ‡ƒ…Š ‡Ž‡‡– ’”‡•‡– ‹ ‘‡
 ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‘’‘—†Ǥ
‡–‡”‹‹‰ –Š‡ ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”
ˆ‘”—Žƒ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡ ƒ †‹•…—••‹‘ ‘ ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ ƒ† ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ˆ‘”—Žƒ ƒ† –Š‡
’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽˆ‘”—ŽƒǤ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ
‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”ˆ‘”—Žƒƒ†’‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡…‘’‘•‹–‹‘„›ƒ••Ǥ

Practical Problem
x
‹˜‡ ƒ ‰”‘—’ ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒ ‘ˆ
‘’’‡”ȋ Ȍ‘š‹†‡—•‹‰‡–Šƒ‘ŽǤ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰ –Š‡ ‡ƒ‹‰• ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‡”• ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒ ƒ†
‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”ˆ‘”—ŽƒǤ
Ǧ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ˆ‘”—Žƒ ˆ”‘
…‘„—•–‹‘†ƒ–ƒƒ†‘–Š‡”‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ†ƒ–ƒǤ



141
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Ǧ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘ ’‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡ …‘’‘•‹–‹‘ „› ƒ•• ‘ˆ ƒ ‡Ž‡‡– ‹ ƒ


…‘’‘—†Ǥ

Sub-Topic 5: Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions)


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹…‘…‡’–‘ˆ”‡†‘š”‡ƒ…–‹‘• x š‹†ƒ–‹‘ —„‡” ȋš‹†ƒ–‹‘
 •–ƒ–‡Ȍ
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ”—Ž‡• ˆ‘” ƒ••‹‰‹‰ x Šƒ–‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘•–ƒ–‡‹•
‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘•–ƒ–‡•Ǥ x —Ž‡• ˆ‘” ƒ••‹‰‹‰ ‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘
 —„‡”
x —•‡…‘””‡…–‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡–‘ƒ‡ x ƒ‹‰ ‘ˆ’‘Ž›ƒ–‘‹…‹‘•ƒ†
’‘Ž›ƒ–‘‹…‹‘•ƒ†…‘’‘—†• …‘’‘—†•Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ x Š‡…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆš‹†ƒ–‹‘
‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ƒ†”‡†—…–‹‘”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ Ȃ‡†—…–‹‘‡ƒ…–‹‘•
x ™”‹–‡ „ƒŽƒ…‡† ”‡†‘š ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ‹ x ƒŽƒ…‹‰”‡†‘š“—ƒ–‹‘•
ƒ…‹†‹…ƒ†ƒŽƒŽ‹‡‡†‹ƒǤ Ǧ ƒ…‹†‹…‡†‹—
Ǧ ƒŽƒŽ‹‡‡†‹—

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –‡”•ǣ ”‡†‘šǡ ‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ —„‡”ǡ ‘š‹†‹•‹‰ ƒ‰‡–ǡ ”‡†—…‹‰
ƒ‰‡–ƒ†‘š‹†‹•‹‰ƒ‰‡–Ǥ
x ‡–‡”‹‡ ‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ —„‡”•ǡ ™”‹–‡ ƒ† „ƒŽƒ…‡ ”‡†‘š ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ‹
ƒ…‹†‹…ƒ†ƒŽƒŽ‹‡‡†‹ƒƒ†ƒ‹‰’‘Ž›ƒ–‘‹…‹‘•ƒ†…‘’‘—†•

Practical Problem
x —ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ –‡•– –—„‡ –‡•–• •Š‘—Ž† „‡ …ƒ””‹‡† ‘—– ‘ …‘‘ ‘š‹†‹•‹‰
ƒ‰‡–•ƒ†”‡†—…‹‰ƒ‰‡–•Ǥȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ ‡ʹΪȋƒ“ȌȀ‘…Ǥ ͵ǡ͵ǦȀ’‘™†‡”
™‹–Š Žǡ ‡ʹΪȋƒ“ȌȀ ʹʹȌ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•‘–Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ǣ
Ǧ š’Žƒƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–‡”•—•‡†‹”‡†‘š”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
Ǧ ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ —„‡”•ǡ ƒ‹‰ ‘ˆ ’‘Ž› ƒ–‘‹… ‹‘•
ƒ†…‘’‘—†•Ǥ
Ǧ ”‹–‹‰ ƒ† „ƒŽƒ…‹‰ ‘ˆ ”‡†‘š ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ‹ ƒ…‹†‹… ƒ† ƒŽƒŽ‹‡
‡†‹ƒ



142
Sub-Topic 6: Stoichiometry: Quantitative Relation in
Reactions
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ‘ˆ x Šƒ––‘‹…Š‹‘‡–”›‹•
•–‘‹…Š‹‘‡–”› „› ƒ’’Ž›‹‰ ‹– ‹ x ‡Žƒ–‹‰ ‘Ž‡• ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–ƒ–• –‘
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ‘Ž‡•‘ˆ’”‘†—…–•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ Ž‹‹–‹‰ ƒ† x ‹‹–‹‰ ”‡ƒ…–ƒ– Ȃ ƒ• –Šƒ–
‡š…‡••”‡ƒ…–ƒ–•Ǥ ”‡ƒ…–ƒ– ™Š‹…Š ‹• …‘’Ž‡–‡Ž›
 —•‡† —’ ‹ ƒ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘
x …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡’‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡›‹‡Ž†•ˆ”‘ ƒ† Ž‹‹–• –Š‡ “—ƒ–‹–‹‡• ‘ˆ
…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ ’”‘†—…–•ˆ‘”‡†Ǥ
x ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽŽ› †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ –Š‡ x š…‡••  ”‡ƒ…–ƒ– Ȃ ƒ• –Šƒ–
…‘…‡’– ‘ˆ Ž‹‹–‹‰ ƒ† ‡š…‡•• ”‡ƒ…–ƒ– ™Š‹…Š ”‡ƒ‹• ƒˆ–‡” ƒ
”‡ƒ…–ƒ–Ǥ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ƒ˜‘‰ƒ†”‘ǯ•Žƒ™Ǥ x ‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡›‹‡Ž†
x ƒ’’Ž›  –Š‡ ƒ˜‘‰ƒ†”‘ǯ Žƒ™ ‹ 
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

x ‡š’Žƒ‹
ƒ›Ǧ—••ƒ…ǯ•Žƒ™Ǥ 
x ˜‘‰ƒ†”‘ǯ•Žƒ™


αkn
Ǧ
ƒ›Ǧ—••ƒ…ǯ•Žƒ™


Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡ †‹•…—••‹‘• ‘ •–‘‹…Š‹‘‡–”› …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ˆ”‘ ˆ‹”•– ’”‹…‹’Ž‡•Ǥ
•—”‡–Šƒ––Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Šƒ˜‡ƒ’”‡”‡“—‹•‹–‡‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘ˆ”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x ‘” ‰”‘—’• †‡’‡†‹‰ ‘ –Š‡ —„‡” ‘ˆ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‹ –Š‡ …Žƒ•• –‘
†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆŽ‹‹–‹‰ƒ†‡š…‡••”‡ƒ…–ƒ–•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‘ Š‘™ –‘ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ ’‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡ ›‹‡Ž†• ˆ”‘
…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
x ’‡† •‘‡ –‹‡ –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ ˜‘‰ƒ†”‘ǯ• Žƒ™ ƒ† Š‘™ –‘ ƒ’’Ž› ‹– ‹
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ‡– –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’
„‡–™‡‡“—ƒ–‹–‹‡•‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–ƒ–•ƒ†’”‘†—…–•Ǥ



143
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

x
—‹†‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–‡š’‡”‹‡–•‘–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆŽ‹‹–‹‰
”‡ƒ…–ƒ–•ƒ†‡š…‡••”‡ƒ…–ƒ–•ˆ”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰ –Š‡ –‡”• ǣ •–‘‹…Š‹‘‡–”›ǡ Ž‹‹–‹‰ ”‡ƒ…–ƒ–•ǡ ‡š…‡••
”‡ƒ…–ƒ–ǡ’‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡›‹‡Ž†ǡ‡–…Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‹‰ƒ†ƒ’’Ž›‹‰–Š‡˜‘‰ƒ†”‘ǯ•ƒ†
ƒ›—••ƒ…ǯ•Žƒ™•Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰•–‘‹…Š‹‘‡–”›Ǥ

Sub-Topic 7: Redox Titrations
Specific objectives Content

Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡ „‡–™‡‡ ’”‹ƒ”› x ”‹ƒ”›ƒ†•‡…‘†ƒ”›•–ƒ†ƒ”†
ƒ†•‡…‘†ƒ”›•–ƒ†ƒ”† 
x ’”‡’ƒ”‡•–ƒ†ƒ”†•‘Ž—–‹‘• x ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •–ƒ†ƒ”†
•‘Ž—–‹‘• ‘ˆ ’‡”ƒ‰ƒƒ–‡ǡ

–Š‹‘•—Ž’Šƒ–‡•‘Ž—–‹‘•ǡ‡–…Ǥ
 
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ˆ”‘ ˆ‹”•– x –ƒ†ƒ”†‹•‡•‘Ž—–‹‘•
’”‹…‹’Ž‡•Ǥ
x …ƒ””›‘—–”‡†‘š–‹–”ƒ–‹‘• x ƒ””›‹‰ ‘—– †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– –›’‡• ‘ˆ
”‡†‘š–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡†‹•…—••‹‘•‘–Š‡–‡”•’”‹ƒ”›ƒ†•‡…‘†ƒ”›•–ƒ†ƒ”†•
x ‘†—…–…Žƒ••‡š’‡”‹‡–•‘”’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ•‘”‡†‘š–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Practical problem
x ƒ””›‘—–…Žƒ••‡š’‡”‹‡–•‘…‘‘”‡†‘š–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•‡Ǥ‰Ǥ•‘Ž—–‹‘•
‘ˆ ’‡”ƒ‰ƒƒ–‡ǡ ‘šƒŽƒ–‡•ǡ ‹”‘ȋ Ȍ ‹‘• †‹…Š”‘ƒ–‡•ǡ Š›†”‘‰‡
’‡”‘š‹†‡ǡ–Š‹‘•—Ž’Šƒ–‡ǡ‹‘†‹‡ǡ‡–…Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•‘ǣ
Ǧ —•‡‘ˆ‡“—ƒ–‹‘•–‘‡š’Žƒ‹…‘‘”‡†‘š”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
Ǧ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•RQUHGR[WLWUDWLRQV
 



144

Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x –ƒ–‡• ‘ˆ ƒ––‡”ǣ ‘Ž‹†ǡ ‹“—‹†
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–•–ƒ–‡•‘ˆƒ––‡”Ǥ ƒ†
ƒ•Ǥ
x†‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡ x –‡”…‘˜‡”•‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
–Š‡ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• •–ƒ–‡• ‘ˆ ƒ––‡” ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ•–ƒ–‡•
–‡”• ‘ˆ ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ƒ””ƒ‰‡‡–ǡ x ‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ
ˆ‘”…‡• ‘ˆ ƒ––”ƒ…–‹‘ ƒ† ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• „‡–™‡‡ •‘Ž‹†•ǡ
‘˜‡‡–Ǥ Ž‹“—‹†•ƒ†‰ƒ•‡•
x ‹‡–‹…–Š‡‘”›‘ˆƒ––‡”

Sub-Topic 8: Physical states of matter


Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies

x Š‡‘”‡–‹…ƒŽŽ›‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡ƒ…Š‘ˆ–Š‡•–ƒ–‡•‘ˆƒ––‡”—•‹‰
‘†‡Ž•‘”…‘’—–‡”•‹—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Practical Problem
Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•‘ǣ
Ǧ —•‡‘ˆ‘†‡Ž•
Ǧ …‘’—–‡”•‹—Žƒ–‹‘•

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•–‘‡š’Žƒ‹’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–•–ƒ–‡•‘ˆƒ––‡”Ǥ

Sub-Topic 9: Gaseous State of Matter


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‰ƒ•‡‘—• •–ƒ–‡ ‹ x
‡‡”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‰ƒ•
–‡”• ‘ˆ ‹‡–‹… –Š‡‘”› ‘ˆ  †‡ƒŽ‰ƒ•
ƒ––‡”Ǥ
 
ƒ•’”‡••—”‡
 

 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’–• ‘ˆ
x
ƒ•ƒ™•ǣ



145
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Specific Objectives Content


†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‰ƒ•Žƒ™•Ǥ
 ‘›Ž‡ǯ•
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•
‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ‰ƒ•‡‘—• ˜‘Ž—‡•ǡ 
’”‡••—”‡ƒ†–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡Ǥ
αkȋ™Š‡”‡‹•ƒ…‘•–ƒ–Ȍ

x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡‘Ž‡ǯ•Žƒ™  Šƒ”Ž‡•ǯ•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹…‘…‡’–Šƒ”Ž‡•ǯŽƒ™
  


  
 x ‘„‹‡† ‰ƒ• Žƒ™• ƒ† ‹†‡ƒŽ ‰ƒ•
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ‘ˆ Žƒ™•
‹†‡ƒŽ ‰ƒ• „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” —•‹‰
‰”ƒ’Š•Ǥ 
 x †‡ƒŽ
ĥĪ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” ‘ˆ ‹†‡ƒŽ
‰ƒ•‡•Ǥ
 

PV = RT ȋ™Š‡”‡  ‹• –Š‡
x †‡”‹˜‡ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’
‘Žƒ”‰ƒ•…‘•–ƒ–Ȍ
„‡–™‡‡Šƒ”Ž‡•ǯ•ƒ†‘›Ž‡ǯ•
Žƒ™ȋαȌǤ 
x •–ƒ–‡
”ƒŠƒǯ• Žƒ™ ‘ˆ x
”ƒŠƒǯ• Žƒ™ ‘ˆ ‰ƒ•‡‘—•
†‹ˆˆ—•‹‘‘ˆ‰ƒ•‡•Ǥ †‹ˆˆ—•‹‘Ǥ

  
 x ‘Ž‡ˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ǡx
x‡š’Žƒ‹‘Ž‡ˆ”ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ

 
 x ƒŽ–‘ǯ•Žƒ™‘ˆ’ƒ”–‹ƒŽ’”‡••—”‡
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” ‘ˆ ƒ ‘–ƒŽαͳΪʹΪ͵Ϊǥڐ
‹š–—”‡ ‘ˆ ‰ƒ•‡• …‘–ƒ‹‡† ‹ 
ƒ…Ž‘•‡†˜‡••‡ŽǤ x Š‡‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‘ˆ
ƒ•‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”  ‹‡–‹…  ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” –Š‡‘”› ‘ˆ
„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‘ˆ‰ƒ•‡•‹–‡”•‘ˆ ‰ƒ•‡•
–Š‡ ‹‡–‹… –Š‡‘”› ȋ“—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ x ‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‰ƒ• Žƒ™• –‘
–”‡ƒ–‡–‘Ž›”‡“—‹”‡†ȌǤ ‹‡–‹…‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”Š‡‘”›‘ˆ
ƒ•‡•
x —•‡ ‰”ƒ’Š• –‘ •Š‘™ †‡˜‹ƒ–‹‘ x ƒš™‡ŽŽǦ‘Ž–œƒ†‹•–”‹„—–‹‘
ˆ”‘‹†‡ƒŽ„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”Ǥ x ‡ƒŽ ‰ƒ•‡• Ȃ ‡˜‹ƒ–‹‘ ˆ”‘



146
Specific Objectives Content
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ”‡ƒŽ‰ƒ•Ǥ ‹†‡ƒŽ‹–›
x †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡ „‡–™‡‡ ‹†‡ƒŽ x Šƒ–”‡ƒŽ‰ƒ•‹•
ƒ†”‡ƒŽ‰ƒ•‡•Ǥ x ‡ƒŽ ‰ƒ• „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” —†‡”
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘†‹–‹‘• —†‡” †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– …‘†‹–‹‘• ‘ˆ
™Š‹…Š ”‡ƒŽ ‰ƒ•‡• …ƒ „‡Šƒ˜‡ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ƒ†’”‡••—”‡Ǥ
Ž‹‡‹†‡ƒŽ‰ƒ•‡•Ǥ ‘””‡…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ”‡ƒŽ ‰ƒ• „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” „›
—•‹‰ ˜ƒ †‡” ƒƒŽ• ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ǣ



Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x š’‘•‡ƒ†Ž‡––Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•„”ƒ‹•–‘”•–ƒ–‡•‘ˆƒ––‡”ǡ‹‡–‹…–Š‡‘”›
ƒ†–Š‡‰ƒ•Žƒ™•Ǥ
x …‘—”ƒ‰‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ™”‹–‡ ƒ–Š‡ƒ–‹…ƒŽ •–ƒ–‡‡–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‰ƒ•
Žƒ™•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ …Žƒ•• †‹•…—••‹‘• ‘ „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” ‘ˆ ‹†‡ƒŽ ƒ† ”‡ƒŽ ‰ƒ•‡• —•‹‰
‰”ƒ’Š•ƒ†‰‹˜‡‡š‡”…‹•‡•–‘…‘•‘Ž‹†ƒ–‡–Š‡‘™Ž‡†‰‡Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ‘’—–‡”•‹—Žƒ–‹‘
x Žƒ••†‹•…—••‹‘•ƒ†…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‰ƒ•‡•—•‹‰‰ƒ•Žƒ™•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰–‡”•”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘‰ƒ•„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‡Ǥ‰Ǥ’ƒ”–‹ƒŽ’”‡••—”‡ǡ‘Ž‡
ˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ǡ ‹†‡ƒŽ ‰ƒ•ǡ ”‡ƒŽ ‰ƒ•ǡ …‘’”‡••‹„‹Ž‹–› ˆƒ…–‘”ǡ …”‹–‹…ƒŽ
–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ǡ‹•‘–Š‡”•ǡ‡–…Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰‰ƒ•Žƒ™•Ǥ




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CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Sub-Topic10: Liquid State of matter


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”••Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ Ž‹“—‹† •–ƒ–‡ ‹ x ‹‡–‹…–Š‡‘”›‘ˆƒ––‡”
–‡”• ‘ˆ ‹‡–‹… –Š‡‘”› ‘ˆ 
ƒ––‡”Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• x ”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‹“—‹†
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒ Ž‹“—‹† •—…Š ƒ•  ‘’”‡••‹„‹Ž‹–›
˜‹•…‘•‹–›ǡ •—”ˆƒ…‡ –‡•‹‘ǡ  ‹•…‘•‹–›
†‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ǡ ˜ƒ’‘”‹•ƒ–‹‘ǡ  —”ˆƒ…‡–‡•‹‘
…‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘ƒ†„‘‹Ž‹‰Ǥ  ‹ˆˆ—•‹‘
  ƒ’‘”‹•ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
 …‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘
  ‘‹Ž‹‰
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ˜ƒ’‘—” x ƒ’‘—””‡••—”‡
’”‡••—”‡Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ Š‘™ ‹–‡”‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” x –‡”‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ˆ‘”…‡• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰
ˆ‘”…‡•ƒˆˆ‡…–˜ƒ’‘—”’”‡••—”‡Ǥ ƒ’‘—””‡••—”‡
x ƒƒŽ›•‡ –Š‡ …‘†‹–‹‘• —†‡” x ‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ƒ’‘—”
™Š‹…Š„‘‹Ž‹‰‘ˆƒŽ‹“—‹†–ƒ‡• ”‡••—”‡
’Žƒ…‡Ǥ 

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡†‹•…—••‹‘•‘Ž‹“—‹†•–ƒ–‡‘ˆƒ––‡”ƒ†‹‡–‹…–Š‡‘”›‘ˆƒ––‡”
x ‡– –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• „”ƒ‹•–‘” ‘ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‹†• ƒ† –Š‡
…‘…‡’–‘ˆ˜ƒ’‘—”’”‡••—”‡ƒ†…‘†‹–‹‘•ˆ‘”„‘‹Ž‹‰–‘–ƒ‡’Žƒ…‡Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ƒ ‘’’‘”–—‹–›‘ˆ•‹—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡…‘…‡’–•–‘ƒ‡
–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•…‘•‘Ž‹†ƒ–‡–Š‡‹”‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡…‘…‡’–•Ǥ

Practical problem
x
—‹†‡ …Žƒ•• ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ ‘˜‡‡– ‘ˆ …‘Ž‘—”‡† •—„•–ƒ…‡ Ž‹‡
’‡”ƒ‰ƒƒ–‡ǡ…‘’’‡”ȋ‹‹Ȍ•—Ž’Šƒ–‡‹ƒ…Ž‡ƒ”Ž‹“—‹†•—…Šƒ•™ƒ–‡”Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•ƒ†–‡•–•‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆŽ‹“—‹†•–ƒ–‡‘ˆƒ––‡”—•‹‰‹‡–‹…–Š‡‘”›Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ž‹“—‹† •–ƒ–‡ ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ Š›†”ƒ—Ž‹…
„”ƒ‡•ǡ …ƒ” Œƒ… –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ …‘’”‡••‹„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‹†ǡ ˆŽ‘ƒ–‹‰ ‘ˆ
‘„Œ‡…–•ǡ •Š‹‡Ž†‹‰ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ –‡–• ƒ‰ƒ‹•– ”ƒ‹ –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ •—”ˆƒ…‡
–‡•‹‘ǡ†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘–‘‡š’Žƒ‹…‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‡˜ƒ’‘”ƒ–‹‘Ȍ



148
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰ Š‘™ ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ˆ‘”…‡• „‡–™‡‡ ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡• ‹ Ž‹“—‹†• ƒ”‡
”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘˜ƒ’‘—”’”‡••—”‡‡š‡”–‡†„›–Š‡Ž‹“—‹†Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰–Š‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ…Šƒ‰‡‘ˆ‡š–‡”ƒŽ’Š›•‹…ƒŽˆƒ…–‘”‘˜ƒ’‘—”
’”‡••—”‡‘ˆƒŽ‹“—‹†Ǥ

Sub-Topic 11: Solid State of Matter


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ …Šƒ‰‡• ‹ •‘Ž‹† x Šƒ•‡…Šƒ‰‡•‹•‘Ž‹†•
’Šƒ•‡Ǥ  ‡Ž–‹‰’‘‹–
  ”‡‡œ‹‰’‘‹–
  —„Ž‹ƒ–‹‘
  ‡’‘•‹–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ •‘Ž‹† •–ƒ–‡ ‹ x ›’‡•‘ˆ•‘Ž‹†•
–‡”• ‘ˆ ‹‡–‹… –Š‡‘”› ‘ˆ 
ƒ––‡”Ǥ x
‹ƒ– ‘‹… •‘Ž‹†• ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ •‘†‹—
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –‡”•Ǣ ‡Ž–‹‰ǡ …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡ǡ …ƒ‡•‹— …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡ǡ ‹…
ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰ǡ •—„Ž‹ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† „Ž‡†Ȍ
†‡’‘•‹–‹‘Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ™‹–Š ‡šƒ’Ž‡• –Š‡ x
‹ƒ– …‘˜ƒŽ‡– •‘Ž‹†• ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ
„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” ‘ˆ ‰‹ƒ– ‹‘‹… †‹ƒ‘†ǡ ‰”ƒ’Š‹–‡ǡ •‹Ž‹…‘ ƒ†
•‘Ž‹†•Ǥ ˆ—ŽŽ‡”‡‡
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ™‹–Š ‡šƒ’Ž‡• –Š‡ x ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” …‘˜ƒŽ‡– •‘Ž‹†• ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ
„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” ‘ˆ ‰‹ƒ– …‘˜ƒŽ‡–ǡ ‹‘†‹‡ǡ ʹƒ†Š‘•’Š‘”—•ǡͶȌ
‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ƒ† ‰‹ƒ– ‹‘‹… 
•‘Ž‹†•Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ™‹–Š ‡šƒ’Ž‡• –Š‡ x
‹ƒ– ‡–ƒŽŽ‹… •‘Ž‹†• ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ ‹”‘ǡ
…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ ‰‹ƒ– …‘’’‡”ǡ–‹–ƒ‹—Ȍ
‡–ƒŽŽ‹…•‘Ž‹†•Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‡––Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•„”ƒ‹•–‘”ƒ††‹•…—••’Šƒ•‡•‹…Šƒ‰‡•‘ˆ•‘Ž‹†•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
‹˜‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‰”‘—’ ‡š’‡”‹‡–•  ‘ ‡Ž–‹‰ ‘ˆ ‹…‡ǡ •—„Ž‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
 ͶŽǡ‹‘†‹‡ǡ™ƒšǡƒ’Š–ŠƒŽ‡‡
x
—‹†‡ †‹•…—••‹‘• —•‹‰ ‘†‡Ž•ǡ …Šƒ”–•ǡ ‰”ƒ’Š• ƒ† …‘’—–‡”
•‹—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ



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CHEMISTRY
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TEACHING SYLLABUS

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•ƒ†–‡•–•‘ǣ
Ǧ —•‡‘ˆ‹‡–‹…–Š‡‘”›–‘‡š’Žƒ‹•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ•‘Ž‹†•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰–Š‡…Šƒ‰‡•–Šƒ––ƒ‡’Žƒ…‡†—”‹‰…Šƒ‰‡‘ˆ•‘Ž‹†•–ƒ–‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• ‹ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–
•‘Ž‹†•Ǥ





150
   

Topic 2: Atomic Structure and Periodic Table


—”ƒ–‹‘ǣʹͶ‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‹•–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ƒƒŽ›•‡–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡
‘ˆƒƒ–‘ƒ†‹–•”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’–‘–Š‡‡”‹‘†‹…ƒ„Ž‡Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Fundamental Particles of the Atom and


Radioactivity
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡ x ‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽ ‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‘ˆ
‘†‡”–Š‡‘”›‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ–‘Ǥ –‘‹…Š‡‘”›
  ‘†‡” –Š‡‘”› ‘ˆ ƒ–‘ ȋ ‘Š
 ƒŽ–‘ǡ Ǥ Ǥ Š‘•‘ǡ ƒ†
 ”‡•– —–Š‡”ˆ‘”†Ȍ •Š‘—Ž† „‡
 †‹•…—••‡†Ǥ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ †‹•…‘˜‡”› ‘ˆ –Š‡ x —†ƒ‡–ƒŽ ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
ˆ—†ƒ‡–ƒŽ ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ–‘ ȋ’”‘–‘•ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘• ƒ†
ƒ–‘Ǥ ‡—–”‘•Ȍ
  ‹•…‘˜‡”‹‡• ƒ† ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
 ‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ—†ƒ‡–ƒŽ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•
x …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ x ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‹–›ǣ
–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡––›’‡•‘ˆ”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ  ‹•…‘˜‡”›
  ”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‘•ǡ
x …ƒ””› ‘—– •‹’Ž‡ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• x ƒ†‹‘‹•‘–‘’‡•
‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ŠƒŽˆǦŽ‹˜‡• ‘ˆ  ‹†‹‰‡‡”‰›
”ƒ†‹‘‹•‘–‘’‡•Ǥ
x „ƒŽƒ…‡ —…Ž‡ƒ” ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ x —…Ž‡ƒ””‡ƒ…–‹‘•
‡“—ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ  ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‡†‡…ƒ›
   ƒŽˆǦŽ‹ˆ‡ȋ–ΦȌ
x †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡ „‡–™‡‡ —…Ž‡ƒ” x —…Ž‡ƒ” ‡‡”‰› ȋ†‹•…‘˜‡”›ǡ



151
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Specific Objectives Content


ƒ†…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ ˆ‹••‹‘ǡˆ—•‹‘ǡ—…Ž‡ƒ”’‘™‡”Ȍ
x ‡–‹‘ ˆƒ…–‘”• –Šƒ– †‡–‡”‹‡ 
•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆƒ—…Ž‡—•Ǥ 
x …‘””‡…–Ž› †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ x ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ”ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‹–›
‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ‘ˆ ”ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‡ †‡…ƒ›
—•‹‰‰”ƒ’Š•Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡ †‹•…—••‹‘• ƒ† ‡š’Žƒƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ™‘” ‘ˆ ‘Š ƒŽ–‘ǡ Ǥ Ǥ
Š‘•‘ǡƒ†”‡•–—–Š‡”ˆ‘”†Ž‡ƒ†‹‰–‘†‹•…‘˜‡”‹‡•ƒ†’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ—†ƒ‡–ƒŽ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ–‘Ǥ
x
—‹†‡†‹•…—••‹‘•‘–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ”ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‹–›ǣ†‹•…‘˜‡”›ǡ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
‘ˆ”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‘•ǡ„‹†‹‰‡‡”‰›ǡ•–ƒ„Ž‡ƒ†—•–ƒ„Ž‡—…Ž‡‹ǡ”ƒ†‹‘‹•‘–‘’‡•ǡ
—…Ž‡ƒ” ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ǡ …‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ —…Ž‡ƒ” ƒ† …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ǡ
”ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‡ †‡…ƒ›ǡ ŠƒŽˆǦŽ‹ˆ‡ –ͳȀʹ —…Ž‡ƒ” ‡‡”‰›ǡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ
”ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‹–›Ǥ

Practical problem
x •‡”‡ƒ†›‘†‡Ž•ǡ…Šƒ”–•‘”…‘’—–‡”•‹—Žƒ–‹‘•–‘Š‡Ž’›‘—‡š’Žƒ‹
–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ”ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‹–›Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‘ˆ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ……‘”†‹‰ –‘ —–Š‡”ˆ‘”† ƒ†
Š‘•‘Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ”ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‹–› ƒ† •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ
”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ †”ƒ™ƒ†‹–‡”’”‡–”ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‡†‡…ƒ›…—”˜‡•Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ŠƒŽˆǦŽ‹ˆ‡Ǥ
Ǧ „ƒŽƒ…‡—…Ž‡ƒ””‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡ƒ†‡š’Žƒ‹—•‡•‘ˆ”ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‹–›Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Electronic Structure of Atoms


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”••Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ•’‡…–”—Ǥ xŽ‡…–”‘ƒ‰‡–‹…ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‘
  Ž‡…–”‘ƒ‰‡–‹…”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‘ƒ•
 “—ƒ–ƒ



152
Specific Objectives Content
xƒ’’Ž› –Š‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ‹  ‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ™ƒ˜‡Ž‡‰–Šǡ ɉǡ ˆ”‡“—‡…›ǡ ɋǡ
 ƒ†‡‡”‰›ǡǤ
   ɋ
 αŠɋ
 ™Š‡”‡ Š α Žƒǯ• …‘•–ƒ–ǡ
 ͸Ǥ͸ʹͷ͸šͳͲǦ͵Ͷ •
 ƒ†


 
x†‡•…”‹„‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– –›’‡• ‘ˆ x –‘‹…’‡…–”ƒ
•’‡…–”ƒǤ 
x‡š’Žƒ‹™Šƒ–•’‡…–”—‹•Ǥ x Šƒ–‹•’‡…–”—ǫ
x†‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• –›’‡• ‘ˆ x ›’‡• ‘ˆ •’‡…–”ƒ ȋ‡‹••‹‘ ƒ†
•’‡…–”—Ǥ ƒ„•‘”’–‹‘Ȍ
x†‡•…”‹„‡ ƒ† ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ x ›†”‘‰‡ ’‡…–”— ƒ†
Š›†”‘‰‡•’‡…–”—Ǥ ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ›†„‡”‰“—ƒ–‹‘
x‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ x ‡”‰› Ž‡˜‡Ž †‹ƒ‰”ƒ ˆ‘”
Ž‹‡•‹–Š‡Š›†”‘‰‡•’‡…–”—Ǥ Š›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‘
x•–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x ‘˜‡”‰‡–Ž‹‹–
…‘˜‡”‰‡…‡Ž‹‹–Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‘Š”ǯ• ƒ–‘‹… x Š‡ ‘Š”ǯ• ‘†‡Ž ‘ˆ –Š‡
’‘•–—Žƒ–‡•Ǥ ›†”‘‰‡–‘
  ‘Š”ǯ•–‘‹…‘•–—Žƒ–‡
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ™‡ƒ‡••‡• ‘ˆ x Š‡ ™‡ƒ‡••‡• ‘ˆ ‘Š”ǯ•
‘Š”ǯ•ƒ–‘‹…‘†‡ŽǤ –‘‹…‘†‡Ž
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ x ‘‹•ƒ–‹‘‡”‰›‘ˆ ›†”‘‰‡
‡‡”‰‹‡•—•‹‰ƒ–‘‹…•’‡…–”ƒǤ 
x ”‡Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ Ž‹‡ •‡”‹‡• –‘ –Š‡ x ‘…‡’–‘ˆ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰›
‡‡”‰›Ž‡˜‡Ž•Ǥ 
x …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰‹‡•Ǥ x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘
 ‡‡”‰‹‡•
x•–ƒ–‡ ‡‹•‡„‡”‰ǯ• —…‡”–ƒ‹–› x ‡‹•‡„‡”‰ǯ• …‡”–ƒ‹–›
’”‹…‹’Ž‡Ǥ ”‹…‹’Ž‡
x‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• x —ƒ–——„‡”•
“—ƒ–——„‡”•Ǥ 
x ”‡Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ Ž‹‡• ‹ –Š‡ Š›†”‘‰‡ x ‡‡”‰›Ž‡˜‡Ž•
•’‡…–”—–‘–Š‡‡‡”‰›Ž‡˜‡Ž• 




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TEACHING SYLLABUS

Specific Objectives Content


x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ “—ƒ–— —„‡”• ȋn, x ’”‹…‹’ƒŽ“—ƒ–——„‡”ǡǤ
l, mƒ†sȌ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹… x œ‹—–ŠƒŽ “—ƒ–— —„‡”
…‘ˆ‹‰—”ƒ–‹‘ƒ•ƒ””ƒ‰‡‡–‘ˆ ȋƒ‰—Žƒ” ‘‡–— “—ƒ–—
‡Ž‡…–”‘•‹•Š‡ŽŽ• —„‡”ȌǡŽ
 x ƒ‰‡–‹…“—ƒ–——„‡”ǡ
 x ‡Ž‡…–”‘•’‹“—ƒ–——„‡”ǡ•
x ™”‹–‡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹… …‘ˆ‹‰—”ƒ–‹‘• x Ž‡…–”‘‹… ‘ˆ‹‰—”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
‹ –‡”• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡‡”‰› Ž‡˜‡Ž•ǡ –‘
spdfǤ  ’†ˆ‘–ƒ–‹‘
  ”„‹–ƒŽ†‹ƒ‰”ƒ
  Š‡—ˆ„ƒ—”‹…‹’Ž‡
x ƒ’’Ž› —†ǯ• ”—Ž‡ǡ ƒ—Ž‹ǯ• x —†ǯ•”—Ž‡
‡š…Ž—•‹‘ ƒ† —ˆ„ƒ— ’”‹…‹’Ž‡ x ƒ—Ž‹‡š…Ž—•‹‘’”‹…‹’Ž‡
‹ –Š‡ ™”‹–‹‰ ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹…
…‘ˆ‹‰—”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡ †‹•…—••‹‘• ‘ ‡Ž‡…–”‘ƒ‰‡–‹… ”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ ™ƒ˜‡ Ž‡‰–Šǡ
ˆ”‡“—‡…›ǡ‡‡”‰›ǡ‡Ž‡…–”‘ƒ‰‡–‹…•’‡…–”ƒǡ–Š‡Š›†”‘‰‡•’‡…–”—ƒ†
›†„‡”‰‡“—ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x ‡ƒ†Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘†‹•…—••–Š‡‘Š”ǯ•‘†‡Ž‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ–‘ǡ–Š‡™‡ƒ‡••‡•
‘ˆ ‘Š”ǯ• ƒ–‘‹… ‘†‡Žǡ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰› ƒ† …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰
‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰‹‡•Ǥ Ž•‘ ‡‹•‡„‡”‰ǯ• …‡”–ƒ‹–› ”‹…‹’Ž‡ •Š‘—Ž† „‡
†‹•…—••‡†Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘†‹•…—••–Š‡‡‡”‰›Ž‡˜‡Ž•ǡ–›’‡•‘ˆ“—ƒ–——„‡”•ǡ
™”‹–‹‰ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹… …‘ˆ‹‰—”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ–‘ —•‹‰ •ǡ ’ǡ †ǡ ˆ ‘–ƒ–‹‘ǡ –Š‡
—ˆ„ƒ—”‹…‹’Ž‡ —†ǯ•”—Ž‡ƒ†ƒ—Ž‹‡š…Ž—•‹‘’”‹…‹’Ž‡

Practical Problem
x •‡”‡ƒ†›‘†‡Ž•ǡ…Šƒ”–•‘”…‘’—–‡”•‹—Žƒ–‹‘•–‘Š‡Ž’›‘—‡š’Žƒ‹
–Š‡•—„Ǧ‘’‹…Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡„‡–™‡‡‡‹••‹‘ƒ†ƒ„•‘”’–‹‘•’‡…–”ƒǤ
Ǧ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡„‡–™‡‡ƒ‘”„‹–ƒ†‘”„‹–ƒŽǤ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡Š›†”‘‰‡•’‡…–”—Ǥ
Ǧ …Ž‡ƒ”Ž›•–ƒ–‡‘Š”ǯ•’‘•–—Žƒ–‡•ǡƒ†‡š’Žƒ‹‹–•™‡ƒ‡••‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ”‡Žƒ–‡–Š‡Ž‹‡•‡”‹‡•–‘–Š‡‡‡”‰›Ž‡˜‡Ž•Ǥ



154
Ǧ ”‡Žƒ–‡‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰‹‡•–‘ƒ–‘‹…•’‡…–”ƒǤ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡ƒ†‡š’Žƒ‹—•‡•‘ˆ”ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‹–›Ǥ
Ǧ ™”‹–‡‡Ž‡…–”‘‹……‘ˆ‹‰—”ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆƒ–‘•—•‹‰•’†ˆ‘–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰‹‡•—•‹‰•’‡…–”ƒŽ†ƒ–ƒǤ


Sub-Topic 3: The Periodic Table


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ Š‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽ x ‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽ ‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡
†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–‘ˆǤǤ ’‡”‹‘†‹…–ƒ„Ž‡
  ‹“—‡ ’‘•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ
 ›†”‘‰‡ǡ ǡ ‹ –Š‡ ‡”‹‘†‹…
 ƒ„Ž‡
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ x Š‡‘†‡”‡”‹‘†‹…–ƒ„Ž‡
‘†‡”Ǥ  ‡”‹‘†•ƒ†
”‘—’•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ —‹“—‡ ’‘•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆǡ  Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
Šǡ‹–Š‡’‡”‹‘†‹…–ƒ„Ž‡Ǥ ‡Ž‡‡–•ǣ „ƒ•‡† ‘
‡Ž‡…–”‘‹… …‘ˆ‹‰—”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
‡Ž‡‡–• ƒ•ǣ s, p, d ƒ† f
„Ž‘…•
Ǧ Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‹–‘ ‡–ƒŽ•ǡ
‡–ƒŽŽ‘‹†•ƒ†‘Ǧ‡–ƒŽ•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ „ƒ•‹• ‘ ™Š‹…Š –Š‡ x ‡”‹‘†‹…‹–›‘ˆ”‘’‡”–‹‡•‹–Š‡
‘†‡” ‡”‹‘†‹… ƒ„Ž‡  ™ƒ• ‡”‹‘†‹…ƒ„Ž‡
…‘•–”—…–‡†Ǥ 
”‘—’•
 ‡”‹‘†•
  Ž‘…•
x ’Žƒ…‡ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡‡–• ‘ˆ  ‹–‘ x –‘‹…”‘’‡”–‹‡•

”‘—’•ǡ‡”‹‘†•ƒ†Ž‘…•Ǥ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• ‹ˆŽ—‡…‹‰ x ƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ƒ–‘‹…
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡–ƒŽ•Ǥ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡Ž‡‡–•
 ȋᐗ…Ž‡ƒ”…Šƒ”‰‡
   α •Š‹‡Ž†‹‰  ‡ˆˆ‡…–
 ǡˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ —…Ž‡ƒ” Šƒ”‰‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ‡ˆˆαȂȌ
„‡–™‡‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ —…Ž‡ƒ” x –‘‹… ”ƒ†‹—•ǣǦ …”‘•• ‡”‹‘†
…Šƒ”‰‡ǡ —…Ž‡ƒ” …Šƒ”‰‡ ƒ† ȋˆ”‘Ž‡ˆ––‘”‹‰Š–Ȍƒ††‘™ƒ
•Š‹‡Ž†‹‰‡ˆˆ‡…–Ǥ ‰”‘—’
  ‘‹…”ƒ†‹—•
  ‘‹•ƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰›
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡ƒ‹‰• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘



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Specific Objectives Content


–‡”• Ǣ ƒ–‘‹… ”ƒ†‹—•ǡ ‹‘‹… ‡”‰› ȋƒ…”‘•• ƒ
”ƒ†‹—•ǡ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰› ‡”‹‘† ƒ† †‘™ ƒ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ –”‡†• ‘ˆ  –Š‡ ‰”‘—’Ȍ
ƒ–‘‹… ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ…”‘•• ƒ† ƒ ‘ƒŽ‘—• …ƒ•‡• ȋ‡ǡ
†‘™–Š‡ ǡǡȌ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–”‡†•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ–‘‹… ƒ •‡ ‘ˆ •—……‡••‹˜‡
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• †‘™ ƒ† ƒ…”‘•• –Š‡ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰› –‘
Ǥ †‡†—…‡ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹…
x …‘””‡…–Ž› †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ …‘ˆ‹‰—”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ‘ˆ ‰”ƒ’Š‹…ƒŽ ‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† 
‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ †ƒ–ƒ ‘ –Š‡ 
ƒ–‘‹…’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’–• ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡…–”‘ x Ž‡…–”‘ ƒˆˆ‹‹–›ǡ Ǣ
ƒˆˆ‹‹–›ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘’‘•‹–‹˜‹–›ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‹–›Ǣ
‡Ž‡…–”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‹–›ƒ†˜ƒŽ‡…›Ǥ ‡Ž‡…–”‘’‘•‹–‹˜‹–›Ǣ˜ƒŽ‡…›
 ‡–ƒŽŽ‹……Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”
 ‡Ž–‹‰ƒ†„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–•



