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A Practical Guide
fucluding Ports, PortApproaches and Offshore Terminals


Published by Toe ABR Company Ltd

ABR House, Prospect Place,
Trowbridge, Wiltshire BA14 8QA, UK
Telephone: +44(0) 1225 868821
Fax: +44(0) 1225 868831
Email: info@tugandosv.com
Web: www.tugandosv.com

Copyright: Henk Hensen, 2018

Ali rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in
any form or by any means, without the prior permission of the publisher and copyright holder, nor be otherwise
circulated in any form or binding or cover other than that in which it is published ahd without a similar condition
being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data: A CIP record for this book is available fro:m the British Library.

Although great care has been taken with the writing and production of this volume, neither The ABR Company nor
the author can accept any responsibility for errors, omissions or their consequences. Toe opinions expressed are those
of the author only and are not necessarily to be taken as the policies or views of any organisation with which he has.
any connection.

Edited by Joceline Bury

ISBN 978-1-904050-34-6

Printed by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon CR0 4YY

6.1 lntroduction 142
6.2 lnteraction and shallow water effects 142
ACKNOWLEOGEMENTS vi 6.3Tug safety 147
6.4 Summary and conclusions 167
GLOSSARY OF TERMS viii 6.5 Finally 168
Chapter 1:TUG DESIGN FACTORS 3 7.1 lntroduction 169
1.1 Differences in tug design and assisting methods 3 7.2 Additionál towing points and gob rapes 169
1.2 Factors intluencing tug type and tug assistahce 7.3Towing bitts, hooks and winches 172
1.3Types of tug 7 7.4 Towline Safety Systems 180
1.4 Assisting methods 8 7.STowlines 181
7.6Towline handling 199
1.5 Conclusion 8
7.7 SWL ship's towing equipment 200
Chapter 2:TYPES OF HARBOUR TUG 10 7.8 Requirements for emergency towing equipment, escorting and
PARTA: Classificatlon of tugs and operational design aspects 1o pull-back 202
7.9 New emergency towing concept 205
2.1 Classification of basic harbour tug types 11
2.2 lrnportant general requirernents for good tug performance 12 Chapter 8:TRAINING ANDTUG SIMULATION 207
PARTB: Basic tug types 17 8.1 Reasons for training 207
2.3 Conventional types oftug 17 8.2 Various training objectives and tools 207
2.4 Cornbi-Tugs 24 8.3 How specific training courses can be given 214
2.5Tractor tugs with cycloidal propellers 26 8.4 Assessrnent of further training needs 229
2.6 Tractor tugs with azimuth propellers 31 8.5 Developments 230
2.7 Reverse-tractor tugs 34 8.6 Conclusion 234
2.8 Japanese tug concept 35
2.9 Azimuth Stern Drive (ASD) tugs 37 Chapter 9: ESCORT TUGS 235
2.10 Uni-lever system 40 9.1The background to escorting 235
PARTC: Related tug types 41 9.2 Studies on escort requirements 236
9.3 Developments in escorting 238
2.11 Rotortug 41
9.4 Escorting objectives and tug placernent 239
2.12 Z-tech tug 45
9.5 Escorting by normal harbour tugs 240
2.13 RSD tug 47
9.6 Escorting by purpose built tugs 242
2.14 Carrousel tug 47
9.7 Escort tug regulations 259
2.15OOTtug 49
9.8 Concluding remarks 262
PART D: FASTtug types 50
2.16 lntroduction 50 Chapter 10:TUG DEVELOPMENTS 264
2.17 SDM (Ship Docking Modules) 51 10.1 Special developrnents in the design oftugs 264
2.18 EDDY 56. 10.2 Autonomous tugs 268
2.19 Carrousel RAVETug (CRD 59 10.3 Developments in general 275
2.20 Giano tug 60
Chapter 11: BALANCING SAFETY 278
PARTE: Specific Tugs. Research. Performance 63
11.1 lntroduction 278
2.21 Tugs handling LNG carriers. LNG terminal tugs 63
11.2 Safety 278
222 Eco- tugs 65
11.3 Risks 281
2.23 Ice tugs 71
11.4 Safety Management Systerns 289
2.24 Research 74
11.5 To sumrnarise 293
2.25Tug performance 76
3.1 lntroduction 78 APPENDIX 1: Guidelines for Owners/Operators on Preparing
3.2 Assisting methods 79 EmergencyTowing Procedures 299
3.3 Tug assistance in ice 85
APPENDIX 2: Safetywhen handling tugs 301
4.1 lntroduction 92 APPENDIX 3: Stability Rules- EscortTugs 304
4.2 Basic principies and definitions 92 APPENDIX 4: Standard Guide for EscortVessel Evaluation
4.3 Capabilities and lirnitations 106
and Selection 306
4.4 Desigh consequences 119
4.5 Environmental limits for tug operations 120 APPENOIX 5: Beaufort wind force scale 308
4.6 Conclusions regarding tug types 124
4.7 Some other practical aspects 125 INDEX: 309


5.1 lntroduction 128
5.2 Factors influencing total bollard pull required 128
5.3 Bollard pull required 136

CaptT S de Groot
President of the Regionale Loodsencorporatie Rotterdam-Rijnmond
This practical book is the most complete manual for tug use in seaports.

Working with tugs is part of the daily work of the Rotterdam pilots. When it comes to nautical safety in our ports, port
tugs have greatadded value. This added value is not only achieved through technical aspects such as manoeuvrability
and bollard pull, but also through the coordinated cooperation between pilots, tug masters and boatmen, who are
ali well-trained professionals and experts in their field. Good communication and a mutual trust in each other's
knowledge and skills as well as knowledge of the other's area of expertise are the most important elements of this co­
operation. The Rotterdam Joint Nautical Service Providers have one primary objective and that is to bring ships safely
and smoothly to and from their berths.

The most noticeable develópment in shipping in recent years has been the increase in scale, especially in that of
container shipping. With their immense weight and very large wind surface, large container ships are classified under
the category of so-called 'marginal ships'. A considerable amount of bollard pull is required to be able to manoeuvre
these ships safely in and out of port and through narrow waterways. Various types of tugboats are used in the port of
Rotterdam. A thorough knowledge of the possibilities and limitations of each tugboat type helps pilots to use a tug's
bollard pull in the most effective way possible.

The tugboat world, of course, has stayed abreast of ne':" tecbniques and innovations and these have also been
implemented in training courses for tugboat crews. This book informs you about the latest developments in this field.
ln this new edition, Capt Hensen, who is an experienced ex-pilot and former colleague in the port of Rotterdam, not
only gives us insight into new developments btit also explains with practical text and clear illustrations the basic
principles of assisting seagoing ships by tugs. Various new forms of tug use will also be discussed.

A new chapter has been added that deals with Risk Assessment and Safety Management Systems in the most practical
way possible. This new chapter focuses on achieving and maintaining safety throughout the entire structure of the
organisation from top to bottom.

Tug Use in Port is a valuable addition to nautical literature. It is a helpful resource for training purposes and an
indispensable reference work. As a pilot with more than 20 years of experience, I support this publication and with
me ali Rotterdam pilots. We are honoured to be playing a.role in sponsoring this book.

I therefore do not hesitate to recommend this well-illustrated work to port authorities, towage companies, tug
masters, maritime pilots, captains and deck officers of seagoing ships, and to ali those involved in the dynamic world
of seaports.

- ;r:::. •
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-• ...--;.. -- --•. ,.,___-.._•• •.••-• ••

Rotterdam pilot vessel Polaris.

ivTug Use in Port

Since the publication of the second edition of Tug Use in Port: A Practical Guide in 2002, much has changed. There have
been severa! developments and new tug types have come on to the market which should prove their capabiliti.es in
the daily practice of ship handling, just as earlier new tug designs have done. Toe conditions in which tugs have to
work- such as waves and ice - have received more attenti.on. This has had an effect on both tug design and the design
of deck equipment fitted to the vessels that have to operate in such conditions. Toe tug world is becoming more and
more environm.entally-minded, resulting in an increasing number of environmentally friendly tugs. Traditional fuels
have been replaced to a certain extent by LNG, CNG and batteries. Escorting and escort tugs have been developed
further, including taking into account the conditions that these tugs have to cape with, such as ice: all this in spite
of the fact that single hull tankers have been phased out. However, an-increasing number of LNG carriers and bulk
carriers are now being escorted, in addition to tankers.

Toe issue of crew reduction on tugs remains a focus for attention, although not to the sarne levei as it has been in the
past. Training tools, such as simulators, have been further developed, while attention is now paid to how Virtual
Reality and Augmented Reality might be implemented into marine training projects. Attention to human factors is
also increasing - another area in which simulators are used. Another interesting development is that of unmanned or
autonomous ships and the effect this might have on tugs. This is just a brief summary and selection of developments
that have taken place after 2002 and which are all addresséd in this new and much expanded editi.on.

At the centre of these developments are the practical people - tug masters and crews, pilots and ship captains -who
have to deal with these new developments and should be able to handle the newly designed tugs - and use their
equipment in the locations where they have to operate - in a safe and effi.cient way. Training and training tools,
therefore, become more and more important. For the sarne reasons training insti.tutes should stay abreast of the new
developments menti.oned.

Toe number of accidents that still happen - often with dramatic consequences for the tug master and/ or crew - is of
continuous concern and the reasons why these accidents continue to happen should become clear. When reading the
accident reports it can be concluded thatvery often the reason is a lack of experience and knowledge. Again, in this
lies an important task for port authorities, towing companies, training institutes and trainers. ln spite of the many
safe tugs, the capabilities and limitations of tugs should be weUknown, along with the risks involved and the safe
procedures to be followed. At the sarne time the human factors should be well considered. If training is carried out in
an efficient and purposeful way, tug masters, pilots and ship captains will benefit from it, as will towing companies,
shipping companies and port authorities. Dedicated training and interaction between daily pradice and designers
will help the industry to achieve an ever higher levei of safety and efficiency.

Safety starts at the highest management leve!. This is also known as the 'blunt end', where people are distanced
from the operation in both in time and locality. The causes of accidents are often embedded in the way a company is
organised, work is prepared, and changes are managed. From this perspective, risk management is detailed, together
with a set of risk assessment tools. Toe last chapter of this book also elaborates on the safety management system
as this is mandatory for vessels that need to comply with the ISM Code or Subchapter M under the Code of Federal
Regulations (the latter an obligation only for US-fl.agged vessels). Finally, the way in which companies can benefit
from having a safety management system is described.

This book is specifically writteh for maritime professionals involved in the day-to-day practice and training of ship
handling with tugs, particularly pilots, tug masters and training instructors. It should also be of value to towing
companies, shipmasters and mates of seagoing vessels and all other people or organisations involved, one way or
another, with tugs and ship handling.

Not all aspects of tugs and ship handling with tugs could be addressed in detail in this book - which should be
seen as a guide to the reader, while at the sarne time encouraging a further search for knowledge. Toe references
mentioned at the end may prove useful.

Toe tug world is fast changing, although the basic principies for tugs and tug operations do not change that much.

It is the author's earnest hope that this book will contribute to an improved knowledge of tugs and lead to increasing
safety in tug and ship handling operations in ports, port approaches and offshore terminals around the world.

May 2018

Tug Use in Port v

To complete a book like this, the knowledge and experience of people across a wide range of disciplines is needed. It
is most surprising how many people were so helpful in sharing their knowledge and experience with me. It enabled
me to create an update of the book Tug Use in Port in the best possible way. As the author I am very grateful for the
generosity of all these people and their organisations.

I will start by thanking all those who have provided photos or permitted the use of their photos from the collections
shown on internet. Their names are mentioned with the photos in the book.

Many maritime professionals have helped in one way or another based on their knowledge and practical experience
in ship handling with tugs. The marine pilots who have helped: John Betz, Los Angeles Pilot Service; Wim van
Buuren, Rotterdam pilot, siinulator instructor; Rafael Cabal Alvarez, Barcelona pilot, co-ordinator and instructor of
the New Technologies course for Spanish pilots; Luke Felsinger, Gladstone marine pilot, Dir AMPI, and Sergei Shabal,
pilot, St Petersburg, Russia.

The harbour masters: Captam Paul Bryant, Deputy Harbour Master, Shetland Islands Council; Harbour Master,
Associated British Ports Southampton, a:nd Cor Oudendijk, former COO, Port ofAmsterdam.

I also acknowledge the help of tug masters and representatives from severa! towing companies:
Pierre Jourdain, tug master and ice pilot; Gregory V Brooks, tug master, Principal Towing Solutions Inc; Arie
Nygl:t, FNI, tug master/instructor, Managing Director, SeaWays Consultants Pty Ltd; Daan Merkelbach, Manager
Training and Consultancy, Tug Training & Consultancy BV; Roger Ward, former tug master and Operational
Manager, Marine Consultant; Jarkko Toivola, Director/Vice President, Alfons Hakans 0y,Turku; Anna Fong, Senior
Management Executi.ve, Corporate Services Department, PSA Marine (Pte) Ltd.; Andy Perry, Regional Marine
Manager-Fleet & Operations, Svitzer Australia Pty Ltd; David Mcinnes, Svitzer Fleet Training and Check Master, Fleet
& Operations Australia; Scbtt Ward, HSEQ Marine Standards Officer UI<, Svitzer; Hiroyuki Saito, Preside.nt Tokyo
Kisen Co Ltd; Sveinung Zahl, Fleet Manager Towage, 0stensj0 Rederi AS; Carl Pepin, MBA Director Operations,
Towing and Navigation, Ocean Group, Québec; John Armstrong, Marine Advisor, Saam Sm.it Canada Inc, and Brent
Lirette RG, Operations Manager, Edison Chouest Offshore Alaska.

Of great iinportance for this book has been the contribution of naval architects, maritime researchers and research
and training institutes. Therefore I am thankful for the help of naval architects Dr Markus van der Laan, Owner IMC
Corporate Licensing; Arie Aalbers; Frans Sas, SASTECH; and of James R Hyslop, Manager, Project Development
Principal, Robert Allan Ltd.

Likewise, the professionals of tesearch and training institutes MARIN (Maritime Research Institute Netherlands)
Johan H de Jong, MSc, Intemational Co-operation; Dr Thijs Hasselaar, MSc, Project Manager, Trials & Monitoring and
Josvan Doorn, Msc, Manager MARIN's Nautical Centre MSCN. Fmthermore, Ismael Verdugo, Teclm.ical Director
SiPort21; Vladimir Ponomarev, Vice President Solutions, Transas Marine Ltd, Ireland; Peter Jensen Schjeldahl,
MScEng, PhD, Senior Specialist Simulation, Training & Ports, Force Technology, and Cliff Beazley, AM FNI,
Managing Director, Port Ash, Austra1ia.

The contributions of Gordon Meadow MSc, PgCLTHE, PgCERM; FHEA, Associate Professor Warsash School
of Maritime Science and Engineering, Southampton Solent University; Salman Nazir, PhD, Associate Professor,
Head of Training and Assessment Research Group (TARG), University College of Southeast Norway, and Sathiya
Kumar Renganayagalu, Doctoral Research Fellow, Faculty of Technology, Natural Sciences and Maritime Sciences,
Department of Maritime Operations Campus Vestfold, are also highly appreciated.

I am very grateful to the maritime organisations that have been willing to share their knowledge : Gijsbert de Jong,
Marine Marketing & Sales Director, Bureau Veritas Marine & Offshore; SJ Banfield, Managing Director, Optimoor;
John Vanezos, Technical Secretary, IACS; Rob �rysdale, Senior Technical Advisor, Oil Companies Intemational
Marine Forum (OCIMF); Cherian Oommen of Sigtto; Deborah McKendrick, Information Officer, Toe Intemational
Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd (ITOPF); Naa Sackeyfio, Information Data Analyst ITOPF; Captain John
Rose MNM, ExC, Director (Maritime), CHIRP; Linas Kasparavicius, Head of the Maritime Supervision, Division
Maritime Department, Uthuanian Transport Safety Administration; Oessur Jarleivson Hilduberg, Head of DMAIB,
and Svein Erik Enge, Emergency Preparedness Advisor, Inspection and E:r.nergency Preparedness, Norwegian
Maritime Authority.

Alan Sorum- Maritime Operations Project Manager, Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council,
Valdez, Alaska, was also very helpful in providing updated information, as were Bemabe Gallardo, Application
Engineer II, SamsonRope; Sarah Padilla, Technical Director, Cordage Institute; Peter Solis, Senior Marine Consultant,
Glosten, and Hans van de Veen, Consulta:nt Ropes-Towing Gear.

vi Tug Use in Port

Justus Schoemaker, Dujam Desk KK, Tokyo, Japan, was a helpful intermediary, as was Alan Loynd, Managing
Director, Branscombe Marine Consultants Ltd, Hong Kong, and Sandra de Koster, Regional Co-ordinator,
E-commerce, MOL (Europe) B.V.

Dirk Degroote, Product Manager Tugs; Joop Jansen, Manager Research & Development; Jochem de Jong, Principal
Research Engineer; Leo de Jong, Design and Proposal Engineer Tugs, and Tim van den Heuvel, Development
Engineer, of Damen Shipyards, were always ready to answer my questions and provide me with the requested

Much work has been carried out by Karen van Vliet, MSc Offshore Engineering and MSc Sociology, and Jan-Hendrik
Hensen, Mechanical Engineering (BEng), Quality and Safety Management University of Antwerp, Leadership in
Crisis Harvard Kennedy School. They have made a unique contributión to this book.

Apart from the need for the information contained in this book to be correct, there was also the need to present the
text in suitable English. Additionally, the link with the daily practice of ship handlingwith tugs is an essential aspect
of this book. Therefore the work that has been done in checking ali the chapters for these two aspects, initially by Ed
Verbeek, FN1, MSc, retired pilot, simulator instructor ship handling, former manager operations and training
co-ordinator Amsterdam pilots, and later by Chris Stockman, tug master and SeaWays trainer, has been invaluable.

Toe assistance of all those who helped in one way or another with this composition is highly appreciated.

Tug Use in Port vii

Assisting methods: Toe term used to describe the way in which harbour tugs assist seagoing vessels.
Breasted/alongside towing: A tug securely lashed alongside a ship, usually with a minimum of three lines:
head line, spring line and stern line. Also called 'on the hip' or 'hipped up'.
Push-pull: A tug made fast so that it can pull as well as push at a ship's side. Depending on the type of
tug, its location and the assistance required, it can be secured with one, two or three lines.
Towing on a Une: A tug assisting a ship while towing on a line as is in common use in many European ports.
BHP (winch): Brake Holding P9wer of the winch, which applies to the first layer on the drum.
Boxkeel: An enclosed keel structure extending frorn the aft skeg (if fitted) to a point close to the forefoot of a
tug. A box keel is sometirnes installed on ASD escort tugs to provide a better course stability on astem
and additional lift forces, resulting in higher towing forces, when operating as stem tug in the indirect
towing rnode. A box keel gives additional strength to the tug's hull and provides a better distribution of
dock forces when in dry-dock.
Classification of ship types:
AHT -Anchor Handling Tug
AHTS -Anchor Handling Tug/Supply vessel
DVS- Diving Support Vessel
ERRV - Emergency Rescue Response Vessel
FS - Field Support Vessel
IFS-húield Support Vessel
OMV-Offshore Maintenance Vessel
OCV-Offshore Construction Vessel
OR-Oil Revovery Vessel
PSV - Platforrn Support Vessel
SSV-Safety Standby Vessel
SURV-Survey Vessel
SV-Supply Vessel
CCTV: Closed-circuit television. A TV system in which signals are not.publidy distributed but are monitored,
primarily for surveillance and security purposes.
Classification Society: Toe objective of ship classification is to verify the design, production and operation of a ship and all of
its components. Classification societies airn to achieve this objective through the development
and application of their own rules. The main classification societies are ABS (American Bureau of
Shipping), DNV GL (Det Norske Veritas-Germanischer Lloyd), LR (Lloyd's Register) and BV (Bureau
Veritas). IACS is the Intemational Association of Classification Societies.
Computational Fluid Dynamics:
Toe use of applied mathematics, physics and computational software to visualise how a gas or liquid
flows, as well as how the gas or liquid affects objects as it flows past.
Course stability and directional stability:
Course stability is also called dynamic stability, stability of route or dynamic stability of route (see
References: Hydrodynamics in Ship Design, Vol I. H.E. Saunders). It is that property of a ship (which
includes tugs) that, when disturbed, damps out extraneous motions set up by the disturbance and to
reduce them progressively to zero. Course stability should not be confused with directional stability,
which is, strictly speaking1 the ability of a ship to follow a certain direction, eg by means of an autornatic
steering system. A ship closely following a selected heading has directional stability but may be course
unstable (see below), which results in frequent rudder (or thruster) actions to hold the ship on its course.
Course stable ship: With a constant position of the steering systems (rudders, thrusters, etc), a ship iS defined to be course
stable if, after experiencing a brief disturbance, it will resume the original manoeuvre without any use
of the means of steering. Course stability on a straight course, with the rudder in the equilibrium
position, is mostly only considered. A tum initiated by a brief disturbance of a course stable ship will
thus not continue. However, after the disturbance has vanished, the actual course of the ship will
generally be altered. A course stable ship needs relatively large rudder angles for course changing. A
course stable ship has goo_d yaw checking ability.
Course unstable ship: A ship is called course unstable, if, after it is disturbed, it will immediately start to tum. Course
changing, with relatively high rates of tum, can be achieved with relatively small rudder angles. A
course unstable ship therefore generally has poor yaw checking ability.
Cross lines/gate lines: Separate lines from either side of the tow to the opposite quarter of the tug or the opposite side of the
tug's H-towing bitt.
CRT: Carrousel RAVE (Robert Allan Voith Escort) Tug- a tug with one Voith Schneider propulsion unit
forward and one aft. It has a ring around the wheelhouse along which the towing winch and towing
point travel.
Dead ship: A ship which cannot use her own propulsion.
Density of air as used: 1.28kg/m3