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Topic 3: Structure and Bonding


—”ƒ–‹‘ǣ͵Ͳ‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‹•–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘‘—–Ž‹‡„‘†‹‰ǡ
‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” •–”—…–—”‡• ƒ† –Š‡‹” ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ –‘ –Š‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ
•—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Chemical Bonding


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ x –”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ
…Š‡‹…ƒŽ„‘†‹‰Ǥ „‘†‹‰
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x ‡™‹•‘–›„‘Ž•
‡™‹•†‘–•›„‘Ž•Ǥ 
x ‘—–Ž‹‡ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ x Š‡…–‡–—Ž‡ƒ† ‘•
–Š‡ ‘…–‡– ”—Ž‡ ‹ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ 
‘ˆ ‹‘• ƒ† •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ 
…‘’‘—†•Ǥ x ‘ ‘”ƒ–‹‘ƒ†…–‡–—Ž‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ 
‹‘‹…„‘†Ǥ x ‘‹…„‘†ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ  ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‘‹…
‹‘‹……‘’‘—†•Ǥ ‘’‘—†•
  …‘˜ƒŽ‡…‡ ‹ ‹‘‹…
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …‘˜ƒŽ‡…› ‹ ‹‘‹… …‘’‘—†•
…‘’‘—†•Ǥ x ‘˜ƒŽ‡–‘†ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘
  ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ …‘˜ƒŽ‡–
 …‘’‘—†•
  –›’‡• ‘ˆ  „‘†‹‰Ǥȋ‘”ƒŽǡ
 ’‘Žƒ”ǡ†ƒ–‹˜‡Ȍ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ƒ x …‘˜ƒŽ‡–„‘†•–”‡‰–Š
…‘˜ƒŽ‡–„‘†Ǥ  †ƒ–‹˜‡ ȋ…‘‘”†‹ƒ–‡Ȍ
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ –Š‡ „‘†‹‰
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡– –›’‡• ‘ˆ …‘˜ƒŽ‡–



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Specific Objectives Content


„‘†‹‰Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
†ƒ–‹˜‡„‘†Ǥ
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• –Šƒ– x –‡”‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ‘”…‡•
†‡–‡”‹‡ …‘˜ƒŽ‡– „‘†  ˜ƒ†‡”ƒƒŽ• ‘”…‡•
•–”‡‰–ŠǤ ‹Ȍ ‹’‘Ž‡Ǧ†‹’‘Ž‡
x …‘’ƒ”‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‹‘‹… ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘
ƒ†…‘˜ƒŽ‡–Ǥ…‘’‘—†• ‹‹Ȍ ‘†‘Ȁ†‹•’‡”•‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‹‘‹… …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡” ‹ ˆ‘”…‡• ȋ‡’‘”ƒ”›
’‘Žƒ” …‘˜ƒŽ‡– …‘’‘—†• †‹’‘Ž‡Ǧ†‹’‘Ž‡Ȍ
‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ 
‹–‡”‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”ˆ‘”…‡•–‘–Š‡ 
’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ 
…‘’‘—†Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ x Š‡ ›†”‘‰‡‘†
Š›†”‘‰‡„‘†‹‰Ǥ Ǧ Šƒ–Š›†”‘‰‡„‘†‹•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ Ǧ ›’‡• ‘ˆ Š›†”‘‰‡
Š›†”‘‰‡ „‘†‹‰ ‘ „‘†‹‰ ȋ‹–”ƒǦ ƒ† ‹–‡”Ǧ
’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” Š›†”‘‰‡
•—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ „‘†‹‰Ȍ
 Ǧ ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ Š›†”‘‰‡
 „‘†‹‰ ‘ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ
 ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ•—„•–ƒ…‡•ǣǦ
 ‡•‹–› ‘ˆ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ „‘‹Ž‹‰
 ’‘‹–•ǡ‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ‡–…Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ x ‡–ƒŽŽ‹…‘†‹‰
‡–ƒŽŽ‹…„‘†‹‰Ǥ Ǧ ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡–ƒŽǣ Ǧ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ —…–‹Ž‹–› ƒ† ƒŽŽ‡ƒ„‹Ž‹–›
‡–ƒŽ•Ǥ ‘ˆ ‡–ƒŽǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ‘†—…–‹˜‹–› ƒ† Š‡”ƒŽ
•–”‡‰–Š‘ˆ‡–ƒŽŽ‹…„‘†•Ǥ …‘†—…–‹˜‹–›
 Ǧ –”‡‰–Š‘ˆ‡–ƒŽŽ‹…„‘†•Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–Š‡‘”›Ǥ x ƒŽ‡…‡‘†Š‡‘”›
x †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡„‡–™‡‡‹‰ƒ  ‹–”‘†—…–‹‘ǣ ™Šƒ–
ƒ†’‹„‘†•Ǥ ƒŽ‡…‡„‘†–Š‡‘”›‹•



158
Specific Objectives Content
  •‹‰ƒȋɐȌƒ†’‹ȋɎȌ„‘†•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ x Š›„”‹†‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –‘‹…
Š›„”‹†‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ ”„‹–ƒŽ•
  Š›„”‹† ‘”„‹–ƒŽ• ȋ•’Ǧǡ •’ʹǦ
 ƒ†•’͵ǦŠ›„”‹†‹•ƒ–‹‘Ȍ
  ‰‡‘‡–”› ˆ‘” †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–
 –›’‡•‘ˆŠ›„”‹†‹•ƒ–‹‘
x —•‡Š›„”‹†‹•ƒ–‹‘–‘’”‡†‹…– x ›„”‹†‹•ƒ–‹‘ ˜‘Ž˜‹‰
•Šƒ’‡•‘ˆ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•Ǥ ”‰ƒ‹…‘’‘—†•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ x ‹‰Ž‡ǡ†‘—„Ž‡ƒ†–”‹’Ž‡„‘†
†‘—„Ž‡ǡ–”‹’Ž‡„‘†Ǥ  ‡œ‡‡‘Ž‡…—Ž‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ †‘—„Ž‡ „‘†
ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‹„‡œ‡‡Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‡ƒ†ƒ„”ƒ‹•–‘”‹‰•‡••‹‘–‘†‡˜‡Ž‘’–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ„‘†ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ǡ
‹‘ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹‘‹… „‘† ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ǡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ‹‘‹… …‘’‘—† ƒ†
–Š‡‹”’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘ƒ†—•‡‘†‡Ž•–‘‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ…‘˜ƒŽ‡–
„‘†•ǡ –›’‡• ‘ˆ …‘˜ƒŽ‡– „‘†• ȋ‘”ƒŽǡ ’‘Žƒ”ǡ †ƒ–‹˜‡Ȍǡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ
…‘˜ƒŽ‡– …‘’‘—†•ǡ …‘˜ƒŽ‡– „‘† •–”‡‰–Š ƒ† ‰‹ƒ– …‘˜ƒŽ‡–
•–”—…–—”‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡†‹•…—••‹‘•ƒ†—•‡‘†‡Ž•–‘‡š’Žƒ‹‡–ƒŽŽ‹…„‘†‹‰ǡ•–”‡‰–Š
‘ˆ‡–ƒŽŽ‹…„‘†•ƒ†’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡–ƒŽ•ȋ†—…–‹Ž‹–›ƒ†ƒŽŽ‡ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ
‡–ƒŽǡ‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ…‘†—…–‹˜‹–›–Š‡”ƒŽ…‘†—…–‹˜‹–›ǡ‡Ž–‹‰ƒ†„‘‹Ž‹‰
’‘‹–•ȌǤ

Practical Problems
x •‡”‡ƒ†›‘†‡Ž•ǡ…Šƒ”–•‘”…‘’—–‡”•‹—Žƒ–‹‘•–‘Š‡Ž’›‘—‡š’Žƒ‹
–Š‡—„Ǧ‘’‹…Ǥ
x
‹˜‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•ƒ’”‘Œ‡…––‘‘†‡Ž–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–•–”—…–—”‡•…‘•‹†‡”‡†
—•‹‰ Ž‘…ƒŽŽ› ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• ‡Ǥ‰ ‘†‡Ž‹‰ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ •‘†‹—
…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡Ǥ
x ‡ƒ”‡”• …ƒ ƒŽ•‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‡š‡”…‹•‡• –‘ –‡•– –Š‡ ’‘Žƒ”‹–› ‘ˆ
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡– Ž‹“—‹†• ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ …›…Ž‘Š‡šƒ‡ǡ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ ’”‘’ƒ‘‡ǡ ‡–Šƒ‘Žǡ
–”‹…ŠŽ‘”‘‡–Šƒ‡ǡ‡–…Ǥ



159
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Caution: ‘•– ‘”‰ƒ‹… Ž‹“—‹†• ƒ”‡ ˆŽƒƒ„Ž‡ ƒ† –‘š‹… Š‡…‡


—•–„‡Šƒ†Ž‡†™‹–Š‰”‡ƒ–…ƒ”‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘…–‡– ”—Ž‡ ‹ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹‘• ƒ†
•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ…‘’‘—†•Ǥ
Ǧ ‹†‡–‹ˆ›•–ƒ„Ž‡‹‘•™‹–Š‘—–ƒ‘…–‡–Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‹‘‹…„‘†Ǥ
Ǧ †”ƒ™ƒ†‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ‰‹ƒ–‹‘‹…•–”—…–—”‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‹‘‹……‘’‘—†•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹…‘˜ƒŽ‡–…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹‹‘‹……‘’‘—†•Ǥ
Ǧ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡––›’‡•‘ˆ…‘˜ƒŽ‡–„‘†‹‰Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ƒ–—”‡‘ˆ‰‹ƒ–…‘˜ƒŽ‡–•–”—…–—”‡•ȋ‡–™‘”•‘Ž‹†•Ȍ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ†ƒ–‹˜‡„‘†Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ˆƒ…–‘”•–Šƒ–†‡–‡”‹‡…‘˜ƒŽ‡–„‘†•–”‡‰–ŠǤ
Ǧ …‘’ƒ”‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‹‘‹…ƒ†…‘˜ƒŽ‡–…‘’‘—†•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‘‹……Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹’‘Žƒ”…‘˜ƒŽ‡–…‘’‘—†•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ‡–ƒŽŽ‹…„‘†‹‰Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡–ƒŽ•Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ˆƒ…–‘”•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰•–”‡‰–Š‘ˆ‡–ƒŽŽ‹…„‘†•

Sub-Topic 2: Structure: Drawing Lewis Structures of


Molecules and Polyatomic Ions
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ‡™‹• x ‡™‹•–”—…–—”‡•
•–”—…–—”‡ 
x †”ƒ™ ‡™‹• •–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ •‘‡ x –‡’• ‹ ™”‹–‹‰ ‡™‹•
‘Ž‡…—Ž‡• ȋƒ‘‹ƒǡ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ •–”—…–—”‡ ˆ‘” ‘”‡ …‘’Ž‡š
•—Ž’Š—” †‹‘š‹†‡ǡ …ƒ”„‘ ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•
–‡–”ƒ…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡ȌǤ 
x ƒ’’Ž› –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ”—Ž‡• ‹ x ‡™‹•–”—…–—”‡•‘ˆ‘Ž›ƒ–‘‹…
†”ƒ™‹‰ ‡™‹• •–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ ‘•
…‘’‘—†•Ǥ 
x ‘—–Ž‹‡ –Š‡ ‡š…‡’–‹‘• –‘ –Š‡ x š…‡’–‹‘•–‘–Š‡…–‡–—Ž‡
‘…–‡–”—Ž‡Ǥ  …‘’Ž‡–‡‘…–‡–
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‡š…‡’–‹‘•  š’ƒ†‡†‘…–‡–
–‘ –Š‡ ‘…–‡– ”—Ž‡ ƒ• ‹…‘’Ž‡–‡ǡ  ††—„‡”‡Ž‡…–”‘



160
Specific Objectives Content
‡š’ƒ†‡†  ‘…–‡– ƒ† ‘†† x Šƒ’‡•‘ˆ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•ƒ†‹‘•
—„‡”‡Ž‡…–”‘Ǥ 
x ”‡…‘‰‹•‡–Š‡ˆ‘”ƒŽ…Šƒ”‰‡•‘ x ‘”ƒŽŠƒ”‰‡•
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡– •’‡…‹‡• ȋ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡• α —„‡” ‘ˆ ˜ƒŽ‡…‡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘•
ƒ†‹‘•ȌǤ ‹ˆ”‡‡ƒ–‘Ǧȏ—„‡”‘ˆ‘Ǧ
x ˆ‘”—Žƒ–‡ •Šƒ’‡• ‘ˆ ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡• „‘†‹‰ ‡Ž‡…–”‘• Ϊ Φ
ƒ†‹‘•Ǥ —„‡”‘ˆ„‘†‹‰‡Ž‡…–”‘•Ȑ
x ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‡ Š‘™ ”‡•‘ƒ…‡ x ‡•‘ƒ…‡Ȃƒ•–Š‡•‹–—ƒ–‹‘‹
•–”—…–—”‡•ƒ”‹•‡Ǥ ™Š‹…Š –™‘ ‘” ‘”‡ ’‘••‹„Ž‡
 ‡™‹• •–”—…–—”‡• …ƒ „‡
 ™”‹––‡Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–Š‡‘”›Ǥ x ƒŽ‡…‡ Š‡ŽŽ Ž‡…–”‘ ƒ‹”
 ‡’—Ž•‹‘ȋȌŠ‡‘”›
x ‘—–Ž‹‡ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ Ž‘‡ ’ƒ‹”• x Š‡ ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ ‘‡ ƒ‹”• ‘
‘‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”‰‡‘‡–”›Ǥ ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”
‡‘‡–”›
x …‘’ƒ”‡–Š‡‡š–‡–‘ˆ”‡’—Ž•‹‘ x ‘‡’ƒ‹”ȂŽ‘‡’ƒ‹””‡’—Ž•‹‘
„‡–™‡‡ Ž‘‡ ’ƒ‹”• ƒ† „‘† ε Ž‘‡ ’ƒ‹”Ǧ„‘†‹‰ ’ƒ‹”
’ƒ‹”•Ǥ ”‡’—Ž•‹‘ ε „‘†‹‰ ’ƒ‹”Ǧ
 „‘†‹‰’ƒ‹””‡’—Ž•‹‘
x †”ƒ™ ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡• ‘ˆ …‘’‘—†• x ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” •Šƒ’‡• –Šƒ– ƒ›
‹–Š”‡‡†‹‡•‹‘•Ǥ ”‡•—Ž–ǣ Ǧ ‡– ȋǦ•Šƒ’‡†Ȍǡ
”‹‰‘ƒŽ ’›”ƒ‹†ƒŽǡ ‹‡ƒ”ǡ
“—ƒ”‡ ’›”ƒ‹†ƒŽǡ •“—ƒ”‡
’Žƒƒ”ǡ –”‹ƒ‰—Žƒ” „‹Ǧ
’›”ƒ‹†ƒŽǡ ‡–”ƒŠ‡†”ƒŽǡ
‘…–ƒŠ‡†”ƒŽ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x •‡‘†‡Ž•–‘‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡˜ƒŽ‡…‡•Š‡ŽŽ‡Ž‡…–”‘’ƒ‹””‡’—Ž•‹‘–Š‡‘”›ǡ
†”ƒ™•Šƒ’‡•‘ˆ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•ǡ‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‹–›ƒ†Ž‘‡’ƒ‹”•‘
•‹œ‡‘ˆ„‘†ƒ‰Ž‡•Ǥ
x ‹•…—••–Š‡ˆƒ…–‘”•†‡–‡”‹‹‰’‘Žƒ”‹–›‘ˆ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•ƒ†‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘
‘ˆ’‘Žƒ”‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•Ǥ



161
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Practical Problems
x ‡– –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‘†‡Ž †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡• ‘ˆ …‘’‘—†• ‹ –Š”‡‡
†‹‡•‹‘•Ǥ
x ‡– –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ –‡•– ˆ‘” –Š‡ ’‘Žƒ”‹–› ‘ˆ
‘Ž‡…—Ž‡• —•‹‰ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– Ž‹“—‹†• ȋ–”‹…ŠŽ‘”‘‡–Šƒ‡ǡ ‡–Š›Ž ‡–Šƒ‘ƒ–‡ǡ
‡–Šƒ‘Žǡ†‹•–‹ŽŽ‡†™ƒ–‡”ǡ…›…Ž‘Š‡šƒ‡ǡ…›…Ž‘Š‡šƒȂͳǦ‘Žǡ’”‘’ƒ‘‡Ȍ
x ‡Ž’–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡––‘…‘’ƒ”‡–Š‡˜‘Žƒ–‹Ž‹–›
‘ˆ‹‘†‹‡ǡ‰”ƒ’Š‹–‡ƒ†…ƒŽ…‹—…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡—•‹‰ƒŠƒ”†‰Žƒ••–—„‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡˜ƒŽ‡…‡•Š‡ŽŽ‡Ž‡…–”‘’ƒ‹””‡’—Ž•‹‘–Š‡‘”›Ǥ
Ǧ †”ƒ™‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•‘ˆ…‘’‘—†•‹–Š”‡‡†‹‡•‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ’”‡†‹…––Š‡ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‡„‘†ƒ‰Ž‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‹‹–›‘•‹œ‡‘ˆ„‘†ƒ‰Ž‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡’‘Žƒ”ƒ†‘Ǧ’‘Žƒ”‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ˆƒ…–‘”•–Šƒ–†‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡’‘Žƒ”‹–›‘ˆ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 3: Shapes of Molecules


Specific objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ’‘Žƒ” x ‘Žƒ”ƒ†‘Ǧ’‘Žƒ”‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•
ƒ†‘Ǧ’‘Žƒ”‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•Ǥ 
x ‘†‡Ž ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡• ‘ˆ •‹’Ž‡ x ‘†‡ŽŽ‹‰ ‘ˆ •‹’Ž‡ …‘˜ƒŽ‡–
…‘˜ƒŽ‡–…‘’‘—†•Ǥ ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x •‡‘†‡Ž•–‘‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡˜ƒŽ‡…‡•Š‡ŽŽ‡Ž‡…–”‘’ƒ‹””‡’—Ž•‹‘–Š‡‘”›ǡ
†”ƒ™•Šƒ’‡•‘ˆ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•ǡ‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‹–›ƒ†Ž‘‡’ƒ‹”•‘
•‹œ‡‘ˆ„‘†ƒ‰Ž‡•Ǥ
x ‹•…—••–Š‡ˆƒ…–‘”•†‡–‡”‹‹‰’‘Žƒ”‹–›‘ˆ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•ƒ†‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘
‘ˆ’‘Žƒ”‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ‡– –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‘†‡Ž †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡• ‘ˆ …‘’‘—†• ‹ –Š”‡‡
†‹‡•‹‘•Ǥ



162
x ‡– –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ –‡•– ˆ‘” –Š‡ ’‘Žƒ”‹–› ‘ˆ
‘Ž‡…—Ž‡• —•‹‰ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– Ž‹“—‹†• ȋ–”‹…ŠŽ‘”‘‡–Šƒ‡ǡ ‡–Š›Ž ‡–Šƒ‘ƒ–‡ǡ
‡–Šƒ‘Žǡ†‹•–‹ŽŽ‡†™ƒ–‡”ǡ…›…Ž‘Š‡šƒ‡ǡ…›…Ž‘Š‡šƒȂͳǦ‘Žǡ’”‘’ƒ‘‡Ȍ
x ‡Ž’–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡––‘…‘’ƒ”‡–Š‡˜‘Žƒ–‹Ž‹–›
‘ˆ‹‘†‹‡ǡ‰”ƒ’Š‹–‡ƒ†…ƒŽ…‹—…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡—•‹‰ƒŠƒ”†‰Žƒ••–—„‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡˜ƒŽ‡…‡•Š‡ŽŽ‡Ž‡…–”‘’ƒ‹””‡’—Ž•‹‘–Š‡‘”›Ǥ
Ǧ †”ƒ™‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•‘ˆ…‘’‘—†•‹–Š”‡‡†‹‡•‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ’”‡†‹…––Š‡ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‡„‘†ƒ‰Ž‡•
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‹‹–›‘•‹œ‡‘ˆ„‘†ƒ‰Ž‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡’‘Žƒ”ƒ†‘Ǧ’‘Žƒ”‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• –Šƒ– †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ ’‘Žƒ”‹–› ‘ˆ ‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•



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Topic 4: Thermochemistry (Chemical


Energetics)

—”ƒ–‹‘ǣ͵͸‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‹•–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘…‘’”‡Š‡†‡‡”‰›
…Šƒ‰‡•–Šƒ–ƒ……‘’ƒ›…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Chemical Energy


Specific Objectives  Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’–• ‘ˆ x –”‘†—…–‹‘–‘Š‡‹…ƒŽ‡”‰›
–Š‡”‘…Š‡‹•–”›Ǥ Šƒ‰‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ Š‡ƒ–  Šƒ––Š‡”‘…Š‡‹•–”›‹•
…‘–‡–‘ˆƒ•—„•–ƒ…‡  Šƒ– Šƒ’’‡• –‘ „‘†•
 ™Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
 –ƒ‡’Žƒ…‡
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡…‘””‡…–Ž›–Šƒ–Š‡ƒ– x –ŠƒŽ’›ǡH
…Šƒ‰‡•…ƒ„‡‡ƒ•—”‡†Ǥ  Šƒ– ‡˜‡”› •—„•–ƒ…‡ Šƒ•
 •‘‡•–‘”‡†…Š‡‹…ƒŽ‡‡”‰›
x ”‡…‘‰‹•‡ ‡–ŠƒŽ’› …Šƒ‰‡ ƒ• x –ŠƒŽ’›Šƒ‰‡ǡοH
Š‡ƒ– …‘–‡– ‡ƒ•—”‡† ƒ– •Ǥ–Ǥ’Ǥ  •–Š‡…Šƒ‰‡‹Š‡ƒ–…‘–‡–
†—”‹‰ƒ…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ‡ƒ•—”‡† ƒ– …‘•–ƒ–
 –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ƒ† ’”‡••—”‡ǡ
 †—”‹‰ƒ…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
x ’‡”ˆ‘” •‹’Ž‡ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‘ x –ŠƒŽ’›…Šƒ‰‡‹•…ƒŽŽ‡†Š‡ƒ–‘ˆ
‡–ŠƒŽ’›…Šƒ‰‡•Ǥ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ƒ†‹•†‡‘–‡†ƒ•οHrxn
 




x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ Š‡ƒ– ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ x ‡‘•–”ƒ–‡Š‡ƒ–‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘
—•‹‰•‹’Ž‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•Ǥ



164
Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‡ƒ‹‰ ‘ˆ Š‡”‘…Š‡‹•–”›ǡ ‡–ŠƒŽ’›ǡ ‡–ŠƒŽ’› …Šƒ‰‡Ǥ
”‹–‡ Š‡”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘•ǡ †‡‘•–”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ  ‡š‘–Š‡”‹… ƒ†
‡†‘–Š‡”‹…”‡ƒ…–‹‘•—•‹‰•‹’Ž‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•
x ‡––Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•…ƒ””›‘—–‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘†‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡Š‡ƒ–…ƒ’ƒ…‹–›
‘ˆƒ…ƒŽ‘”‹‡–‡”
x ‹•…—•• ‡–ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‡–ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ …‘„—•–‹‘ ƒ† …ƒ””› ‘—–
‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ ‡–ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ …‘„—•–‹‘ ‘ˆ Ž‘™ ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”
ƒ••ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•
x ‘†—…–ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘‘‡–ŠƒŽ’›‘ˆ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‹–•‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ
†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘
x ‹•…—••‡–ŠƒŽ’›‘ˆǢ†‹•’Žƒ…‡‡–ƒ†‹–•‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ
ƒ–‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘ ƒˆˆ‹‹–›ǡ Žƒ––‹…‡ǡ •—„Ž‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ
Š›†”ƒ–‹‘Ȁ•‘Ž˜ƒ–‹‘
x ‘†—…– ƒ †‹•…—••‹‘ ƒ† ƒ ‡š’‡”‹‡– ‘ Š‡ƒ– ‘ˆ •‘Ž—–‹‘ ƒ†
’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘
x š’Žƒ‹ –‘ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‡••ǯ• Žƒ™ ‹…Ž—†‹‰ ‹–• ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ
Œ—•–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ǡ…‘•–”—…–‹‘‘ˆ‡–ŠƒŽ’›…›…Ž‡•ƒ†…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘
‹–
x š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‘”Ǧ ƒ„‡”…›…Ž‡ȋƒ’’Ž›‹‰ ‡••ǯ•Žƒ™–‘‹‘‹……‘’‘—†•Ȍ
‹…Ž—†‹‰‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽŒ—•–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ƒ†”‡Žƒ–‡†…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•
x ‡– –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• †‹•…—••  –Š‡ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• ‡‡”‰› •‘—”…‡•ǡ Š‘™ –Š‡› ƒ”‡
Šƒ”‡••‡†ǡ ‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡…› ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• ˆ—‡Ž• ƒ† –Š‡‹” ‹’ƒ…– ‘ –Š‡
‡˜‹”‘‡–

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ —•‡ •‹’Ž‡ –‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡
‡†‘–Š‡”‹…ƒ†‡š‘–Š‡”‹…”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ ƒ ‰”‘—’ ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ Š‡ƒ– …ƒ’ƒ…‹–› ‘ˆ ƒ •‹’Ž‡
…ƒŽ‘”‹‡–‡”Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ƒ‰”‘—’‡š’‡”‹‡––‘†‡–‡”‹‡Š‡ƒ–‘ˆ…‘„—•–‹‘‘ˆ‡–Šƒ‘Žǡ
’”‘’ƒ‘Žǡ„—–ƒ‘ŽǤ
x ‡Ž’–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—––‹–”ƒ–‹‘‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘†‡–‡”‹‡Š‡ƒ–
‘ˆ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•–”‘‰ƒ…‹†•ƒ†•–”‘‰„ƒ•‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ ‰”‘—’• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ Š‡ƒ– ‘ˆ
†‹•’Žƒ…‡‡– ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ˆ‘” œ‹… ’‘™†‡” ƒ† …‘’’‡” ȋ Ȍ •—Ž’Šƒ–‡
•‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ



165
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x ‡ƒ† ‰”‘—’ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ Š‡ƒ–• ‘ˆ •‘Ž—–‹‘ ‘ˆ •—Ž’Š—”‹…
ƒ…‹†ƒ†•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡Ǥ
x ‡Ž’ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– •‹’Ž‡ –‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡
Š‡ƒ– ‘ˆ ’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •‹Ž˜‡” …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡ —•‹‰ •–ƒ†ƒ”† ‡“—ƒŽ ‘Žƒ”
•‘Ž—–‹‘•‘ˆ•‹Ž˜‡”‹–”ƒ–‡•‘†‹—…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ƒ‰”‘—’‡š’‡”‹‡––‘Œ—•–‹ˆ› ‡••ǯ•Žƒ™—•‹‰Š‡ƒ–‘ˆ•‘Ž—–‹‘ˆ‘”
ƒŠ›†”‘—•ƒ†Š›†”ƒ–‡†ƒ‰‡•‹—•—Ž’Šƒ–‡‘”…‘’’‡”ȋ Ȍ•—Ž’Šƒ–‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x 
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡‡–ŠƒŽ’›…Šƒ‰‡•„‘††‹••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰‹‡•Ǥ
Ǧ …‘•–”—…–„‘” ƒ„‡”…›…Ž‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹…‘‘–‡”•—•‡†‹–Š‡”‘…Š‡‹•–”›Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ’’Ž› ‡••ǯ•Žƒ™‹…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‰‡–ŠƒŽ’›…Šƒ‰‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‹•…—•• †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ‡‡”‰› •‘—”…‡•ǡ ‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡…› ‘ˆ ˆ—‡Ž• ƒ† –Š‡‹”
‹’ƒ…–‘–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ
x
‹˜‡Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›‡š‡”…‹•‡•–‘†‡–‡”‹‡‡–ŠƒŽ’‹‡•‘ˆǢ
Ǧ †‹•’Žƒ…‡‡–”‡ƒ…–‹‘
Ǧ ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘
Ǧ Š‡ƒ–‘ˆ•‘Ž—–‹‘

Sub-Topic 2: Types of Heat of Reactions


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …‘…‡’–• ‘ˆ ‡š‘–Š‡”‹… x š‘–Š‡”‹…‡ƒ…–‹‘
ƒ†‡†‘–Š‡”‹…”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ  Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ
 ‡š‘–Š‡”‹…”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
  ‡”‰›Ž‡˜‡Ž†‹ƒ‰”ƒ
  ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‡š‘–Š‡”‹…
 ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‹‡˜‡”›†ƒ›Ž‹ˆ‡
 x †‘–Š‡”‹…‡ƒ…–‹‘•
x •‡–…Š ‡‡”‰› †‹ƒ‰”ƒ• ˆ‘” ƒ  Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ
‡š‘–Š‡”‹… ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ –ƒ‹‰ ‡š‘–Š‡”‹…”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
’Žƒ…‡Ǥ x ‡”‰›Ž‡˜‡Ž†‹ƒ‰”ƒ
x ‰‹˜‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ 
‡š‘–Š‡”‹… x ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‡†‘–Š‡”‹…
x ‡š’Žƒ‹…‘…‡’–•‘ˆ‡†‘–Š‡”‹… ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‹‡˜‡”›†ƒ›Ž‹ˆ‡Ǥ



166
Specific Objectives Content
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ 
x •‡–…Š ‡‡”‰› †‹ƒ‰”ƒ• ˆ‘” ƒ Š‡”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ‡“—ƒ–‹‘•
‡†‘–Š‡”‹… ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ –ƒ‹‰
’Žƒ…‡Ǥ
‰‹˜‡…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ‡†‘–Š‡”‹…
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—••–Š‡…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ‡š‘–Š‡”‹…ƒ†‡†‘–Š‡”‹…”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ •‡–…Š –Š‡ ‡‡”‰› †‹ƒ‰”ƒ• ˆ‘” ‡š‘–Š‡”‹… ƒ†
‡†‘–Š‡”‹…”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
x ‡Ž’ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’–• ‘ˆ ‡š‘–Š‡”‹… ƒ†
‡†‘–Š‡”‹…”‡ƒ…–‹‘•—•‹‰–Š‡‡‡”‰›†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•–Š‡›Šƒ˜‡•‡–…Š‡†Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‡†‘–Š‡”‹… ƒ† ‡š‘–Š‡”‹… ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‹
‡˜‡”›†ƒ›Ž‹ˆ‡ȋˆ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ…‘Ž†Š‡ƒ–ƒ†Š‘–’ƒ…•ȌǤ
x
—‹†‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘™”‹–‡–Š‡”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ‡“—ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡
‡ƒ‹‰•‘ˆ–Š‡‡“—ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‡š‡”…‹•‡• ‘ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ ‡†‘–Š‡”‹… ƒ†
‡š‘–Š‡”‹…”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 3: Calorimetry


Specific Objectives Specific Objectives


Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”‹•ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ Š‡ƒ– …ƒ’ƒ…‹–› ‘ˆ x ‡ƒ– ƒ’ƒ…‹–› ƒ†
’Žƒ•–‹……—’…ƒŽ‘”‹‡–‡”Ǥ ƒŽ‘”‹‡–”›
x ‘—–Ž‹‡ „‘„ …ƒŽ‘”‹‡–‡”  ‘ˆˆ‡‡Ǧ…—’…ƒŽ‘”‹‡–‡”
‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡  ‘„…ƒŽ‘”‹‡–‡”
…ƒŽ‘”‹ˆ‹…˜ƒŽ—‡‘ˆ•—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—••Š‡ƒ–…ƒ’ƒ…‹–›‘ˆ’Žƒ•–‹……—’…ƒŽ‘”‹‡–‡”‹–‡”•‘ˆ…ȋ™Š‡”‡
αƒ••ǡ…αŠ‡ƒ–…ƒ’ƒ…‹–›α…Šƒ‰‡‹–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ȌǤ



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x š’Žƒ‹ Š‘™ „‘„ …ƒŽ‘”‹‡–‡” ‹• —•‡† –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ …ƒŽ‘”‹ˆ‹… ˜ƒŽ—‡ ‘ˆ
•—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ
x ƒ””›‘—–•‹’Ž‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•‘“—ƒ–‹–ƒ–‹˜‡†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ…ƒŽ‘”‹ˆ‹…
˜ƒŽ—‡•‘ˆ•‘‡ˆ‘‘†•—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‡š‡”…‹•‡• ‘ †‡•…”‹’–‹‘ ‘ˆ Š‘™ –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ Š‡ƒ–
…ƒ’ƒ…‹–‹‡•‘ˆƒ’Žƒ•–‹……—’…ƒŽ‘”‹‡–‡”ƒ†‘—–Ž‹‡–Š‡„‘„…ƒŽ‘”‹‡–‡”
‡š’‡”‹‡––‘†‡–‡”‹‡…ƒŽ‘”‹…˜ƒŽ—‡‘ˆ•‘‡ˆ‘‘†•—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 4: Types of Enthalpy Changes


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹…‘…‡’–•‘ˆ–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡– x ›’‡•‘ˆ–ŠƒŽ’›Šƒ‰‡•
–›’‡•‘ˆ‡‡”‰›…Šƒ‰‡•Ǥ x –ƒ†ƒ”†‡–ŠƒŽ’›‘ˆ ‘”ƒ–‹‘ǡ
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ 
‡–ŠƒŽ’›‘ˆ…‘„—•–‹‘Ǥ x ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡–ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ
 ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘

x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‰   —•‹‰ Š‡ƒ–•

‘ˆˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘
x ’”‡†‹…– –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ
x ‡Žƒ–‹˜‡•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ…‘’‘—†•
…‘’‘—†•  ˆ”‘ ‡–ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ

ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

x ”‡•–ƒ–‡ •–ƒ†ƒ”† ‡–ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ
x –ƒ†ƒ”† –ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ
…‘„—•–‹‘Ǥ
x ’‡”ˆ‘” ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ ‘„—•–‹‘ǡ 
†‡–‡”‹‡Š‡ƒ–‘ˆ…‘„—•–‹‘‘ˆ x Š‡ ‡ƒ‹‰ ‘ˆ ‡ƒ– ‘ˆ
•—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ ‘„—•–‹‘
x …‘””‡…–Ž› —•‡ †ƒ–ƒ ˆ”‘ x ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ 
‡š’‡”‹‡–•’‡”ˆ‘”‡†–‘…ƒ””› x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‰Š‡ƒ–•‘ˆ…‘„—•–‹‘
‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ 
x †‡–‡”‹‡ Š‡ƒ–• ‘ˆ …‘„—•–‹‘ 
‘ˆ˜ƒ”‹‘—•ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ x ‡ƒ–• ‘ˆ …‘„—•–‹‘ ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹‘—•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ Ž…‘Š‘Ž•
‡–ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ …‘„—•–‹‘ ‹ ”‡ƒŽ 
Ž‹ˆ‡•‹–—ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x Š‡ˆ—‡Ž˜ƒŽ—‡•‘ˆ˜ƒ”‹‘—•ˆ—‡Ž•
x —†‡”Ž‹‡ ˆ—‡Ž ˜ƒŽ—‡ ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• 



168
Specific Objectives Content
ˆ—‡Ž•Ǥ x –ƒ†ƒ”† –ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ
 ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘ǡ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ Š‡ƒ– ‘ˆ 
‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x Š‡ ‡ƒ‹‰ ‘ˆ ‡ƒ– ‘ˆ
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
‡–ŠƒŽ’›‘ˆ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
x ’‡”ˆ‘” ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ 
†‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ Š‡ƒ– ‘ˆ x ‡–‡”‹‹‰ –Š‡ Š‡ƒ– ‘ˆ
‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •–”‘‰ ƒ…‹†• ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘ „‡–™‡‡ •–”‘‰
ƒ†ƒŽƒŽ‹•Ǥ ƒ…‹†•ƒ†ƒŽƒŽ‹•
x ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡ 
„‡–™‡‡ Š‡ƒ– ‘ˆ ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘ x ˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‰ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡
‘ˆ „‡–™‡‡ ™‡ƒ ƒ…‹† ƒ† „‡–™‡‡ Š‡ƒ– ‘ˆ ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘
•–”‘‰ƒ…‹†™‹–Š•–”‘‰ƒŽƒŽ‹Ǥ „‡–™‡‡ ™‡ƒ ƒ…‹† ƒ† •–”‘‰
x †‡–‡”‹‡Š‡ƒ–‘ˆ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘ ƒ…‹†™‹–Š•–”‘‰ƒŽƒŽ‹
„‡–™‡‡ ™‡ƒ ƒ‹† ƒ† •–”‘‰ x ‡ƒ–‘ˆ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘„‡–™‡‡ƒ
ƒŽƒŽ‹Ǥ ™‡ƒƒ…‹†ƒ†ƒ•–”‘‰ƒŽƒŽ‹Ǥ
x †‡–‡”‹‡Š‡ƒ–‘ˆ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘ 
„‡–™‡‡ ™‡ƒ ƒ‹† ƒ† ™‡ƒ x ‡ƒ–‘ˆ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘„‡–™‡‡ƒ
ƒŽƒŽ‹Ǥ ™‡ƒƒ…‹†ƒ†ƒ™‡ƒƒŽƒŽ‹Ǥ
x …‘””‡…–Ž› —•‡ †ƒ–ƒ ˆ”‘ 
‡š’‡”‹‡–• ’‡”ˆ‘”‡† –‘ …ƒ””› x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‰ Š‡ƒ–• ‘ˆ
‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ 
‡–ŠƒŽ’›‘ˆ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘‹”‡ƒŽ x ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‡–ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ
Ž‹ˆ‡•‹–—ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ‡—–”ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ Š‡ƒ– ‘ˆ 
’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x ‘…‡’–‘ˆŠ‡ƒ–‘ˆ’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ 
‡–ŠƒŽ’›‘ˆ’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x ‡–‡”‹‹‰ –Š‡ ‡ƒ– ‘ˆ
x …‘””‡…–Ž› —•‡ †ƒ–ƒ ˆ”‘ ”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘
‡š’‡”‹‡–• ’‡”ˆ‘”‡† –‘ …ƒ””› x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ Š‡ƒ–• ‘ˆ
‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ 
‡–ŠƒŽ’›‘ˆ’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘‹”‡ƒŽ x ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‡–ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ
Ž‹ˆ‡•‹–—ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘



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CHEMISTRY
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TEACHING SYLLABUS

Specific Objectives Content


x ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ 
‡–ŠƒŽ’›‘ˆ†‹•’Žƒ…‡‡–Ǥ x ‡ƒ–‘ˆ‹•’Žƒ…‡‡–
x ‘””‡…–Ž› —•‡ †ƒ–ƒ ˆ”‘ x ‘…‡’–‘ˆŠ‡ƒ–‘ˆ†‹•’Žƒ…‡‡–
‡š’‡”‹‡–• ’‡”ˆ‘”‡† –‘ …ƒ””› x ‡–‡”‹‹‰ –Š‡ ‡ƒ– ‘ˆ
‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ‹•’Žƒ…‡‡–Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ Š‡ƒ– ‘ˆ
‡–ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ †‹•’Žƒ…‡‡– ‹ ”‡ƒŽ †‹•’Žƒ…‡‡–
Ž‹ˆ‡•‹–—ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ x ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ Š‡ƒ– ‘ˆ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡ƒ‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‹•’Žƒ…‡‡–
–‡”•Ǣ ‡–ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ ƒ–‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ǡ x –ƒ†ƒ”† –ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ
‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘ ƒˆˆ‹‹–›ǡ –‘‹•ƒ–‹‘
Žƒ––‹…‡ ‡‡”‰›ǡ ‡–ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ x ‘‹•ƒ–‹‘‡”‰›ǡ 
•—„Ž‹ƒ–‹‘ x Ž‡…–”‘ˆˆ‹‹–›ǡ
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ x ƒ––‹…‡‡”‰›
‡–ŠƒŽ’›‘ˆ•‘Ž—–‹‘ x –ŠƒŽ’›‘ˆ—„Ž‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ
x …‘””‡…–Ž› —•‡ †ƒ–ƒ ˆ”‘ x Š‡ –ƒ†ƒ”† –ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ
‡š’‡”‹‡–• ’‡”ˆ‘”‡† –‘ …ƒ””› ‘Ž—–‹‘
‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• x Š‡ –ƒ†ƒ”† –ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ›†”ƒ–‹‘
‡–ŠƒŽ’› ‘ˆ •‘Ž—–‹‘ ‹ ”‡ƒŽ Ž‹ˆ‡ x ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ Š‡ƒ– ‘ˆ
•‹–—ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ Š›†”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ Š›†”ƒ–‡† ƒ†
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ ƒŠ›†”‘—• …‘’‘—† ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ
‡–ŠƒŽ’›‘ˆŠ›†”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ —ͶǤͷ ʹƒ†—ͶȌ
x …‘””‡…–Ž› —•‡ †ƒ–ƒ ˆ”‘ 
‡š’‡”‹‡–• ’‡”ˆ‘”‡† –‘ …ƒ””› x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ Š‡ƒ–• ‘ˆ
‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ Š›†”ƒ–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ 
‡–ŠƒŽ’›‘ˆŠ›†”ƒ–‹‘‹”‡ƒŽŽ‹ˆ‡ x ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆŠ‡ƒ–‘ˆŠ›†”ƒ–‹‘
•‹–—ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‡••ǯ• Žƒ™ ‘ˆ …‘•–ƒ– 
Š‡ƒ–•—ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x ‡••ǯ•ƒ™
x †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ ‡••ǯ•Žƒ™—•‹‰ƒ 
‡š’‡”‹‡–Ǥ x ‘…‡’–‘ˆ ‡••ǯ•Žƒ™
 x š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ Œ—•–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
x …‘•–”—…–‡–ŠƒŽ’›…›…Ž‡•Ǥ ‡••ǯ•Žƒ™
x ƒ’’Ž› ‡••ǯ• Žƒ™ ‹ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• x ‘•–”—…–‹‘‘ˆ‡–ŠƒŽ’›…›…Ž‡•