viiiTug Use in Port

Density of sea water as used:
DOF: Degrees of freedom refers, among other things, to the ability of simulators to reproduce ship and tug
motions, whether by the projection screen or by a hydraulic platform. Ship and túg motions are
expressed in sway, surge and yaw, being the motions in the horizontal plane, and heave, pitch and roll,
being the motions in the vertical plane. There are in total six degrees of freedom of movement for a
vessel that is unrestricted in its motions.
DOT: Dynamic Oval Towing: A system whereby the towing point travels along an oval ring around the tug's
• Escort tugs: Tugs specifically built for escorting at high speeds.
Escorting tug: Any type of tug escorting a ship underway.
FLNG: Floating Liquefied Natural Gas
F(P)SO: Floating (Production) Storage and Offloading Unit.
FSRU: Floating Storage and Regasification Unit
Free sailing: A tug sailing independently.
Girting: Risk of capsizing, especially with conventional tugs, due.to high athwartships tow line forces. Also
known as girding, girthing or tripping.
Gob rope/gog line: A rope or steel wire used on conventional tugs to shift the towing point.
HMPE: Bigh-modulus polyethylene fibre, under the trade names Spectra and Dyneema, used for high
performance ropes.
Hockle: Kinking or twisting of a strand in a rope which makes it unfit for use.
IMO: International Maritime Organization.
Lateral centre of pressw-e:
Toe point of application of the hydrodynamic forces in the longitudinal centre plane of a ship or tug
1his point changes with varying angle of attack of the incoming water flow and with draft, trim and
Lbp: Length between perpendiculars.
LOA: Length overall.
LWL: Length at the waterline.
MBL: Minimum Breaking Load (of a rope).
Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS):
Defined by IMO as a ship which, to a varying degree, can operate independently of human interaction.
GM: Initial Metacentric Height.
Messenger: A light rope attached to the tow line in order to heave the tow line on board a ship.
Norman pins: Short iron bars fitted in the gunwales of the ttansom to prevent the tow line from slipping over the síde
gunwales. Sometimes called 'king pins'.
Nozzle: A tube around the propeller to increase propeller performance. Toe nozzle can be fixed or steerable.
OCIMF: Oil Companies Intemational Marine Fofum.
PIANC: Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses.
Pendant/pennant: A separate part at the final part of a tow line which is most liable to wear on board an assisted ship, at
ship's fairleads, etc. Toe pendant can be of different construction to the tow line.
Pen (tug pen): A tug pen is a special protective berth from cyclonic winds and is enclosed on three sides.
Propulsion (types of): Azimuth propellers: 360° steerable propellers, which can deliver thrust in any direction.
Also called: 'Z-pellers', 'Rexpellers', 'Duckpellers' (azimuth propellers in nozzles).
CPP: Controllable pitch propeller(s).
FPP: Fixed pitch propeller(s).
VS: Voith Schneider proptilsion: propulsion system with vertical propeller biades, also called
cycloidal propulsion system.
PRT: Prevention.and Response Tug.
Significartt wave height:
Toe approximate wave height as seen by an experienced observer when estimating the height visually.
Snag resistance: Resistance of a rope to single yarns being pulled out of the rope when it slides along a surface, such as
over a deck or through a fairlead. A snag is a loop of a yarn.
SPM: Single Point Moorings.
Sponson: A strongly flared section in the side of a tug, commencing at or just below the waterline, which results
in substantial increase in deck area and reserve buoyancy without increasing the beam at the waterline.
Stemming� A tug coriling under the bow of a ship at speed.
Stretcher: That part of a tow line, between the original tow line and pennant, which absorbs the dynamic forces in

Tug Use in Port ix

the tow line. Also called a spring and often m:ade ofnylon, polyester or a polyester/polypropylene
Towing point: Point of application of the tow line force. It is the point from where the tow line goes in a straight Iine
towards the ship.
Towline: A fl.exible hawser used for towing purposes.
Tripping: Atug towing on a line swinging around and coming alongside a ship's hull due to excessive speed by
the ship in relation to a tug's capabilities and towing angle. The expression 'tripping' is also used for
Tug/engine power: BHP: Brake Horse Power: power delivered by the engine.
SHP: Shaft Horse Power: power delivered to the propeller shaft (approximately 97% of BHP).
BP: Bollard Pull, which in this book is expressed in the practical units of tons, equal to
1,000 kgf (= 9.80665 kN).
MCR: Maximum Continuous Rating (of tug engine).
Ton: The practical unit used in this book for force, eg for bollard pull, equal to 1000 kg force, and for 'weight',
equal to 1,000kg.
Tug simulation:
Interactive tug: A tug simulated on a bridge manoeuvring simulator, able to interact with other
bridge manoeuvring simulators, which are simulating other tugs and/or the assisted
Vector tugs: Tugs simulated by just a force vector.
UHMW polyethylene (UHMW PE):
Ultra High Molecular Weight polyethylene. Material used for dock fendering and for fenders of tug
boats at places where a low friction coefficient is required.
VS-tug: Atug with VS propulsion.

xTug Use in Port


Photo: SeaspanMarine, Canada

Figure 0.1 :Reverse tractor tugs Seaspan Falcon (LOA 24.6m, beam 9.Bm; BP ahead 39 tons) and Seaspan Eagle (LOA 28.2m,
beam 12.6m, BP 71 tons) keeping bulk carrier alongside.
The contents of this book are outlined below. • Much attention is given to dangerous operational
situations for tugs, such as interaction and girting, and to
• A general review is presented first of factors which environmental conditions such as fog.
affect operational requirements for a harbour tug, such as
the different tasks for which they are used, the particulars • Towing equipment is dealt with, particularly in
of a port, the environmental conditions and ships calling relation to safe and efficient shiphandling.
at the port.
• Escorting and escort tugs, being a subject of specific
• The various types of harbour tug are discussed in interest nowadays, is dealt with separately.
a general way, addressing the diversity of design,
propulsion, steering and manoeuvring capabilities. • Proper training for a tug captain and crew is
essential in order that they handle the tug safely and
• After reviewing assisting methods in use worldwide, efficiently. The sarne applies to the pilot and/or master
tug types are considered in more detail, including the for shiphandling with tugs. Training is therefore an
performance of different types of tug resulting from the important subject in the book, including simulator
location of propulsion <levices, towing point and lateral training and research.
centre of pressure. Tug capabilities, limitations and
effectiveness with respect to different assisting methods • Risk assessment and safety management systems are
and operating positions relative to a ship are discussed. important items with respect to safety and are dealt with
in a separate chapter.
• The number of tugs required to handle a vessel safely
is frequently a topic for discussion between pilots and Ali subjects are, as far as possible, related to situations
shipmasters. This important subject is discussed taking encountered in practice.
into account the effects of wind, current, shallow water
and confined waters. The number of tugs and total
bollard pull used in severa! ports around the world is
Tug Use in Port 1
Photo: Henk Koning, The Netherla.nds
Figure 0.2: Tanker Hayon Spírit (95,000dwt; LOA 244m) entering the lock in IJmuiden withtug assistance. Aft ASD-tug Titan,
LOA 30m, beam 9.50m, BP 50 tons. The whole waterflow can clearly be seen.

2 Tug Use in Port

Chapter 1
1.1 Differences in tug design and This reduction in the number of assisting tugs per
ship places the individual tug in a more crucial role. It
assisting methods requires a high level of operational safety and reliability
Methods of assistance provided by tugs in ports and from the tug and a high level of suitability for the job to
port approaches aronnd the world differ due to local be carried out.
conditions and specific situati.ons and have often grown In order to keep a port's tug services up to date and
from long standing customs. and traditions. These to ensure'safe, smooth shiphandling, itis essential to
differences in assistance methods and practices are often keep abreast of developments in harbour towage and
reflected in the requirements for the tugs and hence in the shipping, to have the most suitable tugs available and to
development of a range of tug types. have well trained crews for the specific situation in the
Over the past few years, rapid develópment has been port.This is ali the more important when the investment
obsérved among harbour tugs. New types have been required for new tugs is so very high. It may be necessary
designed with high manoeuvrability and considerably to reconsider the traditional approach.
increased engine power. Modem steering <levices, new It requires extensive research and knowledge of tugs
towing appliances and new materiais for towlines, to before an answer to the question 'which type of tug or
name just a few, have been fitted. These developments which working method is the best for a certain port?'
affect methods of tug assistance and the number of can be given. It requires a profonnd knowledge of the
tugs used. Following the Exxon Valdez disaster, the different tug types, their capabilities and limitations, and
requirement to escort tankers in certain port approaches a good insight into the local situation.
has resulted in the development of specially built escort
tugs and tugs with escort capabilities. Toe capabilities and limitations of different tug types are
dealt with in the following paragraphs.
As a result of the improved manoeuvring capabilities of
many modem ships on the one hand, and the improved Toe operational requir:ements that harbour and also
towing performance of modem tugs on the other, the terminal tugs must conforin to, with respect to ship
number of tugs required for assistance in port areas assistance, are mainly determined by the following factors:
is decreasing. Due to the economic factors faced by • The kind of port or harbour and approaches,
shipping companies, captains and pilots are oftert nnder foreseeable future clevelopments and the existing
pressure to use the minimum number of tugs. geographical environmental conditions.

'1 -

Photo: PortTowage Amsterdam

Figure 1 :1 Atlantic Bridge entering the lock at IJmuiden with azimuth tractor tug Arion at the bow. Tug dimensions: LDA 28.75m,
beam 9.1 m, BP 45 tons. Tugs should be able to assist ships through locks.

Tug Use in Port 3

• The type of ships ca]ling at the port. b. Ports with mainly terminals
• The services required in and around the port and, The 1ocation of ports with terminals, such as container
if relevant, at offshore locations, such as jetties, LNG terminals, can be such that there is plenty of roam
terminals, SPMs, F(P)SOs, FLNGs, ôr oil rigs. available for manoeuvring and manoeuvres can then
1.2 Factors influencing tug type and be more standardised. Such terminals are very well
suited for the so-called 'push- pull' method and tugs are
tug assistance specifically designed for this type of operation.
1.2.1 Categories of port and their approaches
e. Ports with mainly piers and jetties
Ports can, in general, be divided into four categories: Jetties cah be divided into those in the open sea and
a. Co·nventional ports those in protected waters. A major clifference between a
Conventional ports make up the màjority of ports around jetty and a normal harbour or terminal is the method of
the world, often with a long history as such. Ships are mooring and unmooring. With jetties, mooring is mostly
berthed in harbour basins or docks, along river berths done on dolphins or on a finger- or T-pier, allowing
and often have to pass locks and/ or bridges. This creates tugs to opetate on both sides of the vessel assisted. ln
specific tequirements for tugs and tug assistance. The harbour basins and at terminals, however, mooring is
development of these ports has taken place alongside that clone alongside a quay where assistance is, in most cases,
of shipping - including the tugs. Ports such as Rotterdam, restricted to cme side.
Le Havre and Hong Kong have a good, short connection
with the open sea. Others - like Antwerp, Calcutta and d. Mooringfacilities at remate locations
New Orleans-have a long and sometimes complicated For mooring locations offshore, such as jetties and
connection wH:h the open sea. ln all these ports, tugs LNG tern;únals:, ships are often made.fast under
should not only be suitable for assistance in the harbour windy conditions and in waves. This demands special
areas, butfor assistance outside the harbour as well, requirements for tugs, such as good stability, sturdy
i.e. onthe river or at sea. Development of conventi.onal fendering, render-recovery winches and high engine
ports does not always keep abreast of the increase in power.
dimensions of ships that cali. at the ports. This can result
in increasingly complicated manoeuvres on arrival or Tugs handling SPMs and particular F(P)SOs and FNLGs
departure, and additional requirements for the harbour have to meet specific requirements with respect to engine
tugs with regard to engine power, manoeuvrability and power, manoeuvrability and towing winches, depending
dimensions. on the situation, conditions and size of ships.

Photo: Seaspan Marine

Figure 1.2: Reverse tractor tugs Seaspan Osprey (LOA 28.20m, breadth 12.60m, BP 80 tons) and Seaspan Resolution (LOA 30m,
beam 12.2m, BP 80 tons) assisting container vessel with push-pUII method towards the container terminal.

4 Tug Use in Port

Photo; Plet Sinke
Figure t.3:Port Hedland: open jetty.

Ports under development time windows. Toe accessibility of these ports, therefore,
ln many ports, developments take place - such as new can be rather complicated. Tugs have to handle ships
berths or harbour basins - and new ports are still being safely and efficiently. Especíally in these ports, therefore,
designed. At an early stage, it is desirable that tugboat the requirements tó which a tug must conform may
companies and pilots should participate in design change continuously from the entrance or approach up
studies for these new ports, harbour basins, terminais, to the berth and the final mooring. ln some ports this
etc. ln this way, tugboat companies and pilots can give problem is solved by using different types of tugs for the
advice based on their experience of shiphandling with various parts of the route.
the available harbour tugs. Moreover, lug companies Ports dose to the sea may be influenced by waves and
can take account of these new developments when
swell, leading to additional requirements for tugs. The
ordering new tugs suitable for the new situation. Regular
consultation between port authorities, port designers, sarne applies to tugs that have to operate at offshore
tugboat companies and pilotswill favourably affect the locaHons or in ports in colder ateas where ice may be
accessibility of ports and harbours. encountered. Limited water depths in port areas where
harbour tugs have to operate will give rise to special
-.,- ---
ln container ports, especially where space is limited, the

requirement for large land space to stack containers may -
- -.•• -- · --- .
not corréspond with the minimum manoeuvring area
required for ships and tugs. Specificrequirements for
tug assistance may be necessary, such as the type of tug,
engine power, towing equipment and assisting method.
Port approaches
/ 1
Port approaches are under the influence of the open ,--e--- - k.
,,. ,, '
sea and can be wide or narrow, with sandy or rocky
banks, winding or straight entrances. Depending on the
local situation, tugs may be used in the port approaches
and should be capable of working in more open sea
conditions with waves and/ or swell. Following the
Exxon Valdez disaster there is a growing tendency
to require an escort for oil and gas tankers in port
approaches. Tugs used for escorting must comply with
very specific requirements.
1.2.2 Environmental conditions
Geographical environmental conditions are very
important from a tugboat company's point of view. The
majority of older ports are situated in river estuaries Photo; Kees Torn, the Netherlands
and are particularly subject to the influence of tides Figure 1.4: Depending on the location of the port, tugs should
or seasonal effects. Fairways and rivers are constantly be capable to operate in wave conditions. Hybrid ASD-tug
subject to changes. Differences in water depth, bridge Mu/lratug 28, type ASD 281 O, operating in the RotterdalTi area.
passages and lock entries may réquire the adoption of LOA 28.67m, beam 10.43m, BP ahead 60.7 tons.

Tug Use in Port 5

requirements with regard to a tug's maximum draft. • Towing inland barges, elevators, floating cranes.
Tugs usedshould, as long as safety permits, always be • Assisting push-tow barges.
capable of working effectively under the environmental • Fire-fighting and pollution control duties.
conditions in and around the port and, if relevant, in the
port approaches or at offshore locations, whether during These activities also demand a specific type and size of
tµg, as well as specific manoeuvrability, equipment and
strong winds; currents or ice, waves and/ or swell. When
towing methods,as is the case with tugs that have to
w ater depth is restricted, manoeuvring space is limited,
operate, for example, at SPMs, F(P)SOs, FNLGs, LNG
or locks or bridges.have to be passed, the type of harbour
terminals or at oil rigs.
tug used should obviously be such that it is capable of
performing well in these situations. 1.2.5 Assisting method in use
1.2.3 The ships concerned The method of assistance used by tugs wil1 depend on:
Another important factor is the type of ships to be • Port, jetty, terminal layout and/ or offshore installation.
assisted, such as large LNG or LPG tankers, FSPOs, • Types of ship.
FLNGs , bulk carriers, oil tankérs, container ships, car • Environmental conditions.
carriers, ro-ro ships and so on. Different types of ship
• Navigational complexify of river, channels and port
give rise to specific requirements on the assisting tug,
with regard to such engine power, towing equipinent,
fendering, manoeuvrability and superstructure. • Whether bridges and locks have to be passed.

For example, in a port where only tankers moor • Whether escorting is needed.
alongside an oil jetty, it is not too difficult to determine • Often on tradition.
what kind of tug, and what power, is required. However,
The type of tug used depeneis largely on the assisting
a large variety of types and sizes of ships means the
method. Tugs have to meet, as far as possible, the
requirements of tugs will vary too.
requirements related to the assisting method. The assisting
1.2.4 Services required in and around the method may also depend on the availability of mooring
harbour boats. When no mooring boats are available a ship has to
be brought up very dose to the berth or even alongside to
The most important activities of harbour tugs have been be able to pass the mooring lines. ln these circumstances
mentioned above. ln many ports fuese activities also tugs should be able to push atthe ship's side,
include assisting atdock yards. Harbour tugs are often
used for.activities other than assisting seagoingvessels, ln a number of ports, tugs are used to brake and control
such as: the ship's speed, eg when approaching a lock or passing
a bridge. Tugs should be capable of doing so.
• Towing offshore material, such as oil rigs and crane
barges. Blackouts do happen on ships arriving in ports. Tugs, tug

Photo: Kotug
Photo: Scott Best,USA
Figure 1.6: Other services required. Transport of tunnel
Figure 1.5: ln colder areas tugs should be able to operate in segments over the river and through bridges. The pulling tugs
freezirig conditions and in ice. Tug Texas, diesel-electric single are two Rotortugs RT Claire and RT Stephanie. Dimensions:
screw, on Lake Michigan. Built 1916 (!}, 1,200bhp, LDA 24.?m, LOA 27.?m, beam 11.2m, BP 65 tons, Tugs should be able to do
beam 6.1m. Still operational as ship assist tug. this kind of work as well, including bridge passages.