170
Specific Objectives Content
‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ –™‘ ‘” ‘”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ‡••ǯ•
”‡ƒ…–ƒ–•ƒ”‡‹˜‘Ž˜‡†Ǥ Žƒ™
x ‘—–Ž‹‡ –Š‡ ”‡Ž‡˜ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ‘” 
ƒ„‡”…›…Ž‡Ǥ x ‘”Ǧ ƒ„‡”›…Ž‡
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ –›’‡ ‘ˆ ‡‡”‰› x š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽŒ—•–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘
…Šƒ‰‡• ‹˜‘Ž˜‡† ȋƒ† –‡”• 
‹˜‘Ž˜‡†Ȍ‹–Š‡˜ƒ”‹‘—••–ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ 
–Š‡…›…Ž‡Ǥ x ‡”• —•‡† ‹ –Š‡ ‘” ƒ„‡”
x …‘””‡…–Ž› …‘•–”—…– ƒ ‘”Ǧ …›…Ž‡
ƒ„‡”…›…Ž‡ˆ‘”‹‘‹……‘’‘—†• x ‘•–”—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘”Ǧ ƒ„‡”
‘”•ƒŽ–•Ǥ …›…Ž‡
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ 
‘”Ǧ ƒ„‡”…›…Ž‡•Ǥ x ‹’Ž‡ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• —•‹‰ ‘”Ǧ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹„‘†‡‡”‰›Ǥ ƒ„‡”…›…Ž‡
x †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡ „‡–™‡‡ „‘† x ˜‡”ƒ‰‡ ‘† ‡”‰‹‡•
‡‡”‰› ƒ† ƒ˜‡”ƒ‰‡ „‘† ȋ–ŠƒŽ’‹‡•Ȍ
‡‡”‰›Ǥ x Šƒ–‹–‹•
x ”‡Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ ‡‡”‰› …Šƒ‰‡ ˆ‘” 
”‡ƒ…–‹‘ –‘ „‘†• „”‘‡ ƒ† x ‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ ‡‡”‰›
„‘†•ˆ‘”‡†Ǥ …Šƒ‰‡ ƒ† –Š‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ „”‡ƒ‹‰‘ˆ„‘†•Ǥ
ƒ˜‡”ƒ‰‡„‘†‡‡”‰‹‡•Ǥ x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ƒ˜‡”ƒ‰‡
x —•‡ „‘† ‡‡”‰‹‡• –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ „‘†‡‡”‰‹‡•
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ„‘†‡‡”‰‹‡•‹
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ …‘’‘—† ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ
‡Ž–‹‰’‘‹–•ǡ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ•–ƒ–‡•‘ˆ •—„•–ƒ…‡•
…‘’‘—†••‘‡‰‹ƒ–ƒ–‘‹…ȌǤ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‡ƒ† ƒ †‹•…—••‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• –›’‡• ‘ˆ ‡–ŠƒŽ’› …Šƒ‰‡• ƒ† ‰—‹†‡
–Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‘ –Š‡ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• …‘…‡”‹‰ –Š‡ ‡–ŠƒŽ’›
…Šƒ‰‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘†‘‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘†‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡˜ƒ”‹‘—•‡–ŠƒŽ’›
…Šƒ‰‡•‹–Š‡Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›Ǥ



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CHEMISTRY
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TEACHING SYLLABUS

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•‡š‡”…‹•‡•–‘ǣ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡˜ƒ”‹‘—•–›’‡•‘ˆŠ‡ƒ–…Šƒ‰‡•ƒ–
”‘‘–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡‡–ŠƒŽ’›…Šƒ‰‡•ˆ”‘‰‹˜‡†ƒ–ƒǤ



172
   
Topic 5: Physical Equilibria

—”ƒ–‹‘ǣ͵Ͳ‡”‹‘†•

General Objective

› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‹• –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ …‘’”‡Š‡† –Š‡
…‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ‹–‡”…‘˜‡”•‹‘ ‘ˆ ’Šƒ•‡• †—‡ –‘ …Šƒ‰‡• ‹ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ
…‘†‹–‹‘•ƒ†‹–•ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Systems, Phases and Component


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ x –”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ
‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—Ǥ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ –Š‡ –‡”•ǣ x ›•–‡
’Šƒ•‡•ǡ …‘’‘‡–•  ƒ† x Šƒ•‡
•›•–‡•Ǥ x ‘’‘‡–
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ ƒ 
•›•–‡ǡ’Šƒ•‡ƒ†…‘’‘‡–Ǥ 

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘‘–Š‡–‡”•Ǣ•›•–‡ǡ’Šƒ•‡ǡ…‘’‘‡–•›•–‡ƒ†
‘‡…‘’‘‡–•›•–‡™‹–Š‹–•”‡Žƒ–‡†’Šƒ•‡†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‹•…—•• –™‘ …‘’‘‡– •›•–‡•Ǣ ƒ‘—Ž–ǯ• ƒ™
ȋܲ௜ୀ ‫ݔ‬௜ ܲ௜௢ Ȍƒ†‹†‡ƒŽ‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ †‹•…—••‹‘• ‘ –Š‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ ƒ •›•–‡ǡ ’Šƒ•‡ ƒ†
…‘’‘‡–Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‘ˆ–‡”•—•‡†‹’Š›•‹…ƒŽ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹ƒǤ
Ǧ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡–Š‡–‡”•’Šƒ•‡ǡ•›•–‡ƒ†ƒ…‘’‘‡–Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡–Š‡…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆƒ’Šƒ•‡ǡ•›•–‡ƒ†ƒ…‘’‘‡–Ǥ



173
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Sub-Topic 1: Component System (Types of component systems)


Specific objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡–‹‘ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– –›’‡• ‘ˆ x ‡Ǧ‘’‘‡–•›•–‡
…‘’‘‡–•›•–‡•Ǥ x ›’‡•‘ˆ…‘’‘‡–•›•–‡•
x ‰‹˜‡‡šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ‘‡Ǧ…‘’‘‡– x šƒ’Ž‡• ‘ˆ ‡Ǧ‘’‘‡–
•›•–‡Ǥ •›•–‡• ȋ ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ •—Ž’Š—” ƒ†
x eš’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘‘Ž‹‰ …—”˜‡• ˆ‘” ƒ”„‘†‹‘š‹†‡Ȍ
’—”‡•—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ x ‘‘Ž‹‰ …—”˜‡• ˆ‘” ’—”‡
 •—„•–ƒ…‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–‡”’Šƒ•‡†‹ƒ‰”ƒǤ x Šƒ•‡ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ• ȋ™ƒ–‡”ǡ …ƒ”„‘
x †”ƒ™ ’Šƒ•‡ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ• ˆ‘” ƒ ‘‡ †‹‘š‹†‡ƒ†•—Ž’Š—”Ȍ
…‘’‘‡–•›•–‡Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ™Šƒ– –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– x –‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ’Šƒ•‡ …Šƒ‰‡•
”‡‰‹‘• ‘ˆ ƒ ’Šƒ•‡ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ ˆ”‘ ƒ ’Šƒ•‡ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ ȋ‡Ž–‹‰
”‡’”‡•‡–Ǥ ’‘‹–ǡ –”‹’Ž‡ ’‘‹–ǡ ‹ˆŽ—‡…‡• ‘ˆ
 –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ƒ† ’”‡••—”‡ ‘ –Š‡
 ’Šƒ•‡•Ȍ
x ‰‹˜‡ ‡šƒ’Ž‡• ‘ˆ –™‘Ǧ x ™‘Ǧ‘’‘‡–›•–‡
…‘’‘‡–•›•–‡Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– –›’‡• ‘ˆ x –›’‡• ‘ˆ –™‘Ǧ…‘’‘‡– •›•–‡•
–™‘Ǧ…‘’‘‡–•›•–‡•Ǥ ȋŽ‹“—‹† ‹š–—”‡Ȍǣ ‹•…‹„Ž‡
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– –›’‡• ‘ˆ ȋ‡–Šƒ‘Ž Ϊ ™ƒ–‡”Ȍǡ ’ƒ”–‹ƒŽŽ›
–™‘Ǧ…‘’‘‡–•›•–‡•Ǥ ‹•…‹„Ž‡ ȋ‡–Š‡” Ϊ ™ƒ–‡”Ȍ ƒ†
‹‹•…‹„Ž‡ȋ‘‹ŽΪ™ƒ–‡”Ȍ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡†‹•…—••‹‘‘–›’‡•‘ˆ…‘’‘‡–•›•–‡•™‹–Š‡šƒ’Ž‡•Ǥ
x ‡–Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Ʈ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘‘Ž‹‰…—”˜‡•ˆ‘”’—”‡•—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡–Š‡Žƒ”†‡”•–‘†”ƒ™’Šƒ•‡†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•ˆ‘”–Š‡˜ƒ”‹‘—••—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ
x ‡– –Š‡ ‹–‡”’”‡– –Š‡ ’Šƒ•‡ …Šƒ‰‡• ƒ• ‹ –Š‡ ’Šƒ•‡ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ• ƒ†
‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‹ˆŽ—‡…‡•‘ˆ˜ƒ”‹‘—•ˆƒ…–‘”•‘–Š‡’Šƒ•‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‘ˆ–‡”•—•‡†‹’Š›•‹…ƒŽ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹ƒǤ
Ǧ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡–Š‡–‡”•’Šƒ•‡ǡ•›•–‡ƒ†ƒ…‘’‘‡–



174
Sub-Topic 2: Types of Solutions
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x •–ƒ–‡ƒ‘—Ž–ǯ•Žƒ™Ǥ x ƒ‘—Ž–ǯ•ƒ™ ( )
x ‡š’Žƒ‹™Šƒ–‹†‡ƒŽ•‘Ž—–‹‘‹•Ǥ x †‡ƒŽ‘Ž—–‹‘•
x ‰‹˜‡…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•ƒ†‡šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ x Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ƒ† ‡šƒ’Ž‡• ‘ˆ
‹†‡ƒŽ•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ ‹†‡ƒŽ•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ
x †”ƒ™˜ƒ’‘—”Ǧ…‘’‘•‹–‹‘†‹ƒ‰”ƒ• x ƒ’‘—” ”‡••—”‡Ǧ…‘’‘•‹–‹‘
ˆ‘”‹†‡ƒŽƒ†”‡ƒŽ•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ•
x ‹–‡”’”‡– –Š‡ ˜ƒ’‘—” ’”‡••—”‡Ǧ x ‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹–Ǧ…‘’‘•‹–‹‘
…‘’‘•‹–‹‘†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•Ǥ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ•
x ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‘ ƒ‘—Ž–ǯ• x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ƒ‘—Ž–ǯ•
Žƒ™Ǥ Žƒ™
 x ™‘Ǧ‘’‘‡– ›•–‡ǣ ‘Ǧ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹™Šƒ–”‡ƒŽ•‘Ž—–‹‘‹•Ǥ †‡ƒŽȋ‡ƒŽȌ‘Ž—–‹‘•
x
‹˜‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ƒ† ‡šƒ’Ž‡• x ‘Ǧ‹†‡ƒŽ•‘Ž—–‹‘•
‘ˆ”‡ƒŽ•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ x Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•ƒ†‡šƒ’Ž‡•Ǥ
x †”ƒ™˜ƒ’‘—”Ǧ…‘’‘•‹–‹‘†‹ƒ‰”ƒ• x ƒ’‘—” ’”‡••—”‡ Ǧ …‘’‘•‹–‹‘
ˆ‘””‡ƒŽ•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ•Ǥ
 x ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡‡˜‹ƒ–‹‘ˆ”‘ƒ‘—Ž–ǯ•
x †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡ „‡–™‡‡ ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ ƒ† ƒ™
’‘•‹–‹˜‡ †‡˜‹ƒ–‹‘ ˆ”‘ ƒ‘—Ž–ǯ• x …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ’‘—”
Žƒ™Ǥ ’”‡••—”‡Ǧ…‘’‘•‹–‹‘†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹™Šƒ–‹•‡ƒ–„›–Š‡–‡”• x ƒš‹— „‘‹Ž‹‰ Ȃ ‘‹–
ƒœ‡‘–”‘’‹… ‹š–—”‡• ƒ† …‘’‘•‹–‹‘ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ ȋ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡
ƒœ‡‘–”‘’‡•Ǥ †‡˜‹ƒ–‹‘ ˆ”‘ ƒ‘—Ž–ǯ• Žƒ™Ȍ Ǧ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹™Šƒ–†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘‹•Ǥ œ‡‘–”‘’‹… ‹š–—”‡ ƒ†
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ ˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒŽ œ‡‘–”‘’‡•Ǥ
†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘Ǥ x ‘•‹–‹˜‡ ‡˜‹ƒ–‹‘ ˆ”‘ ƒ‘—Ž–ǯ•
x ƒ’’Ž› –Š‡ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ‘ˆ ’Šƒ•‡ ƒ™
†‹ƒ‰”ƒ• –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ x ‹–• …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ˜ƒ’‘—”
ˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒŽ †‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹†‡ƒŽ ƒ† ’”‡••—”‡Ǧ…‘’‘•‹–‹‘†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•Ǥ
‘Ǧ‹†‡ƒŽ•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ x ‹‹— „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹–Ǧ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• …‘’‘•‹–‹‘ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ ȋ’‘•‹–‹˜‡
‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ •‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ †‡˜‹ƒ–‹‘ ˆ”‘ ƒ‘—Ž–ǯ• Žƒ™ȌǦ
…‘’‘‡–•‘ˆƒœ‡‘–”‘’‡•Ǥ ƒœ‡‘–”‘’‹… ‹š–—”‡ ƒ†
ƒœ‡‘–”‘’‡•






175
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS


Specific objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘Ǥ x ‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ ‹ƒ”› ‹“—‹†
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ ˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒŽ ‹š–—”‡
†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘—•‹‰’Šƒ•‡†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•Ǥ x Šƒ–†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘‹•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ’—”‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ x š’Žƒƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒŽ
‘ˆ Ž‹“—‹† ‹š–—”‡ „› —•‹‰ •–‡ƒ †‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹†‡ƒŽ ƒ† ”‡ƒŽ
†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘Ǥ •‘Ž—–‹‘• ‹ –‡”• ‘ˆ ’Šƒ•‡
x  †‹ƒ‰”ƒ•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‘†—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž x ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒŽ †‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘ ȋ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ
„›ˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒŽ†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘Ǥ ’”‘†—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž ˆ”‘
 ˆ‡”‡–‡†Ž‹“—‹†•‹Ǥ‡Ǥ™ƒ”ƒ‰‹Ȍ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ †‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹†‡ƒŽ ƒ† x ‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ †‡ƒŽ •‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ
‘Ǧ‹†‡ƒŽ•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ †‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ‘Ǧ‹†‡ƒŽ•‘Ž—–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ •‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ x ‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ …‘’‘‡–• ‘ˆ
…‘’‘‡–•‘ˆƒœ‡‘–”‘’‡•Ǥ ƒœ‡‘–”‘’‡•Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –‘–ƒŽ ˜ƒ’‘—” ‘ˆ x ‹•…‹„Ž‡Ž‹“—‹†•
‹‹•…‹„Ž‡ Ž‹“—‹† ‹š–—”‡ ‹ –‡”• 
‘ˆ–Š‡˜ƒ’‘—”‘ˆ–Š‡…‘’‘‡–•Ǥ 
x …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ …‘’‘•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ x ƒ’‘—” ’”‡••—”‡ ‘ˆ ƒ •›•–‡ ‘ˆ
˜ƒ’‘—” ƒ„‘˜‡ ƒ ‹š–—”‡ ‘ˆ –™‘ –™‘‹‹•…‹„Ž‡Ž‹“—‹†•Ǥ
‹‹•…‹„Ž‡Ž‹“—‹†•Ǥ 
x …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ …‘’‘•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ x ‘’‘•‹–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡˜ƒ’‘—”’Šƒ•‡Ǥ
†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‡Ǥ 
x •–ƒ–‡‹†—•–”‹ƒŽƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•–‡ƒ x –‡ƒ †‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘ ȋ…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•
†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘Ǥ ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰•–‡ƒ†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘ȌǤ
x †—•–”‹ƒŽ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •–‡ƒ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘
†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘Ǥ
Žƒ™
x ‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ ƒ™ ȋƒ”–‹–‹‘
 ‘‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–•Ȍ
 Ǧ Šƒ–‹–‹•
x ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽŽ›†‡–‡”‹‡Ǥ x š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰
†‹•–”‹„—–‹‘Žƒ™Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‹ǣ Ǧ x ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ’ƒ”–‹–‹‘
…Š”‘ƒ–‘‰”ƒ’Š›ǡ •‘Ž˜‡– ‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘ …‘‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–• ȋ•‘Ž˜‡– ‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘ǡ
ƒ† ‘‡š…Šƒ‰‡Ǥ ƒ’‡” …Š”‘ƒ–‘‰”ƒ’Š›ǡ …‘Ž—
 …Š”‘ƒ–‘‰”ƒ’Š›ǡ‹‘‡š…Šƒ‰‡ȌǤ




176
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‘Ž‹†ȂŽ‹“—‹†“—‹Ž‹„”‹ƒ
x •‡–…Š …‘‘Ž‹‰ …—”˜‡• ‘ˆ ’—”‡

•—„•–ƒ…‡•
x ‘‘Ž‹‰ …—”˜‡• ˆ‘” ’—”‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘‘Ž‹‰ …—”˜‡• ˆ‘”
•—„•–ƒ…‡•
’—”‡•—„•–ƒ…‡•
x ‘‘Ž‹‰…—”˜‡•ˆ‘”‹š–—”‡•
x †”ƒ™ ’Šƒ•‡ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ• ˆ‘”

‹š–—”‡•
x Šƒ•‡†‹ƒ‰”ƒˆ‘”‹š–—”‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’Šƒ•‡ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ• ˆ‘”
‹š–—”‡•Ǥ x š’Žƒƒ–‹‘• ˆ‘” ’Šƒ•‡
†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•ˆ‘”‹š–—”‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …‘…‡’–Ȁ„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” ‘ˆ
‡—–‡…–‹…‹š–—”‡•Ǥ x —–‡…–‹…‹š–—”‡•
x …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” ‘ˆ x ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ’—”‡ •—„•–ƒ…‡•
‡—–‡…–‹… ‹š–—”‡ ƒ† ƒ ’—”‡ ƒ†’—”‡…‘’‘—†•
…‘’‘—†Ǥ 
x ‰‹˜‡ ‡šƒ’Ž‡• ‘ˆ •—„•–ƒ…‡• x šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ‡—–‡…–‹…‹š–—”‡•
™Š‹…Šˆ‘”‡—–‡…–‹…‹š–—”‡•Ǥ 

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‹•…—•• –™‘ …‘’‘‡– •›•–‡•Ǣ ƒ‘—Ž–ǯ• ƒ™
ȋܲ௜ୀ ‫ݔ‬௜ ܲ௜௢ Ȍƒ†‹†‡ƒŽ•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ
x š’Žƒ‹ ‘Ǧ‹†‡ƒŽ ȋ‡ƒŽȌ •‘Ž—–‹‘• ƒ† ”‡Žƒ–‡† ˜ƒ’‘—” ’”‡••—”‡Ǧ
…‘’‘•‹–‹‘†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•ƒ•™‡ŽŽƒ•ƒœ‡‘–”‘’‹…‹š–—”‡•ƒ†•‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ
…‘’‘‡–•‘ˆƒœ‡‘–”‘’‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘‘ˆˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒŽ†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘ƒ•ƒƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ‘—Ž–ǯ•
Žƒ™ǡ ‹‹•…‹„Ž‡ Ž‹“—‹†• ‹š–—”‡• ƒ† ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒŽ–‘ǯ• Žƒ™ ‘ˆ
’ƒ”–‹ƒŽ’”‡••—”‡‹•–‡ƒ†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘ƒ†‹†—•–”‹ƒŽƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•–‡ƒ
†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x
—‹†‡‰”‘—’†‹•…—••‹‘•‘ˆ†‹•–”‹„—–‹‘‘ˆƒ•‘Ž—–‡„‡–™‡‡‹‹•…‹„Ž‡
Ž‹“—‹†• ȋ–Š‡ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ Žƒ™Ȍ ƒ† ‹–• ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‹ •‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
‹š–—”‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ „”ƒ‹•–‘” ‘ •‘Ž‹†ǦŽ‹“—‹† ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹ƒǢ …‘‘Ž‹‰ …—”˜‡•
ˆ‘”‡—–‡…–‹…‹š–—”‡•ǡƒ†”‡Žƒ–‡†’Šƒ•‡†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•Ǥ



177
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Practical problems
x ”‰ƒ‹•‡‰”‘—’’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”‘•–‡ƒ†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘‡Ǥ‰ǤŽ‡‘‘‹Žˆ”‘
Ž‡‘‰”ƒ••ǡ…ƒ•–‘”‘‹Žˆ”‘…ƒ•–‘”•‡‡†•ǡƒ†‘‹Žˆ”‘–‹…„‡””›Ž‡ƒ˜‡•Ǥ
x ”‰ƒ‹•‡ƒ•–—†›–‘—”–‘ƒ†‹•–‹ŽŽ‹‰’Žƒ–‡Ǥ‰Ǥ‰ƒ†ƒ‹•–‹ŽŽ‡”•Ǥ
x ƒ””›‘—– ƒ –Š‹ Žƒ›‡” …Š”‘ƒ–‘‰”ƒ’Š› —•‹‰ •‹Ž‹…ƒ ‰‡Žǡ ƒŽ—‹ƒǡ ˆ‹‡
…ŠƒŽ†—•–ƒ†™ƒ–‡”‘”ƒ…‡–‘‡–‘•‡’ƒ”ƒ–‡…‘’‘‡–•‘ˆˆ‹‡’ƒ‹–ǡ
‡š–”ƒ…–‡†ˆ”‘…ŠŽ‘”‘’Š›ŽŽ•‘Ž—–‹‘ƒ†„Žƒ…‹Ǥ
x
‹˜‡ ‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ™‘” ‘ –‹–”ƒ–‹‘ –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡  ‘ˆ •‘Ž—–‡
„‡–™‡‡–™‘‹‹•…‹„Ž‡Ž‹“—‹†•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡ƒ‘—Ž–ǯ•Žƒ™Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ’’Ž›ƒ‘—Ž–ǯ•‹…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ •‡–…Š…‘‘Ž‹‰…—”˜‡•‘ˆ’—”‡•—„•–ƒ…‡•ƒ†‹š–—”‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‹–‡”’”‡–…‘‘Ž‹‰…—”˜‡•ƒ†’Šƒ•‡†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•Ǥ
Ǧ ‹–‡”’”‡–˜ƒ’‘—”’”‡••—”‡Ǧ…‘’‘•‹–‹‘†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ……—”ƒ–‡Ž›†”ƒ™’Šƒ•‡†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•ˆ”‘‰‹˜‡†ƒ–ƒǤ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹†‡ƒŽƒ†‘Ǧ‹†‡ƒŽ„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‹•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ —•‡ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹–Ǧ…‘’‘•‹–‹‘ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ• –‘ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡ „‡–™‡‡
’‘•‹–‹˜‡ƒ†‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡†‡˜‹ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ ˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒŽ †‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘ —•‹‰ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹–Ǧ…‘’‘•‹–‹‘
†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’”‹…‹’Ž‡‘ˆ•–‡ƒ†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ Žƒ™ ƒ† —•‡ ‹– –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ …‘…‡’–• ‘ˆǢ
…Š”‘ƒ–‘‰”ƒ’Š›ǡ•‘Ž˜‡–‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘ǡƒ†‹‘‡š…Šƒ‰‡Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ’’Ž›–Š‡†‹•–”‹„—–‹‘Žƒ™–‘†‡–‡”‹‡ƒ‘—–•‘ˆ•‘Ž—–‡‡š–”ƒ…–‡†
—•‹‰•‘Ž˜‡–‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ


Sub-Topic 3: Colligative Properties


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ x ‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
…‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ 
x ‰‹˜‡ ‡šƒ’Ž‡• ‘ˆ …‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡ x ‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ Ž‘™‡”‹‰ ‘ˆ ˜ƒ’‘—” x šƒ’Ž‡• ‘ˆ ‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡



178
Specific Objectives Content
’”‡••—”‡Ǥ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
x †‡”‹˜‡ ƒ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ˆ‘” x ƒ’‘—””‡••—”‡‘™‡”‹‰
˜ƒ’‘—”’”‡••—”‡Ž‘™‡”‹‰Ǥ 
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• x Š›†‘‡•ƒ•‘Ž—–‡‹ˆŽ—‡…‡–Š‡
‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ Ž‘™‡”‹‰ ‘ˆ ˜ƒ’‘—” ˜ƒ’‘—” ’”‡••—”‡ ‘ˆ
’”‡••—”‡Ǥ ™ƒ–‡”ȋŽ‹“—‹†Ȍ
x †”ƒ™‰”ƒ’Š‘ˆ˜ƒ’‘—”’”‡••—”‡ x ƒ’‘—” ’”‡••—”‡ Ž‘™‡”‹‰ǡ
Ž‘™‡”‹‰Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‰”ƒ’Š• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ’‘—” x
”ƒ’Š‹…ƒŽ ”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
’”‡••—”‡Ž‘™‡”‹‰Ǥ ˜ƒ’‘—”Ž‘™‡”‹‰
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ Ž‹‹–ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ x ‹‹–ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡
…‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹– ƒ† x ‘‹Ž‹‰‘‹–Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘
„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ’”‡••—”‡
„‡–™‡‡ ˜ƒ’‘—” ’”‡••—”‡ ƒ† ˜ƒ’‘—”Ž‘™‡”‹‰Ǥ
„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–‘ˆƒ•‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ Š‘™ –Š‡ ’”‡•‡…‡ ‘ˆ ƒ x ‘™  ƒˆˆ‡…–• „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹– ‘ˆ
•‘Ž—–‡ ƒˆˆ‡…–• –Š‡ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹– Ž‹“—‹†•Ǥ
‘ˆƒ•‘Ž˜‡–Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ „‘‹Ž‹‰ x ‘™ –Š‡ ’”‡•‡…‡ ‘ˆ ƒ •‘Ž—–‡
’‘‹– —•‹‰ ˜ƒ’‘—” ’”‡••—”‡Ǧ ƒˆˆ‡…–• –Š‡ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹– ‘ˆ ƒ
–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡‰”ƒ’ŠǤ •‘Ž˜‡–
 x ƒ’‘—” ’”‡••—”‡Ǧ–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡
 †‹ƒ‰”ƒ•ƒ†„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–•Ǥ
 


 ǡ
 ƒ† 
 x Š‡”‡ m ‹• –Š‡ ‘ŽƒŽ‹–› ‘ˆ –Š‡
 •‘Ž—–‡‹•‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ƒ ‡š’‡”‹‡– –Šƒ– x š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
…ƒ „‡ …ƒ””‹‡† –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ƒ•• —•‹‰ „‘‹Ž‹‰
‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ƒ•• —•‹‰ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹–‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘‡–Š‘†Ǥ
’‘‹–‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘‡–Š‘†Ǥ 
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ‘ŽƒŽ
‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹– „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹– ‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘ …‘•–ƒ–ǡ
‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘Ǥ „ȋ‡„—ŽŽ‹‘•…‘’‹……‘•–ƒ–Ȍ





179
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS



Specific Objectives Content
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰ ’‘‹–ǡ ƒ† x ”‡‡œ‹‰’‘‹–†‡’”‡••‹‘
ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰’‘‹–†‡’”‡••‹‘Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ †‡’”‡••‹‘ ‘ˆ ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰ 

’‘‹–—•‹‰Ǥ

˜ƒ’‘—” ’”‡••—”‡Ǧ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ x ƒ’‘—” ’”‡••—”‡ Ȃ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡
‰”ƒ’Š•Ǥ †‹ƒ‰”ƒ•ƒ†ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰’‘‹–•
x ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽŽ› †‡–‡”‹‡ x š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ƒ•• —•‹‰ ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰ ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ƒ•• —•‹‰ ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰
’‘‹–†‡’”‡••‹‘‡–Š‘†Ǥ ’‘‹–†‡’”‡••‹‘

 x ǡ
 ƒ† 
 x Š‡”‡  ‹• –Š‡ ‘ŽƒŽ‹–› ‘ˆ –Š‡
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ •‘Ž—–‡‹•‘Ž—–‹‘
x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ‘ŽƒŽ
ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰’‘‹–†‡’”‡••‹‘Ǥ
ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰ ’‘‹– †‡’”‡••‹‘
 …‘•–ƒ–ǡ ˆǤ ȋ…”›‘•…‘’‹…
…‘•–ƒ–Ȍ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‘•‘•‹• ƒ† ‘•‘–‹… x •‘–‹…”‡••—”‡ǡɎ
’”‡••—”‡Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ™Š› ‘•‘–‹… ’”‡••—”‡ x Šƒ– ‹• ‘•‘•‹• ƒ† ‘•‘–‹…
‡–Š‘† ‹• –Š‡ ‘•– •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ’”‡••—”‡
‡–Š‘† ˆ‘” †‡–‡”‹‹‰ x —‹–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ —•‹‰ •‘–‹…
‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”ƒ••‘ˆŽƒ”‰‡‘Ž‡…—Ž‡• ’”‡••—”‡ ‹ †‡–‡”‹‹‰
‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ƒ•• ‘ˆ Žƒ”‰‡
‡Ǥ‰’‘Ž›‡”•Ǥ
‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•‡Ǥ‰’‘Ž›‡”•
 x ‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ ‡ƒ•—”‹‰ ‘•‘–‹…
 ’”‡••—”‡ǡɎ
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ x •‘–‹… ’”‡••—”‡ǡ Ɏǡ α …ǡ
‘•‘–‹…’”‡••—”‡Ǥ ™Š‡”‡ǡ …ǡ ‹• –Š‡ •‘Ž—–‡
 …‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ƒ†α‘Žƒ”‰ƒ•
 …‘•–ƒ– ƒ†  ‹• –Š‡ ƒ„•‘Ž—–‡
–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡Ǥ
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰
x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‘Žƒ” ƒ••‡•
‘Žƒ” ƒ••‡• ƒ† ‘•‘–‹… ˆ”‘‘•‘–‹…’”‡••—”‡•Ǥ
’”‡••—”‡•Ǥ



180
Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies
x
—‹†‡ ƒ †‹•…—••‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‡” …‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡ ’”‘’‡”–›ǡ •–ƒ–‹‰ –Š‡
…‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ•‘Ž—–‹‘•ƒ†‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰Š‘™†‹••‘Ž˜‡†•‘Ž—–‡•
…ƒ—•‡Ž‘™‡”‹‰‘ˆ˜ƒ’‘—”’”‡••—”‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‘Ž˜‡–Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‹–‘ †‹•…—••‹‰ –Š‡ †‡”‹˜ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡š’”‡••‹‘ ˆ‘”
˜ƒ’‘—” ’”‡••—”‡ Ž‘™‡”‹‰ǡ …ƒ””›‹‰ ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ˜ƒ’‘—”
’”‡••—”‡Ž‘™‡”‹‰–‘†‡–‡”‹‡‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”ƒ••‘ˆ†‹••‘Ž˜‡†•‘Ž—–‡ƒ†
‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡˜ƒ’‘—”’”‡••—”‡Ǧ–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡‰”ƒ’Š•Ǥ
x ‡ƒ†ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘‘Š‘™†‹••‘Ž˜‡†‘Ǧ˜‘Žƒ–‹Ž‡•‘Ž—–‡•…ƒ—•‡‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘
‘ˆ„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–ǡ†‡•…”‹„‹‰ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡––‘†‡–‡”‹‡‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”ƒ••
‘ˆ –Š‡ †‹••‘Ž˜‡† •‘Ž—–‡ —•‹‰ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹– ‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘ǡ †‡”‹˜‹‰ ƒ
‡š’”‡••‹‘ ˆ‘” „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹– ‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† …ƒ””›‹‰ ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•
‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x ‹•…—••  Š‘™ †‹••‘Ž˜‡† ‘Ǧ˜‘Žƒ–‹Ž‡ •‘Ž—–‡• …ƒ—•‡ †‡’”‡••‹‘ ‘ˆ
ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰’‘‹–ǡ†‡•…”‹„‹‰ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡––‘†‡–‡”‹‡‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”ƒ••
‘ˆ –Š‡ †‹••‘Ž˜‡† •‘Ž—–‡ —•‹‰ ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰ ’‘‹– †‡’”‡••‹‘ ȋƒ•–ǯ• ‘”
‡…ƒ ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰ ’‘‹– ƒ’’ƒ”ƒ–—•Ȍǡ †‡”‹˜‹‰ ƒ ‡š’”‡••‹‘ ˆ‘”
ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰ ’‘‹– †‡’”‡••‹‘ǡ …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ †‡’”‡••‹‘
‘ˆˆ”‡‡œ‹‰’‘‹–ƒ†…ƒ””›‹‰‘—–‡š’‡”‹‡––‘†‡–‡”‹‡†‡’”‡••‹‘
‹ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰’‘‹–•—•‹‰ƒ•–ǯ•‡–Š‘†Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‡ƒ‹‰ ‘ˆ ‘•‘•‹• ƒ† ‘•‘–‹… ’”‡••—”‡ ƒ† †”ƒ™ ‘”
•‡–…Š ƒ† ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‡••—”‡Ǧ…‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ‰”ƒ’Š•Ǥ ‹•…—••
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ‘•‘–‹… ’”‡••—”‡ǡ Ž‹‹–ƒ–‹‘• –‘ …‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ• ƒ ‡–Š‘† ‘ˆ †‡–‡”‹‹‰ ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ” ƒ•• ‘ˆ ‘Ǧ˜‘Žƒ–‹Ž‡
•‘Ž—–‡• ƒ† ™Š› ‘•‘–‹… ’”‡••—”‡ ‹• ‘•– •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ˆ‘” †‡–‡”‹‹‰
‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”ƒ••‘ˆ‘Ǧ˜‘Žƒ–‹Ž‡Žƒ”‰‡‘Ž‡…—Ž‡•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘• ‘ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ ƒ††‹‰ …‘‘ •ƒŽ– –‘
–Š‡„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ƒ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ•—”˜‡›‘–Š‡…‘‘’”ƒ…–‹…‡‘ˆƒ††‹‰ƒ‹œ‡ˆŽ‘—”
–‘Š‘–™ƒ–‡”‡ƒ–ˆ‘”‹‰Ž‹‰’‘•Š‘„‡ˆ‘”‡‹–„‘‹Ž•Ǥ
x ‡ƒ† Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ ‘•‘–‹… ’”‡••—”‡ ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– •‘Ž—–‹‘•
—•‹‰…‡ŽŽ‘’Šƒ‡‡„”ƒ‡Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ †‡’”‡••‹‘ ‹ ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰ ’‘‹– ‘ˆ
ƒ’Š–ŠƒŽ‡‡—•‹‰ƒ’Š‘”ƒ••‘Ž—–‡Ǥ



181
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘†‡–‡”‹‡‘Žƒ”ƒ••‘ˆƒ’Š‘”—•‹‰†‡’”‡••‹‘
‹ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰’‘‹–‘ˆƒ’Š–ŠƒŽ‡‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹…‘‘–‡”•ƒ’’Ž‹‡†–‘…‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡–Š‡ˆ‘—”‘ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–‹˜‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ
Ǧ •‡–…Š ‘” †”ƒ™ ˜ƒ’‘—” ’”‡••—”‡Ǧ–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ƒ† ’”‡••—”‡Ǧ
…‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘‰”ƒ’Š•Ǥ
Ǧ ‹–‡”’”‡–˜ƒ’‘—”ǡƒ†’”‡••—”‡Ǧ–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡‰”ƒ’Š•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ †‹••‘Ž˜‡† ‘Ǧ˜‘Žƒ–‹Ž‡ •‘Ž—–‡ ‘ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹–
ƒ†ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰’‘‹–‘ˆƒ•‘Ž˜‡–Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’„‡–™‡‡˜ƒ’‘—”’”‡••—”‡ƒ†„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–
‘ˆƒŽ‹“—‹†Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡Ǣ ‘Žƒ” ƒ••ǡ ‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘ ‹ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹–ǡ †‡’”‡••‹‘ ‹
ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰’‘‹–ǡƒ†‘•‘–‹…’”‡••—”‡Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ ‘Žƒ” ƒ•• ‘ˆ ‘Ǧ˜‘Žƒ–‹Ž‡
•‘Ž—–‡„›„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘ƒ†ˆ”‡‡œ‹‰’‘‹–†‡’”‡••‹‘Ǥ



182
Topic 6: Chemical Equilibria
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͳͲ‡”‹‘†•

General objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‹•–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ
”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ƒ†‹–•ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: The concept of Chemical Equilibrium


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣǦ x –”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ…Š‡‹…ƒŽ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—
‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—Ǥ x “—‹Ž‹„”‹—”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ ”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡ x ””‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡ ƒ† ”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡
ƒ†‹””‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹†›ƒ‹…‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—Ǥ x ›ƒ‹…‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—
x †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡ „‡–™‡‡ x ‘‘‰‡‡‘—• ƒ†
Š‘‘‰‡‡‘—• ƒ† Š‡–‡”‘‰‡‡‘—• ”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡
Š‡–‡”‘‰‡‡‘—• ”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡ •›•–‡•
•›•–‡Ǥ 

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘„”ƒ‹•–‘”–Š‡†‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ…‘…‡’–•‘ˆ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—
…‘•–ƒ–•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‹•…—•• –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡ ”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡ ƒ†
”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•™‹–Š‡šƒ’Ž‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡
‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹— …‘•–ƒ– ˆ‘” –Š‡ Š›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ ‡–Š›Ž‡–Šƒ‘ƒ–‡ —•‹‰ †‹Ž—–‡
Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹…ƒ…‹†Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•ƒ†–‡•–•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ…Š‡‹…ƒŽ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—Ǥ
Ǧ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡ƒ†‹””‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹†›ƒ‹…‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—Ǥ
Ǧ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡ „‡–™‡‡ Š‘‘‰‡‡‘—• ƒ† Š‡–‡”‘‰‡‡‘—• ”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡
•›•–‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ’’Ž›–Š‡Žƒ™‘ˆƒ••ƒ…–‹‘‹™”‹–‹‰‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—‡š’”‡••‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰—•‡‘ˆ…ƒ†Ǥ’



183
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Ǧ †‡”‹˜‡ƒ‰‡‡”ƒŽ‡š’”‡••‹‘”‡Žƒ–‹‰…ƒ†’Ǥ
Ǧ …‘’ƒ”‡ƒ†…–‘†‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡†‹”‡…–‹‘‘ˆ…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹±Šƒ–‡Ž‹‡”ǯ•’”‹…‹’Ž‡Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ’’Ž› ± Šƒ–‡Ž‹‡”ǯ• ’”‹…‹’Ž‡ ‹ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹‘—•
ˆƒ…–‘”•‘–Š‡‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—‘ˆ”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡––‘†‡–‡”‹‡…Ǥ
Ǧ …‘””‡…–Ž› ƒ’’Ž› –Š‡ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ‘ˆ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹ƒ –‘ Œ—•–‹ˆ›
…‘†‹–‹‘•—•‡†‹‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ’”‘…‡••‡•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Comparison between Kc and Kp


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣǦ
x ”‡•–ƒ–‡–Š‡Žƒ™‘ˆƒ••ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ x “—‹Ž‹„”‹—‘•–ƒ–ǡ…ƒ†’

x ƒ’’Ž› –Š‡ Žƒ™ ‘ˆ ƒ•• ƒ…–‹‘ ‹
x ƒ™ ‘ˆ ƒ•• ƒ…–‹‘ ‘”
™”‹–‹‰‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—‡š’”‡••‹‘•Ǥ
‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹— Žƒ™ǡ Š‡…‡
 ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—…‘•–ƒ–
x †‡”‹˜‡ ƒ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ‡š’”‡••‹‘ 
”‡Žƒ–‹‰…ƒ†’Ǥ x š’”‡••‹‘• ‘ˆ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—
 …‘•–ƒ–• ȋˆ‘” Š‘‘‰‡‡‘—•
 ƒ“—‡‘—• •‘Ž—–‹‘• ƒ† ‰ƒ•‡‘—•
 •›•–‡•Ǣ ƒ† Š‡–‡”‘‰‡‡‘—•
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ •›•–‡•Ȍ
—•‡‘ˆ…ƒ†’Ǥ x ‡”‹˜ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡š’”‡••‹‘• ˆ‘” …
 ƒ†’
x ‘’ƒ”‡ …‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰…ƒ†’
‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹— …‘•–ƒ– ƒ† x ‘’ƒ”‡…ƒ†’
’”‡••—”‡ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹— …‘•–ƒ– 
ȋ…ǡ’ȌǤ x Š‡ “—‹Ž‹„”‹— ‘•–ƒ– ˆ‘” ƒ

ƒ•Šƒ•‡‡ƒ…–‹‘ǣ’˜•…
x …‘’ƒ”‡ƒ†…–‘†‡–‡”‹‡ 
–Š‡ †‹”‡…–‹‘ ‘ˆ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ x •‡ ‘ˆ ‹†‡ƒŽ ‰ƒ• Žƒ™ –‘ ”‡Žƒ–‡ ’
”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ ƒ†…
 α
 ’α…ȋȌοǡ
 ™Š‡”‡οαȋ’Ϊ“ȌȂȋƒΪ„Ȍ
 α…Šƒ‰‡‹—„‡”‘ˆ
 ‘Ž‡• ‘ˆ ‰ƒ•‡•
 ȋ’”‘†—…–Ȃ”‡ƒ…–ƒ–Ȍ
x ‹–‡”’”‡––Š‡ƒ‰‹–—†‡‘ˆ˜ƒŽ—‡ x –‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ‰‹–—†‡ ‘ˆ
‘ˆ … ‘” ’ ‹ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ –‘ –Š‡ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹— …‘•–ƒ– ƒ† –Š‡



184
Specific Objectives Content
‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—’‘•‹–‹‘Ǥ ’‘•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—Ǥ Š‡ 
‹•Žƒ”‰‡ǡ•ƒŽŽ‘”‡ƒ”Ž›‡“—ƒŽ–‘
 ‘‡Ǥ
‡š’Žƒ‹™Šƒ–”‡ƒ…–‹‘“—‘–‹‡–‹•Ǥ x ‡ƒ…–‹‘“—‘–‹‡–ǡ


Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘„”ƒ‹•–‘”–Š‡†‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ…‘…‡’–•‘ˆ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—
…‘•–ƒ–•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‹•…—•• –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡ ”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡ ƒ†
‹””‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•™‹–Šƒ’’”‘’”‹ƒ–‡‡šƒ’Ž‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡
‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹— …‘•–ƒ– ˆ‘” –Š‡ Š›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ ‡–Š›Ž‡–Šƒ‘ƒ–‡ —•‹‰ †‹Ž—–‡
Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹…ƒ…‹†Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•ƒ†–‡•–•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ…Š‡‹…ƒŽ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—Ǥ
Ǧ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡ƒ†‹””‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹†›ƒ‹…“—‹Ž‹„”‹—Ǥ
Ǧ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡ „‡–™‡‡ Š‘‘‰‡‡‘—• ƒ† Š‡–‡”‘‰‡‡‘—• ”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡
•›•–‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ’’Ž›–Š‡Žƒ™‘ˆƒ••…–‹‘‹™”‹–‹‰“—‹Ž‹„”‹—‡š’”‡••‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰—•‡‘ˆ…ƒ†Ǥ’
Ǧ †‡”‹˜‡ƒ‰‡‡”ƒŽ‡š’”‡••‹‘”‡Žƒ–‹‰…ƒ†Ǥ’
Ǧ …‘’ƒ”‡ƒ†…–‘†‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡†‹”‡…–‹‘‘ˆ…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹±Šƒ–‡Ž‹‡”ǯ•’”‹…‹’Ž‡Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ’’Ž› ± Šƒ–‡Ž‹‡”ǯ• ’”‹…‹’Ž‡ ‹ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹‘—•
ˆƒ…–‘”•‘–Š‡‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—‘ˆ”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡––‘†‡–‡”‹‡…Ǥ
Ǧ …‘””‡…–Ž› ƒ’’Ž› –Š‡ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ‘ˆ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹ƒ –‘ Œ—•–‹ˆ›
…‘†‹–‹‘•—•‡†‹‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ’”‘…‡••‡•Ǥ



185
CHEMISTRY
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TEACHING SYLLABUS

Sub-Topic 3: Factors affecting the position of


equilibrium in accordance with the Le’ Chatelier’s
Principle
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹‡ǯŠƒ–‡Ž‹‡”ǯ•’”‹…‹’Ž‡Ǥ x ‡ǯ Šƒ–‡Ž‹‡”ǯ• ”‹…‹’Ž‡ ƒ†
 ƒ…–‘”• ˆˆ‡…–‹‰ Š‡‹…ƒŽ
 “—‹Ž‹„”‹—Ǥ
x ƒ’’Ž› ‡ǯ Šƒ–‡Ž‹‡”ǯ• ’”‹…‹’Ž‡ ‹
x …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ‡ǯ Šƒ–‡Ž‹‡”ǯ•
‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹‘—•
’”‹…‹’Ž‡
ˆƒ…–‘”• ‘ –Š‡ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹— ‘ˆ
”‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ x ˆƒ…–‘”•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—
 x ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ …Šƒ‰‡• ‹ǣ
 ‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ‘” ƒ”–‹ƒŽ
 ”‡••—”‡• ‘ˆ ƒ ”‡ƒ…–ƒ– ‘”
 ”‘†—…– –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ǡ ”‡••—”‡
 ƒ†‘Ž—‡Šƒ‰‡•

 x ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆƒ††‹‰‘„Ž‡
ƒ•ǣȋ–
 ‘•–ƒ– ‘Ž—‡ ƒ† ‘•–ƒ–
 ”‡••—”‡Ȍ
 x ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆƒ††‹‰ƒ–ƒŽ›•–

x š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
x ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽŽ› †‡–‡”‹‡ …
…
—•‹‰‡•–‡”‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘„”ƒ‹•–‘”‘–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ‡ǯŠƒ–‡Ž‹‡”ǯ•’”‹…‹’Ž‡Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ „”ƒ‹•–‘” ‘ –Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—
ƒ†‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ˆƒ…–‘”•‹–‡”•‘ˆ‡ǯŠƒ–‡Ž‹‡”ǯ•’”‹…‹’Ž‡Ǥ

Practical Problems
x •–”—…– –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ …
—•‹‰‡•–‡”‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ



186
Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•‡š‡”…‹•‡•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‘ǣ
Ǧ …‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—…‘•–ƒ–ȋ…Ȍ
Ǧ ’”‡••—”‡‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—…‘•–ƒ–ȋ’Ȍ

Sub-Topic 4: Applications of factors on industrial


processes
Specific objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘•Š‘™ x †—•–”‹ƒŽ ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
–Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹— Š‡‹…ƒŽ“—‹Ž‹„”‹—
…‘•–ƒ– ˆƒ…–‘”• ‘ ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ x ƒ„‡”’”‘…‡••ȋƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡‘ˆ
’”‘…‡••‡•Ǥ ƒ‘‹ƒȌǡ ‘–ƒ…– ”‘…‡••
 ȋƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡ ‘ˆ •—Ž’Š—”‹…
ƒ…‹†Ȍǡ •–™ƒŽ† ’”‘…‡••
ȋƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡‘ˆ‹–”‹…ƒ…‹†Ȍ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ —•‡ ‡ǯ Šƒ–‡Ž‹‡”̵• ‡š’Žƒ‹ ™Šƒ– Šƒ’’‡• ‹ˆ ƒ
̵‹•–ƒ–ƒ‡‘—•̵ …Šƒ‰‡ ‹• ‹’‘•‡† ‘ ƒ ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹— ‹ ƒ ƒ‡†
‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ’”‘…‡••Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•ƒ‡š‡”…‹•‡–‘ǣ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡‘ˆƒ‘‹ƒƒ†•—Ž’Š—”‹…ƒ…‹†Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘”•–Šƒ– ƒˆˆ‡…––Š‡›‹‡Ž†‘ˆ–Š‡’”‘†—…–•‹–‡”•‘ˆ
‡ǯŠƒ–‡Ž‹‡”ǯ•’”‹…‹’Ž‡Ǥ



187
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

SENIOR SIX TERM II




Topic 7: Ionic Equilibria

—”ƒ–‹‘ǣʹ͸‡”‹‘†•

General Learning Objective


› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‹• –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡
„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‘ˆƒ…‹†•ǡ„ƒ•‡•ƒ†•ƒŽ–•‹ƒ“—‡‘—••‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Acids, Bases and Salts


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–•‘ˆƒ…‹†•ƒ† x …‹†•ƒ†ƒ•‡•
„ƒ•‡• ƒ……‘”†‹‰ –‘ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• 
–Š‡‘”‹‡•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ …‘Œ—‰ƒ–‡ x ‘…‡’–• ‘ˆ ƒ…‹†• ƒ† „ƒ•‡•
„ƒ•‡•ƒ†…‘Œ—‰ƒ–‡ƒ…‹†•Ǥ †‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘• ‘ˆ ƒ…‹†•ǡ „ƒ•‡•
 ƒ……‘”†‹‰ –‘ ””Š‡‹—•ǡ
 ”ސ•–‡†Ȃ‘™”›ƒ†‡™‹•
x …Žƒ••‹ˆ›ƒ…‹†•ƒ†„ƒ•‡•‘„ƒ•‹• x ‘Œ—‰ƒ–‡…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡ƒ‹”
‘ˆ–Š‡‹”†‡‰”‡‡‘ˆ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ Ǧ ‘Œ—‰ƒ–‡„ƒ•‡ƒ†ƒ…‹†
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ …‘•–ƒ–• ˆ‘” x Žƒ••‹ˆ›‹‰ –”‘‰ ƒ…‹†• ƒ†
™‡ƒ ƒ…‹†• ƒ† ™‡ƒ „ƒ•‡• ƒ „ƒ•‡•ǡ™‡ƒƒ…‹†•ƒ†„ƒ•‡•
ƒ†„Ǥ Ǧ –”‘‰ ƒ…‹†•ǡ •–”‘‰ „ƒ•‡•ǡ
x †‡”‹˜‡ ƒ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ‡š’”‡••‹‘ ˆ‘” ™‡ƒƒ…‹†•ƒ†™‡ƒ„ƒ•‡•
ƒƒ†„Ǥ x ‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ –”‡‰–Š ‘ˆ ”ސ•–‡† Ȃ
‘™”›ƒ…‹†•ƒ†„ƒ•‡•

x ƒ ƒ† „ ƒ• ‡ƒ•—”‡• ‘ˆ
x …‘””‡…–Ž› ƒ’’Ž› ‘™Ž‡†‰‡
•–”‡‰–Š• ‘ˆ ƒ…‹†• ƒ† „ƒ•‡•ǡ
ƒ„‘—–ƒƒ†„‹…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
”‡•’‡…–‹˜‡Ž›Ǥ
 x š’”‡••‹‘• ‘ˆ ƒ…‹† †‹••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ƒ—–‘ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ȋ•‡Žˆ …‘•–ƒ–ǡ ƒ ƒ†  „ƒ•‡
‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘Ȍ‘ˆ™ƒ–‡” †‹••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘…‘•–ƒ–ǡ„
Ǧ ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ƒ ƒ†
x †‡”‹˜‡ƒ‡š’”‡••‹‘‘ˆ™Ǥ
„
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ’  •…ƒŽ‡
x Š‡ —–‘‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ȋ‡Žˆ
‘ˆͳǦͳͶ
‘‹•ƒ–‹‘Ȍ‘ˆƒ–‡”




188
Specific Objectives Content
 Ǧ ‘‹…’”‘†—…–‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ Ǧ ™αȏ ͵ΪȐȏ ǦȐαͳͲǦͳͶ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ’  ƒ† x Š‡’ …ƒŽ‡ȋͳȂͳͶȌ
’ Ǥ Ǧ ‘…‡’–‘ˆ’ 
x …‘””‡…–Ž› ƒ’’Ž› ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ’  ƒ ’ αǦŽ‘‰ͳͲȏ ͵ΪȐ
ƒ†’ ƒ†’™ ‹…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘ ƒ ’ αǦŽ‘‰ͳͲȏ ǦȐ
‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ •–”‘‰ ƒ…‹†• ƒ† ƒ ’™αǦŽ‘‰ͳͲ™
„ƒ•‡•Ǥ Ǧ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰Š
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ x Š‡ ‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ ƒ
„‡–™‡‡ ƒ ƒ† „ ˆ‘” ƒ ƒ…‹†Ǧ ƒ† „ ˆ‘” ƒ …‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡
„ƒ•‡…‘Œ—‰ƒ–‡’ƒ‹”Ǥ ‘Œ—‰ƒ–‡
 x ‘•‹†‡”–Š‡ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡…‘Œ—‰ƒ–‡
 ’ƒ‹”‘ˆ 
 x ‡”‹˜ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ǡƒ
 š„α™
x †‡”‹˜‡ ‡š’”‡••‹‘ ‘ˆ ’  ˆ‘” x š’”‡••‹‘ ‘ˆ ’  ˆ‘” ™‡ƒ ƒ…‹†•
™‡ƒƒ…‹†•ƒ†„ƒ•‡•Ǥ ƒ†„ƒ•‡•

x ’  …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•  ’  …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘ ‘ ’  ˆ‘” ˆ‘”™‡ƒƒ…‹†ƒ†™‡ƒ„ƒ•‡
™‡ƒƒ…‹†•ƒ†„ƒ•‡•Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘„”ƒ‹•–‘”–Š‡–Š‡‘”‹‡•‘ˆƒ…‹†•ƒ†„ƒ•‡•ƒ……‘”†‹‰
–‘”Š‡‹—•ǡ”‘•–‡†ƒ†‘™”›ƒ†‡™‹•Ǣ…‘Œ—‰ƒ–‡ƒ…‹†•ƒ†„ƒ•‡•
ƒ† …Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ…‹†• ƒ† „ƒ•‡• ‘ –Š‡ „ƒ•‹• ‘ˆ –Š‡‹” †‡‰”‡‡ ‘ˆ
‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x š’Žƒ‹–Š‡†‡”‹˜ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ‰‡‡”ƒŽ‡š’”‡••‹‘ˆ‘”ƒƒ†„ǡ†‡†—…‹‰
•–”‡‰–Š‘ˆƒ…‹†•ƒ†„ƒ•‡•—•‹‰–Š‡‹”‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘…‘•–ƒ–•‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰
‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ …‘•–ƒ–• ˆ‘” ™‡ƒ ƒ…‹†• ƒ† ™‡ƒ „ƒ•‡• ƒ ƒ† „ ƒ†
…‘””‡…–Ž›ƒ’’Ž›‹‰‘™Ž‡†‰‡ƒ„‘—–ƒƒ†„‹…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• ƒ—–‘ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ †‡”‹˜‹‰ ƒ ‡š’”‡••‹‘ ‘ˆ ™ǡ –Š‡
…‘…‡’– ’  ƒ† ’ ǡ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ’  ‘ˆ •–”‘‰ ƒ…‹†• ƒ†
„ƒ•‡•ǡ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’„‡–™‡‡ƒƒ†„ˆ‘”ƒƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡…‘Œ—‰ƒ–‡’ƒ‹”ǡ
†‡”‹˜‹‰ –Š‡ ‡š’”‡••‹‘ ‘ˆ ’  ˆ‘” ™‡ƒ ƒ…‹†• ƒ† „ƒ•‡•ǡ …ƒ””›‹‰ ‘—–
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘ ‘   ˆ‘” ™‡ƒ ƒ…‹†• ƒ† „ƒ•‡• ƒ† …ƒ””›‹‰ ‘—– ƒ …Žƒ••
‡š’‡”‹‡–‘…‘’ƒ”‹‰’ ‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ



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CHEMISTRY
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TEACHING SYLLABUS

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘…‘’ƒ”‡–Š‡’ 
‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–•‘Ž—–‹‘•—•‹‰ǣ
Ǧ ƒ’ ‡–‡”ȋ‹ˆƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ȌǤ
Ǧ ’ ’ƒ’‡”•Ǥ
Ǧ —‹˜‡”•ƒŽ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”Ǥ
Caution: Most strong acids are corrosive and should be handled with
care or using gloves.

Assessment Strategies

‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’–• ‘ˆ ƒ…‹†• ƒ† „ƒ•‡• ƒ……‘”†‹‰ –‘ ˜ƒ”‹‘—•
–Š‡‘”‹‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ƒ‹‰‘ˆ…‘Œ—‰ƒ–‡„ƒ•‡•ƒ†…‘Œ—‰ƒ–‡ƒ…‹†•Ǥ
Ǧ …Žƒ••‹ˆ›ƒ…‹†•ƒ†„ƒ•‡•‘„ƒ•‹•‘ˆ–Š‡‹”†‡‰”‡‡‘ˆ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ †‡”‹˜‡ƒ‰‡‡”ƒŽ‡š’”‡••‹‘ˆ‘”ƒƒ†Ǥ„Ǥ
Ǧ †‡†—…‡•–”‡‰–Š‘ˆƒ…‹†•ƒ†„ƒ•‡•—•‹‰–Š‡‹”‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘…‘•–ƒ–•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘…‘•–ƒ–•ˆ‘”™‡ƒƒ…‹†•ƒ†™‡ƒ„ƒ•‡•ƒƒ†
Ǥ„
Ǧ …‘””‡…–Ž›ƒ’’Ž›‘™Ž‡†‰‡ƒ„‘—–ƒƒ†„‹…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ƒ—–‘‹‘‹œƒ–‹‘ȋ•‡Žˆ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘Ȍ‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”Ǥ
Ǧ †‡”‹˜‡ƒ‡š’”‡••‹‘‘ˆǤ™
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ƒ‹‰‘ˆ’ ƒ†’ Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰’ ‘ˆ•–”‘‰ƒ…‹†•ƒ†„ƒ•‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ ƒ ƒ† „ ˆ‘” ƒ ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡
…‘Œ—‰ƒ–‡’ƒ‹”Ǥ
Ǧ †‡”‹˜‡‡š’”‡••‹‘‘ˆ’ ˆ‘”™‡ƒƒ…‹†•ƒ†„ƒ•‡•Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘‘’ ˆ‘”™‡ƒƒ…‹†•ƒ†„ƒ•‡•Ǥ



190
Sub-Topic 2: Hydrolysis of Salts
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹™Šƒ–ƒ•ƒŽ–‹•Ǥ x ƒŽ–
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ •ƒŽ– x ƒŽ– ›†”‘Ž›•‹•
Š›†”‘Ž›•‹•Ǥ x Šƒ–Š›†”‘Ž›•‹•‹•
x †‡”‹˜‡ƒ‡š’”‡••‹‘‘ˆŠǤ x ›†”‘Ž›•‹•…‘•–ƒ–Š
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡˜ƒ”‹‘—•–›’‡•‘ˆ•ƒŽ–•Ǥ x ƒŽ– ‘ˆ •–”‘‰ ƒ…‹† ƒ† •–”‘‰
 „ƒ•‡ǡ •–”‘‰ ƒ…‹† ƒ† ™‡ƒ
 „ƒ•‡Ǣ™‡ƒƒ…‹†ƒ†•–”‘‰„ƒ•‡
x …‘””‡…–Ž› ƒ’’Ž› ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ‘ˆ Š x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰Š
‹…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’  ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”‡•—Ž–ƒ– x ’ ‘ˆ”‡•—Ž–ƒ–•‘Ž—–‹‘
•‘Ž—–‹‘•†‡”‹˜‡†ˆ”‘Š›†”‘Ž›•‹•
‘ˆ•ƒŽ–•Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‡ƒ‹‰ ‘ˆ ƒ •ƒŽ–ǡ •ƒŽ– Š›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
˜ƒ”‹‘—•–›’‡•‘ˆ•ƒŽ–•ǡ’”‡†‹…–‹‰–Š‡’ ‘ˆƒ•ƒŽ–•‘Ž—–‹‘„ƒ•‹‰‘‹–•
…‘’‘•‹–‹‘ǡ †‡”‹˜‹‰ ƒ ‡š’”‡••‹‘ ‘ˆ Š ƒ† …‘””‡…–Ž› ƒ’’Ž›‹‰
‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘ˆŠ‹…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x ‡ƒ†Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’ ‘ˆ–Š‡”‡•—Ž–ƒ–•‘Ž—–‹‘•†‡”‹˜‡†ˆ”‘
Š›†”‘Ž›•‹•‘ˆ•ƒŽ–•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ƒ‹‰‘ˆƒ•ƒŽ–Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ•ƒŽ–Š›†”‘Ž›•‹•Ǥ
Ǧ ‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡˜ƒ”‹‘—•–›’‡•‘ˆ•ƒŽ–•Ǥ
Ǧ ’”‡†‹…––Š‡’ ‘ˆƒ•ƒŽ–•‘Ž—–‹‘„ƒ•‹‰‘‹–•…‘’‘•‹–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ †‡”‹˜‡ƒ‡š’”‡••‹‘‘ˆŠǤ
Ǧ …‘””‡…–Ž›ƒ’’Ž›‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘ˆŠ‹…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ



191
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Sub-Topic 3: Buffer Solutions


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ„—ˆˆ‡”Ǥ x —ˆˆ‡”•‘Ž—–‹‘•
x …Žƒ••‹ˆ› „—ˆˆ‡” ƒ† ‰‹˜‡ x Šƒ–„—ˆˆ‡”•‘Ž—–‹‘‹•
‡šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ‡ƒ…Š–›’‡Ǥ x ›’‡• ‘ˆ „—ˆˆ‡”•ǣ …‹†‹… ƒ†
 ƒ•‹…ƒ„ƒ•‹…
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆƒ„—ˆˆ‡”Ǥ x …–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ ƒ…‹†‹… ƒ† „ƒ•‹…
 „—ˆˆ‡”•‘Ž—–‹‘•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ x ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ „—ˆˆ‡”
„—ˆˆ‡”Ǥ •‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ
x †‡”‹˜‡ –Š‡ ‡†‡”•‘Ǧ 
ƒ••‡Ž„ƒŽ…Š‡“—ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x ‡†‡”•‘Ǧ ƒ••‡Ž„ƒŽ…Š
 “—ƒ–‹‘




x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ’ 
ˆ‘”„—ˆˆ‡”•Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ„—ˆˆ‡”•Ǥ x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ „—ˆˆ‡”
•‘Ž—–‹‘•
x ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ„—ˆˆ‡”•


Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—••–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ„—ˆˆ‡”ǡ…Žƒ••‹ˆ›‹‰„—ˆˆ‡”•ƒ†‰‹˜‹‰‡šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ
‡ƒ…Š–›’‡ǡ–Š‡ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆƒ„—ˆˆ‡”ǡ†‡•…”‹„‹‰–Š‡’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ„—ˆˆ‡”
ƒ††‡”‹˜ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ ‡†‡”•‘Ǧ ƒ••‡Ž„ƒŽ…Šǯ•‡“—ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x ‹•…—••…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰’ ‘ˆ„—ˆˆ‡”•ǡƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ„—ˆˆ‡”•ƒ†
…ƒ””›‹‰‘—–ƒ…Žƒ••‡š’‡”‹‡–‘’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ„—ˆˆ‡”Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ŽŽ‘™Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–ƒŽƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›‡š’‡”‹‡––‘’”‡’ƒ”‡ƒ„—ˆˆ‡”
„›‹š‹‰ǣ
Ǧ ‘Žƒ”•‘Ž—–‹‘•‘ˆ‡–Šƒ‘‹…ƒ…‹†ƒ†•‘†‹—‡–Šƒ‘ƒ–‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‘Žƒ”•‘Ž—–‹‘•‘ˆƒ‘‹ƒƒ†ƒ‘‹—…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡Ǥ



192
Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ƒ‹‰‘ˆƒ„—ˆˆ‡”Ǥ
Ǧ …Žƒ••‹ˆ›„—ˆˆ‡”•ƒ†‰‹˜‡‡šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ‡ƒ…Š–›’‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆƒ„—ˆˆ‡”Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ„—ˆˆ‡”Ǥ
Ǧ †‡”‹˜‡–Š‡ ‡†‡”•‘Ǧ ƒ••‡Ž„ƒŽ…Š‡“—ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‘’ ‘ˆ„—ˆˆ‡”•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ„—ˆˆ‡”•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 4: Acid–Base Titrations


Specific Objectives Content

Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‹–”ƒ–‹‘•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ–‹–”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x Šƒ––‹–”ƒ–‹‘‹•
x †‡ˆ‹‡ –Š‡ –‡”• —•‡† ‹
–‹–”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x ‹–”ƒ–ǡ –‹–”ƒ† ȋƒƒŽ›–‡Ȍǡ
‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡–’‘‹–ǡ‡†’‘‹–
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ x …‹†Ǧƒ•‡ †‹…ƒ–‘”•
‹†‹…ƒ–‘”Ǥ Ǧ Šƒ–ƒ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”‹•ȋ Ȍ
x ‰‹˜‡‡šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•Ǥ x šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ Š‘™ ƒ ‹†‹…ƒ–‘” x ‘™ƒ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”™‘”•
™‘”•Ǥ x ’ ”ƒ‰‡•ˆ‘”‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ’ ”ƒ‰‡Ǥ x …Š‘‹…‡‘ˆ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”
x …Š‘‘•‡ ƒ •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ‹†‹…ƒ–‘” ˆ‘” x ›’‡•‘ˆ…‹†Ǧƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•
—•‡‹ƒ…‹†„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ x ‹–”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•–”‘‰ƒ…‹†Ǧ•–”‘‰
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ „ƒ•‡•ǣ ȋšƒ’Ž‡• ƒ  ƒ†
x …ƒ””›‘—–ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ŽȌǢ ™‡ƒ ƒ…‹†Ǧ•–”‘‰ „ƒ•‡
 –‹–”ƒ–‹‘•ǣ ȋšƒ’Ž‡•
  ͵  ƒ† ƒ  ȌǢ •–”‘‰
 ƒ…‹†Ǧ™‡ƒ„ƒ•‡
 ȋšƒ’Ž‡•ǣ Ž ƒ†  ͵
 •‘Ž—–‹‘Ȍƒ† ™‡ƒ ƒ…‹†Ǧ
 ™‡ƒ „ƒ•‡ ȋ‡šƒ’Ž‡ǣ
  ͵ ƒ† ͵•‘Ž—–‹‘Ȍ
x •‡–…Š †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– –›’‡• ‘ˆ ’ Ǧ x ‹–”ƒ–‹‘ …—”˜‡• ˆ‘” –Š‡
˜‘Ž—‡ …—”˜‡• ˆ‘” ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡ ˜ƒ”‹‘—•–›’‡•‘ˆ–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•
–‹–”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ 



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CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Specific Objectives Content


x …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡ ’  …Šƒ‰‡• †—”‹‰ x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ƒ…‹†Ǧ
ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ „ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘„”ƒ‹•–‘”–Š‡‡ƒ‹‰‘ˆƒ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”ǡ‡šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ
‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•ǡ –Š‡ ƒ…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”ǡ –Š‡ ‡ƒ‹‰ ‘ˆ ’  ”ƒ‰‡ ƒ†
‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ’ ”ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•Ǥ
x ‹•…—••–Š‡ …Š‘‹…‡‘ˆ•—‹–ƒ„Ž‡‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•ˆ‘”—•‡‹ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•
„ƒ•‹‰‘’ ”ƒ‰‡ǡ’ …Šƒ‰‡•†—”‹‰–‹–”ƒ–‹‘ǡ…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‰’ …Šƒ‰‡•
†—”‹‰ ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡ –‹–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ •‡–…Š‹‰ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– –›’‡• ‘ˆ ’ Ǧ˜‘Ž—‡
…—”˜‡• ˆ‘” ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡ –‹–”ƒ–‹‘• ƒ† ‹–‡”’”‡–‹‰ ’ Ȃ˜‘Ž—‡ …—”˜‡• ˆ‘”
ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ‡– –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡ –‹–”ƒ–‹‘• ‹ –Š‡ Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ƒ•
‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ•‘”‹‰”‘—’•‘ˆƒ–‘•–ˆ‹˜‡•–—†‡–•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ƒ‹‰‘ˆƒ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”Ǥ
Ǧ ‰‹˜‡‡šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹Š‘™ƒ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”™‘”•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ƒ‹‰‘ˆ’ ”ƒ‰‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‹†‡–‹ˆ›’ ”ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•Ǥ
Ǧ …Š‘‘•‡•—‹–ƒ„Ž‡‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•ˆ‘”—•‡‹ ƒ…‹†„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•„ƒ•‹‰‘
’ ”ƒ‰‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹’ …Šƒ‰‡•†—”‹‰–‹–”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡’ …Šƒ‰‡•†—”‹‰ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ •‡–…Š†‹ˆˆ‡”‡––›’‡•‘ˆ’ Ǧ˜‘Ž—‡…—”˜‡•ˆ‘”ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ‹–‡”’”‡–’ Ȃ˜‘Ž—‡…—”˜‡•ˆ‘”ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ




194
Sub-Topic 5: Solubility Equilibria
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›Ǥ x ‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ 
†‡–‡”‹‡•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆƒ•ƒŽ–Ǥ x Šƒ–•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‹•Ǣ‘Ž—„Ž‡•ƒŽ–•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• –Šƒ– ƒˆˆ‡…– x ‘Žƒ”‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›
•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆƒ•ƒŽ–Ǥ 
x ’Ž‘– •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› …—”˜‡• ˆ‘” •‘Ž—„Ž‡x ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
•ƒŽ–•Ǥ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆƒ•ƒŽ–
x ‹–‡”’”‡––Š‡•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›…—”˜‡•Ǥ x ˆƒ…–‘”•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ x •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›…—”˜‡•
•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›…—”˜‡•Ǥ x ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›…—”˜‡•
x  ȋˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒŽ…”›•–ƒŽŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ †›ƒ‹… x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›
‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹— ‹ ƒ •ƒ–—”ƒ–‡† •ƒŽ– 
•‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ x ‘Ž—„Ž‡ ƒ† ’ƒ”‹‰Ž› •‘Ž—„Ž‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• –Šƒ– ƒˆˆ‡…– •ƒŽ–•
•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ •’ƒ”‹‰Ž› •‘Ž—„Ž‡ x ƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ
•ƒŽ–•Ǥ •’ƒ”‹‰Ž›•‘Ž—„Ž‡ 
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ˆ‘” 
•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›Ǥ x ‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›”‘†—…–
x †‡”‹˜‡ ƒ ‡š’”‡••‹‘ ˆ‘” x Šƒ–•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›’”‘†—…–‹•
•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›’”‘†—…–Ǥ x š’”‡••‹‘• ˆ‘”  ‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›
x …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ ”‘†—…–
†‡–‡”‹‡•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›’”‘†—…–Ǥ 
x …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡•’Ǥ x š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›’”‘†—…–
•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›’”‘†—…–Ǥ 
x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ƒ† ‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›
‹‘‹… ’”‘†—…–ǡ •’  ƒ† ”‘†—…–•Ǥ
’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ•’Ǥ x ‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ”‘†—…– ƒ†
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ …‘‘ ”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘
‹‘‡ˆˆ‡…–Ǥ x Š‡ †‘‡• ’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘ –ƒ‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ’Žƒ…‡ǫ
…‘‘‹‘‡ˆˆ‡…–Ǥ x ‘‹…’”‘†—…–
x ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡…‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘
x ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•’



195
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ”ƒ‹•–‘” –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ ˆƒ…–‘”• –Šƒ– ƒˆˆ‡…– •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ ƒ
•ƒŽ–ǡ †”ƒ™‹‰ ƒ† ‹–‡”’”‡–‹‰ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› …—”˜‡•ǡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ
•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ‹ ˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒŽ …”›•–ƒŽŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘ǡ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ˆ‘” •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ ƒ†
ƒŽ•‘…ƒ””›‹‰‘—–ƒ…Žƒ••‡š’‡”‹‡––‘†‡–‡”‹‡•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆƒ•ƒŽ–Ǥ
x ‹•…—••–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ†›ƒ‹…‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—‹ƒ•ƒ–—”ƒ–‡†•ƒŽ–•‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ
–Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ’”‘†—…–ǡ –Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• –Šƒ– ƒˆˆ‡…– •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ
•’ƒ”‹‰Ž› •‘Ž—„Ž‡ •ƒŽ–•ǡ †‡”‹˜‹‰ ƒ ‡š’”‡••‹‘ ˆ‘” •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ’”‘†—…–ǡ
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ’”‘†—…–ǡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ ‹‘‹…
’”‘†—…– •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ’”‘†—…– ƒ† ’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘ǡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›
’”‘†—…–ǡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ …‘‘ ‹‘ ‡ˆˆ‡…–ǡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ …‘‘ ‹‘
‡ˆˆ‡…–ƒ†…ƒ””›‹‰‘—–ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡––‘†‡–‡”‹‡•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›’”‘†—…–Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡
•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆƒ•ƒŽ–ƒ–†‹ˆˆ‡”‡––‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡•—•‹‰’‘–ƒ••‹—‹–”ƒ–‡‘”
’‘–ƒ••‹—…ŠŽ‘”ƒ–‡ȋȌǤ
x ‡– Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ƒŽ•‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ …Žƒ•• ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡
•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›’”‘†—…–‘ˆ…ƒŽ…‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡––‘†‡–‡”‹‡•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆƒ•ƒŽ–Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ˆƒ…–‘”•–Šƒ–ƒˆˆ‡…–•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆƒ•ƒŽ–Ǥ
Ǧ †”ƒ™ƒ† –‡”’”‡––Š‡•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›…—”˜‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‹ˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒŽ…”›•–ƒŽŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‘•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ †›ƒ‹… ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹— ‹ ƒ •ƒ–—”ƒ–‡† •ƒŽ–
•‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›’”‘†—…–Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ˆƒ…–‘”•–Šƒ–ƒˆˆ‡…–•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ•’ƒ”‹‰Ž›•‘Ž—„Ž‡•ƒŽ–•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡”‹˜‡ƒ‡š’”‡••‹‘ˆ‘”•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›’”‘†—…–Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡––‘†‡–‡”‹‡•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›’”‘†—…–Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›’”‘†—…–Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ ‹‘‹… ’”‘†—…–ǡ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ’”‘†—…–
ƒ†’”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ



196
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ƒ‹‰‘ˆ…‘‘‹‘‡ˆˆ‡…–Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ…‘‘‹‘‡ˆˆ‡…–Ǥ



197
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Topic 8: Chemical Kinetics


—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͲ͸‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‹• –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡ –Šƒ–
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘……—”ƒ–†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–”ƒ–‡•ƒ†‡š’Žƒ‹™Š›–Š‡›†‘•‘Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Simple Rate Equations


Specific objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ”ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ x –”‘†—…–‹‘ –‘ ”ƒ–‡• ‘ˆ
”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ Žƒ™ ‘ˆ ƒ•• ƒ…–‹‘ x Šƒ–…Š‡‹…ƒŽ‹‡–‹…•‹•
ƒ†‹–•ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x ƒ™‘ˆƒ••ƒ…–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹‘”†‡”‘ˆƒ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ƒ† x ‹’Ž‡”ƒ–‡‡“—ƒ–‹‘•
”ƒ–‡…‘•–ƒ– x ‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ ”ƒ–‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘•ǡ
x †‡ˆ‹‡–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡––‡”•—•‡† ƒ–‡…‘•–ƒ–Ǣ‘”†‡”‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘
‹‹‡–‹…•Ǥ ƒ†‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”‹–›Ǥ
x ”‡Žƒ–‡ ‡…Šƒ‹• ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• x ‡…Šƒ‹•‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
–‘‹‡–‹…• 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ x ƒ–Š‡ƒ–‹…ƒŽ †‡”‹˜ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
’”‘…‡†—”‡ –‘ †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ œ‡”‘ǡ ˆ‹”•– ƒ† ‡…‘† ‘”†‡”
‘”†‡”•‘ˆƒ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ ”ƒ–‡‡“—ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆŠƒŽˆǦŽ‹ˆ‡Ǥ x ƒŽˆǦŽ‹˜‡•ǡ–Φ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘„”ƒ‹•–‘”–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ…Š‡‹…ƒŽ‹‡–‹…•ƒ†”ƒ–‡
‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ ‡– –Š‡ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽŽ› †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ
†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ”ƒ–‡‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
x š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–‡”ǡ‘”†‡”‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ǡ”‡Žƒ–‹‰‡…Šƒ‹•‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ƒ†
‹‡–‹…• ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ǡ ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”‹–› ƒ† †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š‹‰ „‡–™‡‡
‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”‹–›ƒ†‘”†‡”‘ˆƒ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ ƒ †‹•…—••‹‘ ‘ –Š‡ †‡”‹˜ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡š’”‡••‹‘• ˆ‘” ‘”†‡” ‘ˆ
”‡ƒ…–‹‘ǡŠƒŽˆǦŽ‹ˆ‡ƒ†•‡–…Š‹‰ƒ†‹–‡”’”‡–‹‰–Š‡‰”ƒ’Š•‘„–ƒ‹‡†Ǥ
x ‡ƒ†Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽŽ›†‡–‡”‹‡‘”†‡”•‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ



198
Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘†‡–‡”‹‡”ƒ–‡•
‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ƒ†‘”†‡”•‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘—•‹‰ǣ
Ǧ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘„‡–™‡‡‹‘†‹‡ƒ†’”‘’ƒ‘‡Ǥ
Ǧ •‘†‹—–Š‹‘•—Ž’Šƒ–‡ƒ†Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹…ƒ…‹†Ǥ
Ǧ Š›†”‘‰‡’‡”‘š‹†‡ƒ†’‘–ƒ••‹—ƒ‰ƒƒ–‡ȋ ȌǤ
Ǧ Š›†”‘‰‡’‡”‘š‹†‡ƒ†’‘–ƒ••‹—‹‘†‹†‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡Žƒ™‘ˆƒ••ƒ…–‹‘ƒ†‹–•ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–‡””ƒ–‡‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡–ˆ‘”†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡”ƒ–‡‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–‡”•‘”†‡”‘ˆƒ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ƒ†”ƒ–‡…‘•–ƒ–Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’„‡–™‡‡‘”†‡”•ƒ†”ƒ–‡•‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–‡”‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”‹–›‘ˆƒ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡‘”†‡”ƒ†‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”‹–›Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ’’Ž› –Š‡ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡  ”ƒ–‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ‹ •‡–…Š‹‰ ƒ† ‹–‡”’”‡–‹‰
‰”ƒ’Š•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆŠƒŽˆǦŽ‹ˆ‡Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Factors Affecting Rates of Reactions


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–Š‡‘”‹‡•‘ˆ…‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘Ǥ x ƒ…–‘”• ˆˆ‡…–‹‰ ƒ–‡• ‘ˆ
x —•‡ –Š‡‘”‹‡• ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ –‘ ‡ƒ…–‹‘•
‡š’Žƒ‹ˆƒ…–‘”•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰”ƒ–‡•‘ˆ x Š‡‘”‹‡• ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ȋ‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘
”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ –Š‡‘”›ǡ–”ƒ•‹–‹‘–Š‡‘”›Ȍ
x †‡”‹˜‡ƒ‡š’”‡••‹‘ˆ‘”ŠƒŽˆǦŽ‹ˆ‡ x ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆǣ  –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ȋ‡‡”‰›
‘ˆ œ‡”‘ ‘”†‡”ǡ ˆ‹”•– ‘”†‡” ƒ† „ƒ””‹‡” …‘…‡’–Ǣ …–‹˜ƒ–‹‘
•‡…‘† ‘”†‡” ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‹ –‡”• ‡‡”‰› ‘ˆ ƒ…–‹˜ƒ–‡† …‘’Ž‡šȌǡ
‘ˆ”ƒ–‡…‘•–ƒ–Ǥ …‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ȋ’”‡••—”‡ ƒ†
 ˜‘Ž—‡ ˆ‘” ‰ƒ•‡•Ȍǡ …ƒ–ƒŽ›•–
x —•‡ –Š‡ –Š‡‘”‹‡• ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ –‘ ȋ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ ’”‘†—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ
‡š’Žƒ‹ ˆƒ…–‘”• –Šƒ– ƒˆˆ‡…– ”ƒ–‡• ’‘Ž›‡”•ǡ ’”‘…‡••‡• •—…Š ƒ•
‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ ƒ„‡” ’”‘…‡••ǡ ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡ ‘ˆ
 ͵ƒ…‹†ǡ‡–…Ȍǡ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•‹œ‡Ǥ



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Specific Objectives Content


x ƒ’’Ž› –Š‡ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡  ”ƒ–‡ x †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒŽ ƒ† ‹–‡‰”ƒŽ ˆ‘”•
‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ‹ •‡–…Š‹‰ ƒ† ‘ˆ ˆ‹”•– ‘”†‡” ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ǡ ŠƒŽˆǦŽ‹ˆ‡
‹–‡”’”‡–‹‰‰”ƒ’Š•Ǥ ȋ‘Ž›œ‡”‘ƒ†ˆ‹”•–‘”†‡”Ȍ
 x ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”‹–› ƒ† ‡…Šƒ‹• ‘ˆ
x †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
„‡–™‡‡ ‡…Šƒ‹• ‘ˆ ƒ x ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ‘
”‡ƒ…–‹‘ƒ†‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”‹–›Ǥ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ǡ ””Š‡‹—• –Š‡‘”› Ǧ
 ƒ…–‹˜ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰›ǡ …‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘
 –Š‡‘”› ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ”ƒ–‡ ȋ‘
 †‡”‹˜ƒ–‹‘ȌǤ
 x Experiments
x …ƒ””› ‘—– †‡•‹‰‡† ‡š’‡”‹‡–•  ͳ•–”†‡”
–‘ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‡ ‹‡–‹… †ƒ–ƒ ˆ‘”  ʹ†”†‡”
†‡–‡”‹‹‰ ‘”†‡” ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ǡ 
”ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ƒ† ”ƒ–‡ 
…‘•–ƒ–•Ǥ x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ –Š‡ ‰‹˜‡
x …ƒ””› ‘—– …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘ ”ƒ–‡• ‘ˆ ‡š’‡”‹‡–•
”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ


Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘„”ƒ‹•–‘”–Š‡…‘ŽŽ‹•‹‘ƒ†–”ƒ•‹–‹‘•–ƒ–‡–Š‡‘”›‘ˆ
…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• –Šƒ– ƒˆˆ‡…– …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ™Š‹…Š ‹…Ž—†‡ǣ
–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ǡ Ž‹‰Š–ǡ …‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ •‹œ‡ǡ ’”‡••—”‡ ˆ‘” ‰ƒ•‡‘—•
”‡ƒ…–ƒ–•ƒ†…ƒ–ƒŽ›•‹•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘†‹•…—••–Š‡…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‘”ƒ–‡•‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽŽ›‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡–Š‡ˆƒ…–‘”•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰”ƒ–‡•
‘ˆ…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡–Š‡
‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ˆƒ…–‘”•‘”ƒ–‡‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘—•‹‰ǣ
Ǧ …ƒŽ…‹—…ƒ”„‘ƒ–‡ƒ†Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹…ƒ…‹†ȋ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•‹œ‡ȌǤ
Ǧ •‘†‹— –Š‹‘•—Ž’Šƒ–‡ ƒ† Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹… ƒ…‹†ȋ …‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ǤȌ



200
Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ —•‡ –Š‡ –Š‡‘”‹‡• ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ ˆƒ…–‘”• –Šƒ– ƒˆˆ‡…– ”ƒ–‡• ‘ˆ
”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–›’‡•ƒ†™‘”‹‰‘ˆ…ƒ–ƒŽ›•–•Ǥ
Ǧ ‰‹˜‡ ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• –Šƒ– ƒˆˆ‡…– ”ƒ–‡• ‘ˆ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰”ƒ–‡•‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ †”ƒ™‰”ƒ’Š•ˆ”‘”ƒ–‡‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘†ƒ–ƒǤ
Ǧ ‹–‡”’”‡–‰”ƒ’Š•‘„–ƒ‹‡†ˆ”‘”ƒ–‡‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘†ƒ–ƒǤ
Ǧ ‹–‡”’”‡–”ƒ–‡‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘†ƒ–ƒǤ