6 Tug Use in Port

Photo: Mark de Bruin, the Netherlands Photo: Ole Peter Dahl
Figure 1.7: Tugs might be needed for other services than just Figure 1.8: Brand-new MDL Tradition, Geoje, Korea.
ship handling.Three tugs transporting the FSPO Western tsland Tugs should be able to assist at dockyards.
over the river to the yard.
choice of tug type, such as local customs, environmental
type and power should be such that they are able to keep conditions, water depth, type of ships using the port and
the ship under control as far as possible by braking ship's escort requirements. These factors can differ enormously
speed and/ or controlling the heading. from port to port and so will affect the type of harbour
tugs. Requirements for harbour tugs that have to operate
1.2.6 Available experience at offshore installations may be an additional factor to
take into account. It should be noted that the factors
Pilots and tug captains are accustomed to the assisting
mentioned not only influence the type of tug needed, but
methods used in the port and to the types of tugs in the also the assisting method used and that method has, in
port. They have built up their experience with these tugs
tum, a strong relation with the type of tug.
and with the tug's crews. They know the advantages
and the shortcomings of their tugs and are thus able to An overview of the factors influencing the operati.onal
anticipate. Changing over to a new system or to a new requirements for tugs is given in the table at the end of
type of tug may introduce difficulties, wil1 take time and this chapter.
should be weighed carefully. Training and instru:ction
will be needed, espedally when the type of tug and
the wayit operates is totally different from the existing 1.3 Types oftug
system. A well planned changeover to the new system Toe fac:tors mentioned above have resulted in the use
will be necessary. Ali this should be taken into account
of different types of tug ali over the world. At present
when considering the introduction of a new tug type or
mainly the following types are used:
assisting method.
• Single screw tugs.
1.2.7 Safety requirements • Twin screw tugs.
Sometimes tugs have to operate in hazardous areas, • Tractor type tugs.
for instance when handling LNG carriers or operating • Tugs with azimuth propellers aft.
at LNG terminals. Tugs should then often rneet certain • Roto�gs
safety requirements.
• Tugs with one propulsion unit forward and one aft.
Tug assistance always includes risks for the tug and her Single and twin screw tug types are generally well
crew. These risks can be minirnísed by good training and known. To increase towing power, many of them are
by a well designed and equipped tug. The type of tug fitted with nozzles. They may be equipped with fixed
also influences the leve! of safety. Depending on the type or variable pitch propellers. ln some cases, to improve
of port, the environmental conditions, the ships assisted, their manoeuvrability, a bow thruster or, in particular on
the assisting methods and the port regulations, the safety single screw tugs, a 360° steerable and often retractable
requirements may differ by port. 0n the other hand, tug bow thruster is installed, which. also increases the towing
owners should require, regardless of the port situati.on, force.
the highest level of safety, which could dictate a certain
type of tug and tug equipment. Tractor types of tug have propellers under the forebody
of the tug. These propellers may be Voith propellers or
1.2.8 Summary 360º steerable azimuth propellers.
No two ports are the sarne. Many factors influence the Tugs with azirnuth propellers aft resemble twin screw
Tug Use in Port 7
t- "
-- .,

Photo: Moran Tugs Photo: BAE Systems, UK

Figure 1.9: Tugs might bé needed to handle navy vessels, such Figlire1 .1 O: Tugs may be required to handle submarines, which
as airéraft carriers, which will result in specific demands for the sets specific demands for the assisting tugs; ASD-tugs
tugs. SO/ndependent(type ASD 2509, LOA 25.14m, beam 9.44m,
BP 40 tons) and SD Dependable {type ATO 2909, LOA 29.13m,
tugs. However, because of the 360º steerable thrusters beam 9.98m, BP 43 tons).
they are.much more manoeuvrable.
Rotortugs have two azimuth propulsion units forward 1.5 Conclusion
and one aft and are very manoeuvrable.
lt is clear that no port is the sarne with respect to tug
Various tug types exist with one propulsion unit forward requirements. Port layouts differ, as do the types of ship
and one aft. frequenting the port, the environmental conditions, local
Toe different tug types are díscussed in more detail in traditions and consequently the types of tug and the
Chapter 2. assisting methods.
When a new tug is needed a sim.pie answer to the
1.4 Assisting methods question 'which type of tug and/ or which towing
method is most suitable for the port?' cannot easily be
Depending on local experience and circumstances, the given. Too many factors play a role. It takes reliable
following assisting methods or combinations of these research, weighing all the advantages and disadvantages,
inethods are mainly used: to establish the requirements for the most suitable tug
• Tugs towing on a line. for the port. Most important is not just what forces
• Tugs operating at the ship's side. have to be considered but how, when and under what
When towing on a line, the towline is made fast at the conditions and circumstances do these forces play a
bow or stein of the assisted ship. The tugs operate at role -for instance with regard to ship's speed, confined
a distance from .the ship's bow and stem on a towline areas, environmental conditions and underkeel clearance.
length normally at least one and half times the tug's This is the way m.ore and more modem ports and/or
length. tug companies work nowadays. Toe outcome may be a
tractor type with azimuth propellers or Voith propulsion
Depending on the assistance required, local situation and or even a conventional type of tug. Escorting of tankers
type of tugs used, tugs operating at the ship's side can be
will involve additional requirements.
made fast withone, two or three lines. Different methods
are used, .such as the push-pull method, whereby the tug Ort the other hand, tug ownerswant to operate as few
is usually made fast with one line. Alongside towing is different types of tug as possibJe and prefer that the
another method. Tugs are then securely lashed alongside available types are put into action as frequently as
the ship with a minimmn of three lines. possible. Harbour tugs should, thetefore, be as versatile
Different assisting methods are discu�sed in Chl:l.pter 3. as possible.

8 Tug Use in Port

Figure 1.11: Summary of factors influencing harbour tug choice

�Ji(/· .A"Vãilàblê
Pãss- Othér : 'Siif'ety,ôf,.fiigs . '. )lfüiãliclal
' • �9�™'!,
conilifi,l!.11f ',1
·Si!tví� Exj>eri�te, �pects
- -
. .- Reniili-êd - - .

Sea/Approacb Swell Generalcargo Offshore T owing ona Co nvenlioaal Tugtype Tugtype Budget
Ships install ations line singl�/�in/ experlenc e

River Waves tripie s crew Training Tug price
C ontainer SPM's Push-pull Assistln g
Channel Wind vessels Tractor tug method Port/State Op eratlng
FSPO Al ongside vs exper lence regulation costs
Water depth Current Car carrlers (O\\ing
FLNGs Tracto r tugs Classification
Locks/Bridges ke Ro-Rc,sblps F.scorti ng Azimuth regulations
J etUeslter m!nals Fog TankersNLCCs ASDtugs Envir onmental
in op en s ea Fl oating c ondltions
Hazardo us Gas tank ers aanes Reverse
JetUeslter minals ar eas tract or tugs Hazardous
in protected Bulkcarr iers Dockyards are a
waters ROTOR tugs regulation
Ferries Escorting
Harbo ur basins Z-t ech tugs
Pass enger slúps
Rlver berths Tugswith
Crilise vessels one
Mo oringbuoys propulsion
Navy vessels unit forward
Mooringboats e.g. submarlnes, and one aft
aircraft carrlers

Tug Use in Port 9


3 n
I -·::h"'"'
o 1 m1 �r.'1:{i;v/!�-m m,_,
_ ·�
D];U iED1 1'l!JG, 'Fl�ES. , , �;ID
�ll•� _ ·'iJ.�l}Jt�, DJ
<il����; ��l �:n'.gfo fit)l'i�,t��}



ROTOR-tug SDIV.l ::J

(Ship I:)ôcldpg
With Z�tech tug e m
Voitfi Schnl'itler
tugs tQ
(single; twin, (riple V\
sc,rew, Sm#L1'ug
JlSD tug
(Efficfont Double­ DJ
::::, -e -n n
ended,Dj,n�mic tug)
(�eve.rse SJérri Driye) 0.:J>:C;
With ASD-tugs o >
A.ziinlltb mel Azistêrh -e -t
:x, nr

propellers GlAN0·tue tD > to ..,

(offorati ng,oyer tug -:

Carrôusel t�g DJ tJ
r+ e
o :X,

ASD.-tµgs. Iµ:VEhig

incf. J\zistern €ombi4ugs ::J -1
(C)petatirtg_:over bow·as
(With VoiJh Schneider
· propulsionunits)
reverse·tr,1c_tor tug) ·

1 Reverse .tr:actor ::J
tug DJ
.(1,:us�edugi;) Ili

Table 2A.1 Classification of harbour tugs

2.1 Classification of basic harbour Through tug development, a large number of different
tug types have emerged. These tug types can be
tug types categorised in three groups- as shown in Table 2A.l.
Tug types are named after their main characteristics,
ie, the type of propulsion, propulsíon manufacturer, First, attention will be paid to the basic tug types, because
location of propulsion or steering system. Names include the other tug types have to some extent a relation with
conventional tugs, Voith-Schneider tugs, Z-peller tugs, these tugs. Classifying the basic tug types accorcling to
Kort nozzle tugs and tractor tugs, among others. There their thruster and towing point location results in the
is no uniform naming system in use and this can be following two main groups:
confusing. For example, when talking about a Z-peller a) Tugs with their propulsion aft and towing point near
tug, what is meant? Is tbis a tug with azimuth propellers midships_. These are basically conventional types of tug.
forward or with azimuth propellers aft? Toe difference This category includes all nonnal conventional types
does not seem so great, but considering tug performance such as single screw and twin screw tugs.
while rendering assistance, it is. After ali, that is what b) Tugs with their towing point aft and propulsion
tugs are used for - to render assistance. As will be seen forward of midships. These are tractor tugs.In this
later, it is better to classify tugs according to their location category are:
of propulsion and towing point. It makes things easier to • Tractor tugs with Voith propulsion.
understand. • Tractor tugs with azimuth propellers.

Some history... There are types of tug that can be classified either as
conventional or tractor tugs, depending on the way they
Vvhen discussing the various tug types it may give
operate. These are:
the impression that azimuth thrusters are a product of
the 20th century. But that is not the case. The general • Reverse-tractor or pusher tugs (more and more also
principle of today's azimuth thrusters was patented called ASD-tugs) - tugs with azimuth propellers aft
under the heading of 'steering propellers' in the early and towing point forward, built to operate mainly
1870s. Not only patented, but actu;illy made and over the tug's bow, as can be seen for example
used in severa! applications. ColonelWH Mallory in Japan, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Tractor tugs
developed the ideas in the USA and was able to patent normally work with their towing point-the tug's
them in Britain, setting up the Mallory Propeller Co in stem - towards the ship and their propellers - near
London. ln 1881 he patented an azimuth thruster with the tug's bow- away from the ship. Reverse-tractor
twin propellers, designed to balance out the torque tugs operate in the sarne way regarding the towing
reactions and requiring less power to tum the thrusters point and the propellers, consequently the tug itself
(see figure 2A.1). There is even evidence that Mallory lies in the reverse direction.
also experimented a with a podded thruster with an • Azimuth stem drive (ASD) tugs - multi-purpose
electromotor in the underwater unit. tugs with azimuth propellers aft which are built to
Even the Voith Schneider propeller had a predecessor. operate over the tug's bow as a reverse-tractor tug
The USSAlarm, comrnissioned in 1874, was equipped as well as over the tug's stem like a conventional
with a Fowler propeller, which was a vertical axis tug. Most ASD-tugs have a towing winch forward
propulsion resembling a feathering paddle wheel set on and one on the after deck while some have simply a
one end. It had some similarities with the well-known towing hook instead of a towing winch aft, or have
Voith Schneider propeller, but lacked the sophisticated the option to be fitted with a towing winchlater.
linkage and blade design. See figure 2A.2. Because an ASD-tug can operate as a reverse-tractor

Source: USA Naval History and Heritage Command

Figure 2A.1: Colonel WH Mallory steerable propeller. 1870s Figure 2A.2: USS A/arm, 1874

Tug Use in Port 11

tug, it is often mentioned together with reverse­ Effectiveness and safety of operations
tractor tugs. It is not only manoeuvrability, but also bollard pull and
• Modified older tugs with a 360° steerable bow underwater shape that make a tug effective and therefore
thruster (combi-tugs) and equipped with an suitable for the job. For example, large container vessels
additional towing point at the after end of the tug. with containers stacked six high or more on deck need
These tugs can operate as a normal conventional powerful tugs in case of strong winds. When a ship is
tug or like a tractor tug when using their aftermost underway at speed; loss of tug's effectiveness due to the
towing point. ship's speed and/ ór towing direction shóuld be as small
as possible. The effectiveness and safety of a tug is also
So the following basic types of tug can be seen, ali related to factors such as the tug's stability and suitability
belongingto one or both of the above groups: of towing equipment.
• Conventional tugs.
• Tractor tugs with azirnuth propellers or Voith Required manoeuvii.ng space
propulsion. Toe manoeuvring space required by assisting tugs
• ASD-tugs. should, depending on the situation, be as small as
• Reverse-tractor tugs. possible. This can be achieved by a suitable tug type
• Combi-tugs. with good m.anoeuvrability, limited tug dimehsions and
proper towing equipment.
There are, of course, many differences in construction,
hull design, propulsion and rudder configuration and so Other practica1 aspects of importance for good tug
on within each basic tug type. Toe different basic types performance and safety of operations are asfollows:
of tug are therefore discussed in more detail starting with
some general aspects regarding tug performance and 2.2.2 Wheelhouse construction and layout
safety of operations.
The 'related tug types' as shown in Table 2A.1 - eg, A tug's wheelhouse should be placed and constructed
Rotortug, Z-tech tug and RSD tug- have much common such that, at his/her manoeuvring station, the tug captain
with the basic tug types. The Rotortug has three azimuth has a good view of the tug's fore and aft ends and tug
thrusters and the othertwo tug types have two azimuth sides. He/she must also have a good view of:
thrusters under one of the tug's ends. • Toe towline and tówing equipment.
• The working deck.
A more recent development is the FAST (Forward­ • Contact areas between tug and ship.
Aft-Single-Thruster) tugs, which have thrusters, either • The assisted ship.
azimuth or Voith, at each end of the tug. These are the • Other assisting tug boats.
SDM, EDDY, Giarto tug and RAVE tug. Toe latter has • The direction of operation.
Voith propulsion units.
This requires a field of view at the manoeuvring station(s)
More attention wi11 be paid to ali tug types later in this as unobstructed as possible, with an angle of view as
chapter. dose as possible to 360º .

ln addition to the all round view, well designed

2.2 lmportant general requirements for wheelhouses also have small windows that face upwards,
good tug performance which is important when:tnaking fast to vessels with
a high forecastle, stem or freeboard. On some modem
For good harbour tug safety and performance, the tugs very small wheelhouses are constructed with large
following factors are important: windows and a nearly 360º view.

2.2.1 Tug performance and safety Manoeuvii.ng stations

When making fast to a vessel and while assisting, a
Response time
tug captain should be able, to see in one glance from
Harbour tugs should have a short response time and
their manoeuvrability should be such that the tug can his manoeuvring statio:h., the most essential outside
react in a minimum of time. It is therefore impórtant that information needed to operate his tug in a safe and
measures are taken to increase the manoeuvrability of efficient way, without jumping from side to side inhis
harbour tugs and shorten their response time. wheelhouse and without getting painful legs, neck or
back. Toe essential outside information comes from:
Not only is a short response time required when assisting aJ The towline(s)- their direction and tension.
a vessel, but also for making fast. Due to ever decreasing
b) The assisted ship: such as relative heading and speed,
numbers in aship's crew, the time taken to make
distance offand.the waythe assisted ship reacts to the
tugs fast is increasing. Thus the requirement for tugs
applied tug forces, When pushing, essential information
regarding fast and easy handling of towing eql.lipment
also comes from the contact area between tug and ship.
becomes an element of increasing importance in arder to
improve their response time. e) The combined ship/tug direction of movement with

12 Tug Use in Port

tum the tug in that direction, regardless of whether the
direction of movement is ahead or astern. Any illogical
way of control or complexity in contrai easily leads to
human control failures, particularly when under tension.

It is clear that the wheelhouse layout and the number,

location and orientation of manoeuvring panels depend
largely oh the type of tug and the usual assisting
method and should be carefully considered, also
taking into account the optimum view needed from the
manoeuvring station when coming alongside a slúp or
berth. Modem tugs often have one central manoeuvring
panei in an optimal designed small wheelhouse, like a
kind of cockpit.

Photo: Piet Sinke At the manoeuvring stations the captain should also
have a good view of his instruments, including the radar.
Figure 2A.3: Tug RT Stephanie (Rotortug; LOA 28.3m, beam Communication and quick release systems, which Will
11.7, BP 68 tons) having a wheelhouse with a clear overall be discussed }ater on, should be within hand reach at
view. A good view abreast is also important for when coming all manoeuvring paneis. Towing winch control from
alongside a ship having speed or when berthing the wheelhouse is also recommended for harbour tugs.
Toe towline length can then always be adjusted when
regard to channel or fairway boundaries, other traffic and required without calling a man to the towing winch. The
nearby berths and banks. number of crew members on modem harbour tugs is
very limited nowadays.
Depending on the type of tug and the assisting method
in use, this essential information may come from totally Communication
different or even opposite directions. The directions may Good co-operation between the pilot and tug captain is
change during one and the sarne trip and are dependent, a basic requirement for safe and efficient ship handling
in any case, on the assisting method. ln a reverse-tractor
tug, wlúch is assisting from over the tug's bow, nearly
all the essential outside information comes from forward
and should be available in one outside look from the
manoeuvring station. This can be achieved with one
forward facing station. If the manoeuvring station is well
planned, the tug captain may have an unobstructed view
in the working direction, even from a seated position, of
the winch, working deck, bow and side fenders and the
assisted ship.

For all other types of tug and/ or other assisting methods

the visibility requirements may be totally different. For
instance, a tractor tug used for push-pull operations
works over the stern. Then an aft facing manoeuvring
panei is needed. When the sarne tug is free. sailing
a forward facing manoeuvring panel is required.
Depending on the wheelhouse construction, a central
manoeuvring panel for this type of tug could be useful,
capable of being operated in both directions, forward
and aft. 0n other tugs more manoeuvring paneis may bé
required, of course, depending on the wheelhouse size
and construction. Some harbour tugs even have three
manoeuvring paneis facing forward and one facing aft.
Care should be taken in order that reliable change-over
between manoeuvring paneis is possible without the risk
of failures or mistakes.
Controls at the manoeuvring paneis should be arranged
such that they can be operated in a logical way in relation
Photo: Piet Slnke
to the tug's direction of movement. Pushing a lever down
and away in the direction the tug captain is facing should Figure 2A.4: View of the wheelhouse with the tug master
result in an increase of movement in that direction. handling the tug with the Uni-lever system (right) and speed
Túrning a wheel or moving a joystick to the left should contrai handles.

Tug Use in Port 13

with tugs. Such co-operation is only possible with good swell. These conditions will give rise to additional
procedures and efficiently working communication forces in the fendering, for which it must be able to
systems. Radio communication systems on board compensate.
tugs should therefore be reliable. A double VHF set is • Toe tug's bow and stern construction.
recommended. This is sometimes an advantage for the
pilot as well. On ships with open bridges the pilot is, Additional fendering might be needed for tugs handling
during manoeuvring, often standing on the bridge wing submarines and aircraft carriers, such as:
busy with his own VHF set on the working channel
with the tug. He has then often no possibility to listen to • Underwater fendering.
the traffic contrai channel. The tug master, having one • Fendering at the outside and top of wheelhouse.
VHF on the traffic control channel, can then pass the
information to the pilot. Tug fendering varies enormously. One frequently used
fender system is the extruded profile type. Extruded
fenders are produced in different lengths and in a
2.2.3 Tug superstructure and underwater wide variety of profiles and sizes. They can have a
design hollow D-shape profile, can be rectangular, cylindrical
Tugs regularly have to work near a ship's bow or or solid, can be precurved to fit the tug bow or stem,
stem, where the flare and overhang are often fairly be chamfered or drilled. Extruded fenders are very
pronounced. It is necessary, therefore, that the tug's flexible from the point of view of design. Extrusion is
superstructure is located well inboard of the deck edge, a manufacturing method whereby uncured rubber is
so that risk of tug damage can be avoided as much as forced through a die to produce the required profile and
possible when working near the ship's bow or stern or then the lengths of formed rubber are vulcanised.
when the vessel or tug is rolling when alongside a ship. Moulded modular or block fender systems offer many
of the advantages of extruded fenders and, in addition,
Underwater design of the tug should be such that the allow for secure attachment and ease of repair since with
propulsion units will not hit the ship's hull when the. tug this type individual blocks can be replaced.
is rolling alongside. ln this regard harbour tugs have to
assist ali kind of vessels, including submarines in some A tug's bow and/or stern can be equipped with
ports. Tug propellers may hit the submarine hull when horizontal fendering, for instance extruded fenders of
a tug is required to come alongside for assistance or for cylindrical profile, or with vertical block fendering. A
bringing the pilot on board. combination of these types is often used. Block fenders
can easily be replaced when damaged, and for fenders on
2.2.4 Fendering bow and stem which are intensively used, basic vertical
Tugs should be equipped with good fendering. block fendering is very suitable.
Appropriate fendering protects both the assisted ship
and tug from damage and decreases the tendency to The main type of tug fenders are:
slide along the ship's hull when the tug is pushing at an • Cylindrical tug fenders.
angle to the ship's hull. Fenders are constructed of rubber • D-shaped fenders.
or synthetic rubber products. Beyond the mechanical • Block fenders.
requirements of load versus deflection and energy
• M-shaped fenders.
absorption, which is given in curves, attachment methods
and structural limits, consideration should also be given • W-shaped fenders.
to the material used in the fender. The material used
should have good resistance to polluted water, ozone, Cylindric fenders form the main fendering installed on a
UV radiation and high andlow temperatures. tug's stem and bow. These fenders are used for pushing
against ship hulls of ali types and in all sea conditions.
The following factors are of importance in the choice of a
tug's bow and/ or stem fendering: D-shaped fenders are similar to cylindric fenders, but
• The way the tug is assisting vessels, for instance with one flat surface. They can be used on the main deck
towing on a line or push-pull, and whether the tug sheer lines, on the forecastle deck and stern of tugs to
will push by the stem and/ or by the bow. provide protection.
• The size and engine power of the tug which are
important factors for the horizontal load and kinetic Block fenders can have better grip than cylindric fenders
energy transmitted during contact and pushing. because of their shape and grooved surfaces. They have
• Size of contact area. large contact surfaces that reduce contact pressure per m2
between ship and tug, which makes them more suitable
• The type and size of vessels to be handled eg ships than other fender types for heavy-duty applications in
with large bow flare and/ or overhanging stern. Tugs wave and swell conditions.
pushing near the bow or stem of these ships may
need extra fendering on top of the bow to prevent M-shaped fenders are usually fitted to the bow and aft
damage to tug or ship. section of tugs to protect the tug and ship from damage
• The environmental conditions such as waves and during operations. They have a low weight and a large
14 Tug Use in Port
flexible surface area that reduces the forces per m2 on are lighter and stronger. Trials have proven that this
the attended ship during pushing operations. M-shaped specific product is more resilient and protects vessels
fenders can be fitted around tight curves and provide better than either rubber copolymers or standard
additional grip due to their grooved surface. They are polyurethane and in terms of through life cost presents a
suitablefor heavy duty operations. significartt advantage. Toe fenders are more resistant to
chemicals and ultra-violet light. The fenders have a high
W-shaped fenders are designed for tug operations in elasticity and will not mark ship's hulls.
more extreme weather and sea conditions. W- fenders are
íncreasingly used for ocean going and large harbour tugs Bow fenders should have a large corttact area anct radius
(Source: FenderTec). to reduce the pressure on the ship's hull. The sarne
applies to the stern fenders of tractor-tugs since these
Weldable fenders with steel backings are yet another tugs are pushing with their stem. Tyres are often used in
fender type, used when very secure attachment is addition to bow and stem fenders to protect the fenders
required. and enlarge the contact area and are often used along tug
sides since they can easily be replaced when damaged.
Other types of fendering include those made of However, tyres are basically not designed as fender and a
reinforced truck or aircraft tyres which are cut to a suitable way of mounting is problematic.
specific size and compressed on to steel supporting rods. Toe following is an indication of some permissible hull
This fender type, madé in the USA, is suitable for bow pressures, which vary by ship's type and size:
fenders, stem fenders and side fenders. There is one
specific type which has a large absorption ability and is General cargo ships of
very soft, thus having a large contact area and 'sticking 20,000 dwt and less 400-700k:N/m2
ability' when under load.
Oil tankers of more than
Tugs may also be fitted with foam-filled or pneumatic 60,000 dwt <350kN/m2
fenders, especially when working in exposed areas.
Sometimes 'non-marking' fenders are required, for VLCCs 150 - 200kN/m2
instance when ships with white or grey hulls have to
be handled, such as cruise or navy vessels. In that case Container ships:
manila rape fenders ar tarpaulins, in addition to the 3rd generation <300kN/m2
standard tug fendering, may be used or the tugs may be 4th generation <250kN/m2
equipped with grey rubber fendering. 5th and 6th generation
(Superpost Panamax) < 200kN/m2
A new type of fender material is coming on the market.
Fendercare offers fenders that are manufactured with Gas carriers (LNG/LPG)
polymer products. Note: The name polymer is probably and Bulk carriers <200kN/m2
too general a term as it does cover a multitude of different
materiais, including natural and synthetíc rubber. (Source: Guidelines for the Design of Fender Systems: 2002.
International Navigation Association. PIANC - 2018 new
The materiais from which the fenders are made are from publication u.nderway).
a specially formulated polyurethane which has been
developed by Polymarine in Holland and proven to Fender material should have a large coefficient of friction
outperform the generic polyurethanes in that they in order to keep the bow or stem in position when the tug




Photo: Trelleborg Marine Systems

Figure 2A5: Tug with cylindrical bow fenders. Large cylindrical
fenders are usually used to push against flared hulls and in open
sea conditions. Their round shape is ideal for working with large
bow fiares of eg container vessels. Cylindrical fenders are often Photo: Piet Slnke
used on the bow in combination with Mor W fenders. Figure 2A6: Tyres are often used in combination with fenders.

Tug Use in Port 15

Photo: Piet Sinke Photo: Ole Peter Dahl
Figure 2A7: Crew preparing a tarpaulin around the fenders so Figure 2A8: AII type of fenders can be found.
preveilting the light coloured hull of the ship to be assisted get
marked by the tug fenders. Designers' Checklist No 1. Azimuth Stern Drive Tugs (ASD)
(See references).
is pushing under an angle to the ship's hull. Sliding along
the ship' s hu.11, tug berth or alongside ot]:,.er tugs, and Suitable and reliable towing equipment is also important
rolling and pitching along the ship's side due to waves for good harbour tug performance and safe working. This
will easily damage tug fenders. To avoid early damage is dealt with in Chapter 7.
of the fertdering, as for instance the side fendering, or
where no grip is requiied, fenders can be used with a
low friction coefficient or can have a top layer of UHMW 2.2.5 Specific requirements for tugs operating
polyethylene, which has an extremely low friction in hazardous areas
coefficient. Toe coefficient of frktion of rubber to steel is Tugs that have to handle gas carriers and are operating
approximately 0.8. The friction force F =ex P, where P is dose to LNG/LPG terminals are subject to additional and
the impact force of the tug and e the friction coefficient. specific safety requirements.
UHMW polyethylene has a friction coeffident of 0.15. Specific requirements apply also to tugs operating in ice
Specific types of fenders can be provided with water The requirements for these tugs will be addressed later in
lubrication to reduce the friction between tug and ship this chapter when dealing with these tugs.
and so prevent damage and wear, especially when
pushing against a slab-sided ship in swell conditions.
2.2.6 Environmentally friendly tugs
The height of a tug's fendering above water level is a The need for more environmentally friendly tugs can
factor to be considered. When pushing under an angle at found in many ports. These tugs are called eco tugs,
a ship's side while the ship has headway or stemway, the E-tugs or hybrids. Different systems exist to achieve
hydrodynamidorces on the tug create a list. It is evident this. More information about this subject can be found in
that the higher the bow fender above the water the larger paragraph 2. 22.
the resulting heeling moment will be.
From a tug and ship handling point of view two aspects
As mentioned already, harbour tugs assisting submarines are most important, that is the ease of handling of such
may also have underwater fendering to avoid contact system. Changing to full power should be simple so
damage to the submarine's hull. ln addition, an ASO that in stress situation, when full poweris immediately
or teverse-tractor tug's hull may be expanded with needed, no :mistakes will be made. Secondly, if full power
fendered steel sponsons on the quarters to ensure that is indeed needed it should be possible to have it available
the nozzles of the tug's azimuth propellers neyer come in without any delay.
contact with the submarine being assisted, the so-called
'propulsion unit protective sponsons'. The various tug types will now be discussed.

Further relevant information for harbour tug design in ·

general and for ASD-tug design in particular can be found in

16 Tug Use in Port


Basic tug types

2.3 Conventional types of tug

Damen Shlpyards, The Netherlands

Figure 28.1: Conventional twin screw tug Stan tug 3011.LOA 30.66m, beam 11.13m, BP 70 tons

2.3.1 General line, conventional tugs can be found with a more forward
lying towing point.
Conventional tugs can be seen ali over the world and are
still built but in decreasing numbers. Conventional tugs
are used for push-pull assistance, alongside towing and Some n�w innovative small tugs are coming on the
market, such as the Smart tug (Super Silent Smart tug)
in particular in European ports for towing on a line.
built by Uzmar Shipyards, Turkey and the Container tug.
There is a large variety of conventional tugs. The most
simple one is a single screw tug with a single plate
rudder. Mainly due to the location of the towing point,
the tugs have limitations regarding performance and
safety. When towing on a line the main risk is of girting.
A towing winch with a quick release mechanism and a
quick release towing hook lower fuis risk, providing they
work under the.extreme condition of girting, which is not
always the case. Toe astern power of conventional tugs is
generally low. When making fast near the bow of a ship,
interaction forces between the ship and the tug should be
allowed for, which can better be dane with tugs that can
produce good side thrust, such as tractor-tugs. Girting
and interaction are dealt with in Chapters 4 and 6.

The towing point of these tugs generally lies about 0.45 x

LWL from aft, although shorter distances may be found.
The aft towing point on American conventional tugs lies
further aft, which allows the opportunity to extend the
deckhouse further aft. A more aft placed towing point Photo: DutchWorkBoats
limits the tug's effectivehess when towing on a line at
speed but this way of tovving is not normal practice in the Figure 28.2: ContainerTug which can be transported in a
USA. ln USA ports where tugs are used for towing on a container

Tug Use in Port 17

The Smart tug is a 20.4m long line-handling tug with generators which in tum drive electric motors. These
a bollard pull of 19 tons. It is a twin screw tug with electric motors drive the propeller. This system is easily
propellers in nozzles and tripie high effi.ciency rudder controllable from the wheelhouse. It has the great
systems. Toe tug is designed for·a wide range of mooring advantage that it can detiver any propeller shaft speed
operations, oil spill response induded. ahead and astern without delay.
In the past initial costs of diesel-electricpropulsion were
The container tug is a new design of a very small tug rather high, however in recent years the diffetences
which can be transported in a 20ft container by road, have become small particularly due to the lower costs of
sea or even by air.H carne on the market in 2016. The generatórs and frequency drives as a result of largermass
tug is 6m long and fitted with a single fixed pitch open productions.
propeller and a large rudder. It is designed by Ben3D BV
Naval Architecture in Toe Netherlands. The tug has a Operatiónal costs depend strongly on the way of
large deck space and a bollard pull of maximum 1.5tons. employment. In case of one constant diesel engine
It has a draft of 1.05m and a weight of 7,5 tons. It is an load (typically 85 per cent of MCR) as in cargo liners,
all-round mini support vessel able to push and tow, and diesel direct propulsion has the highest efficiency and
can easily be transported wherever work is to be done. the lowest operational cost, however in case of varying
power loads, as is the case with tugs, the efficiency of
More 'inini-tugs' will be dealt with in Chapter 8. diesel-electric propulsion increases and operational costs
are reduced. The larger the variations in loads, the larger
Experience is an important factor in handling the advantages of diesel-electrkpropulsion. In case
conventional tugs safely while assisting ships under of varying loads, the environmental performance of a
speed. With a well qualified captain these tugs can be diesel-electric system is dearly superior to normal diesel
very effective for rendering assistance. To increase the engines. Diesel-electric engines are subject to more wear
tug's effectiveness and/or manoeuvring capabilities there and tear due to the constant high engine revolutions.
are severa! possibilities, as explained below.
Other important points are m§lintenance and downtime.
2.3.2 Propulsion and rudders A diesel-electric tug has more redundancy and
maintenance can be carried out quicker; for instance
Propulsion and propeller control changing one or more generators can be carried out
Nearly all tugs are still equipped with diesel erigines rathét quickly.
although an occasional old harbour tug with a steam
engine may still be found somewhere outside a maritime•
Diesel-electric propulsion has additional advantages in
museum. Although it does not yet apply to conventionâl tug use:
tugs, more and more hybrid tugs can be. found which
can operate diesel-direct, diescl-electric and on battery l. Power is faster available since generators are already
packages. Tugs which use LNG as fuel are also coming running at full speed in contrast to diesel engines
on the market. which need to speed up. Especially important in
critic.al situations where every secon.d counts!
Note 1: It is good to keep in mind that some items discussed in 2. Power can be controlled from zero upward
this paragraph apply to othertug types as well, as is the case and reverse, offering smooth and convenient
with propulsion systems, nozzles and bow thrusters. manoeuvring without constant clutch operations and
instantly reversing.
Note2: The term LNG is somewhat misleading. LNG is a
natural gas kept in liquid condition for storage and transport. Most common nowadays on harbour tugs ate high and
Only if converted togas - naturalgas (NG) - can it be used as medium speed diesel engines with reduction gears and
fuel. pneumatic-hydraulic couplings. (See References for
'Operational benefits of high-speed electronic diesel
Diesel engines on harbour tugs are high or medium engines').Othertypes of couplings tan be used. 0n tugs
speed enginés. °TI:1e high engine revolutions have to be with fixed propellers the propeller thrust is reversed by
brought down by reduction gearing to the required means of a reverse-reduction gear, while on tugs with
propeller revolutions. To reverse the propeller thrust, controllable pitch propellers (ÇPP) thrust is reversed
different systems are in use. The direct-reversing system by changing the propeller pitch. Torque problems may
is the oldest and can still be found on some conventional arise when a fixed pitch propeller is reversed at high
tugs. The engine has to be started on ahead and on tug speeds. These problems can be reduced or overcome
astem. 0n some tugs engines can be controlled from the by proper design(= the correct combination of engine�
wheelhouse, while on others it still has to be done by an propeller and gear) and tuning of the whole propulsion
engineer. The number of manoeuvres is limited by the system. Shaft brakes are used, depending on engine and
volume of starting air available. The response time from propeller type.
ahead to astem and back differs by tug and by the direct­
reversing handling systém fitted. Engine revolutions and propeller pitch are remotely
controlled from the wheelhouse. Manoeuvring, especially
Full diesel-electric propulsion systems can be found in with a CPP, is very smooth and the tug can accelerate
some harbour tugs. The diesel engine(s) drives electric fast. When the CPP control system is eqµipped with a
18 Tug Use in Port
combinator control, propeller revolutions are regulated
in accordance with propeller pitch. The pitch of a CPP is
regulated by a hydraulic systern. CPP control systems,
including remote control systems, the hydraulic system
and emergency stop, require regular check-ups and good
maintenance. Failure in the hydraulic or remate control
system can cause serious damage to tug, ships or berths.
Modem CPP systems have reliable backup systems.

Propeller efficiency and manoeuvrability Nr.19a Nr.37

The propellers of conventional tugs can be fitted in open
frames or fitted in nozzles. Going fu1l astem, an open
fixed pitch propeller will, in general, develop about 60
per cent of its maximum ahead thrust. An open CPP
going astern develops some 40-45 per cent of maximum
ahead thrust. The lesser efficiency astem of a CPP has
to do with the specific design and working of a CPP.
Propellers are designed for maximum efficiency going
ahead. A fixed pitch propeller will turn, when astern
thrust is required, with the sarne pitch in the reverse Figure 28.3: Two commonly used nozzle types
direction as on ahead. The propeller blades of a standard
CPP have a smaller width near the hub and therefore, which results in only a little less efficiency going ahead.
when the blades are set for ahead, a larger forward pitch The sarne applies to the Hannan RingNozzle, which is a
angle than near the tip of the propeller. When the blades normal type 19A nozzle with slots cut in at the after end
are turned for astem thrust, the lower part of the blades giving good astem thrust - about 70 per cent of the ahead
will consequently have a smaller pitch than the top of value with fixed pitch propellers and special blades and
the blades, which results in less efficiency going astem 60-65 per cent with ordinary blades. Nozzle type 37 is a
compared to a fixed pitch propeller. type of nozzle often used for conventional harbour tugs.
Nozzles increase thrust and consequently bollard pull Conventional tugs with controllable pitch propellers in
significantly. Ludwig Kort, an aerodynamicist, designed nozzles (nozzle type 37) achieve, when pulling astern,
the first nozzles as far b.ack as 1927. The first one was about 45 per cent of maximum ahead bollard pull, while
introduced into service in 1932 and was originally this figure is about 65 per cent for tugs equipped with
designed to protect canal banks from propeller wash. The fixed pitch propellers and the sarne type of nozzles. With
effect of a nozzle is most pronounced with high propeller a specific propeller design a much higher value can be
loads at low speeds. Harbour tugs have to perform in reached for astem performance of controllable pitch
that way.Nozzles increase thrust by 15-25 per cent in propellers, but then ahead efficiency will be lower.
towing and pushing conditions and by about 30 per cent
at zero speed.. Note 3: The 19A nozzle, and several variations more or less on
this design, are usedfor azimuth thrusters, either withfixed
Briej explanation: or with controllable pitch propellers, because astern thrust is
The working of a nozzle is mainly twofold: achieved by tuming the nozzle.
Around a nozzle an increase of water speed is created,
which causes the nozzle to work like a wing. An inward A nozzle seen on several tugs with azimuth propulsion
force is so created, that has a forward component. The is the Nautican nozzle, which is the sarne as the Lips HR
nozzle itself therefore has a positive forward thrust. (= high efficiency) nozzle. Ahead efficiency of this nozzle
In the nozzle the inflow water velocity is increased is higher than of nozzle type 19A and 37, approximately
leading to a lower loaded propeller, which has a higher 8-12 per cent in bollard pull conditions, while astern
efficiency. performance of theNautican nozzle is better than of
nozzle type 19A, but not better than of nozzle type 37.
Furthermore the small clearance between the propeller As said, astem performance is not relevant for tugs with
and nozzle reduces tip vortex, increasing also efficiency. azimuth thrusters.
As nozzle drag increases with increasing speed, at a
certain speed it will become larger that the added thrust. A nozzle often used is the Optima nozzle. It has an
Tugs often sail with low speed and heavily loaded improved forward thrust performance comparable with
propellers and are therefore fitted with nozzles. the conventional 19A nozzle, combined with the good
reverse thrust performance of the 37 nozzle.
Various types of nozzles (figure 2B.3) have been
developed.Nozzle type 19A is very common because of There is a continuous research towards ever better
its cost-effective design and is typical for ahead thrust nozzles for various types of ship, including tugs. One
requirements.Nozzle type 37, a 'backing nozzle', has of the latest nozzle type is Schottel's VarioDuct SDV45
been developed to give better efficiency going astern, nozzle, shown in figure 2B.4. Given the sarne propulsive
Tug Use in Port 19
Source: Schottel GmbH

Figure 2B.4: New nozzle type Schottel VarioDuct S045. Test

model. @Becker Marine systems
Figure 2B.5: The working of a steerable nozzle with movable flap
power, it offers a greater bollard pull than previous
nozzles such as the 19A nozzle and, at the sarne time,
gives considerably greater efficiency in the mediurn heel, and are consequently more stoutly constructed
and high speed range, if used in combination with an than a balanced rudder. Single piate rudders decrease
optimum designed propeller. Toe small outer diameter propeller efficiency, need a higher steering couple and
of the nozzle makes it also ideally suited to shallow­ consequently a larger steering gear.
water operations. Toe new compact nozzle is suitable for
harbour tugs as well. Toe manoeuvrability of conventional tugs can be
increased by the use of specific rudder types or rudder
As already said, nozzles increase the efficiency of the systems. Several different rudder systems are in use,
propellér but decrease steering capabilities. The fitting often in combination with nozzles, such as:
ofa nozzle is equivalent to increasing the lateral area of
skegs. Special rudder systems are therefore often used. Movable flap mdders
There are several types of movable flap rudders, such as
Nozzles can be also be steerable. Their manoeuvring Rolls-Róyce, Stuwa, Barke, while the most used one is
performance is superior to normal rudder arrangements. Becker (see figure 2B.6 and 2B.7, opposite page).
Rudder angles of no more than 25°-30° are used due to
the greater side thrust. A tug's manoeuvrabilitywhen At the end of the rudder blade isa movable flap,
going astern with a nozzle rudder system is very good. controlled by a linkage, comprising about 20-30 per cent
When going astem the tug can be steered by the steerable of the total main rudder area. Maximum helm angle
nozzle. A vertical fin ór a movable flap may be fitted at of the main rudder differs by type and is about 45-65° ,
the end of the steering nozzle (see figure 2B.5). while the flap can tum 45° further, upto a maximum
angle of 90-110º. Bach type of flap has its own specific
Some twin screw tugs have two independently controlled characteristi.cs. Toe flap angle is a function of the helm
steerable nozzles, so increasing the tug's manoeuvrability angle.
Maximum lift, which is achieved at a rudder angle
Conventional tugs can.be single screw, twin screw and of approximately 30°, is inçreased by 60-70 per cent,
even tripie screw, eg, the USA harbour tug Scott T. compared with a conventional rudder of the sarne shape,
Slatten.Manoeuvrability of twin and tripie screw tugs size and area. Sideways thrust ranges up to 50 per cent of
will, in general, be better than of single screw túgs. ahead thrust.

In general tugs are equipped with balanced, semi­ Becker claims for his movable flap rudder that at
balanced or spade rudders. By far most tugs have maximum rudder angle the propeller stream will,
balanced rudders. Single plate rudders are also still depending on rudder size and balance, be reduced so
used. With the spade, balanced or semi-balanced rudder that 95:..97 per cent of the propeller thrust will be covered
the leading edge of the rudder extends forward of by the rudder and used for manoeuvring the vessel.
the rudder shaft. This, together with the shape of the At speed the vessel can tum very quickly and speed will
rudder, results in higher propeller efficiency ànd a lower drop fast. When dead in the water the vessel can tum
steering couple, so a smaller steering gear can be used. on the spot and it may even happen that the tug moves
Spade rudders are hanging free, are not attached to a backwards. Performance of fue.rudder when the tug has
20Tug Use in Port
1 Rudder_ trunkj1----

@Becker Marine systems

Becker Marine systems
Figure 2B.6: The system of a movable flap rudder
Figure 2B.7: A movable flap rudder behind a cantrollable pitch
speed astem is in general lower as that of an unflapped propeller in a nozzle
rudder. Tugs may have more than one movable flap
behind a nozzle. To protect damage to the flap in ice, at this angle the propeller slipstream is thus deflected
the flap rudder of a Becker movable flap rudder will be 90 per cent and works more like a side thruster. When
designed with a special ice knife. moving astern the rudder is more effective than noi;mal
rudders (see figure 2B.9). With a Schilling Monovec
Schilling rudde;rs (fishtail rudder) rudder, turning on the spot is almost possible while
Schilling rudders (figure 2B.8) can also be found on tugs speed is dropping very fast.
eg, the tug Sayyaf at Abu Dhabi. Schilling Monovec Two Schilling rudders, called Schilling VecTwin, can
rudders have no movable parts. Horizontal slip stream be used behind a propeller and make the vessel very
guide plates are fitted at the top and bottom of the
rudder. Toe rudder itself has a high lift blade profile
with a wedge profile, so-called 'fishtail', at the ehd of the Líft
rudder biade. Toe rudder develops 30-40 per cent more fohTail = Coefficient
lift compared to a conventional rudder and maximum M◊vàble Fl.ap .....,.
NACA0025 =
lift is obtained at a rudder angle of approximately 40 per
cent. Toe rudder can be used up to 70 per cent angle and



75 50 30 30 50 75
Ruáder Anglo­ Ruddcr Anglo
Port & Stbd. ?ort & Stbd.
Fish Tail Ru.dd�i"S Co1welltiónál.R1J!!.der
Velocity 2.0 m/s 2.0 m/s
Area 0.103 rr/ 0.125 m2
Taper l.O 1.25
Aspect Rato 0.853 0.98
Re�·nolds N□. O.n04 x 1 a,'j 0,619 xl ol'i
Test iResu\ts by HSVA Hamburg
0 Becker Marine systems
Figure 2B.9: Comparison between fishtail rudder and
Figure 28.8: Schilling rudder conventional rudder
Tug Use in Port 21
manoeuvrable. Bach rudder has a.separate steering gear. steering performance when moving astern or when
Toe rudders can be tumed by joystick a maxirnumof 105C) towing astern on a towline from the tug's bow. When
outboard and 40C) inboard. A maximum side thrust of going ahead they are kept afnidships.
70 per cent of ahead thrust can be achieved. Depending
on the two nidder an gles, it allows the degree of thrust Towmaster system
from a conventionally mounted propeller to be controlled The Towmaster rudder system (figure2B.11) is a shutter
and the thrust direction vectored through 360C). Thus the rudder type used in conjunction with fixed nozzles.
need to reverse the shaft diiection or propeller pitch is It consists of several rudders mounted behind and
eliminated. sometimes also ahead (flanking rudders) of each nozzle.
Behind the nozzle are normally three and ahead of the
nozzle tworudders. Rudder angles are possible up to
60°. The Towmaster system provides good thrust and
steering characteristics ahead and astern at the expense of
increased éomplexity.
� Other systems
1 FWO. Besides the rudder systems mentioned above, many
other systems exist, such as different types of fishtail
rudders, tripie rudder systems (see figure 2B.12) and for
instance the tripie screw tug Scott T. Allen with her three
rudders, of which the centre rudder can be operated
independently from the outboard rudders.