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Topic 9: Electrochemistry

—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͳʹ‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
› ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ‘—–Ž‹‡ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ
‡Ž‡…–”‹… …—””‡– ‘ •—„•–ƒ…‡• ƒ† –Š‡ ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ •—„•–ƒ…‡• –‘ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‡
‡Ž‡…–”‹…‹–›Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Electrolysis
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‘†‡•‘ˆ x ‘†‡• ‘ˆ ‘†—…–‹‘ ‹
…‘†—…–‹‘‹•—„•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ —„•–ƒ…‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ x Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•
‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•Ǥ x ‘…‡’–‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘‘ –‡”• x ‡”• —•‡† ‹ ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•
—•‡†‹‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•Ǥ ȋ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡•ǡ ƒ‘†‡ǡ …ƒ–Š‘†‡ǡ
 †‹•…Šƒ”‰‡Ȍ
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡™‡ƒƒ† x ‡ƒƒ†•–”‘‰‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡•
•–”‘‰ ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡• ™‹–Š 
‡šƒ’Ž‡•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ x ”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•Ǣ Ǧ
•‡Ž‡…–‹˜‡†‹•…Šƒ”‰‡‘ˆ‹‘•Ǥ ȋ•‡Ž‡…–‹˜‡†‹•…Šƒ”‰‡‘ˆ ‘•ȌǤ
x ƒ’’Ž› –Š‡ Žƒ™• ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹• x ƒ™•‘ˆŽ‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•
‹…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‘‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•
 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ x ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•ǣ
‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•‹‹†—•–”›Ǥ ȋ‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ‡–ƒŽ•‡Ǥ‰ǤŽǡƒǡ
‡–…ǡ ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ƒ  ƒ†
Žʹǡ‡–ƒŽ”‡ˆ‹‹‰ȌǤ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‡ƒ†ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘‘–Š‡‘†‡•‘ˆ…‘†—…–‹‘„›†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–•—„•–ƒ…‡•ǡ
…‘…‡’–‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•ƒ†–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡––‡”•—•‡†‹‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘—†‡”•–ƒ†–Š‡’”‹…‹’Ž‡‘ˆ•‡Ž‡…–‹˜‡†‹•…Šƒ”‰‡‘ˆ
‹‘•ǡ…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•ƒ†‹–•ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ



202
Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ …‘’’‡” ȋ Ȍ •—Ž’Šƒ–‡ —•‹‰
…‘’’‡”‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡•–‘†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡–Š‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆƒ‘†‡‘–Š‡’”‘†—…–•‘ˆ
‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ƒŽ•‘…ƒ””›‘—–‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘†‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡ ƒ”ƒ†ƒ›
…‘•–ƒ– —•‹‰ ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ …‘’’‡” ȋ Ȍ •—Ž’Šƒ–‡ ™‹–Š …‘’’‡”
‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‘†‡•‘ˆ…‘†—…–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘‘–‡”•—•‡†‹‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…Šƒ‰‡•–Šƒ––ƒ‡’Žƒ…‡†—”‹‰‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•Ǥ
Ǧ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ ™‡ƒ ƒ† •–”‘‰ ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡• ƒ† ‰‹˜‡
‡šƒ’Ž‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ’’Ž›–Š‡Žƒ™•‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•‹…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›•‹•‹‹†—•–”›Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Conductance and its Measurements


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ x ‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ‘†—…–ƒ…‡ ƒ†
…‘†—…–ƒ…‡Ǥ ‡”•—•‡†‹‘†—…–ƒ…‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ x ƒ…–‘”• ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰ …‘†—…–ƒ…‡
…‘†—…–‹˜‹–›‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡•Ǥ ‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …‘†—…–ƒ…‡ ‹ ™‡ƒ x ‘†—…–ƒ…‡ ‹ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– –›’‡•
ƒ†•–”‘‰‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡•Ǥ ‘ˆ‡Ž…–”‘Ž›–‡•
x †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡ „‡–™‡‡ ‘Žƒ” x ‘†—…–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ™‡ƒ ƒ†
ƒ†•’‡…‹ˆ‹……‘†—…–ƒ…‡Ǥ •–”‘‰‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡•
 x ›’‡•‘ˆ…‘†—…–ƒ…‡ǣǦȋ‘Žƒ”
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ ‘†—…–ƒ…‡ ƒ† ’‡…‹ˆ‹…
‘Žƒ” ƒ† •’‡…‹ˆ‹… ‘†—…–ƒ…‡Ȍ
…‘†—…–ƒ…‡Ǥ x ‘Žƒ”…‘†—…–ƒ…‡ƒ†•’‡…‹ˆ‹…
 …‘†—…–ƒ…‡
 x ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–‘ˆ‘†—…–ƒ…‡
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡– ‘ˆ 
…‘†—…–ƒ…‡Ǥ x Š‘Ž”ƒ—•…Šǯ• Žƒ™ ‘ˆ



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Specific Objectives Content


x ƒ’’Ž› Š‘Ž”ƒ—•…Šǯ• Žƒ™ ‹ †‡’‡†‡– ‹‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹‘•
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘Žƒ” ƒ†‹–•ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘
…‘†—…–‹˜‹–› ƒ– ‹ˆ‹‹–‡ †‹Ž—–‹‘ 
‘ˆ™‡ƒ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡•Ǥ x ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ…‘†—…–ƒ…‡
x ƒ’’Ž› –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ Ǧ‘†—…–‹‡–”‹… –‹–”ƒ–‹‘•ǣ Ǧ
…‘†—…–ƒ…‡ ‹ …‘†—…–‹‡–”‹… ȋ•–”‘‰ ƒ…‹†Ǧ•–”‘‰ „ƒ•‡ǡ
–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •–”‘‰ ƒ…‹†Ǧ™‡ƒ „ƒ•‡ǡ ™‡ƒ
•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ƒ† •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ƒ…‹†Ǧ™‡ƒ „ƒ•‡ȌǢ
’”‘†—…–ǡ ƒ† †‡‰”‡‡ ‘ˆ †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ƒ†
‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ’”‘†—…–•Ǣ
 †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ †‡‰”‡‡ ‘ˆ
 ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ™‡ƒ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡•
 x ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰
x …ƒ””›‘—–…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‹……‘†—…–ƒ…‡
‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‹……‘†—…–ƒ…‡Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‡ƒ†ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘–‘„”ƒ‹•–‘”–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ…‘†—…–ƒ…‡ƒ†ˆƒ…–‘”•
ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰…‘†—…–ƒ…‡™‹–Š‡šƒ’Ž‡•Ǥ
—‹†‡–Š‡ ‘Š‘™ –‘…ƒ””›‘—–
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰‘ˆ‘Žƒ”…‘†—…–‹˜‹–›ƒ–‹ˆ‹‹–‡†‹Ž—–‹‘‘ˆ™‡ƒ
‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡• „› ƒ’’Ž›‹‰ ƒŽ”ƒ—…Šǯ• Žƒ™ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‹… …‘†—…–ƒ…‡ ƒ†
•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ•’ƒ”‹‰Ž›•‘Ž—„Ž‡•ƒŽ–•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘
…‘†—…–‹‡–”‹… –‹–”ƒ–‹‘• ƒ† †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ •’ƒ”‹‰Ž›
•‘Ž—„Ž‡•ƒŽ–•Ž‹‡…ƒŽ…‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•ƒ†–‡•–•”‡“—‹”‹‰–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ…‘†—…–ƒ…‡ƒ†ˆƒ…–‘”•ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‰…‘†—…–‹˜‹–›
‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ …‘†—…–ƒ…‡ ‹ ™‡ƒ ƒ† •–”‘‰ ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡• ƒ†
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‹‰„‡–™‡‡‘Žƒ”ƒ†•’‡…‹ˆ‹……‘†—…–ƒ…‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ ‘Žƒ” ƒ† •’‡…‹ˆ‹… …‘†—…–ƒ…‡
ƒ†‡ƒ•—”‡‡–‘ˆ…‘†—…–ƒ…‡Ǥ



204
Ǧ ƒ’’Ž› Š‘Ž”ƒ—•…Šǯ• Žƒ™ ‹ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‘Žƒ” …‘†—…–‹˜‹–› ƒ–
‹ˆ‹‹–‡†‹Ž—–‹‘‘ˆ™‡ƒ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ž›–‡•ǡ–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ…‘†—…–ƒ…‡‹
‘†—…–‹‡–”‹… –‹–”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ƒ† •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›
’”‘†—…–ǡƒ††‡‰”‡‡‘ˆ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Sub-Topic 3: Electrochemical Cells


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ x Ž‡…–”‘†‡‘–‡–‹ƒŽ•
‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǤ Ǧ Šƒ–‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ‹•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ x Ž‡…–”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ•‡”‹‡•
•‡”‹‡•Ǥ 
x —•‡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ •‡”‹‡• –‘ x „•‘Ž—–‡ ƒ† ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡
‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ„•‘Ž—–‡ ƒ† ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ
”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǤ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† x –ƒ†ƒ”†Š›†”‘‰‡‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡
ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ ‘ˆ •–ƒ†ƒ”† Ǧ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡– ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡
Š›†”‘‰‡‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡Ǥ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ ‘ˆ ‡–ƒŽ• ƒ‰ƒ‹•–
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡ –ƒ†ƒ”† ›†”‘‰‡
•–ƒ†ƒ”†‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǤ Ž‡…–”‘†‡ȋ ȌǤ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –‡” ”‡†—…–‹‘ x ‡†—…–‹‘‘–‡–‹ƒŽ•
’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǤ 
x ƒ’’Ž› ”‡†—…–‹‘ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ• –‘ x ‡–ƒŽȀ‡–ƒŽ ‹‘ ‘˜‡–‹‘ ˆ‘”
‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡–ƒŽȀ‡–ƒŽ ‹‘ …‡ŽŽ•ȋ ƒ† Ȍ
…‘˜‡–‹‘ˆ‘”…‡ŽŽ•Ǥ 
x …‘•–”—…– ƒ ‡Ž‡…–”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ x ‘•–”—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡…–”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ
…‡ŽŽǤ …‡ŽŽ
x ™”‹–‡–Š‡…‡ŽŽ‘–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x ‡ŽŽ‘–ƒ–‹‘
x …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡–Š‡‡ǤǤˆǤ‘ˆƒ…‡ŽŽǤ Ǧ ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ…‡ŽŽ‡ǤǤˆ
x —•‡ –Š‡ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡† ˜ƒŽ—‡• ‘ˆ Ǧ ”‡†‹…–‹‘ ‘ˆ •’‘–ƒ‡‹–› ‘ˆ
‡ǤǤˆǤ–‘’”‡†‹…–•’‘–ƒ‡‹–›‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ 
x —•‡ –Š‡
‹„„ǯ• ˆ”‡‡ ‡‡”‰› x
‹„„ǯ• ”‡‡ ‡”‰›ǡ ο
ǡ ‹
‡š’”‡••‹‘ –‘ ’”‡†‹…– ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ –‘ ‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ•
ˆ‡ƒ•‹„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ ƒ•ƒ‡ƒ•—”‡‘ˆ•’‘–ƒ‡‹–›
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ …‘•–”—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ x ‘•–”—…–‹‘‘ˆƒ‹‡Ž…‡ŽŽ
ƒ‹‡Ž…‡ŽŽǤ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ ‘ˆ ƒ x •‡•‘ˆƒ––‡”‹‡•
„ƒ––‡”›Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘˜‡”•‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘‡ x ‘˜‡”•‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡‡”‰› ȋŠ‡‹…ƒŽ
ˆ‘”‘ˆ‡‡”‰›–‘ƒ‘–Š‡”Ǥ –‘‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽȌ



205
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‡ƒ†ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘–‘„”ƒ‹•–‘”–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽƒ†
†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ •‡”‹‡• ‹ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ –‘ –Š‡ ƒ„•‘Ž—–‡
ƒ† ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ•Ǥ
—‹†‡ –Š‡ –‘ †‹•…—•• –Š‡
…‘•–”—…–‹‘ƒ†ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡•–ƒ†ƒ”†Š›†”‘‰‡‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡Ǥ
x ‡––Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘—†‡”•–ƒ†–Š‡–‡””‡†—…–‹‘’‘–‡–‹ƒŽƒ†‰—‹†‡
–Š‡ –‘ …‘•–”—…– ƒ ‡Ž‡…–”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ …‡ŽŽǡ ™”‹–‡ –Š‡ …‡ŽŽ ‘–ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡–Š‡‡ǤǤˆǤ‘ˆ–Š‡…‡ŽŽǤ

Practical Problems
x ‡–Ž‡ƒ”‡”•…ƒ””›‘—–…Žƒ••‡š’‡”‹‡––‘…‘•–”—…–ƒ‡Ž‡…–”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ
…‡ŽŽ—•‹‰…‘’’‡”ȋ Ȍ•—Ž’Šƒ–‡ƒ†‹…•—Ž’Šƒ–‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ —•‡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ •‡”‹‡• –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡
’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǤ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡ „‡–™‡‡ ƒ„•‘Ž—–‡ ƒ† ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡
’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǤ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ ‘ˆ •–ƒ†ƒ”† Š›†”‘‰‡
‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡—•‹‰ƒ†‹ƒ‰”ƒǤ
Ǧ —•‡–Š‡”‡†—…–‹‘’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ–‘…‘•–”—…–‡Ž‡…–”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ…‡ŽŽ•Ǥ
Ǧ ™”‹–‡–Š‡…‡ŽŽ‘–ƒ–‹‘ƒ†…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡–Š‡‡ǤǤˆǤ
Ǧ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡–Š‡…‡ŽŽ‡ǤǤˆƒ†—•‡–Š‡˜ƒŽ—‡•–‘’”‡†‹…–•’‘–ƒ‡‹–›‘ˆ
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ —•‡ –Š‡ ‡š’”‡••‹‘ ˆ‘”
‹„„ǯ• ƒ† •‹‰ …‘˜‡–‹‘ –‘ ’”‡†‹…–
•’‘–ƒ‡‹–›Ȁˆ‡ƒ•‹„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆƒ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ



206
 ǣ 
   
    
Topic 10: Third Short Period of the Periodic
Table
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͳʹ‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‹•–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘‘—–Ž‹‡–Š‡„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”
‘ˆ‡Ž‡‡–•‹–Š‡͵”†•Š‘”–’‡”‹‘†ƒ†–Š‡‹”…‘’‘—†•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Trends in Atomic and Physical properties


of the Elements
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‰‹˜‡ ƒ „”‹‡ˆ †‡•…”‹’–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ x ”‹‡ˆ‹–”‘†—…–‹‘–‘–Š‡‡”‹‘†‹…
…Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•‹ –ƒ„Ž‡
–Š‡ ‡”‹‘†‹… –ƒ„Ž‡ ƒ……‘”†‹‰ –‘ 
’‡”‹‘†•ǡ‰”‘—’•ƒ†„Ž‘…•Ǥ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ ‡Ž‡‡–• ‘ˆ ’‡”‹‘† 
͵‘ˆ–Š‡‡”‹‘†‹…ƒ„Ž‡Ǥ x Ž‡‡–•‘ˆ͵”†Š‘”–’‡”‹‘†
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ –Š‡ 
’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ x ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡‡–• ǢǤ’–•ǡ „Ǥ’–•ǡ
 ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰›ǡ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ†
 ‹‘‹… ”ƒ†‹—•ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹…
 •–”—…–—”‡•ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘ ƒˆˆ‹‹–›ǡ
 ‡Ž‡…–”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‹–›ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ǧ
 ’‘•‹–‹˜‹–›ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǡ
x •–ƒ–‡ ƒ† ‡š’Žƒ‹ ƒ› ƒ†‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ…‘†—…–‹˜‹–›
ƒ‘ƒŽ‹‡•‹–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ–”‡†• x ‘ƒŽ‘—• –”‡†• ‹ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ†
x †”ƒ™ ‰”ƒ’Š• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘• ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡‡–•
ƒ–‘‹…ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ ‹’‡”‹‘†͵
x
”ƒ’Š• •Š‘™‹‰ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘• ‹
ƒ–‘‹…ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ
’‡”‹‘†͵‡Ž‡‡–•



207
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‹•…—•• –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹… •–”—…–—”‡•ǡ ‡Ž–‹‰
’‘‹–ǡ„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–ǡ‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ…‘†—…–‹˜‹–›ƒ†‡Ž‡…–”‘’‘•‹–‹˜‹–›
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ‹‘‹… ”ƒ†‹—•ǡ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰›ǡ
‡Ž‡…–”‘ƒˆˆ‹‹–›ǡ‡Ž‡…–”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‹–›ƒ†‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǤ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…‘•–”—…–‹‘ƒ†‹–‡”’”‡–‰”ƒ’Š•ˆ”‘’”‘˜‹†‡††ƒ–ƒ
‘ƒ–‘‹…ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ –”‡† ‹ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ –Š‡ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡ƒ›ƒ‘ƒŽ‹‡•‹–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ–”‡†•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ƒ›ƒ‘ƒŽ‹‡•‹–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ–”‡†•Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ……—”ƒ–‡Ž›†”ƒ™‰”ƒ’Š•Š‘™‹‰˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘•‹ƒ–‘‹…ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽǤ

Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Reactions of the Elements


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‰‹˜‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡ x ‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•™‹–Š
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ ƒ‹” ȋ‘š›‰‡Ȍǡ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ †‹Ž—–‡
 ƒ…‹†• ȋ Žǡ ʹͲͶȌǡ †‹Ž—–‡
 •‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡ǡ…ŠŽ‘”‹‡
x •–ƒ–‡ …‘†‹–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡ x ‘†‹–‹‘•ˆ‘””‡ƒ…–‹‘•
”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ƒ† ‡š’‡…–‡† 
‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘• ˆ‘” ‡ƒ…Š 
”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–”‡†•‹”‡ƒ…–‹˜‹–›‘ˆ x ”‡†• ‹ –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹˜‹–› ‘ˆ –Š‡
–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ ‡Ž‡‡–• ™‹–Š –Š‡ ”‡ƒ‰‡–•
ƒ„‘˜‡



208
Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘†‘•‹’Ž‡’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡ˆ‘”–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•™‹–Šƒ‹”
ƒ†™ƒ–‡”Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‹•…—•• ƒ† …ƒ””› ‘—– •‹’Ž‡ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‡š‡”…‹•‡• ˆ‘”
–Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ™‹–Š †‹Ž—–‡ ƒ…‹†ǡ †‹Ž—–‡ •‘†‹— Š›†”‘š‹†‡ ƒ† …ŠŽ‘”‹‡ǡ
ଷି
ƒ†“—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡–‡•–•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›Ž͵Ϊǡଶି ି
ସ ǡସ ǡଷ Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ
–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•™‹–Š™ƒ–‡”ǡ†‹Ž—–‡ƒ…‹†•ƒ†•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡Ǥ
x ‡––Š‡†‘“—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡–‡•–•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›Žଷା ǡ ଷି ି ଶି
ସ ǡ ଷ ǡ ସ Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ™”‹–‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡‡–• ™‹–ŠǢ ƒ‹”ǡ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ
†‹Ž—–‡ƒ…‹†•ȋ Žǡ ʹͲͶȌǡ†‹Ž—–‡‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡ǡ…ŠŽ‘”‹‡™Š‡”‡
ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ„Ž‡Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡…‘†‹–‹‘•ˆ‘”–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ƒ›–”‡†•‹–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””› ‘—– •‹’Ž‡ “—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ –‡•–• –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ›
Žଷା ǡ ଷି ି ଶି
ସ ǡ ଷ ǡ ସ .

Sub-Topic 3: Compounds of the Elements


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ›‡Ž‡‡–•‘ˆ‰”‘—’  x Š‡Ž‡‡–•‘ˆ
”‘—’ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ x Š‡Š›•‹…ƒŽ”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ
”‘—’
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡‡–• ‡Ž‡‡–•
†‘™–Š‡‰”‘—’Ǥ Ǧ Ǥ’–•ǡ „Ǥ’–•ǡ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘
 ‡‡”‰›ǡ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ‹‘‹…
 ”ƒ†‹—•ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹…
 •–”—…–—”‡•ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘ ƒˆˆ‹‹–›ǡ
 ‡Ž‡…–”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‹–›ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘ Ȃ
 ’‘•‹–‹˜‹–›ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡
 ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ
 …‘†—…–‹˜‹–›



209
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Specific Objectives Content


x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ƒ› ƒ‘ƒŽ‹‡• ‹ –Š‡ x ‘ƒŽ‘—•–”‡†•‹ƒ–‘‹…ƒ†
‰‡‡”ƒŽ–”‡†•Ǥ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡‡–•
 ‹
”‘—’ 
x †”ƒ™ ‰”ƒ’Š• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘• ‹ x
”ƒ’Š• •Š‘™‹‰ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘• ‹
ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ ‘ˆ’‡”‹‘†͵‡Ž‡‡–•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘š‹†‡• ƒ† –Š‡‹” ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‹
”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘–Š‡‹”•–”—…–—”‡ƒ†„‘†‹‰Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘š‹†‡• ™‹–Š ™ƒ–‡”ǡ ƒ…‹†• ƒ† •‘†‹—
Š›†”‘š‹†‡‹…Ž—†‹‰–Š‡•‹’Ž‡–‡•–Ǧ–—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• •–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘š‘Ǧƒ…‹†• ‘ˆ •—Ž’Š—”ǡ ’Š‘•’Š‘”—•ǡ …ŠŽ‘”‹‡
ƒ†˜ƒ”›‹‰ƒ…‹†•–”‡‰–Šˆ‘”‘š‘Ǧƒ…‹†•‘ˆ…ŠŽ‘”‹‡Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•ǡ –Š‡‹” •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† „‘†‹‰ǡ
’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ƒ†”‡ƒ…–‹‘•™‹–Š™ƒ–‡”‹…Ž—†‹‰–Š‡•‹’Ž‡–‡•–Ǧ
–—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š›†”‹†‡•ǡ –Š‡‹” •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† „‘†‹‰ǡ
’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ƒ†”‡ƒ…–‹‘•™‹–Š™ƒ–‡”‹…Ž—†‹‰–Š‡•‹’Ž‡–‡•–Ǧ
–—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ ’”‘…‡••‡• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡ ‘ˆǢ …ŠŽ‘”‹‡ ƒ†
•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡ǡ‹–”‹…ƒ†•—Ž’Š—”‹…ƒ…‹†ƒ†’Š‘•’Šƒ–‡ƒ†‹–”ƒ–‡
ˆ‡”–‹Ž‹œ‡”•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ
–Š‡…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•™‹–Š™ƒ–‡”ƒ†•—„•‡“—‡–…Šƒ‰‡•‹’ ‘ˆ–Š‡”‡•—Ž–ƒ–
•‘Ž—–‹‘•Ǥ
x ‡– –Š‡ ‘†‡Ž •–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ ‘š‘Ǧƒ…‹†• ‘ˆ …ŠŽ‘”‹‡ǡ •—Ž’Š—” ƒ†
’Š‘•’Š‘”—•Ǥ
x •‡ ͵Ǧ•–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡• ƒ† Š›†”‹†‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡‡–• –‘
‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡…‘’‘—†•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—––‡•––—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•‘–Š‡‘š‹†‡•‘ˆ–Š‡
’‡”‹‘†͵‡Ž‡‡–•–‘†‡–‡”‹‡Ǣ•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ’ ‘ˆ”‡•—Ž–ƒ–•‘Ž—–‹‘ƒ†
ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡ƒ–—”‡Ǥ



210
Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ™”‹–‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‡‘ˆ–Š‡‘š‹†‡•ǡ…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•ƒ†Š›†”‹†‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ‡–Š‘†• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘š‹†‡•ǡ
…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•ƒ†Š›†”‹†‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘š‹†‡•ǡ …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡• ƒ† Š›†”‹†‡• ™‹–Š
™ƒ–‡”Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘š‹†‡•ǡ …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡• ƒ†
Š›†”‹†‡•‹–‡”•‘ˆ„‘†‹‰ƒ†•–”—…–—”‡Ǥ
Ǧ …‘’ƒ”‡ƒ…‹†•–”‡‰–Š•‘ˆ–Š‡˜ƒ”‹‘—•‘š‘Ǧƒ…‹†•Ǥ
Ǧ —•‡•‹’Ž‡–‡•––—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡ƒ–—”‡‘ˆ
–Š‡‘š‹†‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ’”‘…‡••‡•ˆ‘”–Š‡ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡‘ˆǢ•—Ž’Š—”‹…
ƒ…‹†ǡ‹–”‹…ƒ…‹†ǡ…ŠŽ‘”‹‡ǡ•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡ǡ’Š‘•’Šƒ–‡ƒ†‹–”ƒ–‡
ˆ‡”–‹Ž‹œ‡”•Ǥ







211
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

   


Topic 11: The Chemistry of Group II Elements
(Alkaline Earth Metals)
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͳͲ‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‹• –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡ –Š‡
„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‘ˆ‰”‘—’ ‡Ž‡‡–•ƒ†–Š‡‹”…‘’‘—†•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Trends in Physical Properties of the


Elements of Group II
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ›‡Ž‡‡–•‘ˆ‰”‘—’ Ǥ x Š‡Ž‡‡–•‘ˆ
”‘—’ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ x Š‡Š›•‹…ƒŽ”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ
”‘—’
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡‡–• ‡Ž‡‡–•
†‘™–Š‡‰”‘—’ Ǥ Ǧ  ’–•ǡ „’–•ǡ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰›ǡ
 ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ‹‘‹… ”ƒ†‹—•ǡ
 ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹… •–”—…–—”‡•ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘
 ƒˆˆ‹‹–›ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‹‹–›ǡ
 ‡Ž‡…–”‘’‘•‹–‹˜‹–›ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡
 ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ
 …‘†—…–‹˜‹–›
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ƒ› ƒ‘ƒŽ‹‡• ‹ –Š‡ x ‘ƒŽ‘—•–”‡†•‹ƒ–‘‹…ƒ†
‰‡‡”ƒŽ–”‡†•Ǥ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡‡–•
 ‘ˆ‰”‘—’ 
x †”ƒ™ ‰”ƒ’Š• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‹ x
”ƒ’Š• •Š‘™‹‰ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‹
ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ ‘ˆ’‡”‹‘†͵‡Ž‡‡–•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‹•…—•• ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹… •–”—…–—”‡•ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ …‘†—…–‹‘ǡ
–”‡†• ‹ ‡Ž–‹‰ ’‘‹–ǡ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹–ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘’‘•‹–‹˜‹–›ǡ
‡Ž‡…–”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‹–›ƒ†‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǤ



212
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ‹‘‹… ”ƒ†‹—•ǡ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰› ƒ†
‡Ž‡…–”‘ƒˆˆ‹‹–›Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…‘•–”—…–ƒ†‹–‡”’”‡–‰”ƒ’Š•ˆ”‘’”‘˜‹†‡††ƒ–ƒ‘
ƒ–‘‹…ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ –”‡† ‹ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ –Š‡ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡ƒ›ƒ‘ƒŽ‹‡•‹–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ–”‡†•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ƒ›ƒ‘ƒŽ‹‡•‹–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ–”‡†•Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ……—”ƒ–‡Ž› †”ƒ™ ‰”ƒ’Š• ‘ˆ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘• ‹ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Reactions of Group II Elements


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ x ‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ
”‘—’ Ž‡‡–•
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•†‘™ 
–Š‡‰”‘—’Ǥ 
x …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ƒ† x Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
…Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‰”‘—’  ‡Ž‡‡–•ȋ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ™‹–Š ʹǡ
ƒ† ‡Ž‡‡–Ǥ †‹ŽǤ…‹†•ǡƒ‹”ǡŽʹȌ
 x ‘’‘—†• ‘ˆ –Š‡
‡Ž‡‡–•ȋ‘š‹†‡•ǡŠ›†”‘š‹†‡•ǡ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–•‹’Ž‡’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡š‡”…‹•‡ˆ‘”–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ
‡Ž‡‡–• ‹ ‰”‘—’  ™‹–Š ƒ‹”ǡ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ †‹Ž—–‡ ƒ…‹†• ȋ Žǡ ʹͶȌ ƒ†
…ŠŽ‘”‹‡Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹˜‹–› ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡‡–• ™‹–Š †‹Ž—–‡ •—Ž’Š—”‹… ƒ…‹†ǡ
”‡ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ„‡”›ŽŽ‹—™‹–Š•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡Ǥ



213
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Practical Problems
x ƒ””›‘—––‡•––—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•ˆ‘”–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•™‹–ŠǢ
™ƒ–‡”ǡ†‹Ž—–‡ƒ…‹†•ƒ†…ŠŽ‘”‹‡Ǥ
x ƒ””› ‘—– …‘’—–‡” •‹—Žƒ–‹‘• –‘ …‘’ƒ”‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ
”‘—’ȋ Ȍ ƒ†

”‘—’ȋ Ȍ‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ™”‹–‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡‡–• ™‹–Šǣ ƒ‹”ǡ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ
†‹Ž—–‡ ƒ…‹†• ȋ Žǡ ʹͲͶȌǡ †‹Ž—–‡ ‘†‹— Š›†”‘š‹†‡ ƒ† …ŠŽ‘”‹‡
™Š‡”‡ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ„Ž‡Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡…‘†‹–‹‘•ˆ‘”–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ƒ›–”‡†•‹–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 3: Compounds of Group II Elements


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡† ‹ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡•  ‘ˆ –Š‡
‘ˆ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ƒ† …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ‘’‘—†• ȋŠŽ‘”‹†‡•ǡ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡…‘’‘—†•Ǥ ›†”‹†‡•ǡ —Ž’Šƒ–‡• ͵ʹǦ ƒ†
x …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ ͵Ȍ
‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ‰”‘—’ x ‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ –Š‡”ƒŽ •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›ǡ
…ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ •–”—…–—”‡ƒ†„‘†‹‰ǡ”‡ƒ…–‹‘
 ™‹–Š ƒ…‹†•ȋ‘š‹†‡•ǡ Š›†”‘š‹†‡•Ȍǡ
 ”‡ƒ…–‹‘™‹–Š•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡
 ȋ‘š‹†‡•ǡŠ›†”‘š‹†‡•Ȍ
 x —ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ ƒƒŽ›•‹• ‘ˆ
”‘—’ 
 …ƒ–‹‘•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –”‡† ‹ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ x ‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ •—Ž’Šƒ–‡• ƒ†
–Š‡ •—Ž’Šƒ–‡• ƒ† Š›†”‘š‹†‡• Š›†”‘š‹†‡•‹”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘Žƒ––‹…‡
‘ˆ  ‰”‘—’   ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ –‘ Žƒ––‹…‡ ƒ†Š›†”ƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰‹‡•
ƒ†Š›†”ƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰‹‡•Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ x ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡‘ˆ…‡‡–
ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡‘ˆ…‡‡–Ǥ 
x •–ƒ–‡ —•‡• ‘ˆ …‘‘ x •‡• ‘ˆ …‘’‘—†• ‘ˆ ‰”‘—’ 
…‘’‘—†• ‘ˆ  Ʈ‰”‘—’  ‡Ž‡‡–•
‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ 



214
Suggested Teaching Procedure
x ‹•…—•• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘š‹†‡• ƒ† …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•ǡ –Š‡‹” ‡Ž–‹‰
’‘‹–•‹”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘„‘†‹‰ǡˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆŠ›†”‹†‡•ƒ†–Š‡‹””‡ƒ…–‹‘
™‹–Š™ƒ–‡”Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ƒ† –Š‡”ƒŽ •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ –Š‡ …ƒ”„‘ƒ–‡• ƒ†
Š›†”‘‰‡…ƒ”„‘ƒ–‡•‹…‘’ƒ”‹•‘–‘
”‘—’ȋ ȌǤ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ  –Š‡ Š›†”‘š‹†‡• ƒ† •—Ž’Šƒ–‡• ‹ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ –‘
Žƒ––‹…‡ ƒ† Š›†”ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰›ǡ “—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ ƒƒŽ›•‹• ˆ‘”Ǣ  ‰ʹΪǡ ƒʹΪ ƒ†
ƒʹΪǤ
x ‹•…—••–Š‡ƒ‘ƒŽ‘—•„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‘ˆ„‡”›ŽŽ‹—ƒ†‹–•…‘’‘—†•ƒ†
‹†—•–”‹ƒŽƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡‘ˆ…‡‡–Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–•‹’Ž‡“—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡–‡•–•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›‰ʹΪǡ
ƒʹΪƒ†ƒʹΪǤ
x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ –‡•–• ‘ –Š‡”ƒŽ •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ
…ƒ”„‘ƒ–‡•ƒ†Š›†”‘‰‡…ƒ”„‘ƒ–‡•‘ˆ
”‘—’ȋ Ȍ‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
x ƒ””›‘—–ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡––‘‰‡––Š‡ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ†‹Ž—–‡Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹…ƒ…‹†‘”
†‹Ž—–‡•—Ž’Š—”‹…ƒ…‹†‘–Š‡‘š‹†‡•Ǥ
x ƒ””›‘—–ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡––‘‰‡––Š‡ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ†‹Ž—–‡Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹…ƒ…‹†‘”
†‹Ž—–‡•—Ž’Š—”‹…ƒ…‹†‘–Š‡…ƒ”„‘ƒ–‡•ƒ†Š›†”‘‰‡…ƒ”„‘ƒ–‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—–•‹’Ž‡“—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡–‡•–•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›‰ʹΪǡƒʹΪǡƒǤʹΪǤ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ‡–Š‘†• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘š‹†‡•ǡ
…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•ƒ†Š›†”‹†‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡‘š‹†‡•ǡƒ†Š›†”‹†‡•™‹–Š™ƒ–‡”Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡† ‹ ‡Ž–‹‰ ’‘‹–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘š‹†‡• ƒ† …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡• ‘ˆ
–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡† ‹ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š›†”‘š‹†‡• ƒ† •—Ž’Šƒ–‡•
†‘™–Š‡‰”‘—’‹”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘Žƒ––‹…‡‡‡”‰›ƒ†Š›†”ƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰›Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ……‘—– ˆ‘” –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡ ‹ –Š‡”ƒŽ •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› „‡–™‡‡
…ƒ”„‘ƒ–‡•ȀŠ›†”‘‰‡…ƒ”„‘ƒ–‡•‘ˆ
”‘—’ȋ Ȍƒ†
”‘—’ȋ ȌǤ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ƒ‘ƒŽ‘—•„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‘ˆ„‡”›ŽŽ‹—Ǥ





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Topic 12: The Chemistry of Group IV Elements
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͲͺ‡”‹‘†•

General objective
› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‹• –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡ ”‡†• ‹
–Š‡„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‘ˆ‰”‘—’ ‡Ž‡‡–•ƒ†–Š‡‹”…‘’‘—†•Ǥ


Sub-Topic 1: Trends in Physical Properties of Group IV


Elements
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣǦ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡•
”‘—’ 
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡‡–• Ž‡‡–•
†‘™–Š‡‰”‘—’Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …ƒ–‡ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ x Ǥ’–•ǡ „Ǥ’–•ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹…
…ƒ”„‘Ǥ •–”—…–—”‡• ǡ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰›
‡Ž‡…–”‘’‘•‹–‹˜‹–›ǡ –”ƒ•‹–‹‘
ˆ”‘ ‘ Ȃ ‡–ƒŽ –‘ ‡–ƒŽ
†‘™ –Š‡ ‰”‘—’ǡ …‘†—…–‹˜‹–›
ƒ†•–”—…–—”‡ƒ†„‘†‹‰

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹… •–”—…–—”‡•ǡ ‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ •–ƒ–‡•ǡ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰›ǡ
‡Ž‡…–”‘’‘•‹–‹˜‹–›ƒ†‡–ƒŽŽ‹……Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”ƒ†‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ…‘†—…–‹‘Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† „‘†‹‰ ‹ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡‡–• ƒ† –”‡†• ‹
‡Ž–‹‰’‘‹–•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‹ –Š‡ …‘•–”—…–‹‘ ƒ† ‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‰”ƒ’Š•
ˆ”‘’”‘˜‹†‡††ƒ–ƒ‘ƒ–‘‹…ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ™”‹–‡‡Ž‡…–”‘‹……‘ˆ‹‰—”ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘ƒ†•‹Ž‹…‘Ǥ



216
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡–Š‡…‘‘‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘•–ƒ–‡•‡šŠ‹„‹–‡†„›–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ –”‡† ‹ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰›ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘’‘•‹–‹˜‹–› ƒ†
‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ…‘†—…–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰›ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘’‘•‹–‹˜‹–› ƒ†
‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ…‘†—…–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹‡Ž–‹‰’‘‹–•‹”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘•–”—…–—”‡ƒ†„‘†‹‰Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡ƒ›ƒ‘ƒŽ‹‡•‹–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ–”‡†•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Reactions of the Elements


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣǦ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡† ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ x Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‘’‡”–‹‡•
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ Ǧ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ™‹–Šǣ ƒ‹”ǡ †‹Ž—–‡ ƒ†
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –”‡†• ‹ –Š‡ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘ …‘…‡–”ƒ–‡† ƒ…‹†•ǡ ƒŽƒŽ‹•ǡ
‘ˆ –Š‡ •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‹ ‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ …ŠŽ‘”‹‡ǡ™ƒ–‡”ǡ•—Ž’Š—”
•–ƒ–‡•Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‹•…—•• ƒ† …ƒ””› ‘—– •‹’Ž‡ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‡š‡”…‹•‡• ‘
–Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ
”‘—’ȋ Ȍ ‡Ž‡‡–• ™‹–Š …‘…Ǥ ƒ† †‹Ž—–‡ ƒ…‹†• ȋ Žǡ
ʹͶǡ ͵ȌǤ
x ‹•…—••–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•™‹–ŠǢƒ‹”ǡ™ƒ–‡”ǡ…ŠŽ‘”‹‡ǡ•—Ž’Š—”ǡ
…‘…Ǥƒ††‹Ž—–‡•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ
–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•™‹–Š†‹Ž—–‡ƒ†…‘…Ǥ…‹†•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ™”‹–‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡‡–• ™‹–ŠǢ ƒ‹”ǡ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ
†‹Ž—–‡ ƒ…‹†• ȋ Žǡ ʹͲͶȌǡ …‘…Ǥ ƒ…‹†ǡ ȋ ͵ǡ ʹͶǡ ŽȌǡ †‹Ž—–‡
‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡ƒ†™‹–Š…ŠŽ‘”‹‡™Š‡”‡ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ„Ž‡Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡–Š‡…‘†‹–‹‘•ˆ‘”–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ






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Sub-Topic 3: Compounds of the Group IV Elements


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣǦ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡† ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡…‘’‘—†•Ǥ ‘’‘—†•ǡ ‘š‹†‡•ǡ …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•ǡ
 Š›†”‹†‡• ȋ•–”—…–—”‡ ƒ†
 „‘†‹‰ǡǤǡǤǡȌ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡† ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ x Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ …‘’‘—†•
 ȋ‘š‹†‡•ǡ…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•ǡŠ›†”‹†‡•Ȍ
 Ǧ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ™‹–Š †‹Ž—–‡
 ƒ…‹†•
 Ǧ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘™‹–ŠƒŽƒŽ‹
 Ǧ ”‡†‘š ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ
 –Š‡‘š‹†‡•
 Ǧ …‘„—•–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
 Š›†”‹†‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ Š›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ –Š‡ x ›†”‘Ž›•‹•‘ˆ…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•
…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•Ǥ 
x ”‡Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ –Š‡”ƒŽ •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ x Š‡”ƒŽ •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ ŠƒŽ‹†‡• ‘”
–Š‡ŠƒŽ‹†‡•ƒ†Š›†”‹†‡•–‘•‹œ‡ Š›†”‹†‡•
‘ˆ–Š‡…ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ ‡”–ƒ‹”ˆˆ‡…–Ǥ x ‡”–ƒ‹”ˆˆ‡…–
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ˆ‘” “—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ x ”‹‡ˆ …Š‡‹•–”› ‘ˆ ‹ǡ ƒ†
ƒƒŽ›•‹•‘ˆ–‹ƒ†Ž‡ƒ†Ǥ Ž‡ƒ†
x ‡–‹‘ –Š‡ —•‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ x •‡•‘ˆ
”‘—’ ‡Ž‡‡–•
‰”‘—’ȋ Ȍ‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ …‘ˆ‹”ƒ–‘”› –‡•– x ‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡– ˆ‘” Ž‡ƒ†
ˆ‘”„ʹΪ ȋ…‘ˆ‹”ƒ–‘”›–‡•–‘ˆ„ʹΪȌ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ‰”‡‡ x ‡–‹‘–Š‡‰”‡‡Š‘—•‡‡ˆˆ‡…–
Š‘—•‡‡ˆˆ‡…–Ǥ ‘ˆʹ


Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘™”‹–‡–Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‡‘ˆ–Š‡Š›†”‹†‡•ǡ…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•
ƒ† ‘š‹†‡•Ǥ ‡ƒ† –Š‡ –‘ †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‡–Š‘†• —•‡† –‘ ’”‡’ƒ”‡ –Š‡
‘š‹†‡•ǡ…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•ƒ†Š›†”‹†‡•Ǥ