Bow thruster
Harbour tugs are sometimes equipped with a tunnel
Figure 2B.10: Shutter rudder system with a fixed nozzle and two bow thruster. The effectivenes:S of a tunnel thruster is
flanking rudders not high when the tug has speed ahead. With only two
knots speed the effectiveness of the bow thruster may
Flanking rudders already be reduced by 50 per cent. Seagoing harbour tugs
Flanking rudders (figure 2B.10) are installed in front operating in port areas as well as at sea for offshore work
of the tug's propeller and both single screw and twin often have a bow thruster, which enables them to keep
screw tugs may be so fitted. Flanking rudders are often position better near oil platforms.
installed in conjunction with other rudder systems, such
as a single rudderbehind the propeller or a Towmaster Conventional tugs may be equipped with a (retractable)
rudder system and are especially used in conjunction 360° steerable bow thruster. These bow thrusters are
with fixednozzles. In general there are two flanking much more effective and can operate in any diiection.
rudders situated before the propeller nozzle. The flanking Tugs with this kind of bow thruster are the previously
rudders are operated by separate contrais and enhance tnentioned combi-tugs.

Photo: Darnen Shipyards, The Netherlands

Figure 2B.1t: Towmaster rudder system of
tug Hazam (LOA 38m, beam 11 m, BP 70 tons Photo: Nautican, USA
ahead and 50 tons astern Figure 2B.12: Tripie rudder system
22 Tug Use in Port
2.3.3 Manoeuvring conventional tugs
Single screw tugs
Not many single screw tugs are left for ship handling in

Three aspects are important in manoeuvring a normal

single screw conventional tug:
• The aft location of the rudder and propulsion.
• Toe transverse effect of the propeller when tuming
for astem.
• Toe low astem power.

When ahead thrust is applied with port or starboard

helm, the tug's stem moves in a direction opposite to the Figure 28.13: Twin screw tug moving sideways to starboard,
intended direction of tum due to the aft location of the also called flanking, by setting the port engine on ahead and
propeller and rudder. 1his contrasts with tractor tugs starboard engine on astern whíle applying port helm. ln the case
where the steering forces are applied in the direction of in-turning fixed pitch propellers the transverse thrust of the
of tum. This is a subject further dealt with in Chapter 6 inner propeller will enlarge the side thrust to starboard, which is
when discussin_g interaction effects between tug and ship. in particular the case with open propellers.
disadvantage with fixed pitch propellers is the larger
Tuming on the spot, or nearly on the spot, is only
turning diameter, because the starboard propeller is le�
possible with the previously mentioned high lift
handed and the port one is right handed. When :using the
rudders. No sideways movement of a single screw tug
propellers as a couple, the transverse effect of the screws
is possible, not even with high lift rudders, though
opposes the tum. This effect will be smaller in case of
sideways movement is possible with high lift rudders in nozzle, but is still there.
conjunction with a bow thruster.
With inward tuming fixed pitch propellers a tug can
Toe transverse effect or 'paddle wheel effect' is caused move sideways (see figure 2B.13), so-called 'flanking'.
by the propeller wash hitting the stem at right angles When the tug has to move sideways to starboard, one
when the propeller is turning for astem. Nearly ali single would think of setting the starboard propeller to ahead
screw tugs have a fixed pitch right handed propeller, and the port propeller to astem. This works only when
which means a clockwise turning propeller going ahead the tug is equipped with a bow thruster. However,
in case of a fixed pitch propeller and an anti-clockwise without a bow thruster this propeller setting does not
tuming propeller in case of a controllable pítch propeller. move the whole tug sideways, but only the stem to
When the propeller is set for astem, propeller wash bits starboard. By setting the propellers in the opposite way,
the tug's stem on the starboard side and the stern moves with the starboard propeller astem, the port propeller
to port - consequently the bow turns to starboard. The ahead and the rudder to port, the tug wi11 move sideways
more stemway the tug has the more effective the rudder to starboard without gathering headway, depending on
is and it may even be possible to bring the tug onto a trirn, Wind and current influence. Toe transverse effect of
straight course by applying rudder. Toe paddle wheel the inner propeller will enhance the side thrust although
effect together with the low asterrt power results in poor this effect wi11 be much less with the propeller in a
performance going astern in single screw tugs. nozzle;
When moving astem. a tug's stem can be controlled
whén the tug is equipped with a steering nozzle or with 2.3.4 Conventional tugs in ship handling
Towmaster or flanking rudders. Steering nozzles or Conventional tugs are used for ali methods of tug
flanking rudders can be set for the direction the stein has assistance but are not equally suitable for ali methods.
to move. When assisting a vessel under speed a conventional tug
is effective when towing on a line but as a stem tug,
Twin screw tugs owing to the location of thetowing point, it has severe
Twin (or tripie) screw tugs are much more manoeuvrable limitations. When the ship has more than appro:ximately
than single screw tugs. They can tum on the spot withoui: three knots headway the after tug can only assist at one
making headway and can more easily manoeuvre side of the ship and cannot shift to the other side nor is it
straight astem. Turning can be done by i'eversing one able to control the speed of the assisted ship. The towing
propeller and setting the other for ahead while applying point being near midships irnplies a risk of girting.
helm in the intended direction.
When towing on a line, conventional tugs are not suitable
Propellers of twin screw tugs, whether controllable or to changing over to pushing at the ship's side while
fixed pitch, are often inward turning except ontugs the towline is still fastened. This might be desirable, for
designed to operate in ice conditions. Toe advantage of instance, on arrival at a berth. For a quick change-over
in-turning propellers is higher propeller efficiency. A from pulling to pushing and vice versa while thetowline
Tug Use in Port 23
is still fastened the conventional tug would have to push gob. rope system and by a carrousel system. The latter
with the stem. The manoeuvre itself is already difficult system, which will be discussed later in this chapter,
unless the tug is equipped with a bow thruster or if it is increases a tug's capability considerably. The gob rope
a twin screw tug. However, when pushing with the stern system will be dealtwith in Chapter 7.
the tug's propellers are so close to the ship's hull that
the interrupted water flow towards the propellers will lnstalling an azimuthbow thrusters will also increase a
result in low propeller efficiency. ln addition, the stern conventional tug's capabilities. This will be discussed in
fendering oí conventional tugs are norrnally not designed the next paragraph.
for pushing with the stern. ln such a situation it is better
to release the tug from the bow or stem in order to be
able to push at the ship's side. 2.4 Combi-Tugs
2.4.1 Designing and manoeuvring combi-tugs
For tug operations at the ship's side a normal As discussed above, the manoeuvrability of single screw
conventional tug can push but it is not the most efficient conventional tugs can be improved by the use of high
one for pulling on a tug's bow line, due to the limited lift rudders. Hówever, the disadvantage of many single
astem power. Specific rudder configurations, such as screw tugs without steerable nozzles, Towmaster system
the Towmaster system for example, will increase astern and/ or flanking rudders, is that moving straight astérn
thrust. Normal single screw conventional tugs can is hardly possible and no single screw tug can move
neither pull at right angles because of the transverse sideways unless fitted with a tunnel bow thruster in
effect of the propeller, nor càn a single screw tug pull at combination with high lift rudders. Toe astern power of
right arigles with a cross current ór strong cross winds. single screw tugs is also low, unless the tug is equipped
Toe sarne kind of problem arises when the assisted ship with a special rudder and/ or propeller arrangement
is moving ahead or astern while the tugs are pulling; It which increases propeller efficiency.
will then be impossible to stay pulling at rightangles.
Additional measures should then be taken, such as a line By installing a conventional single screw tug with a
from the stern of the tug to the ship to keep the tug in the 360° steerable bow thruster, also called an azimuth bow
best pulling direction. A bow thruster does not improve thruster, these disadvantages can be overcome (see figure
the situation as the conventional tug operates while 2B.l5). Tugs equipped with such a bow thruster are the
pulling with the tug's bow headed towards the ship's so-called combi-tugs. Toe first combi-tugs appeared in
hull. Steering nozzles, Towmaster and flanking rudders the early 1960s. A tug equipped with this type of bow
make it easier to keep the tug at right angles when thritster can, with the aid of the main propulsion and the
pulling. Twin screw conventional tugs can make use of bow thruster, tum on the spot, sail straight astern at a
their propellers to keep the tug at right angles, although fair speed and move sideways as well (see figure 2B.16
this will be at the expense of loss of effectiveness. opposite). Setting this type of bow thruster in the same
direction as the propulsion also gives additional bollard
Toe capabilities and limitations of c:onventional tugs
in relation to other tug types.are discussed in Chapter
4. Some assisting methods with conventional tugs are
shown in figure 2B.14.

Capabilities of conventional tugs can be increased by a

\ -()::10 ----,5- -;-.-- -§§
. .-.~
.l . .., ..:::::· )}i,. ,1(,j
� - �•-�-
.. .
. -__. . .. . . ,.. \ji

Figure 2B.15: Fairplay's combi-tug Serwa/3, the former

Petronella J. Goedkoop. LOA 28.5ril, beam 6.9m. Main engine
900 bhp. Oríe cpp in fixed nozzle and twin rudders. Retractable
3600 steerable bow thrusters of 420bhp, type Aquamaster
UL 316/2600. BP of main engine 15 tons. Bollard pull of main
engine + bow thruster 20 tons. Maximum speed ahead 11.9
knots, astern 10.2 knots when using both main engine and bow
thrusters. The tug is equipped with a special fairlead at the stern
and a towing winch. Une '1' shows the towline in its 1 'normal'
Figure 2B.14: Some assisting methods with conventional tugs position and '2' the towline passing through the fairlead.
24Tug Use in Port
resistance. This is one of the reasons for making the bow
thruster retractable. ln shallow waters a retractable type
is necessary. Care is required in using the azimuth bow
thruster when underkeel clearance is small and it should
be retracted in good time. A good working alarm system
when the water depth is not sufficient for safe working of
the bow thruster is strongly recommended.
Side stepping
2.4.2 Combi-tugs in ship handling
Combi-tugs can tow on a line forward as well as aft. As
' .
·, a forward tug the combi-tug operates like a conventional

tug, but has the advantage of increased maximum speed,
1 .-
manoeuvtability and bollard pull. Also, the risk of girting
is reduced and response time isless due to the higher
Turning on the spot
As a stern tug combi-tugs can operate as a conventional
tug at low speeds and can easily work over the tug's stem
at higher speeds because of the azimuth bow thruster.
( However, since conventional tugs have their towing
point approximately 0.45 x LWL from aft, working over
the tug's stem needs an additional towing point near
the stern to prevent girting, espedally when the assisted
Going astern ship has a higher speed. On conventional tugs the towing
point can be moved aft by a gob rape, and on some tugs
Figure 2B.16: Free sailing manoeuvres with a combi-tug

pull ahead and astern and increases maximum speed.

ln most cases this type of bow thruster is equipped
with a nozzle and can be of retractable or fixed type. An
azimuth bow thruster with a nozzle propeller below the
keel, in contrast to a tunnel bow thruster, achieves high
efficiency in any direction even when the tug is moving
quickly. This provides an additional increase in the tug's

As an example, an azimuth bow thruster of 400hp can

increase the top speed of a tug of 27 metres length and
engine power of 1,500bhp by half a knot. With just the
bow thruster working a speed of about five knots can be
achieved. The towing force of the tug is increased by five
tonnes if the main propulsion and the bow thruster work
in the sarne direction. To.is is all in addition to better
A combi-tug as stem tug
For older tugs this is a satisfactory and inexpensive
way of improving manoeuvrability and bollard pull.
As examples of converted tugs, in Amsterdam, the
Netherlands, some older tugs were converted into combi­
tugs and at San Pedro, California, USA, the tug San Pedro
(now Pacific Contbí} has been converted into a combi­
tug. The San Pedro has been equipped with a 600bhp
bow thruster, which has increased the tug's bollard pull
by 40 per cent, from 25 to 35 tons and has improved the
manoeuvring capabilities. Moran Towing Company,
USA, revitalised its fleet of single screw tugs by installing
retractable azimuth bow thrusters and a large fairlead aft.
Some newer tugs are also equipped with azimuth bow
thrusters, a11 of them of the retractable type. Combi-tug pushlng

If the azimuth bow thruster is not in use it causes extra Figure 2B.17: Some assisting methods with a combi-tug
Tug Use in Port 25
by a gob rope from a gob rope winch. The gob rope is It has been made clear that the advantages of a combi­
then led from the winch through an eyelet or swivel tug are greatest when the tug operates as a stern tug on a
fairlead at the tug's stern. At the free end of the wire is line. For that reason this type of tug often assists during
a large shacl<le which can be put around the towline. By quite long pa.ssages as a stém tug for speed and steering
heaving on the gob rope winch the towing point can thus contról. The combi-tug can also be used at the ship's side,
be brought as far as possible aft. such as for push-pull operations.

This system is further explained in paragraph 7.2.1. A When operating at the ship's side, a combi-tug has many
gob rope arrangement normally needs two persons on of the disadvantages of a normal conventional tug. The
deck. With the reduced numbers in tug's crews a handier combi-tug can either push with the bow or with the stern.
andsafer system was developed by the former Goedkoop When pushing with the bow while the ship has some
Harbour Towage Company of The Netherlands (now speed, the bow thrustercan be helpful to keep the tug�s
Wijsmuller Harbour Towage Amsterdam). A strong bow in position and prevent sliding along the ship's hull.
fairlead has been attached to the deck dose to the tug's The bow thruster will also give an additional transverse
stem. This fairlead can be opened atone side so that pushing force (see figure 2B.17, lower picture).
the towline can easily be put in or taken out. With this
additional towing point at the tug's after end the combi­ Wheh pushing with the stem, the effectiveness of the
tug can operate similarly to a tractor-tug, that is with the tug is reduced due to the restricted water flow towards
stern towards the assisted ship. the propeller and it is more difficult to bring or hold the
tug at right angles to the ship's hull when the ship has
To show the capàbilities of a combi-tug consider some speed, due to the low power of the bow thruster.
an arriving ship. The combi-tug makes fast aft and ln particular, when working over the tug's bow, pulling
approaches stem first to the stem of the ship to pass effectiveness at speed is low.
the towline (see figure2B.17 position 1). The ship to be
assisted may still have rather a high speed, eg about 2.5 Tractor-tugs with cycloidal propellers
seven to éight knots. As soon as the towline has been
secured and the aft towing point is in use by means of 2.5.1 Design
a gob rope or fairlead, the combi-tug can control the Tractor tugs have theirpropulsion under the forebody.
vessel's speed (position 5) or assist insteering (positions Those witha vertical blade systern, or cycloidal
2 and 3). To reduce ship's speed, the tug's propulsion propulsion system, are the so-called Voith,. Schneider
and· the bow thruster will be set in the sarne direction or Voith tugs (VS tugs). The first vertical axis propeller,
to increase the tug's pulling force. Assisting steering is similar to the Voith Schneider propulsion system, was
achieved by the tug sheering out to port or starboard developed in the early 1920s by Professor Frederic
with the main propulsion going astem and the bow Kirsten óf the Aeronautical Engineering Faculty at the
thrusterworking sideways. lrt positions 2 and 3 the University of Washington in Seattle, USA.
incoming water flow creates lift forces ém the tug and Tugs with Voith Schneider propulsion system appeared
consequently a force in the towline. When the ship's in the 1920s and 1930s. ln the.1950s Wolfgang Bear of the
speed reduces, the effect of the tug in position 2 and 3 Voith Company designed a ship handling tug with the
will beéome less due to the red,uced lift forces. The gob cycloidal propulsion under the tug's forebody and the
rope is then released or the towline taken out of the towing gear on the aft deck. The oldest Voith tug was the
fairlead. The original towing point is then in use again Biene, built at the Clausen shipyard in Oberwinter.
and the tug can operate again as a nonnal conventional
tug (position 4). Many limitations of conventional tugs were overcome by
the introduction of this totally new concept, which was
ln drcumstances where there are strong cross winds anel/ called a Voith Water Tractor.
or currents, and much effort is required from the tug to
compensate for those forces, the tug is more effective when Note: All pictures in this paragraph have been generously made
it proceeds with the assisted ship as a norm.al conventional available by Voith Turbo GmbH & Co. KG, Marine Division,
tug (position 4) and thus can use its full ahead power. Heidenheim, Germany, unless indicated otherwise..
When required, the bow thruster can be used to increase
bollard pull. The lift forces on the tug caused by the water The cycloidal propulsion system is; in fact, a kind of
flow increase the force in the towline. controllable pitch propeller. The engine works atconstant
rpm and magnitude of thrust and the thrust direction is
If so required the tug can, even when the assisted ship regulated from the wheelhouse.
has forward speed, shift to a position behind the ship's
stem by using the gob rope or fairlead, bow thruster New Voith tugs, like the VectRA 3000, may be equipped
and main propulsion (position 4 -> 5). This can be with a system having engine and thrust (better to say
done faster compared to a normal conventional tug. pitch) regulated in the combinator mode, comparable
Conversely, moving from a position abaft the stem to a with controllable pitch propellers. This Voith Remate
position moving with the assisted ship is, because of the Control system regulates automatically engine rpm and
bow thruster, possible at a somewhat higher speed than thrust/pitch in the most effective way in accordance
with a normal conventional tug: with a predefined graph.

26 Tug Use in Port

the pitch restrictor, located on the contrai stand, must be
engaged. Engine overload wil1 be indicated by overload
warning lights flashing at 110 per cent power and
acoustic alarm on the VSP control stand.

The iarge skeg is typical for tractor tugs and in particular

for VS tractor tugs. It gives course stability and brings
the centre of hydrodynamic pressure further aft, which
is advantageous to both safety and towing performance
when towing on a line, especially towing performance
when op�rating as stem tug at higher speeds.

Toe towing winch is located aft of midships. It may

also be just a towing hook. Toe towing point, a large
fairiead or towing staple (4), through which the towing
line passes, lies far aft and usually exactly above the
Figure 2B.18: The total concept of a Voith tractor tug middle of the skeg Toe hull is reiatively wide and flat to
provide sufficient spa:ce for the two propulsion units. VS
Explanation of figure 2B.18: tugs have heavy duty fendering, especially at the stern,
1. Voith-Schneider propeller. 2 Propeller guard plate. because when pushing, the tugs push with the stem.
3. Skeg 4 Towing staple. 5 Second towing position.
6. Wheelhouse with specific Voith controls. Most modem tugs

EB )
have relatively small
Note 4: A second towing point is onlyfitted in a small number wheelhouses with 1
of VS tugs, and is discussedfurther in Chapters 4 and 9. optimal visibility. The
sarne applies to modem .
The VS propulsion system for tugs consists of two VS-tugs, like the one
units with vertical propeller blades whose pitch and shown in figure 2B.l.8. 2
thrust direction can be reguiated uniformly through The small and optimum
360º without delay. The protection piate (2) protects the wheelhouse (6) often has
propeller biades and works like a nozzle, thus increasing one central manoeuvring
propeller efficiency. During dócking the tug stands on pane! for propeller
these protection piates and on the skeg (3). Seefigure control. 3
2B.19 below.
Toe principie of a
Different engine rpm settings can be seiected. Toe cycloidál VS propeller is
following pitch settings are recomrnended: sho:wn in figure 2B.20.
• Maximum pitch pushing about 9. Links leading to the 4
• Maximum pitch pulling about 8. steering centre N are
• Maximum pitch free running about 10. fitted to the vertical
propeller blades. Toe
To avoid engine overload during pulling and pushing, steering centre N can be
moved out of the centre
- -'- .
1--..- O by two hydraulic
cylinders. One hydraulic
cylinder works in the
longitudinal direction
and the other one in the
transverse direction.
The propeUer blades
create a thrust in a
direction depending
on the location of the
steering centre N. ln Figure 2B.20: Principie of Voith
sketch 1 there is no propulsion.
thrust; the propellers
are 'idling'. ln sketch2 the steering centre is moved by
one hydraulic cyiinder to port. This offset location of the
steering centre N results :in forward thrust. ln sketch 3 the
Photo: Andríes Looíjen, Multrashíp steering point N is moved by the two hydraulic cylinders
to port and forward, which gives thrust in the indicated
Figure 2B.19: Voith propulsion units with protection biades direction S. So, the thrust can be regulated for any
Tug Use in Port 27
direction by moving N. Toe nominal direction of thrust
is perpendicular to the line O�N and the magrútude of
thrust is proportional to the distance O-N. Jn tugs, there
are always two VS propeller units, which are installed
side by side, except for the new CRT (Carrousel RAVE
2.5.3 Manoeuvring
VS tractor-tugs are highly manoeuvrable, can tum on
the spót, deliver a high amount of thrust in any direction
and sail straight astem at high speed. Astem thrust is
nearly equal to ahead thrust. Many of the disadvantages
Tug) which has one propulsion unit forward and one aft..
of conventional - especially single screw - tugs, such
as low astem power, no or low side thrust and in some
The maximum draft, induding the propulsion units, of a situations transverse effect of the propeller, do not
VS tug is relatively larger than that of conventional tugs, applyto VS tugs. Because it is possible to apply side
due to the weight and height of the propulsion units, the thrust tractot tugs are also safer when making fast
propeller location and dimensions. Toe location of the near the ship's bow and interaction forces can be better
propulsion units is approximately 0.25 - 0.30 x LWL from compensated.
forward. The towing pointlies 0.1 - 0.2 x LWL from aft,
although this may differ by tug depending on operational Some Voith Water Tractors are specially designed for
requirements. high speed escorting. These VWTs are of the Fin First
Design {Fin first), ie, the fin (skeg) side is the bow and the
2.5.2 Propeller control free sailing is done fin first. This, however, does not alter
The direction and magnitude of propeller thrust is the basic principles of the tractor tug. The standard VWTs
remotely controlled from the wheelhouse. The remote have the VSPs in the bow (VSP first), the free sailing is
control can be inechanically operated, which is a very generally done VSP first. Sailing ahead as well as astem
reliable system for tugs and best when the distance is easily achieved by use of the wheel. Turning on the
between wheelhouse and propeller is short. With longer spot can be dane by setting the wheel hard to port or
distailces between the bridge/wheelhouse and propeller starboard as shown in figure 2B.23.
control and when several manoeuvring stands are
installed other remate control systems are recomme.nded
such as an electronic control. How propeller thrust is
regulated can be seen in figures 2B.21, below, and 2B.22,
on the opposite page.

Some attention will be paid to the specific Voith contrais

for steering and thrust. Transverse thrust is controlled by
the wheel and longitudinal thrust is controlled by pitch
levers. So thrust setting is a combination of transverse
and longitudinal thrust. Transverse direction has priority.
When full transverse thrust is used (wheel hard to port or
starboard) no longitudinal thrust willbe available; even
when the pitch levers are set in pitch position. It can be
Figure 2B.23: Turning
seen that the full 100 per cent thrust cannot be applied in
Top: Wheel moves the bow to starboard.
any direction. The two units of a VS tug can be controlled Bottom: Pitch levers move the stern to port.
independently or together for longitudinal thrust but
only controlled together for transverse thrust.

> '.)'

(n . -:

. __ __..

Figure 28.24: Casting off; moving sideways.

A VS tug can be moved sideways, for example to port
(see figure 2B.24). The port pitch lever is set for ahead
and füe starboard for astem, while huning the wheel to
port. The turning moment of the propellers is eliminatecl
by the action of the wheel and the tug moves sideways.
Figure 2B.21: Voith mechanical control - steering wheel and Propeller effectiveness is less on astem therefore ahead
thru_st handles. pitch should be set somewhat lower than astem pikh.
28 Tug Use in Port
Figure 2B.22 : Wheel and pitch lever settings.

10 8 6 4 2 O 2 4 6 8 10 100% ...,...,_,,------..----,----,.,-----,-,,..-----.-------=-.,,....,.,
li1 1 11111 111111111 IJ1
A f
·- - � __ .: . p!!i;hlE!v��full_áf1ei1i pr:-a�\fl�,
10 'I · • - ,- · wheel :at.zero
8 �+ :, ·':-,.- :---= "-'�;-,) ifü\\s,ra��1�}1sterr.)/i1,Q.0$ .
. 1 '- ,..·. . ..... _,_,_,
6 50 '�· 't •r- 1 ; 11:-- .. ,-1p �..transverse,thrusf=:O
-, . ....... .¾;• '
4 •··· J - --·----· ••·
o '; ! 1... . __ . _'. ··-·-:_·�--�-1 .'l ,.__ -;. l- ..........

2 1_! . !'...___ -- . j _....__ ______, __ .. __ t. -·· •. --

= _.. --=::;....... - _l_·�:. _,-:

-- ...... .... ..., - • -- ., - ...... --�-., 1 --,� "'I
4 ·;- �;:-....;-::_',::: .: : -: -:-.=...=:;:-.:... -==..
100% 50 o 50 100%

With both pitch levers set to fu.11 ahead (pitch 10), the wheel changes the direction of thrust.

10 8 6 4 2 o 2 4 6 8 10
- -r r· ,
J . r; i�
 1 1
i I•
' fi�c.h'levêrs fúll àhéaél ofast�ni
10 vihee•:�_t:i:ipp(ox.-5pç,rf (s!;)!!)\)
8 _, -• . --;-:e o th�s�al:íe:a� (as.tem)=:���%
6 50 ,. .cê. -�- . lrar;,�IJ8� 1hfust ,= ""4§o/ol
.. • !.
·1 ' 1

,.i l !
6 .!
8 o
100% 50 o 50 100%

With the pitchlevers set to full ahead (astem) and the wheel set to approx 5 port (starboard), the thrust ahead (astem)
is approx 55 per cent, the transverse thrust is approx 45 per cent.

10 8 6 4 2 O 2 4 6 8 10
111111111111111111111 í
À -: . ;pJt��J����-�(ahê!l�
, }>J' �§J!!OO
.. ., , 0 •• � _ ·\'llieeJ;t!r10 p�J!,(star_l:!.)
.,, .
10 __ ..._i _ __: thrust'âhêad·(�sten,)."=i;�25%
8 -- ·- 1 ·:::...-_·[. .transvéi'se,thrúst=.:.75º/4
6 50 e�,- Ir --
---e • - -, .--·-
100% 50 o 50 100%

With the pitch levers set to full ahead (10) (astem) and the wheel set to 10 port (starboard), the thrust ahead (astem) is
25 per cent and the transverse thrust is 75 per cent.

100% ....,,..--..,...,..-,-....-----.-----.....-------,
10 . .,
8 -�_ pitch·Jevêrsáfzero f
6 · wti�ilfãfüç,pôf (�l.!l�i): •.
4 . �. iiitust �he:a�·(asJé,n):,5,g°4>
2 ·- - · · 1/'éilJ�V,�r:s�,thr:usfr;: tOOo/o'
o 50
: ; _,
.. _r
.- ' .. - �� _:- -��- _____ [_ ·- __!_� - �-- - ____
6 �-> -•- o "
-•·•--f 0 '-- '•
- - d•.
••- o ':
j •• •-' --�


100% 50 o 50 100%

With pitch levers set to zero and the wheel set to 10 port (starboard), the resulting thrust to the side is 100 per cent.
Lateral transition is generally clone using the wheel which overrides longitudinal thrust.
See also: http://voith.com/corp-en/drives-transmissions/voith-schneider-propeller-vsp.html where a program can
be downloaded to handle a virtual Voith tug.

Tug Use in Port 29

VS hlg propulsion produces little wash, which is
invaluable when skimming oil and, for example, when
working with full thrust dose to deep loaded lighters as
can be the case in narrow harbour basins. Furthermore,
loss of pulling effectiveness due to the propeller wash
impinging on the ship's hull is less compared to tugs
with azimuth thruster which have a m:ore concentrated
propeller wash.

The full bow of tractor-tugs and the flat and wide hull
b.ottoms which are necessaryto cteate sufficient room
for the propulsion units sometimes adverselyaffect their
D ''

sea keeping behaviour. According to the experience of

some VS tug captains, so do the bottom plates of the VS
propulsion units in rough sea conditions.
There is a general problem of course stability often applying to
modem tugs with a small length to beam ratio. For instance, Figure 2B.25C and D: Fast forward/aft: Changing position to
such Voith tugs may veer somewhat to port and starboard come alongside for pushing. To be dane at low speeds, up to
- which had to do with the stem design, and caused by the about 2 knots.
water flow sticking to the tug's hull and stern, but at a certain
moment the flow becomes loose of the stern and forms a vortex.
This may not happen symmetrically, causing the stem to be
pushedfrom one side to the other and starting to sway. It may
happen on one tractor tug, but not another. Voith, having.
wide experience with theír tractor tugs, sólved the problem in E
vârious ways,for instance by putting baffles on the stern side
oj the fin. Another system is mounting vertical strips on the
stern of the tug so these vortices could no longer be formed, Figure 2B.25E: Push-pull while berthing.
· imptoving course stability. Voith patented this system and
implemented the solution with Robert Allan Ltd - who call it
StRA.ke stabilisers - which have also been applied to azimuth 2.5.4 VS tugs in ship handling
tractor tugs as well. The first application on Voith tugs was on To get some basic insight into the ship handling
VectRA tugs built at Sanmar Shipyard, Tu.rkey. capabilities of a VS tug, various ship handling manoeuvres
ate shown on this page. These manoeuvres can be
Figure 2B.25: Various assist modes executed by well-designed azimuth tractor tugs too.
·" Course control can be carried out at h igh speeds by the

f i'
Direct- . lndirect­ indirect method (see figure 2B.25A, situation b), making
0-Skn s�10 kn
use of the hydrodynamic forces on the tug's hull, or at
lower speeds bythe direct method (see figure 2B.25A
situation a). Forces in the indirect method can be far
higher than the tug' s be>llard pull. When braking forces
are required, pitch levers should be adjusted to ship's
speed to avoid overloading the engine and a minimum of
wheel should be used.

While towing on a line a VS. tug forward or aft can

change to pushing without releasing the towline, which
is very handywhile approaching the berth (see figure
2B.25, situations C,D). The forward tug can change to a
Figure 2B.25A: Direct and indirect assist modes. pushing positionat a ship's speed up to approximately
two knots. Atowing winch is always useful with this
kind of operation in arder to control the length of the
towline and to enhance safety.
Ship's speed around 5 knots
VS tugs are used for towing on a line and for oper�tio�
Figure 28.258: This special manoeuvre can be employed, if the ljke push-pull (see figure 2B.25, situation E). For towing
pilot wants to have a light pull on the line. Normally, when braking and pushing operations the maximum longitudinal
forces are ordered, the tug should stay in line behind the ship, pitch is limited (to approximatelypitch 8 for towing/
using pitch levers and a minimum of wheel. Pitch levers must be pulling and pitch 9 for pushing) tci avoid overloading
adjusted according to ship's speed to avoid engine overload. the engine. ln push-pull operations the disadvantages of
30 Tug Use in Port
conventional tugs, among others, of having low astem propellers was the German harbour tug Janus (1967).
power and/ or not being able to pull at right angles to the Azimuth propellers can be fixed pitch, eg, often with
slúp do not apply to VS tugs. As already mentioned, VS Niigata, or controllable pitch. Fixed pitch propeller
tugs have nearly equal power astem and ahead and can revolutións can be regulated by a speed modulating
apply thrust in any direction. clutch, which enables the propeller speed to be controlled
in a stepless manner from zero up to maximum. This
VS tugs can also make fast directly to a slúp'sside as more or less eliminates the need for controllable pitch
push-pull tugs, approaching the slúp either stem or bow propellers and is much less expensive.
fust. Slúp's speed should then not be more than about
five knots. Although VS tugs are not the most effective On the other hand, controllable pitch propellers have,
type of tug as a forward tug towing on a line for a ship apart from the faster acceleration, the. advantage that a
under speed, due to performance restrictions imposed fire-fighfing system can be operated through the main
by the location of the towing point, they are very suitable propulsion unit without the need for a complicated
as after tug for course and speed control. Course control coupling arrangement.
can then be carried out with slúps having headway and,
contrary to what is possible with conventional tugs, to Azimuth propellers are fitted in nozzles to increase
starboard as well as to port. propeller efficiency (for nozzle types, see par. 2.3.2}. ln
the event of grounding, propeller protection is provided
Note 6: The different manoeuvres shown and also additional either by protection br docking plates. Docking plates
manoeuvres can beJound in the Voith Water Tractor are fitted undemeath or in front of the propeller and
Maneuver Manual, including a very important guideline how give only limited protection for the propellers. Protection
to make fast at the bow of a ship having headway. plates serve also when docking.

2.6 Tractor tugs with azimuth propellers The basic design of the tug itself does not differ much
from VS tractor tugs. The displacement of a VS tug is
2.6.1 Design inore than that of a comparable azimuth tractor tug of
Tractor tugs with azimuth propellers have two 360° the same engine power, due to the higher weight of the
steerable thrusters under the forebody. There are several VS propulsion systems and to the requirements for more
manufacturers of azimuth thrusters, including Rolls­ stiffening due to the wider hull openings for the VS units.
Royce, Schottel, Niigata, HRP, Wãrtsilã, Kawasaki, Veth, An azimuth tractor tug of the same dimensions and
Caterpillar, etc. Some of the European manufacturers engine power will therefore have less hull draft.
mentioned have merged, Different names are used
for azimuth thrusters, such as Z-pellers, Re:xpellers Towing point location is generally similar to that in VS
and Duckpellers, among others. Although the thruster tugs. The skeg is sometimes smaller and the location
systems are generally similar, each manufacturing of the towing point is often less strictly related to the
company has its own specific design. location of the skeg as with VS tractor tugs. Twin
sk�gs are also used (see below). The towing point lies
The first azimuth propellers were introduced into service approximately0.1 x LWL from aft and the propellers
in the 1960s. The first tug fitted with Schottel azimuth are fitted at0.30-0.35 x LWL from forward. A smaller

Upper housing Input from engine or electric motor

Input shaft with gear pinion
Uppervertical shaft with gearwheel

Slewing bearing and gear

Hlgh Thrust Nozzle Vertical lntermediate shaft wlth flexible couplings

Lower gear housing

Lowervertical shaft with gear pinion

Fixed pitch propeller

Propeller shaft with gear wheel

Source: Thrustmaster
Figure 2B.26:
Construction of a thruster
Tug Use in Port 31
angle and allowing a drift of 3-5 degrees. Sailing astern
showed the tug as directionally stable.

Opportunities to improve on this peculiar steering

behaviour when sailing ahead were sighted in a study
initiated to further enhance the design.
Aspects to be considered were:
1. The occurring phenomenon is typical for ali tractor
tugs, but it is more pronounced in ATDs with a short
L/B ratio;
2. One of the hypotheses was that the skeg generates
an opposing steering force due to its location in the
propeller races at small azimuth angles. This is an
explanation for the fact the tug sometimes may tum
to the opposite directi.on than expected. See figure
2R28. The phenomenon may be expected for every
tractor tug, but for the present design, it is more
pronounced, because of the short length and the
powerful thrusters.
Source: Damen Shipyards, the Netherlands
3. The working lever of the thrusters is short. As the
Figure 28.27: Azimuth tractor tug ATD 2412 with propellers in centre of hydrodynamic pressure on the tug's hull is
nozzles, protection bars and docking plates. See also the twin located also forward, the effect of the thruster forces
skeg The latest version of the ATO 2412 does not have any on steering is relatively low.
docking struts and plates, which resuits in less resistance and 4. Balance of the damping forces on the hull as function
easier manoeuvring. of driff and yaw motions. A skeg surface aft increases
damping, reducing tuming ability and increasing
distance is found, 0.25 x LWL for instance, on sorne directional stability.
Italian tractor-tugs at Genoa, Italy. Thrusters placed
further forward increase a tug's effectiveness while Various altemative designs were tested in MARIN's
assisting. The thrusters deliver practi.cally the sarne seakeeping and manoeuvring basin.
amount of thrust in any directi.on, though astem thrust The Twin Fin arrangements showed a nearly
:tnight be about 5 per cent less. When the thrusters conventional directional stability. ln addition, the tuming
interact, as when producing side thrust, total thrust velocity at higher rudder angles incteased as well, which
efficiency will be less. Thrusters should then be set at a demonstrated that the Twin Fin gives a somewhat higher
small angle to each other. turning ability. The Twin Fin configuration enables a
directionally stable compact tractor tug with perfect
For azimuth tractor tugs (ATD) various ruunes can be steering behaviour bot sailing ahead and astern.
found, such as the Azitrac designed by Offshore Ship
Designers in the Netherlands.

As mentioned before, azimuth tractor tugs may be
equipped with a patented twin skeg The reason why will
be explained now (see References for paper: Damen ATD
Tug 2412 Twin Fin Concept).

The ATD Tug 2412 has unconventional main dimensional

ratios, a L/B ratio of 1.89. An observation from full-scale

'f ._: □
triais and model scale triais was that the tug had to be
steered (when sailing ahead) with about 5-10° of azimuth

_;=:----::- ·

--,□. ��- '.

V - - - -
�--- :..e,'
-'...'.· V
.�0 ---�,..
:� ·t'Q�

------ .

--,-. -- ,,, _____ ,

Figure 28.28: Thruster-skeg interaction.

Accelerated water flow of port thruster runs along the central
skeg and so creating a low pressure at that side, resulting in a Photo: Damen Shipyards
counteracting turning moment. Figure 2B.29: ATD 2412 Twin Fin tug.

32 Tug Use in Port

Some furthe:r information about the ATD 2412 Twin

• Bollard pull maximum 70 tons.

• Maximum speed ahead and astem 12 knots.
• Tonnage < 300 GT.
• LOA24.74m
• Beam 12.63m
• Draft5.8m
• Fixed pitch propellers.
• Built-in slipping clutches
• Towing winch with split drum with the ability to
accommodate two towlines. Brake holding power is
150 tons. Maximum pull 36 tonnes.

Toe profile of the tug is as low as practically possible to

facilitate assistance of ships with a high flarlé! and a large
overhanging stem. Toe tug's aft deck has a low flat sheer Photo: Piet Sinke
creating a spacious, relatively flat and safe working area. Figure 28.30: Joystick for combined contrai of both thrusters.
Larger ATO Twin Fin tugs are designed as well. The direction of tug's movement is indicated around the joystick.

Examples of the ATO 2412 Twin Fin tugs are PB Murray

and PB Darling operated by PB Towage, Australia, and
Dutch company Kotug International's ZP Boxer and ZP

Voith solved the problem of course stability, which is

typical for tractor tugs with a small length to beam ratio,
by mounting vertical strips on the stern of the tug as
explained in pa.ragraph 2.5.3, Note5. Photo: Damen Shipyards,
the Netherlands
Figure 28.31: Rolls­
2.6.2 Propeller control Royce thruster contrai
Thrusters can be controlled by a single <levice for each unit for combined
thruster separately in respect of the amount of thrust contrai of thrust and
(propeller pitch for CPP or propeller revolutions for thrust direction.
fpp) and thrust direction or controlled together by a
joystick. Altematively, by a control system consisting the large number of possibilities, especially when ship
of two steerirtg levers (ahead-astemhandles), a steering handling manoeuvres are complicated. It should then be
wheel to give angle adjustment to both thrusters and two possible that thrust and direction for each thruster can be
speed control levers. For the latter two methods see the regulated in a simple and logical way.
manoeuvring diagram of Nügata for joystick, steering
wheel and control handle positions and the resulting tug Azimuth thrusters with controllable pitch propellers have
movements for a tug with azimuth thrusters at the stern the advantage that a minimum of thrust can be given and
in paragraph2.10. ahead pitch can quickly be reversed for astem thrust and
vice versa. However, when full power astem is required
When combined thruster control is by joystick (also thrusters should be turned for astern.
called a Uni-lever, Combi-lever, master pilot, or similar
names), the thrusters are automatically set for the most Note 7:
suitable direction in order to manoeuvre the tug as It is good to know what a well experienced tug master­
indicated at the joystick control. Some azimuth thruster instructor wrote about separate thruster controls and Master
types have joystick control for the direction of tug's pilot or Uni-lever systems:
movement while the amount of thrust has to be regulated There is no combination of engine RPMand thrusters angle
separately. Others havé combined control of thrust force that is achievable with separate controls that is not achievable
and ditection. on a Uní-lever system. But it is more challenging to find these
combinations for optimal operating on a Uni- Lever than it is
Tugs with combined joystick control can also control on separate controls. Though most tug masters do not realise
each thruster separately, but on some tugs this may be this fact. I spent a lot of timefiguring out how to recreate the
too complicated due to the number of handles to be control settings on the Uni-lever so as to achíeve the same
operated. Combined joystick control of both units is outcomes as with separate controls ... be assured it is possible ...
limited to pre-programmed tug manoeuvres, so separate wíth quality training. Furthermore, Uni-levér is:
control of the thrusters has some advantages owing to • Relatively intuitive to drive for simplistic operations.