218
x š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ ‡Ž–‹‰ ’‘‹–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘š‹†‡•ǡ …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡• ƒ†
Š›†”‹†‡•‹”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘•–”—…–—”‡ƒ†„‘†‹‰Ǥ
x ‹•…—••–Š‡–”‡†•‹–Š‡”ƒŽ•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡‘š‹†‡•ƒ†…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•ƒ†
ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‘ˆ–Š‡‘š‹†‡•Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘š‹†‡• ™‹–ŠǢ †‹Ž—–‡ ƒ† …‘…Ǥ ƒ…‹†•ǡ †‹Ž—–‡
ƒ†…‘…Ǥ•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡‹…Ž—†‹‰•‹’Ž‡–‡•––—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ Ϊʹ ƒ† ΪͶ …‘’‘—†• ȋ‹‡”– ’ƒ‹” ‡ˆˆ‡…–Ȍǡ
”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ‘ˆ –”‹ǦŽ‡ƒ† –‡–”ƒ ‘š‹†‡ ™‹–Š †‹Ž—–‡ ‹–”‹… ƒ…‹† ƒ† …‘…Ǥ
Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹…ƒ…‹†ǡ”‡ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ–‡–”ƒ…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•™‹–Š™ƒ–‡”
ƒ† ”‡†—…‹‰ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‹ȋ Ȍ ‹‘•ǡ ‹…Ž—†‹‰ •‹’Ž‡ –‡•– –—„‡
‡š’‡”‹‡–•Ǥ
x ‹•…—••–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡‹•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡†‹…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡‘ˆ‹ƒ†‡ƒ†‹
™ƒ–‡” ƒ† …‘…Ǥ Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹… ƒ…‹† ƒ† …‘„—•–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š›†”‹†‡• ‘ˆ
–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‹ –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹ ȋ Ȍ ƒ† ‡ƒ† ȋ Ȍ ‘š‹†‡ „›
ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ™ƒ”…‘…Ǥ‹–”‹…ƒ…‹†‘–Š‡‡–ƒŽ•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•‹–Š‡‡š’‡”‹‡–‘ˆ–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ‹ȋ Ȍƒ†‡ƒ†
ȋ Ȍ ‘š‹†‡• ™‹–Š …‘…Ǥ Š›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹… ƒ…‹†ǡ …‘…Ǥ •‘†‹— Š›†”‘š‹†‡ ƒ†
ƒ…‹†‹ˆ‹‡†’‘–ƒ••‹—‹‘†‹†‡Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‹ ƒ ‡š’‡”‹‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‡…‘’‘•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‹‘š‹†‡•
ƒ††‹…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡‘ˆ‹ƒ†‡ƒ†Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•‹ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡–‘ˆ–Š‡…‘„—•–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡Š›†”‹†‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•‹ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡–‘ˆ–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ–‡–”ƒ…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•™‹–Š
™ƒ–‡”Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ™”‹–‡ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒ‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‘’‘—†• ‹ Ϊʹ ƒ† ΪͶ
‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘•–ƒ–‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ „› —•‡ ‘ˆ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ‡–Š‘†• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆǢ –Š‡
†‹‘š‹†‡•ǡ †‹…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡ ƒ† –‡–”ƒ …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡• ƒ† Š›†”‹†‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
‡Ž‡‡–Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡† ‹ ‡Ž–‹‰ ’‘‹–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘š‹†‡•ǡ …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡• ƒ†
Š›†”‹†‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•‹”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘•–”—…–—”‡ƒ†„‘†‹‰Ǥ



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CHEMISTRY
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Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡‘š‹†‡•™‹–Š…‘…Ǥƒ††‹Ž—–‡ƒ…‹†•ƒ†
•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡† ‹ ƒ…‹†Ǧ„ƒ•‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡” ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘š‹†‡• †‘™ –Š‡
‰”‘—’Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•™‹–Š™ƒ–‡”Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ–”‹Ž‡ƒ†–‡–”ƒ‘š‹†‡™‹–Šƒ…‹†•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–”‡†‹•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆΪʹƒ†ΪͶ‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘•–ƒ–‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡”‡†—…‹‰”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ‹ȋ Ȍ‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ……‘—–ˆ‘”–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡‹•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡†‹…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡‘ˆ‹ƒ†
‡ƒ†‹™ƒ–‡”ƒ†…‘…ǤŠ›†”‘…ŠŽ‘”‹…ƒ…‹†Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡™‹–Š—•‡‘ˆ‡“—ƒ–‹‘•–Š‡…‘„—•–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡Š›†”‹†‡•Ǥ



220
   
Topic 13: The Chemistry of Group VII Elements
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣʹͲ‡”‹‘†•

General objective
› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‹• –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡ –Š‡
„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‘ˆ‰”‘—’ ‡Ž‡‡–•ƒ†–Š‡‹”…‘’‘—†•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Trends in Physical Properties of the


Elements
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ‡–Š‘†• x
‡‡”ƒŽ ‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ ’”‡’ƒ”‹‰
ˆ‘”’”‡’ƒ”‹‰ŠƒŽ‘‰‡•Ǥ ŠƒŽ‘‰‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ –Š‡ x ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘‹’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•†‘™
”‘—’Ǥ x Ǥ’–•ǡ Ǥ’–•ǡ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰›ǡ
ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ‹‘‹… ”ƒ†‹—• ƒ†
‡Ž‡…–”‘‹… •–”—…–—”‡•ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘
ƒˆˆ‹‹–›ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‹–›ǡ
‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ
x •–”—…–—”‡ƒ†„‘†‹‰

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—••–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•ǡ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹…•–”—…–—”‡•ǡ
•–”—…–—”‡ ƒ† „‘†‹‰ǡ –”‡†• ‹ ‡Ž–‹‰ ’‘‹–ǡ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹– ƒ†
‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰›Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ‹‘‹… ”ƒ†‹—•ǡ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰›ǡ
‡Ž‡…–”‘ƒˆˆ‹‹–›ǡ‡Ž‡…–”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‹–›ƒ†‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǤ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‹ –Š‡ …‘•–”—…–‹‘ ƒ† ‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‰”ƒ’Š•
ˆ”‘’”‘˜‹†‡††ƒ–ƒ‘ƒ–‘‹…ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ



221
CHEMISTRY
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TEACHING SYLLABUS

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ –”‡†• ‹ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ –Š‡ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡ƒ›ƒ‘ƒŽ‹‡•‹–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ–”‡†•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ƒ›ƒ‘ƒŽ‹‡•‹–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ–”‡†•Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ……—”ƒ–‡Ž›†”ƒ™‰”ƒ’Š•˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘‹ƒ–‘‹…ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‹–‡”’”‡–‰”ƒ’Š•‘ƒ–‘‹…ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Reactions of the Elements of


Group II of Periodic Table
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣǦ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡† ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ x …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ ‡Ž‡‡–•
 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• x ‡ƒ…–‹‘ ™‹–Š Š›†”‘‰‡ǡ
™‹–Š–Š‡‹†‡–‹ˆ›‹‰”‡ƒ‰‡–•Ǥ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ŠƒŽ‘‰‡• ™‹–Šǣ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ •‘†‹— Š›†”‘š‹†‡
•‘Ž—–‹‘ƒ†–Š‡‹”‘š‹†‹•‹‰ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—––‡•––—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘•Š‘™†‹•’Žƒ…‡‡–
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡ŠƒŽ‘‰‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• „‡–™‡‡ †‹Ž—–‡
•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡ƒ†ƒ“—‡‘—••‘Ž—–‹‘•‘ˆ„”‘‹‡ƒ†‹‘†‹‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ŠƒŽ‘‰‡• ™‹–ŠǢ ƒ–‡”ǡ ‘†‹—
Š›†”‘š‹†‡•‘Ž—–‹‘
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡…‘†‹–‹‘•ˆ‘”–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•



222
Sub-Topic 3: Compounds of the Elements
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣǦ 
x ™”‹–‡ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒ‡ x ‘’‘—†•  ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡Ž‡‡–•
‘ˆ–Š‡Š›†”‹†‡• ›†”‹†‡•ǡ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ‡–Š‘†• x ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ ›†”‹†‡•
‘ˆ’”‡’ƒ”‹‰Š›†”‹†‡• 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹‹’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• x ›†”‘‰‡‘†‹‰ȋ –•‡ˆˆ‡…–‘
‘ˆ–Š‡Š›†”‹†‡• ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡† ‹ ƒ…‹† Š›†”‹†‡•Ȍȋǣ ‹––Ž‡ ‡’Šƒ•‹•
•–”‡‰–Š‘ˆ–Š‡Š›†”‹†‡• ‘ ‘š‹†‡• ‡š…‡’– ˆ‘” –Š‡‹”
x …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ ƒ…‹†‹–›Ȍ
‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ŽǦǡ ”Ǧ x ‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ˆ‘”  ǡ
ƒ† ǦǤ ”ǡƒ† 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘ ‘ˆ x ……—””‡…‡ǡ ‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘ ƒ†
•‘†‹— …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡ ˆ”‘ –Š‡ —–‹Ž‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ–—”ƒŽ •ƒŽ–
ƒ–—”ƒŽ†‡’‘•‹–•Ǥ †‡’‘•‹–•„‡…‘˜‡”‡†‡Ǥ‰ǤƒŽ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—••–Š‡ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ –Š‡Š›†”‘‰‡ŠƒŽ‹†‡•ǡ–”‡†‹„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–•ǡ
–Š‡”ƒŽ•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›ƒ†ƒ…‹†•–”‡‰–ŠǤ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ –”‡†• ‹ ”‡†—…‹‰ ƒ…–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š›†”‘‰‡ ŠƒŽ‹†‡• ƒ†
“—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡ƒƒŽ›•‹•ˆ‘”–Š‡ŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–•‹’Ž‡“—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡–‡•–•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›ŽǦǡ”Ǧǡ Ǧ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—–•‹’Ž‡“—ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‹˜‡–‡•–•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›ŽǦǡ”Ǧƒ† ǦǤ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •—‹–ƒ„Ž‡ ‡–Š‘†• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ Š›†”‘‰‡
ŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–”‡†•‹„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–•‘ˆ–Š‡Š›†”‘‰‡ŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–”‡†•‹–Š‡”ƒŽ•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡Š›†”‘‰‡ŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–”‡†•‹ƒ…‹†•–”‡‰–ŠǤ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–”‡†•‹”‡†—…‹‰ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡Š›†”‘‰‡ŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ƒ‘ƒŽ‘—•„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‘ˆˆŽ—‘”‹‡ƒ†Š›†”‘‰‡ˆŽ—‘”‹†‡Ǥ



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CHEMISTRY
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TEACHING SYLLABUS

   


Topic 14: The Chemistry of the d-block
Transition Elements
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͳͲ‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‹• –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡ –Š‡
„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‘ˆ†Ǧ„Ž‘…–”ƒ•‹–‹‘‡Ž‡‡–•ƒ†–Š‡‹”…‘’‘—†•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: The d-Block Transition Elements 


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣǦ 
x †‡ˆ‹‡–”ƒ•‹–‹‘‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ x ‘…‡’– ‘ˆ –Š‡ –”ƒ•‹–‹‘
x †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ ƒ ‡Ž‡‡–• ȋˆ‹”•– •‡”‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ †Ǧ
–”ƒ•‹–‹‘ ‡Ž‡‡– ƒ† †Ǧ„Ž‘… „Ž‘…Ȍ
‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –”‡† ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ 
x …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ x Ǥ’–•ǡ Ǥ’–•ǡ ‹‘‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰›ǡ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ †Ǧ„Ž‘… ƒ† ƒ–‘‹… ƒ† ‹‘‹… ”ƒ†‹—•ǡ
ƒ‹„Ž‘…‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹… •–”—…–—”‡ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡
 ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘Ǧ’‘•‹–‹˜‹–› ƒ†
 …‘†—…–‹˜‹–›
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ x
‡‡”ƒŽ Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ †Ǧ
…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ–Š‡–”ƒ•‹–‹‘ „Ž‘…Ž‡‡–•
‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ Ǧ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡ ‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ •–ƒ–‡•ǡ
ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹–‡”•–‹–‹ƒŽ
…‘’‘—†•ǡ …ƒ–ƒŽ›–‹…
ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•  ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ ”‘ ‹ ƒ„‡”ǡ
…‘’Ž‡š ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ȋ ʹǡ  ǡ
 ͵ ǡ  Ǧ ǡ Ǧǡ ǡ Ž‹‰ƒ†•Ȍǡ
’ƒ”ƒƒ‰‡–‹• ƒ†
ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ …‘Ž‘—”‡†
…‘’‘—†•



224
Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies
x ”ƒ‹•–‘” –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ †Ǧ„Ž‘… ‡Ž‡‡–•ǡ –Š‡ –”ƒ•‹–‹‘ ‡Ž‡‡–•
ƒ† ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ȋǤ’–•ǡ Ǥ’–•ǡ ‹‘‹œƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰›ǡ ƒ–‘‹… ƒ†
‹‘‹… ”ƒ†‹—•ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹… •–”—…–—”‡ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘†‡ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘’‘•‹–‹˜‹–›ǡ
…‘†—…–‹˜‹–›ȌǤ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ –”ƒ•‹–‹‘ ‡Ž‡‡–• ȋ˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡
‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ •–ƒ–‡•ǡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹–‡”•–‹–‹ƒŽǡ …‘’‘—†•ǡ …ƒ–ƒŽ›–‹…
ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•ǡ …‘’Ž‡š ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ’ƒ”ƒƒ‰‡–‹•ǡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ …‘Ž‘—”‡†
…‘’‘—†•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‘†‡Ž–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡•‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–…‘’Ž‡š‡•Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ƒŽ•‘…ƒ””›‘—–…Žƒ••‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘ƒ‡•‘Ž—–‹‘•‘ˆ
•‘‡ …‘’Ž‡š‡• ‡Ǥ‰Ǥ „› ”‡ƒ…–‹‰ ƒ‘‹ƒ •‘Ž—–‹‘ ™‹–Š …‘’’‡”ȋ Ȍ
—Ž’Šƒ–‡Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡ –Š‡ —•‡ ‘ˆ
…‘„ƒŽ–ȋ Ȍ ‘•ƒ•ƒ…ƒ–ƒŽ›•–ˆ‘”‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘‘ˆʹǡ͵Ǧ†‹Š›†”‘š›„—–ƒ‡†‹‘ƒ–‡
„›Š›†”‘‰‡’‡”‘š‹†‡Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ …Žƒ•• ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡
‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘•–ƒ–‡•—•‹‰ƒ‘‹—˜ƒƒ†ƒ–‡ȋȌƒ†œ‹…Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹™Šƒ–‹•‡ƒ–„›ƒ†Ǧ„Ž‘…‡Ž‡‡–Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹™Šƒ–‹•‡ƒ–„›ƒ–”ƒ•‹–‹‘‡Ž‡‡–Ȁ‡–ƒŽǤ
Ǧ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡ƒ–”ƒ•‹–‹‘‡Ž‡‡–ƒ††Ǧ„Ž‘…‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡–”‡†•‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ †Ǧ„Ž‘… ƒ† ƒ‹ „Ž‘…
‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡•ƒ†•‹‹Žƒ”‹–‹‡•„‡–™‡‡–”ƒ•‹–‹‘‡Ž‡‡–•
ƒ†ƒ‹‰”‘—’‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ–Š‡–”ƒ•‹–‹‘‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ
Ǧ †”ƒ™ƒ†ƒ‡•‘‡…‘‘…‘’Ž‡š‡•Ǥ



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Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties of the Elements and


their Compounds
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”••Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x Š‡‹•–”›‘ˆ‡ƒ…Š‡Ž‡‡–
–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ x Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
 ‡Ž‡‡–• ȋ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ™‹–Š
 ʹǡ ƒ…‹†•ǡ ƒ‹”ǡ ƒ  ƒ†
 ‘š‹†‹•‹‰ƒ‰‡–•Ȍ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ x ‘’‘—†•‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡‡–
…‘‘ ‘š‹†‡•ǡ Š›†”‘š‹†‡• ƒ† š‹†‡•ǡ Š›†”‘š‹†‡ǡ ‘š‘Ǧ
…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•Ǥ ƒ‹‘• ȋˆ‘” ǡ ”ǡ Ȍǡ
 …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•ǡ‘š‘Ǧ•ƒŽ–
 x ‡•–—„‡š’‡”‹‡–•ˆ‘”
 †‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ
 ”ƒ•‹–‹‘
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –”ƒ•‹–‹‘ ‡–ƒŽ …ƒ–‹‘• x ‡–ƒŽƒ–‹‘•‡š…‡’–‹ǡ…ǡ
‡š…‡’–‹ǡ…ǡǤ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ›‘š‘Ǧƒ‹‘•‘ˆǡ”ǡǤ x †‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ †Ǧ„Ž‘…
 ‘š‘Ǧƒ‹‘•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ’Š‘–‡”‹… „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” x ’Š‘–‡”‹… „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” ‘ˆ
‘ˆǡ”Ǥ –Š‡ …‘’‘—† ȋ‘š‹†‡• ‘ˆ
 ”ǡȌ
x †”ƒ™ ƒ† ƒ‡ –Š‡ •Šƒ’‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ x –”—…–—”‡• ƒ† ƒ‡• ‘ˆ
…‘‘‘š‘Ǧƒ‹‘•Ǥ –Š‡ •Šƒ’‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‘‘
 ‘š‘Ǧƒ‹‘•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡”‡†‘š„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”‘ˆ–Š‡ x ”‡†‘š ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ˆ –Š‡ ‘š‘Ǧ
‘š‘Ǧƒ‹‘•Ǥ ƒ‹‘•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ‘š‘Ǧ x ‘Ž—‡–”‹…ƒŽ›•‹•ǣ
ƒ‹‘•‹”‡†‘š–‹–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ x ’‡”ƒ‰ƒƒ–‡
x …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ x †‹…Š”‘ƒ–‡ ȋƒ…‹†‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘
‹†‡–‹ˆ›†Ǧ„Ž‘…‘š‘Ǧƒ‹‘•Ǥ ™‹–Š ʹͶȌ
x †‡•…”‹„‡Š‘™‹”‘ǡœ‹…ƒ†…‘’’‡” x š–”ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ ‡ǡǡ—
ƒ”‡‡š–”ƒ…–‡†ˆ”‘–Š‡‹”‘”‡•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ Š‘™ •–‡‡Ž ‹• ˆ‘”‡† ˆ”‘ x ”‘†—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ •–‡‡Ž ˆ”‘
”‘Ǥ ’‹‰ ”‘



226
Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies
x ‡ƒ†ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘‘–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ–”ƒ•‹–‹‘‡–ƒŽ•™‹–ŠǢ™ƒ–‡”ǡƒ…‹†•ǡ
•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ƒ†‘š‹†‹•‹‰ƒ‰‡–•Ǥ‡––Š‡ƒŽ•‘†‹•…—••–Š‡
’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‘‘ ‘š‹†‡•ǡ Š›†”‘š‹†‡• ƒ† …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•Ǥ  ‡– –Š‡
Ž‡ƒ”‡”•—†‡”•–ƒ†–Š‡–‡…Š‹“—‡•‘ˆ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‡–ƒŽ‹‘•ƒ†
’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽŽ›…ƒ””›‘—––Š‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•Ǥ
—‹†‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘—†‡”•–ƒ†–Š‡
‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ‘š‘Ǥƒ‹‘• ‹ ”‡†‘š –‹–”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ‡ƒ† ƒ †‹•…—••‹‘ ‘ –Š‡
‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ•‘‡ƒ‡†‡–ƒŽ•Ǥ
x ‹•…—••–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ’”‘…‡†—”‡•ˆ‘”‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ‡–ƒŽ•‹…Ž—†‹‰‹”‘ǡœ‹…
ƒ†‹”‘Ǥ‡––Š‡ƒŽ•‘†‹•…—••–Š‡—•‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡–ƒŽ•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
‹˜‡‰”‘—’’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ™‘”‘‡Ž‡…–”‘…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’—”‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ…‘’’‡”Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –”ƒ•‹–‹‘
‡–ƒŽ…ƒ–‹‘•—•‹‰†‹Ž—–‡•‘†‹—Š›†”‘š‹†‡ǡƒ“—‡‘—•ƒ‘‹ƒ•‘Ž—–‹‘•
ƒ†‘–Š‡”…‘ˆ‹”ƒ–‘”›”‡ƒ‰‡–•Ǥ

Suggested Assessment Strategies


x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡–Š‡–Š”‡‡ƒ‹•–ƒ‰‡•‹˜‘Ž˜‡†‹–Š‡‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆƒ‡–ƒŽǤ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ —†‡”Ž›‹‰ ’”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‹ ‡ƒ…Š ‘ˆ –Š‡ –Š”‡‡ ƒ‹ •–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ
‡–ƒŽ‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ‡–Š‡‘”‡•‘ˆ ”‘Ǥ
Ǧ ™”‹–‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‡‘ˆ–Š‡‘”‡•‘ˆ ”‘Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ …‘˜‡”•‹‘ ‘ˆ •‹†‡”‹–‡Ȁ•’ƒ–Š‹… ‘”‡ǡ ‹”‘ ’›”‹–‡• –‘ ‹”‘
ȋ Ȍ‘š‹†‡Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡†—…–‹‘‘ˆŠƒ‡ƒ–‹–‡ǡ‘”ƒ‰‡–‹–‡Ǥ
Ǧ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡„‡–™‡‡™”‘—‰Š–ƒ†’‹‰‹”‘Ǥ
Ǧ ‰‹˜‡—•‡•‘ˆ’‹‰ƒ†™”‘—‰Š–‹”‘Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ‡–Š‡ƒ‹…‘’‘‡–•‘ˆ•–‡‡ŽǤ
Ǧ ‰‹˜‡–Š‡—•‡•‘ˆ•–‡‡Ž
Ǧ ƒ‡–Š‡‘”‡•‘ˆ…‘’’‡”Ǥ
Ǧ ™”‹–‡–Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‡‘ˆ–Š‡‘”‡•‘ˆ…‘’’‡”Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡…‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ƒ†”‘ƒ•–‹‰‘ˆ…‘’’‡”‘”‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‘…‡••‘ˆ•‡Ž–‹‰Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡”‡†—…–‹‘ƒ†”‡ˆ‹‹‰’”‘…‡••‡•‹…‘’’‡”‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ ‰‹˜‡—•‡•‘ˆ…‘’’‡”Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ‡–Š‡…‘‘ƒŽŽ‘›•‘ˆ…‘’’‡”Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ‡–Š‡‘”‡•‘ˆœ‹…Ǥ
Ǧ ™”‹–‡–Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‡‘ˆœ‹…‘”‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡…‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘ƒ†”‘ƒ•–‹‰’”‘…‡••‡•‘ˆœ‹…‘”‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡”‡†—…–‹‘’”‘…‡••‹œ‹…‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ‡–Š‡…‘‘ƒŽŽ‘›•‘ˆœ‹…Ǥ
Ǧ ‰‹˜‡—•‡•‘ˆœ‹…Ǥ



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CHEMISTRY
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TEACHING SYLLABUS

PART III: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

    


Topic 15: Introduction to Organic Chemistry
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͲ͸‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘…‘’”‡Š‡†ƒ†ƒ’’Ž›
–Š‡‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘…Š‡‹•–”›Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Introduction
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘Ǣ 
x •–ƒ–‡–Š”‡‡’Žƒ…‡•‹™Š‹…Š’‡ƒ– x ……—””‡…‡‘ˆƒ”„‘
‘……—”• ƒ–—”ƒŽŽ› ƒ† ‰‹˜‡ ‹–• Ǧ …‘ƒŽ ƒ† ™‘‘†ǡ …‘’‘•‹–‹‘
ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ƒ† —•‡• ‘ˆ …‘ƒŽǡ ƒ‹‰ ‘ˆ
 …Šƒ”…‘ƒŽˆ”‘™‘‘†
x •–ƒ–‡ —‹“—‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x ‹“—‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘
…ƒ”„‘Ǥ Ǧ …ƒ”„‘ Ȃ •‡Ž‡–‘ ȋ…Šƒ‹• ƒ†
 ”‹‰•Ȍ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ x ›„”‹†‹•ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† —Ž–‹’Ž‡
Š›„”‹†‹•ƒ–‹‘ ™‹–Š •’‡…‹ˆ‹… „‘†ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘
”‡ˆ‡”‡…‡–‘…ƒ”„‘Ǥ 
x †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡ „‡–™‡‡ ƒŽ‹’Šƒ–‹… x Ž‹’Šƒ–‹… ƒ† ”‘ƒ–‹…
ƒ†ƒ”‘ƒ–‹……‘’‘—†•Ǥ …‘’‘—†•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡˜ƒ”‹‘—•–‡”•Ǥ x ‡”• —•‡† ‹ ‘”‰ƒ‹…
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ …Š‡‹•–”›
‰”‘—’•Ǥ Ǧ Š‘‘Ž‘‰‘—• •‡”‹‡•ǡ
 ‹•‘‡”‹•ǡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ
 ‰”‘—’•ƒ†Š›†”‘…ƒ”„‘•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ –›’‡ ‘ˆ ‘”‰ƒ‹… x ›’‡•‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ Ǧ •—„•–‹–—–‹‘ǡ ƒ††‹–‹‘ ƒ†

 ‡Ž‹‹ƒ–‹‘

x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– –›’‡• ‘ˆ x ”‰ƒ‹…”‡ƒ…–‹‘‡…Šƒ‹•ǣ



228
Specific Objectives Content
”‡ƒ…–‹‘‡…Šƒ‹••Ǥ –›’‡• ‘ˆ …Ž‡ƒ˜ƒ‰‡ ȋ„‘†
’‘Žƒ”‹–›Ȍǡ ‹†—…–‹˜‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–ǡ
‡Ž‡…–”‘’Š‹Ž‡•ǡ —…Ž‡‘’Š‹Ž‡ǡ ˆ”‡‡
”ƒ†‹…ƒŽƒ†‹‘‹…‡…Šƒ‹•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‡ƒ† ƒ †‹•…—••‹‘ ‘ –Š‡ ‘……—””‡…‡ ‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘ǡ ‹–• —‹“—‡‡•• ƒ†
„‘†‹‰‹…ƒ”„‘Ǥ‹•…—••–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆŠ›„”‹†‹œƒ–‹‘‹…ƒ”„‘Ǥ‡–
Ž‡ƒ”‡”•—†‡”•–ƒ†–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡––‡”•—•‡†‹‘”‰ƒ‹……Š‡‹•–”›Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‹•…—•• Š›†”‘…ƒ”„‘•ǡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’• ƒ†
‹•‘‡”‹•Ǥ
x ‡ƒ† ƒ †‹•…—••‹‘ ‘ –Š‡ –›’‡• ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ǡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ‡…Šƒ‹•• ƒ†
‹’‘”–ƒ– –‡”• —•‡† ‹ ‘”‰ƒ‹……Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ǡ ‹…Ž—†‹‰ „—– ‘–
Ž‹‹–‡† –‘ǣ ‹†—…–‹˜‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–ǡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘’Š‹Ž‡•ǡ —…Ž‡‘’Š‹Ž‡•ǡ „‘† ’‘Žƒ”‹–›ǡ
Š‡–‡”‘Ž›–‹…ˆ‹••‹‘ƒ†Š‘‘Ž›–‹…”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ
x Ž•‘†‹•…—••–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡––›’‡•‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ƒ†–Š‡‹”‡…Šƒ‹••Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ‡ƒ”‡”• …ƒ ‘†‡Ž –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡• ‹†‹…ƒ–‹‰ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •‹‰Ž‡ǡ
†‘—„Ž‡ƒ†–”‹’Ž‡„‘†•–Š”‘—‰ŠŠ›„”‹†‹•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡—‹“—‡‡••‹ˆ‘”‹‰—‡”‘—•…‘’‘—†•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹Š‘™Š›„”‹†‹•ƒ–‹‘Ž‡ƒ†•–‘ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•‹‰Ž‡ƒ†—Ž–‹’Ž‡
„‘†•‹…ƒ”„‘Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ƒ‹‰‘ˆƒŽ‹’Šƒ–‹…ƒ†ƒ”‘ƒ–‹……‘’‘—†Ǥ
Ǧ ‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡––›’‡•‘ˆŠ›†”‘…ƒ”„‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡˜ƒ”‹‘—•–‡”•—•‡†Ǥ
Ǧ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’• ƒ† •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ Š‘‘Ž‘‰‘—•
•‡”‹‡•–Š‡›”‡’”‡•‡–Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘–›’‡•ƒ†‡…Šƒ‹•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘‘–‡”•…‘‘Ž›—•‡†‹‘”‰ƒ‹…”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ




229
CHEMISTRY
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TEACHING SYLLABUS

Topic 16: Hydrocarbons (Alkanes, Alkenes and


Alkynes)
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͳͶ‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ–—”‡ǡ
…Š‡‹•–”›ƒ†—•‡•‘ˆƒŽƒ‡•ǡƒŽ‡‡•ƒ†ƒŽ›‡•ƒ•Š›†”‘…ƒ”„‘•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Alkanes and their Physical


Properties
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x •–ƒ–‡–Š‡•‘—”…‡•‘ˆƒŽƒ‡•Ǥ x ……—””‡…‡ǣ
 x ƒ–—”ƒŽ‰ƒ•ƒ†’‡–”‘Ž‡—
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ x •‘Žƒ–‹‘ ȋ ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒŽ
•‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŽƒ‡•ˆ”‘‘‹ŽǤ †‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘Ȍ
 
x ƒ‡–Š‡ˆ‹”•–ʹͲƒŽƒ‡•Ǥ x ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡‘ˆƒŽƒ‡•—’–‘
 –Š‡ʹͲ–Š
x •–ƒ–‡‰‡‡”ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‘ˆƒŽƒ‡•Ǥ x ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ
 ‰”‘—’•ǡ ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ —•‹‰
 ”—Ž‡•
x †”ƒ™ƒ†ƒ‡–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡•‘ˆ x –”—…–—”‡•ƒ† •‘‡”•
–Š‡‹•‘‡”•—•‹‰ •›•–‡Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ Žƒ„ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ x ƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
ƒŽƒ‡•Ǥ Žƒ‡•
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ”‘’‡”–‹‡•
ƒŽƒ‡•Ǥ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹– ƒ†
‡Ž–‹‰’‘‹–ǡ†‡•‹–›

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x –”‘†—…‡ ƒ† †‹•…—•• –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒŽƒ‡•Ǥ
—‹†‡ –Š‡
Ž‡ƒ”‡”•‘–Š‡’”‘…‡••‘ˆ•‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŽƒ‡•ˆ”‘…”—†‡‘‹ŽǤ‹•…—••
–Š‡‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡‘ˆ–Š‡ƒŽƒ‡•ƒ……‘”†‹‰–‘–Š‡ •›•–‡Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ‡ƒ”‡”• …ƒ …ƒ””› ‘—– …Žƒ•• ‡š‡”…‹•‡• ‘ –Š‡ …‘„—•–‹‘ ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–
ƒŽƒ‡•



230
Assessment Strategies
x š’Žƒ‹‹‰ •‘—”…‡• ‘ˆ ƒŽƒ‡• ƒ† ’”‹…‹’Ž‡• ‘ˆ ‹•‘Žƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–
ƒŽƒ‡•‹•‘Žƒ–‡†ȋˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒŽ†‹•–‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘‘ˆ…”—†‡‘‹ŽȌ
x •‡‘ˆ ”—Ž‡•‹ƒ‹‰‘ˆƒŽƒ‡•ȋ‹…Ž—†‹‰…›…Ž‘ƒŽƒ‡•Ȍ
x †‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŽƒ‡•—•‹‰‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹”‰‡‡”ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒǡ–Š‡‹”
‹•‘‡”•ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ǥ
x ƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŽƒ‡•

Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties and uses of Alkanes


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ x Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆŽƒ‡•
ƒŽƒ‡• ™‹–Š …ŠŽ‘”‹‡ ƒ† …‘„—•–‹‘ǡ …ŠŽ‘”‹ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
‘š›‰‡ …”ƒ…‹‰
x ™”‹–‡ ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‘ˆ –Š‡ x ‡…Šƒ‹• ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ˆ‘”
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ …ŠŽ‘”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‡–Šƒ‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ…‘„—•–‹‘ x ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ…‘„—•–‹‘‘ˆˆ—‡Ž•‘
‘ˆˆ—‡Ž•‘–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ –Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–
x ‡š’Žƒ‹—•‡•‘ˆƒŽƒ‡•Ǥ x •‡•‘ˆƒŽƒ‡•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‡ƒ† ƒ †‹•…—••‹‘ ‘ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒŽƒ‡•Ǥ ‡– –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”•
—†‡”•–ƒ† ‡…Šƒ‹• ‘ˆ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ˆ‘” …ŠŽ‘”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡–Šƒ‡Ǥ
”ƒ‹•–‘”–Š‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ…‘„—•–‹‘‘ˆˆ—‡Ž•‘‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ

Practical Problems
x š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ „”‘‹ƒ–‹‘ —•‹‰ …›…Ž‘ ƒŽƒ‡• ƒ† ’ƒ”ƒˆˆ‹ ȋ…ƒ”‡
•Š‘—Ž†„‡–ƒ‡ƒ•„”‘‹‡˜ƒ’‘—”‹•’‘‹•‘‘—•ȌǤ
x š’‡”‹‡– •Š‘—Ž† „‡ †‘‡ ‘—–•‹†‡ –Š‡ Žƒ„ ƒ† Ž‡ƒ”‡”• •Š‘—Ž† ‘–
‹ŠƒŽ‡–Š‡˜ƒ’‘—”Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ǡ …‘†‹–‹‘• ƒ†  ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‘ˆ
…ŠŽ‘”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‡–Šƒ‡Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ…‘„—•–‹‘‘ˆˆ—‡Ž•‘–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ
Ǧ ‡–‹‘—•‡•‘ˆƒŽƒ‡•ȋˆ—‡Žǡ…”ƒ…‹‰ǡ•›–Š‡•‹•‰ƒ•‡–…ȌǤ



231
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Sub-Topic 3: Introduction to Alkenes and their Physical


Properties
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x•–ƒ–‡ƒ–—”ƒŽ•‘—”…‡•‘ˆƒŽ‡‡•Ǥ x ……—””‡…‡ǣ”—†‡‘‹Ž
xƒ‡ ƒŽ‡‡• —•‹‰  x ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡‘ˆƒŽ‡‡•
•›•–‡Ǥ Ǧ –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ’‘•‹–‹‘ƒŽ
x•Š‘™•–”—…–—”‡•‘ˆŽ‡‡•Ǥ ‹•‘‡”‹•
x’”‡’ƒ”‡ƒŽ‡‡•‹Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›Ǥ x ƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘
 ‡–Š‘†•
x‡š’Žƒ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ•–ƒ–‡
ƒŽ‡‡•Ǥ Ǧ•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ’–ǡ„’–ǡ†‡•‹–›

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’ǡ ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ǡ
‹•‘‡”‹•ǡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ȋŽƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ƒ† ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ …”ƒ…‹‰Ȍ ƒ†
’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒŽ‡‡•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ —•‡ ‘†‡Ž• –‘ …‘•–”—…– •–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–
ƒŽ‡‡•ƒ†–Š‡‹”‹•‘‡”•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡‰‡‡”ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‘ˆƒŽ‡‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‘…‡••‘ˆ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŽ‡‡•„›…ƒ–ƒŽ›–‹……”ƒ…‹‰
‘ˆƒŽƒ‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ Žƒ„ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ƒŽ‡‡• ˆ”‘ ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž• ƒ† ƒŽ›Ž
ŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ‡ƒŽ‡‡•—•‹‰ •›•–‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒŽ‡‡•Ǥ



232
Sub-Topic 4: Chemical Properties and Uses of Alkenes
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ x Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǣ
ƒŽ‡‡•Ǥ Ǧ ƒ††‹–‹‘ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ȋ ʹǡ ”ʹǡ
 Žʹǡ Žǡ ʹͶƒ† ʹȌƒ†
 –Š‡‡…Šƒ‹••‹˜‘Ž˜‡†Ǥ
 Ǧ ‘„—•–‹‘”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ǣȋʹȌ
 Ǧ š‹†ƒ–‹‘ǣȋʹǡ͵ȌǤ
x ™”‹–‡ –Š‡ ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‘ˆ x ”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‡†Ǥ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’
x …ƒ””›‘—––‡•––—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–• 
–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ 
x •–ƒ–‡—•‡•‘ˆƒŽ‡‡•Ǥ x •‡•‘ˆƒŽ‡‡•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒŽ‡‡• ȋ…‘„—•–‹‘ǡ Š›†”ƒ–‹‘ǡ
ŠƒŽ‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘•ǡ Š›†”‘š›Žƒ–‹‘ǡ Š›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘ǡ ƒ††‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ Š›†”‘‰‡
ŠƒŽ‹†‡•ƒ†”‡ƒ…–‹‘™‹–Š…‘…‡–”ƒ–‡†•—Ž’Š—”‹…ƒ…‹†ȌǤ
x •‡ ‘†‡Ž• –‘ „—‹Ž† •–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ƒŽ‡‡•ǡ …ƒ””› ‘—–
’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŽ‡‡•ƒ†…ƒ””›‘—––‡•––—„‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ•‡‘ˆ…Šƒ”–•
–‘‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‡‡…Šƒ‹••ƒ†•›–Š‡•‹•”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒŽ‡‡•‹…Ž—†‹‰‡…Šƒ‹••‘ˆ–Š‡
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—––‡•––—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹—•‡•‘ˆƒŽ‡‡•Ǥ



233
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

    


Sub-Topic 5: Introduction to Alkynes and their Physical
Properties
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‰‹˜‡•–”—…–—”‡•‘ˆƒŽ›‡•Ǥ x –”—…–—”‡ ƒ† ’‘•‹–‹‘ƒŽ
x ƒ‡ ƒŽ›‡• —•‹‰  ‹•‘‡”‹•Ǥ
•›•–‡Ǥ x ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡‘ˆƒŽ›‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ•–ƒ–‡
ƒŽ›‡•Ǥ Ǧ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ ’–ǡ „’– ƒ†
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ †‡•‹–›
ƒŽ›‡•Ǥ x ƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘
‡–Š‘†•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ”ƒ‹•–‘”–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡ǡ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ƒ†—•‡•
‘ˆƒŽ›‡•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ‘—ƒ›—•‡‘†‡Ž•–‘„—‹Ž†•–”—…–—”‡•‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ƒŽ›‡•ǡ…ƒ””›‘—–
’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŽ›‡•ƒ†…ƒ””›‘—––‡•––—„‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•™‹–Š–Š‡Ǥ•‡
…Šƒ”–•–‘‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‡‡…Šƒ‹••ƒ†•›–Š‡•‹•”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡‰‡‡”ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‘ˆƒŽ›‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ‡ƒŽ›‡•—•‹‰ •›•–‡Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡Žƒ„’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆƒŽ›‡•ˆ”‘†‹ǦŠƒŽ‘ƒŽƒ‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒŽ›‡•Ǥ



234
Sub-Topic 6: Chemical Properties and Uses of Alkynes
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ǣ
ƒŽ›‡•Ǥ Ǧ ƒ††‹–‹‘ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ȋ ʹǡ ”ʹǡ
x ™”‹–‡ –Š‡ ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‘ˆ –Š‡ Žʹǡ  ǡ ʹͶƒ† ʹȌ
”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ȋˆ‘” ŠƒŽ‘‰‡ ŠƒŽ‹†‡•ǡ Ǧ –Š‡‡…Šƒ‹••‹˜‘Ž˜‡†
„”‘‹‡ǡ ʹȀ ΪǤ 
x …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ x ”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡
‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’ ȋ™‹–Š
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ ƒ‘‹ƒ…ƒŽ •‹Ž˜‡” ‹–”ƒ–‡ ƒ†
 …‘’’‡” …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡Ȍ
x •–ƒ–‡–Š‡—•‡•‘ˆƒŽ›‡•Ǥ x •‡•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒŽ›‡• ȋ…‘„—•–‹‘ǡ Š›†”ƒ–‹‘ǡ
ŠƒŽ‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘•ǡ ƒ††‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ Š›†”‘‰‡ ŠƒŽ‹†‡• ƒ† ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ™‹–Š
…‘…‡–”ƒ–‡†•—Ž’Š—”‹…ƒ…‹†Ǥ
x ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’ ‹
ƒŽ›‡•Ǥ
x ƒ””›‘—–ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡–‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆƒŽ›‡•™‹–Šƒ‘‹ƒ…ƒŽ•‹Ž˜‡”
‹–”ƒ–‡ƒ†ƒ‘‹ƒ…ƒŽ…‘’’‡”ȋ Ȍ…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘’”‡’ƒ”‡‡–Š›‡—•‹‰…ƒŽ…‹—†‹…ƒ”„‹†‡ƒ†…ƒ””›‹‰
‘—– …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ƒŽ›‡• ȋ…‘„—•–‹‘ǡ Š›†”ƒ–‹‘ǡ
ŠƒŽ‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘•ǡŠ›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘ǡƒ†ƒ††‹–‹‘‘ˆŠ›†”‘‰‡ŠƒŽ‹†‡•ȌǤ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‹ –Š‡ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’
”‡ƒ…–‹‘™‹–Šƒ‘‹ƒ…ƒŽ•‹Ž˜‡”‹–”ƒ–‡ƒ†…‘’’‡”ȋ Ȍ…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒŽ›‡•‹…Ž—†‹‰‡…Šƒ‹••‘ˆ–Š‡
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ȋˆ‘”ŠƒŽ‘‰‡ŠƒŽ‹†‡•ǡ„”‘‹‡ǡ ʹȀ Ϊȋƒ“ȌǤ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—––‡•––—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ™‹–Š ƒ‘‹ƒ…ƒŽ •‹Ž˜‡”
‹–”ƒ–‡ƒ†ƒ‘‹ƒ…ƒŽ…‘’’‡” …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡Ǥ



235
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Topic 17: Halogen compounds (Alkyl halides)

—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͲ͸‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†ˆ–Š‹•–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡–Š‡ƒ–—”‡ǡ
…Š‡‹•–”›ƒ†—•‡•‘ˆ ƒŽ‘‰‡…‘’‘—†•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Halogen Compounds and


Their Physical Properties
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ƒ‡ƒŽ›ŽŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ǥ x ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡
x •Š‘™ •–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ ƒŽ›Ž x –”—…–—”‡ƒ†‹•‘‡”•
ŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ŠƒŽ‘‰‡
ƒŽ›ŽŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ǥ …‘’‘—†•
  ‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ †‡•‹–›ǡ ‡Ž–‹‰
 ’‘‹–ƒ†„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ x ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‡–Š‘†•
ƒŽ›ŽŠƒŽ‹†‡•‹Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ǡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆŠƒŽ‘‰‡…‘’‘—†•Ǥ
x š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆŠƒŽ‘‰‡‰”‘—’‘–Š‡•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡„‡œ‡‡”‹‰Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘’”‡’ƒ”‡‡–Š›‡—•‹‰…ƒŽ…‹—†‹…ƒ”„‹†‡ƒ†…ƒ””›‹‰
‘—– …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ƒŽ›‡• ȋ…‘„—•–‹‘ǡ Š›†”ƒ–‹‘ǡ
ŠƒŽ‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘•ǡŠ›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘ǡƒ†ƒ††‹–‹‘‘ˆŠ›†”‘‰‡ŠƒŽ‹†‡•ȌǤ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‹ –Š‡ ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’
”‡ƒ…–‹‘™‹–Šƒ‘‹ƒ…ƒŽ•‹Ž˜‡”‹–”ƒ–‡ƒ†…‘’’‡”ȋ Ȍ…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡Ǥ



236
Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ †”ƒ™–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆŠƒŽ‘ǦƒŽƒ‡•ƒ†ŠƒŽ‘„‡œ‡‡Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ‡ŠƒŽ‘‰‡…‘’‘—†•—•‹‰ Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‹†—…–‹˜‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ ŠƒŽ‘‰‡ ‰”‘—’ ‘ –Š‡ •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ –Š‡
„‡œ‡‡”‹‰Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹Š‘™ŠƒŽ‘‰‡…‘’‘—†•ƒ”‡’”‡’ƒ”‡†‹–Š‡Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆŠƒŽ‘‰‡…‘’‘—†•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties and Uses of Halogen


Compounds
Specific Objectives Content
x Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ x Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
ƒŽ›ŽŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ǥ  ™‹–Š ʹǡ ƒ ǡ  ͵ǡ ǡ
 ƒŽ…‘Š‘Žǡƒǡ ͵‰
x ™”‹–‡ ‡…Šƒ‹•• ˆ‘” –Š‡ x ‡…Šƒ‹•‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Š‘™‹‰
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ ͳǡ ʹ —…Ž‡‘’Š‹Ž‹…
 •—„•–‹–—–‹‘ǡ ‡Ž‹‹ƒ–‹‘
 ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• –‘ ’”‘†—…‡ ƒŽ‡‡•
 ƒ†ƒŽ›‡•Ǥ
x •–ƒ–‡—•‡•‘ˆƒŽ›ŽŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ǥ x •‡• ‘ˆ ƒŽ›Ž ŠƒŽ‹†‡•ǣ ŽͶǡ
  Ž͵ǡ  •
 ȋ…ŠŽ‘”‘ˆŽ—‘”‘…ƒ”„‘•Ȍ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ”ƒ‹•–‘” –Š‡ ™”‹–‹‰ ‘ˆ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ƒ† ‡…Šƒ‹••Ǣ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡„‡–™‡‡ͳƒ†ʹǡͳƒ†ʹ‡…Šƒ‹••ǡ†”ƒ™‹‰‡‡”‰›
†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•ˆ‘”–Š‡‡…Šƒ‹••Ǥ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ …‘†‹–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ƒŽ›Ž ŠƒŽ‹†‡•  ™‹–Š ƒŽƒŽ‹•ǡ
…‘…‡–”ƒ–‡† ƒ‘‹ƒǡ •‹Ž˜‡” •ƒŽ–• ƒ† ‘š‹†‡ǡ …›ƒ‹†‡•ǡ ‡–ƒŽ• ƒ†
™”‹–‡–Š‡‡“—ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†‡…Šƒ‹••‘ˆ–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‹˜‘Ž˜‡†ȋ‡š…‡’–
ˆ‘”‡–ƒŽ•ƒ†•‹Ž˜‡”‘š‹†‡ȌǤ
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ŠƒŽ‘ „‡œ‡‡ ‹…Ž—†‹‰Ǣ ‹–”ƒ–‹‘ǡ
•—Ž’Š‘ƒ–‹‘ǡ ŠƒŽ‘‰‡•ǡ ƒŽ›Žƒ–‹‘ǡ ƒ…›Žƒ–‹‘ǡ Š›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ƒŽ•‘
‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡ ‹ ”‡ƒ…–‹˜‹–› „‡–™‡‡ ŠƒŽ‘ „‡œ‡‡ ƒ† ƒŽ›Ž
ŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ǥ



237
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡
„‡–™‡‡ŠƒŽ‘„‡œ‡‡ƒ†ŠƒŽ‘‰‡‘ƒŽƒ‡•ȋƒ ǡ ͵ǡ‰͵ȌǤ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ™”‹–‡ –Š‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ƒ† ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‡†
ȋ‡š…‡’–”‡ƒ…–‹‘™‹–Š‡–ƒŽ•ƒ†•‹Ž˜‡”‘š‹†‡Ȍ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡ „‡–™‡‡ ͳ ƒ† ʹ ƒ† ƒŽ•‘ ͳ ƒ†ʹ
‡…Šƒ‹••
Ǧ †”ƒ™‡‡”‰›†‹ƒ‰”ƒ•ˆ‘”–Š‡‡…Šƒ‹••
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡…‘†‹–‹‘•”‡“—‹”‡†ˆ‘”–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
Ǧ ™”‹–‡ –Š‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ƒ† ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‹˜‘Ž˜‡†
ȋ‡š…‡’–‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ƒ†Š›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘ȌǤ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡•‹”‡ƒ…–‹˜‹–›„‡–™‡‡ŠƒŽ‘„‡œ‡‡ƒ†ƒŽ›Ž
ŠƒŽ‹†‡•Ǥ




238
Topic 18: Benzene and methyl benzene
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣ͵Ͳ‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‹•–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡ l‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡–Š‡ƒ–—”‡ǡ
…Š‡‹•–”›ƒ†—•‡•‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡ƒ†‡–Š›Ž„‡œ‡‡Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Benzene and its Physical


properties of Benzene
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x†”ƒ™–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡”‹‰Ǥ x –”—…–—”‡ ȋ†‡Ž‘…ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
 ’‹‡Ž‡…–”‘•ǡ”‡•‘ƒ…‡ǡ„‘†
 ƒ‰Ž‡•ƒ†„‘†Ž‡‰–ŠȌ
x‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡”‹‰Ǥ x •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡”‹‰
x†‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡Ǥ x ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ȋˆ”‘ ‡–Š›‡ǡ
„”‘‘ „‡œ‡‡ǡ
†‡…ƒ”„‘š›Žƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ „‡œ‘‹…
ƒ…‹†ǡ ”‡†—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ’Š‡‘Ž
—•‹‰œ‹…†—•–
x‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
„‡œ‡‡•Ǥ Ǧ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹– ƒ†
‡Ž–‹‰’‘‹–•ǡ†‡•‹–›

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ”ƒ‹•–‘”ƒ††‹•…—••–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡—•‹‰‘†‡Ž•Ǥ
x ‡ƒ†ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘‘–Š‡•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡”‹‰Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• ‹ –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ „‡œ‡‡ ȋˆ”‘ ‡–Š›‡ǡ „”‘‘
„‡œ‡‡ǡ †‡…ƒ”„‘š›Žƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ „‡œ‘‹… ƒ…‹†ǡ ”‡†—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ’Š‡‘Ž —•‹‰
œ‹…†—•–Ǥ
x ‹•…—••’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ȋ•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–ƒ†‡Ž–‹‰’‘‹–•ǡ
†‡•‹–›ȌǤ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•…ƒƒ‡‘†‡Ž•ǡ…Šƒ”–•‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡Ǥ
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ —•‡ …ŠƒŽ„‘ƒ”† ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘
…‘„—•–‹‘ǡ …‘’—–‡” •‹—Žƒ–‹‘ –‘ —†‡”•–ƒ† ƒ† ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡



239
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡ȋ„‡œ‡‡˜ƒ’‘—”‹•Š‹‰ŠŽ›–‘š‹…ƒ†—•–„‡—•‡†
‹ small amounts since it is carcinogenic).

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ †”ƒ™–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡”‹‰
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡”‹‰Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties of Benzene


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ x Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ǣ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡ȋ‹…Ž—†‡ Ǧ ‹–Š„”‘‹‡ƒ†…ŠŽ‘”‹‡ǡ
‡…Šƒ‹••ǡ‡š…‡’– Ǧ ƒŽ›Žƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹–”ƒ–‹‘ǡ
…‘„—•–‹‘ǡŠ›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘ȌǤ •—Ž’Š‘ƒ–‹‘ǡ …›Žƒ–‹‘ǡ
x •–ƒ–‡…‘†‹–‹‘•”‡“—‹”‡†ˆ‘” …‘„—•–‹‘ǡ Š›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘ ‹
–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ ’”‡•‡…‡ƒ‡›‹…‡Ž
x …ƒ””›‘—––‡•––—„‡
‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
ˆ‘”–Š‡‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‡ƒ††‹•…—••‹‘‘ǣ
Ǧ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ „‡œ‡‡ ȋ‹…Ž—†‡ ‡…Šƒ‹•• ǡ ‡š…‡’–
…‘„—•–‹‘ǡŠ›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘Ȍ
Ǧ …‘†‹–‹‘•”‡“—‹”‡†ˆ‘”–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–”‡ƒ…–‹‘•
Ǧ –‡•––—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’
Ǧ –Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ˆ‘”–Š‡‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’
Ǧ –Š‡—•‡•‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡



240
Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‘ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ „‡–™‡‡ „‡œ‡‡ ƒ†
„”‘‹‡ ‹ ’”‡•‡…‡ ‘ˆ ‹”‘Ǥȋbenzene vapour is highly toxic and
must be used in small amounts since it is carcinogenic)

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ „‡œ‡‡ ȋ‹…Ž—†‡ ‡…Šƒ‹•• ǡ
‡š…‡’–…‘„—•–‹‘ǡŠ›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘ȌǤ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡…‘†‹–‹‘•”‡“—‹”‡†ˆ‘”–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—––‡•––—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡—•‡•‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Introduction to Methyl benzene


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x †”ƒ™ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡ ‘ˆ ‡–Š›Ž x –”—…–—”ƒŽ ƒ† ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”
„‡œ‡‡Ǥ ˆ‘”—Žƒ
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ ƒ”ƒ ƒ† ‘”–Š‘Ǧǡ x ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ˆ”‘„‡œ‡‡
‡–ƒ’‘•‹–‹‘•Ǥ x †—…–‹˜‡ ‘”‹‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘
 „‡œ‡‡ ”‹‰ ‹ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ –‘
 ‡–Š›Ž ‰”‘—’ ȋƒ”ƒ ƒ† ‘”–Š‘
 ’‘•‹–‹‘ȌǤ
x •–ƒ–‡–Š‡‰”‘—’•–Šƒ–ƒ”‡‘”–Š‘Ǧǡ x šƒ’Ž‡• ‘ˆ ‘”–Š‘Ǧǡ ‡–ƒǦ ƒ†
‡–ƒǦƒ†’ƒ”ƒǦ†‹”‡…–‹‰Ǥ ’ƒ”ƒǦ†‹”‡…–‹‰‰”‘—’•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‡ƒ†ƒ†‹•…—••‹‘‘ǣ
Ǧ •–”—…–—”ƒŽƒ†‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”ˆ‘”—ŽƒǤ
Ǧ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ˆ”‘„‡œ‡‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‹†—…–‹˜‡ ‘”‹‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ „‡œ‡‡ ”‹‰ ‹ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ –‘ ‡–Š›Ž ‰”‘—’
ȋ’ƒ”ƒƒ†‘”–Š‘’‘•‹–‹‘ȌǤ
Ǧ ‡šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆ‘”–Š‘Ǧǡ‡–ƒǦƒ†’ƒ”ƒǦ†‹”‡…–‹‰‰”‘—’•Ǥ
Ǧ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡–Š›Ž„‡œ‡‡Ǥ
Ǧ …‘’ƒ”‹•‘‘ˆ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡–Š›Ž„‡œ‡‡ƒ†„‡œ‡‡Ǥ



241
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Practical Problems
x ‡ƒ”‡”•…ƒƒ‡‘†‡Ž•ƒ†‡š’‡”‹‡–•‘…‘„—•–‹‘—•‹‰•ƒŽŽ
“—ƒ–‹–‹‡•

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ †”ƒ™–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ‡–Š›Ž„‡œ‡‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡ƒ”ƒƒ†‘”–Š‘Ǧǡ‡–ƒ’‘•‹–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡–Š‡‰”‘—’•–Šƒ–ƒ”‡‘”–Š‘Ǧǡ‡–ƒǦƒ†’ƒ”ƒǦ†‹”‡…–‹‰Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‹†—…–‹˜‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ ‡–Š›Ž ‰”‘—’ ‘ –Š‡ •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ –Š‡
„‡œ‡‡”‹‰Ǥ

Sub-Topic 3: Physical Properties of Methyl Benzene


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘Ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• x Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡–Š›Ž
‘ˆ‡–Š›Ž„‡œ‡‡Ǥ „‡œ‡‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ‹†—…–‹˜‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡–Š›Ž
‡–Š›Ž‰”‘—’‘–Š‡•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ „‡œ‡‡ ƒ† „‡œ‡‡
–Š‡„‡œ‡‡”‹‰Ǥ …‘’ƒ”‡†
x …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡–Š›Ž „‡œ‡‡
™‹–Š–Š‘•‡‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—••–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡–Š›Ž„‡œ‡‡ƒ†Ž‡––Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•
—†‡”•–ƒ†–Š‡‹†—…–‹˜‡‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆ‡–Š›Ž‰”‘—’‘–Š‡•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡
„‡œ‡‡”‹‰Ǥ
x ”ƒ‹•–‘” –Š‡ …‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡–Š›Ž
„‡œ‡‡ƒ†‘ˆ„‡œ‡‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡–Š›Ž„‡œ‡‡Ǥ
Ǧ …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡–Š›Ž „‡œ‡‡ ™‹–Š –Š‘•‡ ‘ˆ
„‡œ‡‡Ǥ




242
    
Topic 19: Alcohols and Phenols
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͳͲ‡”‹‘†•

General Objectives
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‹•–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡–Š‡ƒ–—”‡ǡ
…Š‡‹•–”›ƒ†—•‡•‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•ƒ†’Š‡‘ŽǤ 

Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Alcohols and their


Physical Properties
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ƒ‡ƒ†…Žƒ••‹ˆ›Ž…‘Š‘Ž• x ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ǡ •–”—…–—”‡ ƒ†
 …Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ  •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ˜‘Žƒ–‹Ž‹–›
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ‡–Š‘†• ‘ˆ ’”‡’ƒ”‹‰ x ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‡–Š‘†•
ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ȋˆ‡”‡–ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ „›
Š›†”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒŽ‡‡•ǡ Š›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ ƒŽ›Ž ŠƒŽ‹†‡•ǡ —•‡ ‘ˆ
”‹‰ƒ”†
”‡ƒ‰‡–ǡ ”‡†—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘›Ž …‘’‘—†• ƒ† …ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹… ƒ…‹†•ǡ ˆ”‘
’”‹ƒ”›ƒ‹‡•Ȍǡ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡
•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘’‡”ˆ‘”‰”‘—’‡š’‡”‹‡–•‘ˆ‡”‡–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆŽ‘…ƒŽ
ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•–‘’”‘†—…‡ƒŽ…‘Š‘ŽǤ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡‰‡‡”ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•



243
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•ȋˆ‡”‡–ƒ–‹‘ƒ†Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›
‡–Š‘†•Ȍ
Ǧ ƒ‡ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•—•‹‰ •›•–‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•

Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties of Alcohols


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǣ
ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ Ǧ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ™‹–Š ƒǡ Žǡ Žͷǡ
 Žʹǡ  ͵Ž ǡ  ͵ ǡ
 ƒ†‡…Šƒ‹••
x ™”‹–‡ ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ǧ †‡Š›†”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ ‡–Š‡”‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ȋ‡…Šƒ‹•
 ‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘Ȍ
 Ǧ š‹†ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•ǣ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ ‡••‡–‹ƒŽ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ȋʹǡ ”ʹŽʹǡ Ͷǡ
‡–Š‘†•‘ˆ‡–Šƒ‘ŽǤ ʹ”ʹ͹Ȍ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x –—†› ‘ˆ ‡–Šƒ‘Žǣ ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘
ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ ‡–Š‘†•
x …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ x ‡•–ˆ‘”ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•
‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ x ”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’
x •–ƒ–‡—•‡•‘ˆ‡–Šƒ‘ŽǤ x •‡•‘ˆ‡–Šƒ‘Ž

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ȋ’ ǡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ™‹–Šǣ ʹͶǡ ‘”
͵Ͷǡ ǡƒǡŽ͵ǡŽͷǡŽʹǡ ‡•–‡”‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ǡ‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ǡ—•‡•ǡ‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆ
ƒ„—•‡‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•ƒ†ƒŽ•‘…ƒ””›‹‰‘—–Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›‡š’‡”‹‡–•‘–Š‡
…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡ƒŽ…‘Š‘Žˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘†‹•–‹‰—‹•Š„‡–™‡‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–…Žƒ••‡•‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•  ‹…Ž—†‹‰ ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‘ˆ
–Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ȋ‡š…‡’– ‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ǡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ™‹–Š ’Š‘•’Š‘”—• ŠƒŽ‹†‡•ǡ
•‘†‹—ƒ†–Š‹‘›Ž…ŠŽ‘”‹†‡ȌǤ



244
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—–ƒ–‡•––‘†‹•–‹‰—‹•Š–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–…Žƒ••‡•‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹—•‡•‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’ ‹
ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
Ǧ †‹•…—••–Š‡‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Žƒ„—•‡Ǥ

Sub-Topic 3: Introduction to Phenol and its physical


properties
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ™”‹–‡–Š‡ˆ‘”—Žƒ‘ˆ’Š‡‘ŽǤ x –”‘†—…–‹‘ȋ‰‡‡”ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒǡ
 ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’•Ȍ
x †”ƒ™–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ’Š‡‘ŽǤ x –”—…–—”‡‘ˆ’Š‡‘Ž
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ‘ˆ x ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘
’”‡’ƒ”‹‰’Š‡‘ŽǤ Ǧ Žƒ„Ǥ ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ȋˆ”‘
 …ŠŽ‘”‘„‡œ‡‡ǡ Š›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ
 †‹ƒœ‘‹— •ƒŽ–•ǡ „‡œ‡‡
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‹†—…–‹˜‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ  •—Ž’Š‘‹…ƒ…‹†Ȍ
‰”‘—’ ‘ –Š‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ Ǧ ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ȋˆ”‘
’Š‡‘ŽǤ ’‡–”‘Ž‡— ‘‹Žǡ –Š‡ —‡‡
 ’”‘…‡••Ȍ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǣ
’Š‡‘ŽǤ Ǧ ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡ǡ ‡Ž–‹‰ ƒ†
„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–•ǡ•‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ȋƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ƒ† ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽȌǡ
‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ǡ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ’Š‡‘Žƒ†‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ–Š‡ ‰”‘—’
‘–Š‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ’Š‡‘ŽǤ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‘†‡Ž–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ’Š‡‘ŽǤ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ



245
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Ǧ ™”‹–‡–Š‡ˆ‘”—Žƒ‘ˆ’Š‡‘ŽǤ
Ǧ †”ƒ™–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ’Š‡‘ŽǤ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‡–Š‘†•‘ˆ’”‡’ƒ”‹‰’Š‡‘ŽǤ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ’Š‡‘ŽǤ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‹†—…–‹˜‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ ‰”‘—’‘–Š‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ’Š‡‘ŽǤ

Sub-Topic 4: Chemical Properties and Uses of Phenols


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• x Š‡‹…ƒŽ‡ƒ…–‹‘•
‘ˆ’Š‡‘ŽǤ Ǧ ’ ǡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ‘ˆ Ȃ  ‰”‘—’ ȋ
x …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹˜‹–› ‘ˆ   ƒǡ ƒ…‹† …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•ǡ Žͷ ǡ œ‹…
‰”‘—’ ‘ˆ ’Š‡‘Ž ™‹–Š –Š‘•‡ ‘ˆ †—•–ǡ •‘†‹— Š›†”‘š‹†‡ ƒ†
ƒŽ‹’Šƒ–‹…ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ ‡•–‡”‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ȌǢ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ
x …ƒ””›‘—–…‘ˆ‹”ƒ–‘”›–‡•–•ˆ‘” –Š‡ „‡œ‡‡
’Š‡‘ŽǤ ”‹‰ȋŠ›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘ǡ
x …ƒ””›‘—––‡•––—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‹–”ƒ–‹‘ǡ •—Ž’Š‘ƒ–‹‘ǡ
–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ ŠƒŽ‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘•ǡ ƒŽ›Žƒ–‹‘ǡ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• …›Žƒ–‹‘ Ȍ 
ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ǧ Š‡‹…ƒŽ–‡•–ˆ‘”Š‡‘Ž

ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ Ǧ ”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ


x ‰‹˜‡—•‡•‘ˆ’Š‡‘ŽǤ –Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’
x •‡•‘ˆ’Š‡‘Ž

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—••–Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ’Š‡‘Žȏ’ ǡ”‡ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆȂ ‰”‘—’
ȋƒǡ ƒ…‹† …ŠŽ‘”‹†‡•ǡ Žͷǡ ‹… †—•–ǡ •‘†‹— Š›†”‘š‹†‡ ƒ†
•–‡”‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘Ȍǡ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡„‡œ‡‡”‹‰ȋŠ›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘ǡ‹–”ƒ–‹‘ǡ
•—Ž’Š‘ƒ–‹‘ǡ ŠƒŽ‘‰‡ƒ–‹‘•ǡ ƒŽ›Žƒ–‹‘ǡ ƒ…›Žƒ–‹‘Ȍǡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ –‡•– ˆ‘”
Š‡‘Žǡ ƒ† ƒŽ•‘ …ƒ””›‹‰ ‘—– Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ’Š‡‘ŽǤ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’‹’Š‡‘Ž
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ’Š‡‘Ž

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆŠ‡‘ŽǤ



246
Ǧ …‘’ƒ”‡–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹˜‹–›‘ˆ ‰”‘—’‘ˆ’Š‡‘Ž™‹–Š–Š‘•‡‘ˆƒŽ‹’Šƒ–‹…
ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘ˆ‹”ƒ–‘”›–‡•–ˆ‘”’Š‡‘ŽǤ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
Ǧ ‰‹˜‡—•‡•‘ˆ’Š‡‘ŽǤ




247
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

    




Topic 20: Carbonyl Compounds (Ketones and


Aldehydes)
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͲͺ‡”‹‘†•

General Objectives
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‹•–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡–Š‡ƒ–—”‡ǡ
…Š‡‹•–”›ƒ†—•‡•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Carbonyl Compounds and


their Physical Properties
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x •–ƒ–‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒ‡ ‘ˆ x –”‘†—…–‹‘ ȋ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ
…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•Ǥ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’•ǡ ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡
x ƒ‡ ƒŽ†‡Š›†‡• ƒ† ‡–‘‡• —•‹‰ ”—Ž‡•Ȍ
—•‹‰ •›•–‡Ǥ 
x ’”‡’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ x ƒ„Ǥ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘•
…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•Ǥ Ǧ ‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•
 Ǧ Š›†”‘Ž›•‹•‘ˆ†‹ŠƒŽ‹†‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• x ‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ
‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•Ǥ Ǧ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ•–ƒ–‡•
x …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ x ‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–•ƒ†‡Ž–‹‰’‘‹–
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒŽ†‡Š›†‡• ƒ† 
‡–‘‡• ‹ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ –‘ –Š‡‹” 
•–”—…–—”‡Ǥ 
x …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘›Ž
…‘’‘—†• ƒ† –Š‘•‡ ‘ˆ
ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ



248
Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ ƒ† ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒŽ†‡Š›†‡•ƒ†‡–‘‡•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ†‡‘•–”ƒ–‹‘–‘’”‡’ƒ”‡
…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•„›‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•—•‹‰ƒ…‹†‹ˆ‹‡†’‘–ƒ••‹—
†‹…Š”‘ƒ–‡Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡‰‡‡”ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‡‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡Š‘™…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•ƒ”‡’”‡’ƒ”‡†Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ‡ƒŽ†‡Š›†‡•ƒ†‡–‘‡•—•‹‰ •›•–‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•Ǥ
Ǧ …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒŽ†‡Š›†‡• ƒ† ‡–‘‡• ‹
”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘–Š‡‹”•–”—…–—”‡Ǥ
Ǧ …‘’ƒ”‡–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•ƒ†–Š‘•‡
‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties and Uses of Carbonyl


Compounds

Specific objectives Content


Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• x Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ††‹–‹‘
‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘›Ž …‘’‘—†• ‰‹˜‹‰ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ȋƒ ͵ǡǦȌ
‡…Šƒ‹•• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• x ‡†—…–‹‘ ȋ‹Ž Ͷǡ ƒ Ͷǡ
ȋ‡š…‡’–‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ǡ”‡†—…–‹‘ȌǤ ƒȀ‡–Šƒ‘Žǡ ʹȀ‹Ȍ
x ‹–‡”’”‡– …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• x ‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ȋŠ›†”‘šǦ
™‹–Š ‡ŠŽ‹‰Ʈ• ƒ† ‘ŽŽ‡•ǯ ƒ‹‡•ǡ Š›†”ƒœ‹‡ǡ ’Š‡›Ž
”‡ƒ‰‡–Ǥ Š›†”ƒœ‹‡ǡ ʹǡͶǦ†‹‹–”‘’Š‡›Ž
x …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•–• –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ Š›†”ƒœ‹‡ȋ”ƒ†›ǯ•”‡ƒ‰‡–Ȍ
…ƒ”„‘›Žˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’•Ǥ x š‹†ƒ–‹‘”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ȋ”ʹ͹ʹǦȀ Ϊǡ
 ͶȀ Ϊǡ ʹȀ ǦȌ
x …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•–• †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š x ‹•–‹‰—‹•Š‹‰ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ „‡–™‡‡
„‡–™‡‡ ƒŽ†‡Š›†‡• ƒ† ƒŽ†‡Š›†‡•ƒ†‡–‘‡•
‡–‘‡•Ǥ



249
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Specific objectives Content


x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• x ”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡
ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’•
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’•Ǥ 
x ‰‹˜‡ —•‡• ‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘›Ž x •‡• ‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘›Ž …‘’‘—†•
…‘’‘—†•Ǥ ȋ‡–Šƒ‘Žƒ†ƒ…‡–‘‡Ȍ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ† —•‡• ‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘›Ž …‘’‘—†• ƒ†
ƒŽ•‘…ƒ””›‹‰‘—–Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›‡š’‡”‹‡–•‘–Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ
…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡…ƒ”„‘›Žˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
x 
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ ƒŽ†‡Š›†‡• ƒ† ‡–‘‡• ‘ˆ
…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘›Ž …‘’‘—†• ‰‹˜‹‰
‡…Šƒ‹••ˆ‘”–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ȋ‡š…‡’–‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ǡ”‡†—…–‹‘ȌǤ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—––‡•–•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡…ƒ”„‘›Žˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””›‘—––‡•––—„‡‡š’‡”‹‡–•–‘•Š‘™–Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ
…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•–• –‘ †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ ƒŽ†‡Š›†‡• ƒ† ‡–‘‡• ‘ˆ
…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡–Š‡—•‡•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•Ǥ



250
Topic 21: Carboxylic (Alkanoic) acids
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͲ͸‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
%\ WKH HQG RI WKH WRSLF WKH OHDUQHU VKRXOG DEOH WR RXWOLQH WKH QDWXUH
FKHPLVWU\DQGXVHVRIFDUER[\OLFDFLGV

Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Carboxylic Acids and


their Physical Properties

Specific Objectives Content


Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡ǣ
x •–ƒ–‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒ ‘ˆ x –”‘†—…–‹‘ ȋ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ
ƒŽƒ‘‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’ǡ ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡
x ƒ‡ ƒŽƒ‘‹… ƒ…‹†• —•‹‰ —•‹‰ ”—Ž‡•Ȍ
•›•–‡Ǥ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ‡–Š‘†• x ƒ„Ǥ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘•
‘ˆ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ ƒŽƒ‘‹… Ǧ ‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ  ’”‹ƒ”›
ƒ…‹†•Ǥ ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•ǡƒŽ†‡Š›†‡•
 Ǧ —•‡‘ˆ
”‹‰ƒ”†”‡ƒ‰‡–
 Ǧ Š›†”‘Ž›•‹• ‘ˆ ‹–”‹Ž‡•ǡ ‡•–‡”•ǡ
 ƒ…‹†ƒ‹†‡•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒŽƒ‘‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ Ǧ ‡Ž–‹‰ ’‘‹– ƒ† „‘‹Ž‹‰
x …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’‘‹–ǡ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹… ƒ…‹†• •–ƒ–‡ȋ˜‘Žƒ–‹Ž‹–›Ȍ
™‹–Š –Š‘•‡ ‘ˆ ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž• ƒ†
…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ”ƒ‹•–‘” –Š‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ ƒ†
’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ‘— …ƒ …ƒ””› ‘—– ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ †‡‘•–”ƒ–‹‘• –‘ ’”‡’ƒ”‡ …ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…
ƒ…‹†•„›‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•ƒ†ƒŽ†‡Š›†‡•—•‹‰ƒ…‹†‹ˆ‹‡†’‘–ƒ••‹—
†‹…Š”‘ƒ–‡Ǥ



251
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡‰‡‡”ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‡‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡Š‘™…ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…ƒ…‹†•…ƒ„‡’”‡’ƒ”‡†Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ‡…ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…ƒ…‹†•—•‹‰ •›•–‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡”‘Ž‡‘ˆŠ›†”‘‰‡„‘†‹‰‘–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ
…ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ
Ǧ …‘’ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹… ƒ…‹†• ™‹–Š –Š‘•‡ ‘ˆ
ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•ƒ†…ƒ”„‘›Ž…‘’‘—†•Ǥ


Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties and Uses Carboxylic


Acids
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ x Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
…ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ Ǧ ƒ…‹†‹… „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” ȋ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘
x †‹•…—•–Š‡—‹“—‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ Ž‹–—•ǡ ‡–ƒŽ•ǡ ƒ ǡ
‡–Šƒ‘‹…ƒ…‹† …ƒ”„‘ƒ–‡•ȀŠ›†”‘‰‡
x …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ …ƒ”„‘ƒ–‡•Ȍ
‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ Ǧ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ •—„•–‹–—‡– ‘ ƒ…‹†
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ •–”‡‰–Š
 Ǧ ‡•–‡”‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘
 Ǧ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘™‹–ŠǢŽͷǡŽʹ
 Ǧ ”‡†—…–‹‘™‹–Š‹Ž Ͷǡ ʹ
 Ǧ †‡…ƒ”„‘š›Žƒ–‹‘
x •–ƒ–‡—•‡•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ x •‡•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…ƒ…‹†•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—••–Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ƒ†—•‡•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥƒ””›‘—–
Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›‡š’‡”‹‡–•‘–Š‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ‘— …ƒ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ –Š‡
’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ …ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹… ƒ…‹†• —•‹‰ ‘š‹†ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž• ƒ†
ƒŽ†‡Š›†‡•™‹–Šƒ…‹†‹ˆ‹‡†’‘–ƒ••‹—†‹…Š”‘ƒ–‡Ǥ



252
x Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• …ƒ …ƒ””› ‘—– Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’‹…ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…ƒ…‹†•

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒŽƒ‘‹…ƒ…‹†•‹…Ž—†‹‰‡…Šƒ‹••
‘ˆ–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•ˆ‘”•–‡”‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹—•‡•‘ˆƒŽƒ‘‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ
Ǧ †‹•…—•–Š‡—‹“—‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡–Šƒ‘‹…ƒ…‹†Ǥ
Ǧ …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• –‘ ‹†‡–‹ˆ› –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’ ‘ˆ
ƒŽƒ‘‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ
Ǧ ‰‹˜‡—•‡•‘ˆƒŽƒ‘‹…ƒ…‹†•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 3: Soaps and Soapless Detergents

Specific Objectives Content


Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ x ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •‘ƒ’• ƒ†
•‘ƒ’•ƒ†•‘ƒ’Ž‡••†‡–‡”‰‡–•Ǥ †‡–‡”‰‡–•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Ž‡ƒ•‹‰ ƒ…–‹‘ ‘ˆ x ”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •‘ƒ’Ž‡••
•‘ƒ’ƒ†•‘ƒ’Ž‡••†‡–‡”‰‡–•Ǥ †‡–‡”‰‡–•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ƒ† x Ž‡ƒ•‹‰ ƒ…–‹‘ ‘ˆ •‘ƒ’ ƒ†
†‹•ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡Ǥ •‘ƒ’Ž‡••†‡–‡”‰‡–•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ •‘ƒ’• ƒ† x †˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ƒ†
•‘ƒ’Ž‡•• †‡–‡”‰‡–• ‘ –Š‡ †‹•ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ •‘ƒ’• ƒ†
‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ †‡–‡”‰‡–• ȋ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ •‘ƒ’•
ƒ† †‡–‡”‰‡–• ‘ –Š‡
‡˜‹”‘‡–Ȍ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ”ƒ‹•–‘” –Š‡   ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ •‘ƒ’ ƒ† †‡–‡”‰‡–•ǡ ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ƒ†
†‹•ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ•‘ƒ’ƒ††‡–‡”‰‡–•ǡ‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ•‘ƒ’ƒ††‡–‡”‰‡–•‘
–Š‡ ‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ …Žƒ•• ‡š’‡”‹‡– –‘ ’”‡’ƒ”‡ •‘ƒ’ ‹ –Š‡
Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›Ǥ



253
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Practical Problems
x ‘— …ƒ …ƒ””› ‘—– ƒ ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ †‡‘•–”ƒ–‹‘ –‘ ’”‡’ƒ”‡ •‘ƒ’ ‹
–Š‡Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›
x ‡ƒ”‡”• …ƒ ƒŽ•‘ ˜‹•‹– ƒ •‘ƒ’ ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‹‰ ’Žƒ– –‘ ‘„•‡”˜‡ –Š‡
‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡ ‘ˆ •‘ƒ’ ƒ† ƒŽ•‘ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ •‘ƒ’ ‘ –Š‡
‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•‘ƒ’
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•‘ƒ’Ž‡••†‡–‡”‰‡–
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…Ž‡ƒ•‹‰ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ•‘ƒ’ƒ†•‘ƒ’Ž‡••†‡–‡”‰‡–•
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ƒ† †‹•ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ •‘ƒ’ ƒ† •‘ƒ’Ž‡••
†‡–‡”‰‡–•
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ •‘ƒ’• ƒ† •‘ƒ’Ž‡•• †‡–‡”‰‡–• ‘ –Š‡
‡˜‹”‘‡–



254
Topic 22: Esters
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͲͶ‡”‹‘†•

General Objective
› –Š‡ ‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‘’‹…ǡ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡” •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ƒ–—”‡ǡ
…Š‡‹•–”›ƒ†—•‡•‘ˆ‡•–‡”•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Esters and their Physical


properties
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x •–ƒ–‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒ ‘ˆ x –”‘†—…–‹‘ ȋ‘……—””‡…‡ǡ
‡•–‡”•Ǥ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ
x ƒ‡ ‡•–‡”• —•‹‰  ‰”‘—’ǡ ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ —•‹‰
•›•–‡Ǥ ”—Ž‡•Ȍ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ x ƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘•
‡•–‡”•Ǥ ȋ•–‡”‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘”‡ƒ…–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ x Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǣ ‡ŽŽǡ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡•–‡”•Ǥ •‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ ‡Ž–‹‰ ’‘‹–• ƒ†
„‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‘……—””‡…‡ǡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ǡ Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›
’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡•–‡”•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ‘—…ƒ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽŽ›†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡•–‡”•ˆ”‘ …ƒ”„‘š›Ž‹…
ƒ…‹†•ƒ†ƒŽ…‘Š‘Ž•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡‰‡‡”ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‘ˆ‡•–‡”•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ‡•–‡”•Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ‡‡•–‡”•—•‹‰ •›•–‡Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ‡•–‡”•Ǥ



255
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Sub-Topic 2: Chemical Properties and Uses of Esters



Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
‡•–‡”•‹…Ž—†‹‰‡…Šƒ‹••‘ˆ Ǧ ›†”‘Ž›•‹•
–Š‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ Ǧ ‡†—…–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• Ǧ ‘‘Ž›•‹•
ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ 
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ  
x ‡š’Žƒ‹—•‡•‘ˆ‡•–‡”•Ǥ x •‡•‘ˆ‡•–‡”•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‡•–‡”• ƒ† –Š‡‹” ‡…Šƒ‹••
ȋŠ›†”‘Ž›•‹•ǡ”‡†—…–‹‘ǡƒ‘‘Ž›•‹•Ȍƒ†—•‡•‘ˆ‡•–‡”•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ‘—…ƒ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽŽ›†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’‘ˆ
‡•–‡”•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡•–‡”• ‹…Ž—†‹‰ ‡…Šƒ‹•• ‘ˆ –Š‡
”‡ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹—•‡•‘ˆ‡•–‡”•











256
      
Topic 23: Amines
—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͲͺ‡”‹‘†•
General Objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‹•–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘†‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡ƒ–—”‡ǡ
…Š‡‹•–”›ƒ†—•‡•‘ˆƒ‹‡•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Amines and their physical


properties

Specific Objectives Content


Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x •–ƒ–‡‰‡‡”ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‘ˆƒ‹‡•Ǥ x –”‘†—…–‹‘ ȋ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ
x ƒ‡ ƒ‹‡• —•‹‰  ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‘—’ǡ
•›•–‡Ǥ ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ —•‹‰ 
 ”—Ž‡•Ȍǡ Žƒ••‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
 ƒ‹‡•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ x ƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘•Ǣ
ƒ‹‡•Ǥ ”‡†—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹–”‘ …‘’‘—†•ǡ
 ‹–”‹Ž‡•ǡƒ‹†‡•—•‹‰‹Ž Ͷ
 ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ „‡–™‡‡ ƒŽ›Ž ŠƒŽ‹†‡
 ƒ† ƒ‘‹ƒ Ǣ ‘ˆƒǯ•
 †‡‰”ƒ†ƒ–‹‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• x Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
‘ˆƒ‹‡•Ǥ ‘Ž—„‹Ž‹–›ǡ ‡Ž–‹‰ ’‘‹–• ƒ†
 „‘‹Ž‹‰’‘‹–•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ „ƒ•‹… ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ
ƒ‹‡•Ǥ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‘……—””‡…‡ǡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ˆ‘”—Žƒǡ ‘‡…Žƒ–—”‡ǡ Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›
’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ƒ†’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒ‹‡•Ǥ



257
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘…ƒ””›‘—–’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‹‡•‹–Š‡Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ •–ƒ–‡‰‡‡”ƒŽˆ‘”—Žƒ‘ˆƒ‹‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ƒ‡ƒ‹‡•—•‹‰ •›•–‡Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆƒ‹‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒ‹‡•Ǥ


Sub-Topic 2: Chemical properties and uses of Amines


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǣ
ƒ‹‡•ȋ‹…Ž—†‡‡…Šƒ‹••ˆ‘” Ǧ ’ 
ƒŽ›Žƒ–‹‘ȌǤ x –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ •—„•–‹–—‡– ‘
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ „ƒ•‹… •–”‡‰–Šǡ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ™‹–Š
–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ‘ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘ ™‹–Š ƒ…‹†•ǡ
‹–”‘—•ƒ…‹†Ǥ …›Žƒ–‹‘ǡƒŽ›Žƒ–‹‘
x …ƒ””› ‘—– –‡•– –—„‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–• 
–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• x ‡ƒ…–‹‘™‹–Š‹–”‘—•ƒ…‹†•
ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ǧ ‹ƒœ‘–‹•ƒ–‹‘
ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’Ǥ Ǧ ”‘‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ •—Ž’Š‘ƒ–‹‘ǡ
 ‹–”ƒ–‹‘ǡ‘ˆƒ”‘ƒ–‹…ƒ‹‡•
 x ”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡
 ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‰”‘—’
x •–ƒ–‡—•‡•‘ˆƒ‹‡•Ǥ x •‡•ƒ‹‡•
x •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ —•‡• ‘ˆ †›‡• ȋ•‘…‹ƒŽ x •‡•‘ˆ†›‡•
ƒ†‡…‘‘‹…ƒ•’‡…–•ȌǤ

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x‹•…—•• –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ”‡ƒ…–‹‘• ȋ ’ ǡ –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ •—„•–‹–—‡– ‘ „ƒ•‹…
•–”‡‰–Šǡ”‡ƒ…–‹‘™‹–Šƒ…‹†•ǡƒ…›Žƒ–‹‘ǡƒŽ›Žƒ–‹‘ǡ”‡ƒ…–‹‘™‹–Š‹–”‘—•
ƒ…‹†•ǡ †‹ƒœ‘–‹•ƒ–‹‘ „”‘‹ƒ–‹‘ ǡ •—Ž’Š‘ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹–”ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‘ˆ ƒ”‘ƒ–‹…
ƒ‹‡•Ȍǡ—•‡•ƒ†ƒŽ•‘…ƒ””›‹‰‘—–…Š‡‹…ƒŽ–‡•–•ˆ‘”ƒ‹‡•Ǥ



258
Practical Problems
x
—‹†‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”• –‘ …ƒ””› ‘—– Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ‡š’‡”‹‡–• ‘ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒ‹‡• ‹…Ž—†‹‰ –Š‡ …Š‡‹…ƒŽ –‡•–• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ
‰”‘—’ ƒ† †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š „‡–™‡‡ …Žƒ••‡• ‘ˆ ƒ‹‡• —•‹‰
ƒʹȀ…‘…‡–”ƒ–‡† Ž

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹…Š‡‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒ‹‡•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ–‡•–•ˆ‘”ƒ‹‡•ƒ–‡•–ˆ‘”ƒ‹‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‰‹˜‡—•‡•‘ˆƒ‹‡•Ǥ



259
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Topic 24: Polymers and Polymerisation

—”ƒ–‹‘ǣͲ͸‡”‹‘†•

General objective
›–Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‹•–‘’‹…ǡ–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘‡š’Žƒ‹’‘Ž›‡”•ƒ†
’‘Ž›‡”‹•ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† †‡•…”‹„‡ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ–—”ƒŽ ƒ† •›–Š‡–‹… ’‘Ž›‡”•
™‹–Š–Š‡‹”—•‡•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Polymers


Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ x Šƒ–‘Ž›‡”•ƒ†ƒ”‡
’‘Ž›‡”‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ Ǧ …‘…‡’– ‘ˆ ’‘Ž›‡”• ƒ†
x †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡„‡–™‡‡ƒ††‹–‹‘ƒ† ’‘Ž›‡”‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
…‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘’‘Ž›‡”‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ x –›’‡• ‘ˆ ’‘Ž›‡”‹•ƒ–‹‘
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ •–”—…–—”‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ȋƒ††‹–‹‘ƒ†…‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘Ȍ
†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–…Žƒ••‡•‘ˆ’‘Ž›‡”•Ǥ x …Žƒ••‡• ‘ˆ ’‘Ž›‡”• ȋƒ–—”ƒŽ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– –›’‡• ‘ˆ ƒ†•›–Š‡–‹…’‘Ž›‡”•Ȍ
’‘Ž›‡”•Ǥ x ›’‡•‘ˆ‘Ž›‡”•
Ǧ ”—„„‡”•ǡˆ‹„”‡•ƒ†’Žƒ•–‹…•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—••–Š‡’”‘…‡••‘ˆ’‘Ž›‡”‹•ƒ–‹‘ǡ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡„‡–™‡‡ƒ††‹–‹‘ƒ†
…‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘ ’‘Ž›‡”‹•ƒ–‹‘ǡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡– …Žƒ••‡• ‘ˆ ’‘Ž›‡”•ǡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–
–›’‡•‘ˆ’‘Ž›‡”•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ‘—…ƒ—•‡‘†‡Ž•–‘•Š‘™–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‘‘‡”•ƒ†Š‘™–Š‡›…ƒ
…‘„‹‡–‘ˆ‘”’‘Ž›‡”•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’”‘…‡••‘ˆ’‘Ž›‡”‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡„‡–™‡‡ƒ††‹–‹‘ƒ†…‘†‡•ƒ–‹‘’‘Ž›‡”‹•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡•‘ˆ–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–…Žƒ••‡•‘ˆ’‘Ž›‡”•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡––›’‡•‘ˆ’‘Ž›‡”•Ǥ



260
Sub-Topic 2: Rubber
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ‘……—””‡…‡ǡ x —„„‡”
•–”—…–—”‡ǡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ† Ǧ ƒ–—”ƒŽ
˜—Ž…ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ–—”ƒŽ”—„„‡”Ǥ ”—„„‡”ȋ‘……—””‡…‡ǡ
 •–”—…–—”‡ ǡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ ˜—Ž…ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘Ȍ
’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ”—„„‡”Ǥ Ǧ ›–Š‡–‹…
 ”—„„‡”ȋ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ǡ
x ‰‹˜‡ –Š‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ƒ† —•‡• ‘ˆ •–”—…–—”‡ƒ†’”‘’‡”–‹‡•Ȍ
ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ”—„„‡”Ǥ x •‡•

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—••–Š‡‘……—””‡…‡ǡ•–”—…–—”‡ǡ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ƒ†˜—Ž…ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘ǡ’”‘…‡••
‘ˆƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡‘ˆ•›–Š‡–‹…”—„„‡”ǡ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ƒ†—•‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡‘……—””‡…‡ǡ•–”—…–—”‡ǡ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ƒ†˜—Ž…ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ
ƒ–—”ƒŽ”—„„‡”Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‘…‡••‘ˆ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•›–Š‡–‹…”—„„‡”Ǥ
Ǧ ‰‹˜‡–Š‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ƒ†—•‡•‘ˆ•›–Š‡–‹…”—„„‡”Ǥ

Sub-Topic 3: Fibres
Specific objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡–‹‘ –Š‡ ‘……—””‡…‡ ‘ˆ x ‹„”‡•
ƒ–—”ƒŽˆ‹„”‡•ƒ†–Š‡‹”—•‡•Ǥ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒ–—”ƒŽ x ƒ–—”ƒŽ ˆ‹„”‡•ȋ‘……—””‡…‡ǡ
ˆ‹„”‡•Ǥ ‡šƒ’Ž‡•ƒ†—•‡•Ȍ
x ‰‹˜‡ ‡šƒ’Ž‡• ‘ˆ ƒ–—”ƒŽ ƒ† x šƒ’Ž‡•ǣ•–ƒ”…Šǡ…‘––‘ǡ•‹Žǡ
ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽˆ‹„”‡•Ǥ ’”‘–‡‹•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ x ›–Š‡–‹… ˆ‹„”‡•ȋ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ǡ
•›–Š‡–‹…ˆ‹„”‡•Ǥ •–”—…–—”‡ƒ†—•‡•Ȍ
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ x šƒ’Ž‡•ǣ ›Ž‘ ƒ†
ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽˆ‹„”‡•Ǥ –‡”›Ž‡‡ǡ ”‘’‡‘Ȃ‹–”‹Ž‡
x ‰‹˜‡–Š‡—•‡•‘ˆƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽˆ‹„”‡•Ǥ ˆ‹„”‡



261
CHEMISTRY
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies


x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ‘……—””‡…‡ǡ •–”—…–—”‡ǡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ ‡šƒ’Ž‡• ƒ† —•‡• ‘ˆ
ƒ–—”ƒŽˆ‹„”‡•ǡ’”‘…‡••‘ˆƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‡ǡ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‡šƒ’Ž‡•ƒ†—•‡•‘ˆ
ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽˆ‹„”‡•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x 
—‹†‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›ƒ–—”ƒŽƒ†•›–Š‡–‹…ˆ‹„”‡•Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡‘……—””‡…‡‘ˆƒ–—”ƒŽˆ‹„”‡•ƒ†–Š‡‹”—•‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒ–—”ƒŽˆ‹„”‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‰‹˜‡‡šƒ’Ž‡•‘ˆƒ–—”ƒŽƒ†ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽˆ‹„”‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•›–Š‡–‹…ˆ‹„”‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽˆ‹„”‡•Ǥ
Ǧ ‰‹˜‡–Š‡—•‡•‘ˆƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽˆ‹„”‡•Ǥ

Sub-Topic 4: Plastics
Specific Objectives Content
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ 
x ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‘…‡’–‘ˆ’Žƒ•–‹…•Ǥ x Žƒ•–‹…•
x ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡ Ǧ –Š‡”‘ •‡––‹‰ ’Žƒ•–‹…•
–Š‡”‘ •‡––‹‰ ƒ† –Š‡”‘ ȋ–Š‡”‘’Žƒ•–‹…•Ȍ
•‘ˆ–‡‹‰’Žƒ•–‹…•Ǥ Ǧ –Š‡”‘ ’Žƒ•–‹…• ȋ–Š‡”‘
x †‡•…”‹„‡ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ •‘ˆ–‡‹‰Ȍ
’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•‡Ž‡…–‡†’Žƒ•–‹…•Ǥ Ǧ •–”—…–—”‡
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ‘‘‡”• ƒ† –Š‡ Ǧ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘
”‡Žƒ–‡†’‘Ž›‡”•‘ˆ’Žƒ•–‹…•Ǥ Ǧ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•
x …‘•–”—…– ƒ —‹– •–”—…–—”ƒŽ Ǧ ‡šƒ’Ž‡•ǣ ǡ ’‘Ž›‡–Š‡‡ǡ
ˆ‘”—Žƒ ‘ˆ ƒ ’‘Ž›‡” ˆ”‘ ƒ ’‘Ž›’”‘’‡‡
‘‘‡”Ǥ 
x ‰‹˜‡—•‡•‘ˆƒ–—”ƒŽƒ†•›–Š‡–‹… x •‡•
’‘Ž›‡”•Ǥ 
x ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ ‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ x ˆˆ‡…–• ‘ˆ  ’Žƒ•–‹…• ‘ –Š‡
ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ’‘Ž›‡”•Ǥ ‡˜‹”‘‡–



262
Suggested Teaching and Learning Strategies
x ‹•…—•• –Š‡ ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘ǡ •–”—…–—”‡ǡ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•ǡ ‡šƒ’Ž‡•ǡ —•‡• ‘ˆ
’Žƒ•–‹…•ƒ†ƒŽ•‘–Š‡‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ’‘Ž›‡”•Ǥ

Practical Problems
x ‘—…ƒ‘”‰ƒ‹•‡ƒˆ‹‡Ž†–”‹’–‘ƒ’Žƒ•–‹…ƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‹‰’Žƒ–Ǥ

Assessment Strategies
x
‹˜‡…Žƒ••‡š‡”…‹•‡•”‡“—‹”‹‰Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘ǣ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡‡ƒ‹‰‘ˆ’Žƒ•–‹…•Ǥ
Ǧ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• „‡–™‡‡  –Š‡”‘•‡––‹‰ ƒ†
–Š‡”‘•‘ˆ–‡‹‰’Žƒ•–‹…•Ǥ
Ǧ †‡•…”‹„‡–Š‡’”‘…‡••‘ˆ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•‡Ž‡…–‡†’Žƒ•–‹…•Ǥ
Ǧ ‹†‡–‹ˆ›‘‘‡”•ƒ†–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‡†’‘Ž›‡”•‘ˆ’Žƒ•–‹…•Ǥ



263
AGRICULTURE
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TEACHING SYLLABUS

References
Šƒ† ƒƒŽ‡–ƒŽǡȋʹͲͲͻȌǤ Chemistry for Matriculation1. Ͷ–Š†‹–‹‘ǡ—ƒŽƒ
—’—”ǣ”‹‡–ƒŽ…ƒ†‡‹…’—„Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ
Šƒ† ƒƒŽ‡–ƒŽǡȋʹͲͲͻȌǤ Chemistry for matriculation2. 4th Edition, , Kuala
Lumpur: Oriental academic publication.
”‘…‹‰–‘ǡ Ǥ ‡– ƒŽǡ ȋͳͻͺ͸ȌǤ Combined Chemistry. ͷ–Š †‹–‹‘ǡ ‘‰ ‘‰ǣ
‘‰ƒ
”‘—’ȋ Ȍ–†Ǥ
‹ƒ”ǡ ǤǤǡ ȋͳͻͻͲȌǤ Organic Chemistryǡ ‘Ž—‡ ͳǣ The Fundamental
PrinciplesǤ‰Žƒ†ǣ‘‰ƒ…‹‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ†‡…Š‹…ƒŽ–†Ǥ
”‡‡ƒ–Ž‡ǡ Ǥ ȋͳͻͻͷȌǤ Chemistry in ActionǤ ʹ† †‹–‹‘ǡ
”‡ƒ– ”‹–ƒ‹
ƒ…‹ŽŽƒ”‡••–†Ǥ

‹Ž‘”‡ǡ
ǤǤǡ ȋͳͻͺ͹ȌǤA Modern Approach to Comprehensive ChemistryǤ ͵”†
†‹–‹‘ǡ
”‡ƒ–”‹–ƒ‹ǣ –ƒŽ‡›Š‘”•—„Ž‹•Š‡”•–†Ǥ
ƒ™‹•ǡ ǤǤǡ ȋͳͻͺͳȌǣ Technician Chemistry 1, Cassell’s TEC seriesǡ ͳ•–
†‹–‹‘ǡ‡™‘”ǣƒ…‹ŽŽƒ’”‡••–†Ǥ
‡›•ǡ ǤǤ ȋͳͻͺ͸ȌǤ Physical Chemistryǡ ͸–Š †‹–‹‘ǡ šˆ‘”†ǣ ‡‹ƒ
†—…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‘‘•–†Ǥ
‘Ž†‡”‡••ǡ Ǥǡ ȋͳͻ͹ͻȌǣ Advanced Level Inorganic ChemistryǤ ͵”† †‹–‹‘ǡ
šˆ‘”†ǣ ‡‹ƒ†—…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‘‘•Ǥ
‡ˆˆ‡”›ǡ
Ǥ Ǥ ‡– ƒŽǡ ȋͳͻͺͻȌǣ Vogel’s Text of Qualitative Chemical analysisǡ ͷ–Š
†‹–‹‘ǡǣ‘‰ƒǤ
‡ˆˆ‡”›
Ǥ  ‡– ƒŽǡ ȋͳͻͺͻȌǤVogel’s Text of Quantitative Chemical analysisǤ ͷ–Š
†‹–‹‘ǡǣ‘‰ƒǤ
ƒ–Š‡™•ǡ Ǥǡ ȋͳͻͻʹȌǤ Advanced Chemistry.
”‡ƒ– ”‹–ƒ‹ǣ ƒ„”‹†‰‡
‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••Ǥ
ƒ–”‹…—Žƒ–‹‘‹˜‹•‹‘‹‹•–”›‘ˆ†—…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŽƒ›•‹ƒȋʹͲͲͻȌǣChemistry
Laboratory Manual Semester I and II,ͺ–Š†‹–‹‘Ǥ
‡™‹• Ǥǡ ȋͳͻͻ͸ȌǤ Advanced Chemistry:Revision Hand BookǤ ͳ•– †‹–‹‘ǡ
šˆ‘”†ǣšˆ‘”†‹˜‡”•‹–›’”‡••
ƒ•†‡ ǤǤǡ ȋͳͻͻͶȌǤ A Level ChemistryǤ ͵”† †‹–‹‘ǡ ‘†‘ǣ –ƒ‡Ž›
Š‘”‡•–†Ǥ



264
”ƒƒ•Š Ǥ ‡– ƒŽǡ ȋͳͻͻͻȌǤ Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. ‘Ž—‡ ͳǡ ‡™
‡ŠŽ‹ǣŠƒ†ƒ†‘’ƒ›–†Ǥ
ƒ‹‘‘‡–ƒŽǡȋʹͲͳͲȌǤ Success Chemistry.ͳ•–†‹–‹‘ǡƒŽƒ›•‹ƒǣšˆ‘”†
ƒŒƒ”†Ǥ†ŠǤ



265
AGRICULTURE
A’ LEVEL
TEACHING SYLLABUS

266
Uganda Advanced
‡”–‹ϐ‹…ƒ–‡‘ˆ†—…ƒ–‹‘

Agriculture
TEACHING SYLLABUS

267
AGRICULTURE
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TEACHING SYLLABUS















268

268
Table of Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................ 272

SENIOR FIVE TERM ONE ................................................................ 284


Topic 1: Basic Science I ........................................................................ 284
Sub-Topic 1: Cytology ....................................................................... 284
Sub-Topic 2: Genetics........................................................................ 286
Sub-Topic 3: Variation ..................................................................... 288
Sub-Topic 4: Selection ....................................................................... 289
Sub-Topic 5: Introduction to Genetic Engineering ........................... 290
Topic 2: Crop Production I .................................................................... 292
Sub-Topic 1: Soil and Water as Farming Resources ......................... 292
Sub-Topic 2: Soil Fertility I .............................................................. 295
Sub-Topic 3: Soil Composition ......................................................... 297
Topic 3: Animal Production I ................................................................ 299
Sub-Topic 1: Introduction to Livestock Production .......................... 299
Sub-Topic 2: Livestock Improvement ............................................... 301

SENIOR FIVE TERM TWO ............................................................... 306


Topic 4: Basic Science II ....................................................................... 306
Sub-Topic 1: Chemicals of Life ........................................................ 307
Sub-Topic 2: Plant Morphology and Physiology.............................. 309
Sub-Topic 3: Reproduction in Plants ................................................. 312
Sub-Topic 4: Animal Anatomy and Physiology ............................... 314
Topic 5: Crop Production II ................................................................... 320
Sub-Topic 1: Soil Fertility II.............................................................. 320

Sub-Topic 2: Production of High Value Crops............................. 323
Topic 6: Animal Production II ............................................................... 326
Sub-Topic 1: Livestock Management ............................................... 326
Sub-Topic 2: Poultry ...................................................................... 330

SENIOR FIVE TERM THREE ............................................................. 334


Topic 7: Basic Science III ...................................................................... 334
Sub-Topic 1: Ecology I ..................................................................... 335
Sub-Topic 2: Ecology II..................................................................... 337
Sub-Topic 3: Farm Chemicals .......................................................... 340

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Topic 8: Crop Production III.................................................................. 343


Sub-Topic 1: Agro-Forestry .............................................................. 343

Topic 9: Animal Production III.............................................................. 346
Sub-Topic 1: Fish Farming ................................................................ 347
Sub-Topic 2: Beekeeping .................................................................. 350
Sub-Topic 3: Livestock Rearing and the Environment..................... 352
Sub-Topic 4: Animal Nutrition ......................................................... 354

SENIOR SIX TERM ONE .................................................................... 357


Topic 10: Crop Production IV ............................................................... 357
Sub-Topic 1: Crop Improvement ...................................................... 357
Topic 11: Animal Production IV ........................................................... 360
Sub-Topic I: Investigation and Projects Guidelines ......................... 361
Sub-Topic 2: Animal Health ............................................................. 363
Sub-Topic 3: Dairy Production and Marketing ................................ 365
Sub-Topic 4: Livestock Records ....................................................... 366
Sub-Topic 5: Pasture Management ................................................... 368
Topic 12: Agricultural Economics and Farm Management I ................ 372
Sub-Topic 1: Population & its Influence ......................................... 372
Sub-Topic 2: Gender and Agricultural Production ........................... 374

SENIOR SIX TERM TWO ................................................................... 378


Topic 13: Crop Production V ................................................................. 378
Sub-Topic 1: Urban- and Peri-Urban Farming ................................. 379
Topic 14: Agricultural Economics II ..................................................... 381
Sub-Topic 1: Production Theory ...................................................... 382
Sub-Topic 2: Factors of Production .................................................. 385
Sub-Topic 3: Marketing of Agricultural Products ............................ 387
Sub-Topic 4: Farm Planning and Management ................................ 390
Topic 15: Agricultural Engineering and Farm Mechanisation I ............ 391
Sub-Topic 1: Simple Mechanics ....................................................... 391
Sub-Topic 2: Management of Work Animals ................................... 393

SENIOR SIX TERM THREE ................................................................ 396


Topic 16: Crop Production VI ............................................................... 396
Sub-Topic 1: Crop Protection ............................................................ 396
Topic 17: Agricultural Engineering and Farm Mechanisation II........... 400
Sub-Topic 1: Construction Materials ............................................ 401
Sub-Topic 2: Farm Equipment and Tools ......................................... 403


270

270
Sub-Topic 3: Farm Structures ........................................................... 405
Topic 18: Agricultural Economics III .................................................... 408
Sub Topic 1: Agricultural Policies..................................................... 409
Sub-Topic 2: Land Policies of Uganda ............................................. 412
Sub-Topic 3: Farmers’ Organisations ............................................... 413
Appendices ............................................................................................. 415
References .............................................................................................. 437

271

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Introduction

Š‹• ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ‹• ‹–‡†‡† ˆ‘” –Š‡ †˜ƒ…‡† ‡˜‡Ž
‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡…‘—”•‡ƒ•ƒ’”‹…‹’Ž‡•—„Œ‡…–‹‰ƒ†ƒ•‡…‘†ƒ”›•…Š‘‘Ž•ǤŠ‡
•›ŽŽƒ„—• ‰‹˜‡• ‰—‹†ƒ…‡ ƒ• —…Š ƒ• ’‘••‹„Ž‡ ‘ ™Šƒ– ‹• –‘ „‡ –ƒ—‰Š–Ǥ –
‡’Šƒ•‹•‡• –Šƒ– –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ‘ˆ ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ —•– „‡ ƒ• ’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–‘”› ƒ•
’‘••‹„Ž‡Ǥ  Š‹• ‡ƒ• –Šƒ– ‘•– ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ž‡ƒ”‡”ǯ• –‹‡ •Š‘—Ž† „‡ •’‡– ‘
’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‘”ƒ…–—ƒŽˆƒ”‹‰ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•Ǥ

Š‡…‘–‡–†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡†‹–Š‹••›ŽŽƒ„—•Šƒ•–ƒ‡…ƒ”‡‘ˆ–Š‡…‘–‡’‘”ƒ”›
‹••—‡•ƒ†‡˜‘Ž˜‹‰–”‡†•‹‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡Ǥ –…ƒŽŽ•ˆ‘”–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•–‘—–‹Ž‹•‡
–Š‡‹” ’”‡˜‹‘—• ‡š’‡”‹‡…‡• ƒ† •‹ŽŽ•Ǥ Š‹• †‡ƒ†• –Šƒ– „‘–Š –Š‡ –‡ƒ…Š‡”
ƒ† Ž‡ƒ”‡”• —•– ‡‰ƒ‰‡ ‹ Šƒ†•Ǧ‘ ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡• ‹–‡”’”‡–‡† ƒ† †‡•‹‰‡†
ˆ”‘–Š‡…‘–‡–ǤŠ‹•‹•„‡…ƒ—•‡Ž‡ƒ”‹‰‹•„‡•–ƒ…Š‹‡˜‡†„›†‘‹‰Ǥ

 –Š‡ ‘–Š‡” Šƒ†ǡ –Š‡ –‡ƒ…Š‡” ‹• ‡…‘—”ƒ‰‡† –‘ —•‡ –Š‡ Ž‘…ƒŽŽ› ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡
”‡•‘—”…‡•–‘‘”‰ƒ‹•‡–Š‡’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•ˆ‘”–Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Ǥ

Š‡ ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ –‡ƒ…Š‹‰ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ‹• ‡‡Ž› Ž‹‡† –‘ –Š‡ ”‡“—‹”‡‡– ‘ˆ
†˜ƒ…‡† Ž‡˜‡Ž …‡”–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‡ –Šƒ– ’”‡’ƒ”‡• •–—†‡–• ˆ‘” ‡–”› ‹–‘ –‡”–‹ƒ”›
‹•–‹–—–‹‘•ǤŠ‡’—”’‘•‡‘ˆ–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•‹•–‘ƒ••‹•–•–—†‡–•ƒ†–‡ƒ…Š‡”•
–‘ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡Ž› ’”‡’ƒ”‡ ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‰ƒ†ƒ †˜ƒ…‡† ‡˜‡Ž ‡”–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ
†—…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

–…‘˜‡”•ƒŽŽ–Š‡–‘’‹…•‡š’‡…–‡†–‘„‡…‘˜‡”‡†ƒ––Š‹•Ž‡˜‡ŽǤ –ƒŽ•‘ƒ••—‡•
–Šƒ––Š‡–‘’‹…•…‘˜‡”‡†‹‰ƒ†ƒ‡”–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‡‘ˆ†—…ƒ–‹‘ƒ”‡‘–”‡’‡ƒ–‡†Ǥ

Rationale
Š‡‡…‘‘›‘ˆ‰ƒ†ƒ†‡’‡†•Žƒ”‰‡Ž›‘ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ‰ƒ†ƒǮ•
ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ ‹• •–‹ŽŽ Žƒ”‰‡Ž› •—„•‹•–‡…‡ ƒ† ’”‘†—…–‹˜‹–› ‹• Ž‘™Ǥ Š‡”‡ ‹• ƒ
Š‹‰Š’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘‰”‘™–Š”ƒ–‡‹–Š‡…‘—–”›ǡ™Š‹…ŠŠƒ•‡š‡”–‡†’”‡••—”‡‘
–Š‡‡š‹•–‹‰ˆƒ”Žƒ†ǡƒ‰‰”ƒ˜ƒ–‡†–Š‡ˆ‘‘†•‡…—”‹–›•‹–—ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‹…”‡ƒ•‡†
’‘˜‡”–› Ž‡˜‡Ž• ‹ –Š‡ …‘—‹–‹‡• ‡•’‡…‹ƒŽŽ› ‹ –Š‡ ”—”ƒŽ ƒ”‡ƒ•Ǥ Š‡•‡
ˆƒ…–‘”• Šƒ˜‡ Ž‡† –‘ ‡…”‘ƒ…Š‡– ‘ ’”‘–‡…–‡† ƒ”‡ƒ• ”‡•—Ž–‹‰ ‹
‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ†‡‰”ƒ†ƒ–‹‘Ǥ”„ƒˆƒ”‹‰‹•ƒŽ•‘‰ƒ‹‹‰’‘’—Žƒ”‹–›ƒ†‹–
‹• ‡‡–‹‰ •‘‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ‘‘† ‡‡†• ‘ˆ –Š‡ —”„ƒ ’‡‘’Ž‡ „‡•‹†‡•
•—’’Ž‡‡–‹‰–Š‡‹”‹…‘‡–Š”‘—‰Š•ƒŽ‡‘ˆ•‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡’”‘†—…‡Ǥ

Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ǡ ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ –”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‹• ‡…‡••ƒ”› –‘ ‘˜‡ ‹– ˆ”‘
•—„•‹•–‡…‡–‘…‘‡”…‹ƒŽˆƒ”‹‰ƒ†–‘‹’”‘˜‡’”‘†—…–‹˜‹–›ƒ†“—ƒŽ‹–›
‘ˆˆƒ”’”‘†—…‡Ǥ
‘˜‡”‡–Šƒ•ƒ†‡‹–‡”˜‡–‹‘•ǡ•—…Šƒ•–Š‡Žƒˆ‘”
‘†‡”‹•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ȋȌǡ–Š‡ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–ŽƒȋȌ

272

272
ƒ† ‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ˜‡•–‡– –”ƒ–‡‰› ”‘‰”ƒ‡ ȋ Ȍǡ ™Š‹…Š ƒ‹ ƒ–
ƒ††”‡••‹‰‡›ˆƒ…–‘”•”‡•’‘•‹„Ž‡ˆ‘”Ž‘™ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘†—…–‹˜‹–›ǤŠ‡•‡
ˆƒ…–‘”• ‹…Ž—†‡ Ž‘™ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ Ž‡˜‡Ž• ‘ˆ ˆƒ”‡”•ǡ Žƒ… ‘ˆ ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ†
Žƒ… ‘ˆ •‹ŽŽ• ‡•’‡…‹ƒŽŽ› ‹ ‘†‡” ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘†—…–‹‘Ǥ Š‡•‡ ˆƒ…–‘”•
Ž‹‹– –Š‡ ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ ˆƒ”‡”• –‘ ƒ……‡•• ƒ† „‡‡ˆ‹– ˆ”‘ Ž‹˜‡Ž‹Š‘‘†
‘’’‘”–—‹–‹‡•Ǥ —ƒ …ƒ’‹–ƒŽǡ —•–ǡ –Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ǡ „‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡† ‹ ‘”†‡” –‘
–”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ƒ†Š‡…‡‡”ƒ†‹…ƒ–‡’‘˜‡”–›ǤŠ‹•…ƒ’ƒ”–Ž›„‡†‘‡
–Š”‘—‰Š‹ˆ‘”ƒŽƒ†ˆ‘”ƒŽ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Š‡ƒ‹‘ˆƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘‹•…Š‘‘Ž•‹•–‘‡“—‹’›‘—‰’‡‘’Ž‡™‹–Š
‡…‡••ƒ”› ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ƒ† •‹ŽŽ• –‘ ‹’Ž‡‡– –Š‡ –”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ •‡…–‘” ƒ† ‹’”‘˜‡ ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘†—…–‹˜‹–›Ǥ  Š‡ ƒ†˜ƒ…‡†
Ž‡˜‡Ž …‡”–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‡ ”‹…‹’Ž‡• ƒ† ”ƒ…–‹…‡• ‘ˆ ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ •›ŽŽƒ„—• „‡•‹†‡•
‡“—‹’’‹‰ –Š‡ •–—†‡–• ™‹–Š Š‹‰Š‡” Ž‡˜‡Ž ‘ˆ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ƒ† •‹ŽŽ• ˆ‘”
ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘†—…–‹‘ǡ ‹– ’”‡’ƒ”‡• –Š‡ ˆ‘” ’”‘‰”‡••‹‘ –‘ –‡”–‹ƒ”›
‹•–‹–—–‹‘•Ǥ Š‡ •›ŽŽƒ„—• –Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ǡ ƒ††”‡••‡• …”—…‹ƒŽ ‹••—‡•ǡ •—…Š ƒ•
‹’”‘˜‡† ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ ’”ƒ…–‹…‡•ǡ ‡™ ƒ† ƒ’’”‘’”‹ƒ–‡ …”‘’ ƒ† Ž‹˜‡•–‘…
–‡…Š‘Ž‘‰‹‡•ǡŠ‹‰Š˜ƒŽ—‡…”‘’•ǡƒ†’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ•‹ŽŽ•Ǥ™ƒ”‡–Šƒ–ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ
’”‘†—…–‹˜‹–› ‡‡†• –‘ „‡ •—•–ƒ‹‡†ǡ –Š‡ •›ŽŽƒ„—• ”‡Žƒ–‡• ’”‘†—…–‹‘
’”ƒ…–‹…‡• –‘ ’”‘’‡” ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ ƒƒ‰‡‡–Ǥ – ƒŽ•‘ ƒ††”‡••‡• ‹••—‡•
”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ƒ†‰‡†‡”‹ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘†—…–‹‘Ǥ

Purpose of the Syllabus


Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•‹•ƒ‹‡†ƒ–‡“—‹’’‹‰•–—†‡–•™‹–Š–Š‡‡…‡••ƒ”›‘™Ž‡†‰‡ǡ
•‹ŽŽ•ƒ†ƒ––‹–—†‡•–‘’—”•—‡ˆ—”–Š‡”•–—†‹‡•‹ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽˆ‹‡Ž†•ǡ‡‰ƒ‰‡‹
‰ƒ‹ˆ—Ž ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ ‡’Ž‘›‡– ƒ† –‘ —•‡ ƒ–—”ƒŽ ”‡•‘—”…‡• •—•–ƒ‹ƒ„Ž›
ˆ‘”ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘†—…–‹‘Ǥ

General Objectives
Š‡Ž‡ƒ”‡”•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ǣ
x ƒ…“—‹”‡ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ƒ† ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ •‹ŽŽ• ”‡“—‹”‡† ˆ‘” ‹…”‡ƒ•‡† ƒ†
•—•–ƒ‹ƒ„Ž‡ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘†—…–‹‘Ǥ
x †‡˜‡Ž‘’ ƒ ’‘•‹–‹˜‡ ƒ––‹–—†‡ –‘™ƒ”†• ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ ƒ† Šƒ˜‡ ”‡•’‡…– ˆ‘”
™‘”Ǥ
x ƒ‡‹ˆ‘”‡†ˆƒ”‹‰†‡…‹•‹‘•Ǥ
x ƒ…“—‹”‡‡–”‡’”‡‡—”‹ƒŽ•‹ŽŽ•ˆ‘”’”‘ˆ‹–ƒ„Ž‡ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘†—…–‹‘Ǥ
x ƒ’’Ž›‘™Ž‡†‰‡ƒ†•‹ŽŽ•–‘‹’”‘˜‡ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘†—…–‹‘‹Š‹•‘”
Š‡”Ž‘…ƒŽ‹–›Ǥ
x ƒ…“—‹”‡ ‡…‡••ƒ”› ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ƒ† ’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ •‹ŽŽ• ‹ ’”‘…‡••‹‰ǡ
’”‡•‡”˜‹‰ƒ†ƒ††‹‰˜ƒŽ—‡–‘ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘†—…–•Ǥ
x ƒ’’Ž›’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ•‹ŽŽ•ˆ‘”•‡ŽˆǦ”‡Ž‹ƒ…‡ƒ†•‡ŽˆǦ‡’Ž‘›‡–Ǥ

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x ‹–‡‰”ƒ–‡‰‡†‡”‹••—‡•‹–‘ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘†—…–‹‘Ǥ
x ‰ƒ‹ –Š‡ ‡…‡••ƒ”› „ƒ…‰”‘—† ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ƒ† •‹ŽŽ• –‘
ˆ—”–Š‡”–Š‡‹”‡†—…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Entry Requirements
‘” ‘‡ –‘ “—ƒŽ‹ˆ› –‘ ‘ˆˆ‡” ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ ƒ– †˜ƒ…‡† Ž‡˜‡Žǡ ‘‡ •Š‘—Ž† Šƒ˜‡
†‘‡‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ƒ–Ž‡˜‡Žƒ†’ƒ••‡†‹–™‹–Šƒ–Ž‡ƒ•–ƒ…”‡†‹–Ǥ

Subject combination
‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ƒ–†˜ƒ…‡†Ž‡˜‡Ž•Š‘—Ž†„‡‘ˆˆ‡”‡†‹…‘„‹ƒ–‹‘™‹–Š‘–Š‡”
•…‹‡…‡•—„Œ‡…–•Ǥ

Minimum requirements
‹‹— ”‡“—‹”‡‡–• ˆ‘” ƒ •‡…‘†ƒ”› •…Š‘‘Ž –‘ ‘ˆˆ‡” ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡ ƒ–
ƒ†˜ƒ…‡†Ž‡˜‡Žƒ”‡ǣ
x —ƒŽ‹ˆ‹‡†‰”ƒ†—ƒ–‡–”ƒ‹‡†ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡–‡ƒ…Š‡”•
x …Š‘‘Žˆƒ”™‹–Šƒ†‡“—ƒ–‡ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–‹‡•ˆ‘”ƒ•–—†‡––‘…ƒ””›‘—–’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ
™‘”ƒ†’”‘Œ‡…–•
x ƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–‹‡•ˆ‘”’”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽŽ‡••‘•
x ‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹•–”—…–‹‘ƒŽƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ–‘‘Ž•ƒ†‡“—‹’‡–ˆ‘”ƒ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡

Examining Authority
Š‡ †˜ƒ…‡† Ž‡˜‡Ž …‡”–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‡ ”‹…‹’Ž‡• ƒ† ”ƒ…–‹…‡• ‘ˆ ‰”‹…—Ž–—”‡
•›ŽŽƒ„—• •ŠƒŽŽ „‡ ‡šƒ‹‡† „› ‰ƒ†ƒ ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ šƒ‹ƒ–‹‘• ‘ƒ”†
ȋȌǤ –™‹ŽŽ„‡‡šƒ‹‡†™‹–Š–Š”‡‡‡šƒ‹ƒ–‹‘’ƒ’‡”•Ǥ

Mode of Assessment
a) Continuous assessment
Š‹••Š‘—Ž†„‡…ƒ””‹‡†‘—––Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ǣ™”‹––‡‡š‡”…‹•‡•ǡ’”‘Œ‡…–
”‡’‘”–•ǡ…ƒ•‡•–—†›ƒƒŽ›•‡•ƒ†‰”‘—’™‘””‡’‘”–•Ǥ

b) Summative assessment
Š‹•™‹ŽŽ„‡†‘‡ƒ––Š‡ ‡†‘ˆƒ•…Š‘‘Ž–‡”‘” ›‡ƒ”Ǥ –•Š‘—Ž†ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™–Š‡
‰ƒ†ƒƒ–‹‘ƒŽšƒ‹ƒ–‹‘‘ƒ”†ˆ‘”ƒ–•Š‘™„‡Ž‘™Ǥ

Paper 1: Theory short answer questions (2 hours 30 minutes)
Š‡’ƒ’‡”™‹ŽŽ…‘•‹•–‘ˆ—Ž–‹’Ž‡ƒ†•Š‘”–ƒ•™‡”“—‡•–‹‘•ƒŽŽ‘ˆ™Š‹…Š
™‹ŽŽ„‡…‘’—Ž•‘”›Ǥ –™‹ŽŽŠƒ˜‡–™‘•‡…–‹‘•ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ 
     
- ‡…–‹‘‹•…‘’‘•‡†‘ˆ͵Ͳ—Ž–‹’Ž‡Ǧ…Š‘‹…‡“—‡•–‹‘•Ǥȋ͵Ͳƒ”•Ȍ

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274
- ‡…–‹‘‹•…‘’‘•‡†‘ˆ͹•–”—…–—”‡†“—‡•–‹‘•Ǥȋ͹Ͳƒ”•Ȍ

Paper 2: Theory essay type questions (3 hours)
Š‹• ’ƒ’‡” ™‹ŽŽ …‘•‹•– ‘ˆ ͷ •‡…–‹‘• ȋǡ ǡ ǡ  ƒ† Ȍ ”‡’”‡•‡–‹‰ –Š‡ ͷ
•‡…–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•Ǥ‡…–‹‘™‹ŽŽŠƒ˜‡‘Ž›‘‡…‘’—Ž•‘”›“—‡•–‹‘Ǥ
Š‡‘–Š‡”•‡…–‹‘•™‹ŽŽŠƒ˜‡–™‘“—‡•–‹‘•‡ƒ…Šǡ‘—–‘ˆ™Š‹…Šƒ…ƒ†‹†ƒ–‡
ƒ•™‡” ‘Ž› ‘‡ “—‡•–‹‘Ǥ Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ǡ –Š‡ ’ƒ’‡” ™‹ŽŽ …‘•‹•– ‘ˆ ‹‡
“—‡•–‹‘•‘—–‘ˆ™Š‹…Šǡƒ…ƒ†‹†ƒ–‡™‹ŽŽƒ––‡’–ͷǤƒ…Š“—‡•–‹‘™‹ŽŽ…ƒ””›
ƒ ƒš‹— •…‘”‡ ‘ˆ ʹͲ ƒ”• ƒ‹‰ ƒ –‘–ƒŽ •…‘”‡ ‘ˆ ͳͲͲ ƒ”• ˆ‘” –Š‡
’ƒ’‡”Ǥ

Paper 3: Practical (2 Hours)
Š‡’ƒ’‡”™‹ŽŽ…‘•‹•–‘ˆͷ…‘’—Ž•‘”›“—‡•–‹‘•ˆ”‘†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–•‡…–‹‘•‘ˆ
–Š‡ •›ŽŽƒ„—•Ǥ  ƒ…Š “—‡•–‹‘ ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ƒ™ƒ”†‡† ƒ ƒš‹— ‘ˆ ͳͲ ƒ”•Ǥ
ȋͷͲƒ”•Ȍ

Suggested Projects
Animal Production
ͳǤ ƒ‹•‹‰’‘—Ž–”›ˆ”‘ƒ†ƒ›Ǧ‘Ž†…Š‹…•–‘ǣ
‹Ȍ –ƒ„Ž‡•–ƒ‰‡ȋ„”‘‹Ž‡”•Ȍ
‹‹Ȍ ‡‰‰Žƒ›‹‰•–ƒ‰‡ȋŽƒ›‡”•Ȍ
ʹǤ ‡‡†Ǧƒ‹‰ƒ†–‡•–‹‰ˆ‘”ƒ‹ƒŽ•ȋˆ‡‡†–”‹ƒŽ•Ȍ
͵Ǥ ’”‘˜‹‰Ž‘…ƒŽ…Š‹…‡„›…”‘••‹‰ ™‹–Š‡š‘–‹…•ǡƒ†…ƒ””›‹‰‘—–
ƒƒ‰‡‡–
ͶǤ ƒ‹•‹‰’‹‰•ˆ”‘’‹‰Ž‡–•–ƒ‰‡–‘•Žƒ—‰Š–‡”•–ƒ‰‡
ͷǤ ƒƒ‰‡‡–‘ˆƒœ‡”‘Ǧ‰”ƒœ‹‰—‹–ȋ†ƒ‹”›ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ȍ
͸Ǥ ƒ„„‹–‡‡’‹‰
͹Ǥ
‘ƒ–‡‡’‹‰

Crop Production
ͳǤ ‹‰Š˜ƒŽ—‡…”‘’•
ʹǤ ‡‰‡–ƒ„Ž‡•ǣ
‹Ȍ ‡’’‡”
‹‹Ȍ ”ƒ
͵Ǥ —ƒŽ…”‘’•ǣ
‹Ȍ ƒ‹œ‡
‹‹Ȍ „‡ƒ•
͸Ǥ ‡†‹…‹ƒŽ…”‘’•ǣ
‹Ȍ ”–‹‡•‹ƒ•’ǡ
‹‹Ȍ ‘”‹‰ƒ
‹‹‹Ȍ Ž‘‡˜‡”ƒ
͹Ǥ ’‹…‡•ǣ

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‹Ȍ ‰‹‰‡”
‹‹Ȍ ’‡’’‡”
ͺǤ —•Š”‘‘•

Food Processing and Storage
ͳǤ ”‘…‡••‹‰ƒ†’”‡•‡”˜‹‰…”‘’•Ȁˆ‘‘†•—•‹‰Ž‘…ƒŽ‡–Š‘†•
ʹǤ ‡˜‡Ž‘’‹‰‡™–‡…Š‘Ž‘‰‹‡•‹ˆ‘‘†’”‘…‡••‹‰ƒ†’”‡•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘
͵Ǥ ‰”‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ‡‰‹‡‡”‹‰ƒ†ˆƒ”‡…Šƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘
ͶǤ ‡•‹‰‹‰ƒ†…‘•–”—…–‹‘‘ˆƒ‹ƒŽ•–”—…–—”‡•ȀŠ‘—•‡ȋƒ‹ƒŽȌ
ͷǤ ‡•‹‰‹‰ƒ†ƒ‹‰•‘Žƒ”†”‹‡”•ƒ†—•‹‰–Š‡ȋ…”‘’Ȍ
͸Ǥ ‡•‹‰‹‰ƒ†ƒ‹‰•–‘”ƒ‰‡ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–‹‡•‡Ǥ‰Ǥ‰”ƒƒ”‹‡•ǡ‡–…ȋ…”‘’Ȍ

Note:”‘Œ‡…–•ƒ›ƒŽ•‘„‡ƒ••‹‰‡†‹‘–Š‡”ƒ”‡ƒ•‘ˆ–Š‡•›ŽŽƒ„—•Ǥ

Time Allocation
Time Allocation per Term
Žƒ•• ‡” ‹‹— ‡”‹‘†• ‹‡Ȁ ‘–ƒŽ ‘–ƒŽ ‡”‹‘†•Ȁ
–‘–ƒŽ Ȁ™‡‡ ’‡”‹‘† –‹‡Ȁ –‹‡Ȁ –‡”
Ž‡ƒ”‹‰ ȋ‹—–‡•Ȍ ™‡‡ –‡”
–‹‡Ȁ–‡” ȋŠ‘—”•Ȍ ȋŠ‘—”•Ȍ
ȋ™‡‡•Ȍ
  ͹ ͻ ͶͲ ͸ Ͷʹ ͸͵