Tug Use in Port 33

• Can overríde what the tug master has asked for on the On the other hand, because of their lower underwater
controls. resistance - mainly due to. the relatively shallower draft
• Can get stuck ahead if pulled back from right ahead to - and the · ability to provide nearly 100 per cent thrust in
right astern too fast. any direction, azimuth tractor tugs will be more effective.
• When stuck ahead it can be up to a couple of minutes at speed when diíect towing as a stern tug and as a
before it will sort itself out, albeit with whatever forward tug when towing on a line, again depending on
combination of rotation it chooses. a proper location of the towing point. Toe influence of the
Separate controls: location of the towing point on the performance of tractor
• Generally will only do as the tug master requests. tugs is further discussed in Chapter 4.
• In some brands of separate contrais: if the tug master
Note 8:
rotates separate controls too far toofast the thrusters will
take the shortest route to the selected position. Robert Allan Ltd designed a new tug concept of which the
hull could be outjitted as either a 25m tractor tug (TRAktor
Conclusion: It means a tug master should be well aware ofthe 2500-SX) with bollard pulls up .to 70 tons or a 25m Rotortug
limitations of his thruster control system and should be trained (ART-60-25SX) with bollard pull up to 60 tons. The stern of
to handle them in. the most safe and efficient way. the hull features the simple but eJ!ective StRAke stabilisers, a
system developed by Voith and implemented by Robert Allan
2.6.3 Manoeuvring Ltd, whichimprove tractor tug course and directional stability,
allowingfor a reduced size skeg and improved manoeuvrability.
The ínanoeuvring characteristics of azimuth tractor-
tugs are more or less comparable to those of VS tractor­
tugs. They are also safe working tugs and híghly 2.7 Reverse-tractor tugs
manoeuvrable� can tum on the spot, move sideways 2.7.1 Design
and have nearly the sarne bollard pull ahead as astem.
Because of the relatively shallower draft, sometimes Reverse-tractor tugs, formerly also called pusher tugs,
another skeg design and almost 100 per cent thrust in any are tugs with two azimuth propellers under the stern.
direction, the manoeuvring characteristics of these higs They are more or less specifically designed for the
may be somewhat different compared to VS tugs. assisting method used, for instance, in a large number
of West Pacific ports assisting over the tug's bow.
These tugs have a large towing winch forward and only
2.6.4 Azimuthtractor tugs in ship handling
The assisting capabilities of azimuth tractor tugs are
comparable to those of VS tractor tugs. They are súitable
either for operating at the shlp's side or for towing on a
line (see figure 2B.32). Azimuth tractor tugs, and also VS
tractor tugs if fitted with a smaller skeg and/ or a towing
point not located at the correct position, are less effective
as a stern tug compared to the VS tractor tugs, when
operating in the indirect towing method at hígher speeds.



lmages courtesy: Cliff Chow and Jerry Low, HKST

Figure 2B.33: Typical reverse-tractor tug. LOA 25.4m, beam
Figure 2B.32: Some assisting methods with azimuth tractor tugs. 8.5m; BP 45 tons.

34 Tug Use in Port

smaller towing equipment aft, generally just a towing
hook. Toe towing point aft often lies tooJar aft to be
effective if these tugs were to tow on a line at speed like a
conventional tug. Sometimes the towing point lies nearly
above the thrusters aft. Toe Jàpanese concept of tugs is
among others such a tug and is further being dealt with
in paragraph 2.8.

ASD-tugs are dealt with in paragraph 2.9. These tugs also

operate more and more over the bow, and as a reverse­
tractor tug as well.

For the azimuth propeller systems in use, fixed pitch or

controllable pitch, please see the tractor tug paragraph. Figure 2B.35: Assisting methods with a reverse tractor tug,
Because the thrusters are fitted under the stem the operate with the towing point towards the �ssisted �hip
maximum draft of reverse-tractor tugs is less than that of and the propulsion units away from the assISted ship.
comparable real tractor tugs. Hull draft is less than the Reverse-tractor tugs do the sarne but are then heading
hull draft of a similar VS tractor tug, for reasons already in the reverse direction. That's why these tugs are called
explained when discussing azimuth tractor tugs. reverse-tractor tugs.
The propulsion units are located approximat�ly 0.1 � L"Y"1 What ha.:s been mentioned about azimuth tractor tugs
from aft. Toe pushing point and forward towmg pomt is with respect to manoeuvring also applies to a large extent
at the forward part of the bow. Wheelhouse construction to reverse-tractor tugs. They can be used for towing
is completely adjusted to the assisting method. The on a line or for assisting at the ship's side as shown in
manoeuvring station is designed in such a way that the figure 2B.35. They can easily change, when towing over
tug captàin has an unobstructed view of the forepart of the the tug's bow, to a pushing position at the ship' s side or
tug,the towline and the assisted ship, while seated behind for push-pull while berthing. A towing winch is _useful
the manoeuvring panel with the assorted instrumentation to enable the towing line always to be set at a smtable
and control handles around him. length or to pick up any slack in the line. When operating
at the ship's side these tugs are very effective at speed.
2.7.2 Propeller control, manoeuvring
capabilities and ship handling Although this type of tug is also used for towin� o�
a line, as a forward tug it wi11 not be very effective m
Propeller control with reverse tractor tugs is the sarne as
steering ships having headway. The tug has to move
with azimuth tractor tugs. Because of the two azimuth astern and its towing point lies at the forwardmost end
thrusters and the forward lying towing point reverse­
of the tug; giving a similar decrease in steering efficiency
tractor tugs are highly manoeuvrable and safe working
wh�n speed increases as with a tractor tug.
tugs. They can turn on the spot and move sideways
(see figure 28.44). The astem bollard.pull of these tugs
As a stem tug,reverse-tractor tugs are very suitable for
is generally about 5-10 per cent less than ahead power,
steering and speed contiol for ships at speéd, whether
due to the shape of the after hull. The name reverse­
making use of the indirect or direct method. Tn the
tractor tug implies that the tugs operate similarly to
indirect method reverse-tractor tugs are in general
tractor tugs but in the opposite way. Tractor tugs always
somewhat less effective in steering compared to a siinilar
VS tug in the sarne situation, although much depends on
skeg design, but in the direct method reverse-tractor tugs
might be some more effective because of the lesser draft.
Toe effectiveness of tugs is dealt with in more detail in

Please see note at paragraph 2.6.2 about thrusters'


2.8 Japanese tug concept

1\ 2.s.1 Design
A specific type of a reverse tractor tug is the Japanese tug
concept, also adopted by Taiwanese, Chinese and South
Korean designers. These tugs have some remarkable
differences with, let us say, the European and American
ASD-tug types.
Photo: Jacco van Niewenhuyzen
Figure 2B.34: Thrusters with cpp propellers on SD Stingray. Note 9: The name Japanese tugs will be used fiere.

Tug Use in Port35

Toe most remarkable differcences are: • Tugs for escorting as well. These powerful tugs
• Toe lai'ge fl.ared bow hanged with tyres. are able to operate even in stormy weather. As
• The transam stern extencling below the waterline. mentioned above, free-sailing speed of the escort tugs
should be high and can be even be 15 knots or more.
• The sheer.
Toe tugs don't make fast dtiring escorting of ships.
• Long deckhouse.
• The winch located relatively far aft. Escorting is compulsory around Japan for ships with
• The relative high working deck in front of the winch, hazardous cargoes or a certain length.
which can be reached by a connection bridge. Exept for Tokyo Bay escorting can be carried out by any
type of ship, provided the ship is equipped with Fifi
• The relative small width.
equipment, which means in pradice that ali escorting is
• The relatively small draft. done by tugboats.
• Toe high free-sailing speed of 15 knots and even Escort tugs do not make fast to the ship but stay standby
more. at short distance to the ship, unless tug services are
Some of these Japanese ASD-tugs have just one winch lndirect towing is not an optio:n. for the relative small
forward, others have a double winch forward, while beam tugs. It can even be dangerous.
there are alsb tugs of this type with three winches, two
forward and one aft. The specific design has a number of large advantages:

Toe tugs have two azimuth thrusters aft, often Niigata They can work under the large fiares and overhanging
(�e figure 2B.40), and no skeg except for a small skeg in sterns of particulary large container vessels.
front of the propellers. Bilge keels can be found on th� The flared bow has bow has a large radius; which
tugs (see figure 2B.41). Several of these tug types have no reduces the pushing forces on ships' hulls.
funnels, but engine exhausts are then taken out via the Due to the typical flared bow a large working deck is
transom, which creates a all around clearview from-the created enabling the crew to pass the towline to the ship
wheelhouse. to be assisted, or to rétrieve the towline, in a handy way.
See figures 2B.37 and 2B.38.
Main reason for the typical bow is to reduce the wave Due to the aft positioned forward fairlead the tugs can
making resistance by a fine and, more recently, a bulbous operate somewhat better than other tug types with steep
bow. This creates the possibility for a bow deck which towlines, whiéh is often the case in dockyards. See figure
can be opened widely with a big fl.are, which is necessary 2B.36.
for braking bow waves at high speed and so creating a
dry working deck. One of the other reasons is to keep the
tug's GT below a certain level.

A bulbous bow will increase the waterline length as

does the transam stern, resulting in a higher freesailing
speed. This is needed because the high speeds needed for
escorting of large ships and ships with hazardous cargoes
in the inland traffic routes.

Tugs may have fire-fighting ând oil recovery equipment.

A shallow draft is required for areas with a smaU

Photo: Shell lntematlonal Ltd
2.8.2 Propeller control, manoeuvring and ship Figure 28.36: FLNG Prelude; assisting tugs with long steep
handling capabilities towlines.
Thruster control is often by a Uni-lever system. See
paragraph 2.10.

Toe tugs are very seaworthy and, as said, the typical bow
design results in hardly any waves or spray coming on
the foreward working deck. ln case waves are coming
from aft or from abreast, the transomand low aft deck
may result in waves coming over the aft deck.

There are mamly two tug types:

• Tugs for berthing and unberthing. The assising method Photo: Piet Sinke
is usually push-pull and direct towing at the bow. Figure.28.37: Tug Oghfwith forward working deck, no handrail.

36 Tug Use in Port

Photo: Plet Sinke
Photo: Piet Sinke
Figure 2B.38: Tug Sagamíwith forward working deck. Deck Figure 2B.39: Tug's transam extending under the waterline.
crew with safety jacket and helmet.

ZP-31 Cross Section


Source: Tokyo Kisen
Figure 28.41: Photo clearly showing the bilge keels, bow fenders
with tyres, and just a small skeg aft can be seen.

1. Uppcr Gear CB8'i

Input Shun Coupling.
3. BcwlGeúr
"· JnputShm\
ú. LOPump
&.. Motor Fia.ore
7. ll<d
8 . Roltcr &o.rlng
9. Ccnr C.ouJ)ling
10. YerticttlSbnn::
11 •. Jtopc Gua.rd
12. PropcUcr
13, KortN=le
1-1. Hyd.mulic Motor


Source: Niigata, Japan

Source: Alan Loynd
Figure 2B.40: An azimuth thruster from Niigata, Japan.
Figure 28.42: Hong Kong tug braking ship's speed.
2.9 Azimuth Stern Drive (ASD) tugs
under the stem at roughly the sarne location, about 0.1 x
2.9.1 Design LWL from the stern.
Conventional tugs have certain advantages and so do
reverse-tractor tugs. ASD-tugs are nearly the same as Toe azimuth thrusters of ASD-tugs are made by the sarne
reverse-tractor tugs but are designed in such a way that manu.factuters as the azimuth thrusters of tractor tugs.
they can operate like a reverse-tractor tug as well as a Their maximum draft is less than that of comparable
conventional tug, thus combining the advantages of both tractor tugs, as mentioned when discussing reverse­
types. ASD-tugs have a towing winch forward and a tractor tugs. They may be equipped with a tunnel bow
towing winch (can be optional) or towing hook aft. The thruster, especially when used for offshore operations.
aft towing point is at a suitable location for towing on a Tunnel bow thrusters are not very effective when a tug
line, namely 0.35-0.4 x LWL from the stern. Like reverse­ has speed ahead, but are very useful for position keeping.
tractor tugs, they have two azimuth propellers fitted There is a large interest in this type of tug because of
Tug Use in Port 37
Source: Damen Shipyards
Figure 2B.43: ASD3212 - tug Mars, LOA 32.70m, BOA 12.82m, BP ahead 82.5 tons, BP astern 76.1 tons, fixed pitch propellers.
theit manoeuvrability and inultipurpose capabilities. The ritànoeuvring capabilities of free sailing ASD-tugs
Sometimes an azimuthbow thruster is installed - as is and reverse-tractor tugs are shown in figure 2B.44, over
the case with the 4,000hp ASD-tug Erin McAllister of page. These tugs can deliver thrust in any direction,
:\1ci\llister Towing and Transportation Company, USA. though imoo,m.um stem thrust is some 5 to 10 per cent
A retraetable azimuth bow thruster of approximately less than on ahead.
1,000hp was installed, so increasing the tug's
!!'.anoe:uvrability, its position keeping abilities, maximum Conventfonal tugs are effective as forward tugs towing
bollard pullahead and astem and maximum achievable on a line, while reverse-tractor tugs are effective aft and
sideways thrust. are also very suitable for push-pull operations. ASD­
tugs are very effective and suitable for all kinds of ship
A very few ASD-tugs have only one azimuth thruster handling, owing to their ability to assist like both a
a.t the stem - for instance, the converted US Navy reverse-tractor tug and a conventional tug. When towing
YTBs (yard tug boats) Kaleen McAllister and Dona! G. forward on a line like a conventiônàl tug (see figure
McAllister. 2B.45, 1, opposite page) the ASD-tug is very effective,
although the risk of girting exists. The risk is minimised
There is a large variety in ASO harbour tugs with respect Wlten the tug is equipped with a reliable quick release
to design, size and bollard pull. ASD-tugs may have system.
à.1.'Tei'entbrand names, such as the RAmparts series
of tugs designed by Robert Allan Ltd, of Vancouver. As a stem tug oh aline an ASD-tug works over the bow
... specific name for an ASD-tug is the Azistem tug (situation 1 and 2). This is effective for speed control and
designed by Offshore Ship Designers in the Netherlands. course control to both sides. Effectiveness when assisting
_:mstem tugs can be delivered with lengths of 24-37m in indirect inode (situation 2) is generally somewhat less
a.i.'1.à bollard pulls of 60-120 tons, Glosten, Seattle, when compared to VS tractor tugs, but ASD-tugs may be
designed a new ASD-tug type, the HT-67, a 20.4m long somewhat more effective when direct pulling (situation 1).
tug for versatile service on inland and near coastal
,,,-aters. The tug has an aluminium deck house, towing Like reverse-tractor tugs, ASD-tugs can also easily
,,,i._11.ch and stem roller. And Sanmar Shipyards, Turkey, change from towing on a line to push-pull without
has the Yeniçay class tugs - small tugs with a lengfh. of releasing or changing the towline position (situation 3).
18.7m and a bóllard pull of 30 tons. Toe forward ASD-tug should then assist like a reverse,­
tractor tug (situation 2) which is very often the case. A
bow thruster is, as for a reverse-tractor tug, useful for
2.9.2 Propeller control, manoeuvring capabilities bringing and keeping the tug's bow in position at the
and ship handling ship's side. For this kind of operation a towing winch is
Propeller control is the sarne as with azimuth tractor very useful in order to control the length of the. towline
tugs, either control of ea.ch thrusters separately or by Uni­ and to pick up the slack when necessary. ASD-tugs are
Iever or master pilot system. An example of the Uni.,.lever also very suitable for assisting at the ship's side, because
system is shown in paragraph 2.10. See also noteabout of their high reversing power and their 360º steerable
tbrusters handling at the end of paragraph 2.62. thrusters.

38Tug Use in Port


Figure 2B.44, left: Free sailing manoeuvring capabilities of an ASD-tug and reverse
tractor tug.

Figure 2B.45, above: Some assisting methods with an ASD-tug.

Photo: Martin Mennlnga,

Figure 2B.46: ASD-tug
Smit Seine (LDA 28.67m,
beam 10.43m; bollard pull
ahead 60 tons, astern 57
tons) assisting Maersk
McKinney Moller in the
Port of Rotterdam. ASD­
tugs are mainly operating
- over the bow; Smit Seine
is operating over the stern.
Tug Use in Port 39
If an ASD-tug is equipped with an azimuth bow thruster, control system. A cross section of a Niigata thruster with
then the manoeuvres discussed can be performed faster the most essential parts, such as input shaft coupling,
and more effectively. rope guard, propeller, nozzle, etc, is shown in figure
2.1 O Uni-lever system Figure 2B.47 shows the various settings of the Uni-
Althoughmost often separate contrais can be found 1ever control handle and the corresponding thruster
on tugs with azirnuth propulsion systems, many tugs configurations and tug movéinents. 0n the right is the
are equipped with a Uni-lever or master pilot thruster main engine speed control handle.
control system. This is in particular the case on tugs in
Westem Pacific ports- Korea, Japan, China and Taiwan. Figure 2B.48 shows separate controls of the same make,
Attention will therefore be paid to the Uni-lever system which can be found on similar tugs not having a Uni­
often found on these tugs, namely, the Nügata Uni-lever lever system.

lns!ruction oi sh;p hm,d!;ng by UNI-LEVER

l-..'!ain Cng:ne sp,�od contrcl han::!lc

Source: Nilgata, Japan

Figure 28.47: Uni-lever system, Niigata.

!nslructlon cf 51,1µ hanct;ng by GSO & GSP LEVER

GSO vf\·­
GSP l,,1\·-


Source: Niígata, Japan

Figure 28.48: Separate contrais for each
thruster: either two GSO Levers for fixed
pitch propellers or two GSP contrai for
controllable pitch propellers.

40 Tug Use ín Port

Chapter 2


Related tug types

In this section the related tug types as mentioned in table decreased by lowering the thrust.
2A.1 will be discussed:
• The Rotortug. Most Rotortugs have standard wiitches and fixed pitch
• The Z-Tech tug. propellers. Only four have controllable pitch propellers
of which the latest is Serco's tug SD Tempest.
• The RSD tug.
• The Carrousel tug. Depending on the requirements, Rotortugs may have also
• The DOT tug. have fire-fighting capabilities.

Why the name 'related tug types'? This is because The azimuth thrusters, engines and winches are
the capabilities of these tugs can to a large extent be manufactured by the sarne equipment manufacturers and
compared with the basic tug types discussed in Chapter the Rotortugs are built at the sarne shipyards at similar
2,partB. rates as ASD and tractor tugs. Their distinguishing
features relate to active steering and braking forces which
can be provided in both direct and indirect mode over
2.11 Rotortug the full 10-0 knots speed range, their versatility, and their
ability to operate in confined spaces such as locks and
2.11.1 Design bridges - as is to certain extent also the case with fast tugs
Rotortugs are triple azimuth thruster driven tugs with and the present compact ASD-tugs of 24m length.
the thrüsters arranged in a triangular coruiguration with
a towing-or escort-winch fonvard and a towing winch
aft. Basically it is a conventional tractor tug with azimuth 2.11.2 Rotortugs in use
thrüsters, and the skeg replaced by a third azimuth The first generation Rotortugs were RTinnovatíon, RT
thruster. This creates the possibility to design a versatile Pioneer, RT Spirit and RT Magic. These tugs. are still
tug with unique capabilities for ship handling and with operational inBremerhaven and Mozambique today.
good active steering and braking capabilities. Rotortugs can be found in several large European ports,
and also in ports in Australia (Port Hedland), some USA
Since the first Rotortug concept, Robert Allan Ltd has ports, and Africa. Sometimes the tugs are owned by
exclusively designed Rotortugs of various dimensions separate towing companies or by a joint venture with
and designs. The company's research capabilities Kotug. In mid-2018 there were 44 Rotortugs operational
mean they are able to optimise hull forms and course and 12 being buüt.
cóntrollability charaderistics for sailing ahead, astem and
transverse. Combined with about 20 years of operating 2.11.3 Propeller control and manoeuvring
experience with the first Rotortugs, the latest generation
of Rotortugs are called ARTs (Advanced Rotortugs) and capabilities
provide a sophisticated design. Propeller controlis similar to that of azimuth tractor anel.
stern driven tugs, with individual thruster control units
Main dimensions of three ART tug types : controlling respectively thruster steering and propeller
revolutions or pitch (the latter if applicable). Rotortugs
Type ART 65-28 ART80·32 ART 85· 32W with fixed pitch propellers are fitted with speed
Length 27.50m 31.95m 31.5m modulating slipping clutches.
Beam 12.50m 12.6m 13.8m During fire-fighting duties the portside thruster is fully
Bollard Pull 65 tons 80 tons 85 tons clisengaged and the portside engi ne is used to drive the
fire-fighting pump. This arrangement has a significant
station-keeping advantage over other main engine driven
The ART(W) (Advanced Rotortug Wide body) is a tug fire-fighting pump arrangements.
with a larger beam, suclt as the ART 85-32W designed
for operations in Port Hedland. Increasing a tug's width Thanks to the third thruster, and in some cases also
increases stability. The point is,however; that with ASD­ to the second towing winch, and consequently to the
tugs the propulsion units counteract the heeling angle. in double-ended control ability,tapabilities of Rotortugs
the indirect mode (see Tug Stability. A Practical Guide to are superior to those of other tug types. The Rotortug's
Safe Operations), while with the Rotortugs the thrusters manoeuvring characteristics enable tug masters to
increase the heeling angle (see figure 2C.3). 0n the other provide fast reaction times. The tugs can compensate
hand if the heeling angle becomes too large it can be safely for the interaction effects working on the tug and
Tug Use in Port 41
Source: Rotortug
Figure 2C.1: Rotortug ART 80 32. Left: side view, middle: aft view, right: forward view.

the towing points at both ends of the tug create safe between 6 and 10 knots using both direct thruster forces
working tugs. and hydrodynamic lift forces; the latter in the indirect
mede. Performance in the direct and indirect modes are
Rotortugs can operaté in various ways, whether when shown in figures 2C.4 and 2C.5, opposite page.
towing ona line or operating at the ship's side. The
tugs can always operate bow-first, both as stem and as The tugs use a specific manoeuvre at low ship's speed
bow tug., TJ:iey have good tug control capabilities, when -what is called 'rotoring'. With rotoring, steering
operating around the bow of a ship at speed or in the forces can be applied within the beam of the assisted
ship's propeller wash. This feature makes them especially ship which is of great help in cortfined spaces such as
suited for.center lead forward and centeraft operations. locks and when passing bridges (see figure 2C.3). This
Furlhermore, the third azimuth thruster provides furthermore creates the possibility of operating with
additional redundancy. fewer tugs during most weather conditions.

A Rotortug's aft towing point is located perpendicular ln this way the first generation Rotortugs assisted high
above the centre line. of the aft thruster, providing easy windage car carriers through the locks in Bremerhaven .
course control of the tug as bow tug. The tug's large With rotoring with the towline fastened forward (at the
side-stepping capability is of great help for repositioning end with the two thrusters) the tug can generate a force
of the tug. When operating as stem tug, the tugs can of 70. per cent of the tug's bollard in transverse direction
provide relatively high steering and braking forces in to the ship's centre line with quick response to the pilot's
the direct mode up to 10 knots speed, which is also called commands.
combination-artest mode. When operating in this mode
there is hardly any heel. Rotoring can also be applied during mooring operations.
In doing so the ship can be brought as dose as possible to
Rotortugs can provide active steering and braking forces the quày or jetty (see figure 2C.2).

Photo: Rotortug
Figure 2C.2: Forward tug applies thé method of rotoring.

42 Tug Use in Port

Direct or combination arrest mode

lndirect mode •.

Figure 2C.3: Various Rotortug manoeuvres with related thruster settings.

-lndlrcct modc -- Diroct moe<>

J'°" --

I 120"
.li ..
;' IOO'r. ----'--�����L'U
� 8ft'. 1- ---
i .� l ntorl
f �: .,?
'i- ·� 1 __ ,.,

•·0% .L - --- . y�P--------
� Ô l -i 3: .à'. 10

Source: Kotug
Figure 2C.4: Comparison performance Rotortug with ASD-tug.
ln the 4-8 knots speed range the Rotortug performs better Figure 2C.5: Performance diagrams of Rotortug ART80-32, LOA
and above 8 knots the ASD-tug performs better. Note: For an 31.95m, beam 12.60m, BP 80 tons, operating as stern tug in
explanation of various assist modes, see escort chapter. direct (yellow} and indirect (red} mode at 8 knots speed.

There are some aspects to keep in mind. Three thrusters recommended that tug masters follow a specific Rotortug
within a relatively short distance of each other may training before they start operations. Tug handling
cause some loss of effecti.veness due to thruster-thruster with three thrusters can be challenging without prior
interactions, depending on the thruster settings. instructions and training.
Thrusters underneath the hull will, as with normal tractor
tugs, increase the tug's resistance. Kotug has a Rotortug simulator with a 360° are of view,
where training is given in handling a Rotortug, as well
To benefit from the Rotortug's capabilities it is highly as ship handling with .the Rotortug. With this simulator
Tug Use in Port 43
Photo: Rotterdam pilot Marijn van Hoorn Photo: Rotterdam pilot Marijn van Hoorn
Figure 2C.6: RTEvo/ution in the indirect assisting mode at 8 Figure 2C.7: RTEvolution in the directassisting mode at
knots speed. 6 knots speed.
an optimal trairúng can be given to new and experienced a rather complex tug with its three thrusters and two
tug masters, Furthermore, Kotug has a 15m long training winches, which does increase underwater resistance and
Rotortug- see Chapter 8, Training and Tug Simulation. may affect purchasing and maintenance costs compared
to various other tug types.
2.11.4 Summarising
Toe advantages of the tugs are: 2.11.5 FLNGs and tugs providing in-field support
• Excellent manoeuvrability, which includes among Thfee Rotortugs ARTl00-42, called in-field support
other things turning on: the spot with a high rate of vessels (ISVs), were specifically built for the Prelude
tum, astern speed equal to ahead speed and a side­ FLNG (floating liquefied natural gas) project. Another
stepping speed of approxi.mately six knots. ARTl00-46 was built for the ConocoPhilips Bayu Undan
Field. Toe ARTl00-46 tug RT Raven was launched in
• Fast positioning and re-positioning and a large
January 2018. Toe numbei: of scheduledFLNG projects,
variety of assist modes with short response times. and consequently ISV requirements, is gradually
• A high bollard pull or, altematively, the sarne increasing with global energy demands.
bollard pull with less draft, compared to a normal
tractor tugwith two azimuth thrustets. The ARTl00-42 tugs have a length of 42m, width 16m,
• High side thrust up to 95 per cent of bollard pull to maxi.mum draft 7.40m, bollard pull 100 tons and are
assist vessels through narrow passages, locks and equipped with FiFil with.water spray. The ARTl00-46
bridges. (LOA 47m, bearn 16m) is fitted with DP2 capacity and
• Better reliability because two units bring sufficient has similar characteristics; an additional length of 5m
manoeuvrability and bollard pull for day-to-day provides, with.a retractable towing fairlead, more deck
ship handling work; in case of breakdown of an space aft and gives additional support capability.
engine, the tug is still operational and repairs can be
postponed until a suitable time. ISVs provide a range of services anel are generally
• There is hardly any risk of damaging the azimuth customised to suit each project' s requirements. Their
capabilities include (but are not limited to):
thrusters on the bulb of an assisted ship as can
happen with stern drive tugs, due to the thrqster • Assisting gas carriers coming alongside the FLNG for
locati.on and protection. loading and when leaving.
• Safe tug for operations near the bow of a ship having • Emergency response. The ARTl00-42 is able to
speed. accom:modate 85 people in case of an emergen:cy on
• Specifi� assist modes that can be utilised by a board the FLNGwhich involves people having to
leave the vessel.
Rotortug enable them to operate within the breadth
of a ship, reducing the number of tugs normally • Condensate hose-handling and maintenance.
required, and bring ships as dose as possible to the • Safety stand-by and surveillançe.
quay. • In-field cargo and personnel transfer.
• Dynamic positioning systems can be installed for • Dive and ROV support.
offshore operations.
• Escort work with high towline forces is possible Also in wave conditions, gas éarriers have to be brought
over the stem as well as over the bow of the tug at alongside. This can, in particular, be a problem when
relatively high speeds. pushing at the ship's side. The tugs should be able to
push in such a way that the fenders don't. get damaged
The Rotortug is a highly manoeuvrable and reliable and the hull pressure on the gas carrier does not get
tug and can generate high towline forces. But itis also too high. The Rotortug ISVswith their propulsion uruts

44 Tug Use in Port

arrangement below the bottom should be able to do so Because of the need to work in either push or pull mQde
up to a certain wave height/period. When sea conditions under the flate ends of large container ships and car
worsen, the tugs can then tow on a line and use the carriers, the Z-tech tug also has a flat forward sheer and
method called 'rotoring', mentioned above. a wide, heavily fendered bow, which is the skeg-end of
the the tug. The stern of the the tug has a strong vertical
The Prelude is a 488m long floating tinit which wil1 be sheer to creat good sea-keeping capabilities. According to
stationed 230km off the Australian cost in 240m deep PSA Marine, speed and bollard pull astem are at least 95
water for 25 years and will operate continuously in per cent of that going ahead.
terms of gas processing and the loading of LNG, LPG
and condensate tankers. For such a prQject, specific tugs Since the first Z-tech tug based on practical experience,
are needed, because the tugs have to operate during a the tug has undergone modifications such as with the
long time in remate areas where redundancy is of great skeg which was first closed and is now open.
importance and local wind and sea conditions play an
important role. By mid-2017 Cheoy Lee Shipyards had built 45 Z-tech
tugs, from 60-70 tons bollard pull, and 27-30m in length.
At the sarne date, there were approximately 70 Z-tech
2.12 Z-tech tug tugs worldwide.
2.12.1 Design
As with the ASD-tug, the skeg provides directional
The Z-tech tug can be found in many ports and is an
stability when sailing astern and does not impede ahead
iniative of PSA Marine, Singapore. They consulted
steering performance and or create too large additional
with the tug masters, crew and operation managers on
interaction forces when coming alongside a ship at speed.
their operational needs and specific requirements. It
became clear that some had a distinctive preference for
Toe Z-tech tugs bu.ilt for the Panama Canal are
tractor-style tugswhile others preferred the ASD type.
specifically adapted to the operational needs of the
The solution was to develop a single design that would
Panama Canal Authority. These include:
incorporate the best characteristics of both the tractor
• A wider beam in arder to ensure a higher clearance
and ASD type tug. ln 2003 the first Z-tech tug was bom,
designed by RobertAllan Ltd. angle when working under the flare of ships.
• Toe height of the wheelhouse is lower than on other
The Z-tech tug is espedally configured to allow to tugs of this class.
work closely under the extreme fiares of large container • Two independent winches, because the tugs use two
vessels, although the Singapore tugs handle a11 kinds towlines.
of vessels, such as buhker barges, coastal tankers with • A dayboat accommodation ç1.rrangement
very low freeboard, car carriers, bulk carriers, tankers
and handle oil rigs as well. Still leaving suffi.cient room
to install/withdraw the thruster tinits , the wheelhouse
is situated well aft, which means towards the thrusters,
creating a relatively large working deck forward and
enabling the tug to work dose to a ship. The working
deck is furthermore free of anchor chains, because
anchors are located at the thruster end of the tug.

Courtesy Cheoy Lee Shipyards

Figure 2C.9: Z-tech tug 6500 class tug built for se Nice in the
Photo: Piei Sinke Panama Canal and approaches. LOA 27.40m, beam 12.20m, BP
Figure 2C.8: Z-tech tug Star Ruby, owned by PSA Marine. ahead 65 tons. See also double winches forward.
Tug Use in Port45
Developments of Z-Tech tugs are continuing. ln 2.12.2 PropeHer control and manoeuvring
May2017,USA-based Bay.:Houston Towing Co. and Ali Z-Tech tugs built by Cheoy Lee Shipyards Ltd - and
Suderman & Young Towing Company awarded as far as is known by other yards as well - are fitted with
construction contracts to Gulf Island Shipyards for fixed pitch azimuth thruster withóut speed modulating
four Z-tech 30-80 class terminal/escort tugs of 80 tons clutches, although Z-tech tugs built for the Panama Canal
bollard pull for each company; tugs to be designed by Authority have such a facility, called an MCD (marine
Robert Allan Ltd. with sponsons to suit the Z-tech hull control device). The thrusters have separate c:ontrols, one
form. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations on each port and starboard wheelhouse console.
demonstrate escort capabilities increase by15 per cent
compared to the original Z-Tech. Seen from an operational point of view, the Z-tech tug
can best be compared with an azimuth tractor tug (ATI)
The skeg generates extra hydrodynamic forces on the or to some extent with a reverse-tractor tug. These tug
tug when operating in the indirect mode and shifts the types usually have only one winch and do ship handling
centre of hydrodynamic forces more in the direction only by the towing winch and towing staple at the skeg
of the towing point. When the tug is operating in the end, which is the bow for the Z-tech tug and reverse­
indirect mode the effect ofa skeg on the steering forces tractor tug and the stem for the ATT. 0n an ATT and
that can be delivered is largest when the towing point is, Z-tech tug the working deck is rather flat, and no anchor
horizontally seen, as dose as possible to the location of winch liniits the working place.
the centre of hydrodynamic pressure on the tug's hull.
0n tugs such as the Z-tech tug and the ASD-tug, due ATTs and Z-tech tugs sail 'skeg first' or 'thrusters
to their design and skeg location with respect to this first' depending on the situation. At somewhat longer
an ideal situation is d.ifficult to realise. This is further distances and in sea conditions, the Z-tech and the tractor
addressed in the Escort chapter. tug sail 'thrusters first' with the higher deck forward. The
Z-tech tug andseveral tractor tugs can manoeuvre well
Furthermore, the distance between this hydrodyn�c with the skeg end under the flare or overhanging stern of
centre .of pressure centre and location of the propulsion a ship.
units should be as large as possible. Of course, the
vertical distante between the centre of pressure and the How Z-tech tugs operate in, for instance the Port of
towing point should be as small as possible in order to Singapore, can be seen in figure 2C.10 which shows how
reduce heeling angles. the tugs approach a ship and how they make fast.
2-Tech approaching 1he
forecastle to make fast with 2-Tech made fast at the
' thrusters-up' forecastle.
z-tech ln ' thruster-up' mode

pproachlng main
Z.Tech made fast

eck to make fast
at the main deck

quarter to make ZTech made fast at 1tie Figure 2C.10:
fast qurter General Z-tech
manoeuvres for
� approaching a
2-Techs approachlng the vessel Z-Techs made fast forward and aft
to make fast forward and aft ship and passing
46 Tug Use in Port
2.13 RSD tug first, like a tractor tug, and in doing so it can overcome
the interaction f orces.
2.13.1 Design and manoeuvrability It wcmld be good to consider this tug type as a safe
Toe RSD (Reverse Stern Drive) tugis a new tug type replacement f or an ASO working over the bow. ln
designed and built by Damen Shipyards. It is a new addition, when th.e topmast is taken down, the tug is
concept which combines the advantages of both ASD­ suitable to work under the overhanging flare and stern of
tugs and ATD-tugs, as was the orginal idea for the large ships, especially container ships.
design of the Z-tech tug. The forward end of the RSD tug
is the thruster end. Toe first RSD-tug is the RSD tug 2513, with a LOA of
24;75m, a beam of 13.13m, power 4,480bkW, bollard pull
An ASD-tug when sailing astem, for instance in the case ahead 70 tons, astern 67 tons. New designs are being
of bow-to-bow operations, has the disadvantage that the developed.
stern is not designed as 'bow'. The sarne applies when a
tractor tug is operating as a stem tug on a line. As indicated above, there are similarities with the Z-tech
Bow and.stem of the RSD are about of equal height. This tug. Toe tug manoeuvres shown and mentioned for the
enables the tug to operate safely as a bow tug. It then Z-tech tug can be carried out in the sarne safe way by an
operates like a real tractor tug and also like a reverse RSDtug.
tractor tug, which is an ASD-tug operating over the bow.
Toe latter has the disadvantage of the low stern facing the
incoming water flow and incoming waves. 2.14 Carrousel tug
Toe basic principle of a carrousel tug is a radial system.
Bow and stem of equal height also enables the tug to New with the system as applied on the carrousel tug is
operate safely as stem tug on a line. As such, it will that it is not a half-circle, or less, but a ful1 circle and has
operate as a reverse tractor tug (ASD-tug operating over basically a diameter equal to the tug's beam.
the bow) with the skeg forward and as a real tractor tug.
This tug (ASD-tug operating over the bow or tractor The radial system itself is not new. It has been applied for
tug) has the diasadvantage of having the low stern in decades on several harbour tugs and in former times on
the direction of movement, so facing the incorning water tugs on the River Rhine. With a radial system, a tug's heel
flow and waves with the low stern. It could be said that due to a transverse towline force is limited. Performance
the RSD tug has two bows. and safety of severa! conventional tugs has thus been
increased significantly. Toe carrousel is initially situated
Toe tug has furthermore a twin fin, as has been discussed above the lateral centre of pressure for a crosswise water
with the azimuth tractor tug. It creates a highly flow. Toe advantages of the carrousel are:
manoeuvrable compact ship-handling tug with perfect
steering behaviour both sailing ahead and astem. The tug • The tug can safely cape with large towline forces
has also a very good sea-keeping behaviour. generated by the hydrodynamic forces working
.on the tug hull, while heeling angles are smaller
Tractor tugs are safe when operating near the bow of than without such a system. Capsizing dueto high
a ship at speed. This applies to the RSD-tug as well, athwart ships towline forces is not possible.
because when making fast at the bow it will sail thrusters • It enables the tug to tum freely, in no way

Source: Damen Shipyards Source: Damen Shipyards

Figure 2C.11: The RSD (Reverse Stern Drive) tug 2513. Figure 2C.12: Complete view of the RSD tug 2513.
Tug Use in Port47
restricted by the towline coming in contact with the
Multratug 12 Carrousel Tug
• ln adclition, it offers the possibility to use highly
efficient and robust conventional shaft propellers
and tum the whole hull including propulsion in line
with the towline force instead of turning only the

Toe fust aspect is related to speed. Toe higher the speed

the higher the forces that can safely be generated in the
towline and applied to the ship to be assistéd. Also,
high braking forces can be achieved because the system
enables a stem tug to operate safely broadside behind the

Toe second aspect is not related to speed. It greatly Figure 2C.13: Combi-tug Multratug 12 (LOA 28.Sm, beam 6.6m,
enlarges the capabilities of particularly conventional tugs BP 21 tons, retractable bow thruster 450hp).
and combi-tugs. It creates the possibility to tum the tug
freely with respect to the direction of the towline, for
instance enabling a stem tug to apply steering assistance
to starboard as well as to port at a ship having headway. 200
Toe lack of this capability is a large disadvantage of
conventional tugs. If necessary for some reason, the tug
can tum 180° with the towline attached. o
Advantages with respect to stability will be dealt with in
paragraph 4.2.3.
Development offirst carrousel tug Multratug 12
ln 2000 plans started to investigate the carrousel principle
on a real-size vessel. As test tug, an existing conventional r-1
combi-tug was selected for conversion. ln 2001 various .X
LJ -400
model test were performed. ai
ln 2002 Multratug 12 was converted into the first r..
carrousel tug by removing part of the accommodation,
by adding a large rectangular deck box as support for the .Ol -600
carrousel and additional buoyancy. �

Since 2002 the tug has been in operation and 1-
demonstrating the remarkable dynamic performance,
however, limited by the small installed engine power and -800
the tug age.
Figure 2C.14: Towing forces based on model tests with a model
Modeltests of the 21 tons BP tug shown in figure 2G.13.
As mentioned before, model tests have been carried out
with a model of the Dutch combi-tug Mttltratug 12 (see Full scale tests
figure 2C.13). Right below the carrousel two vertical Full scale tests have been carried out with the tug
skegs were fitted, representing full scale skegs with a Multratug 12 fitted with a carrousel and. with skegs as
length of 6m and a depth of 0.4m. Each skeg was located used for the model tests. Toe tests confirmed the working
ata quarter of the tug's width from the side. of the system as well as the forces measured during the
model tests. Even higher towline forces could be achieved
High towline forces were achieved, as shown in figure due to a more stable position of the.full scale tug. The
2C.14. Toe high steering forces are of particular interest photo (figure 2C.15, over page) shows the carrousel tug
Toe maximum forces are limited by the fact that with applying steering forces.
high towline forces either the tug's stern is submerged
slowly or the tuming moxnents on the tug could not be Aspects that require att:ention or further study
overcome by the tug's propulsioil. As the carrousel is now in a phase of further employment,
Toe first (showing the importance of a proper buoyancy, some aspects require attention, altho ugh a number of the
freeboard and hull shape) happened when the tug's bow aspects to be mentioned have already been addréssed in
had a small angle with til.e incoming water flow, while newer designs. Aspects requiring attention are:
the latter happened when the tug's heacling was more or • Toe lead of the towline for ali possible ships to
less perpendicular to the direction of the incoming water be assisted, assistmanoeuvres, conditions and
flow. circunistances, needs to be considered.

48 Tug Use in Port

• Safety of deck operations, including efficient and safe around the world. For this operating mode, tugs with
towlihe handling under ali working conditions and omni-directional propulsion systems and a towing
witluninimum crew, requires attention. point at the tug's end are most suitable. However, the
• The possibility to install an appropriate towing carrousel syste.m can improve the capabilities and safety
winch, strong enough to withstand the high towlihe of operations of harbour tugs to a large extent and
forces that can be generated, needs further study. A particularly of the conventional type of harbour tugs and
towing winch is· of particular importance when the of combi-tugs. As a forward or aft tug, among others,
carrousel tug will also be used for escort operations. high steering forces can safely be handled, while the tug
• The carrousel requires a constant tension in the is not restricted by the direction of the towline.
towlihe, because for most tug manoeuvres even a
small constant tension in the towline may create an Basically1 the carrousel tug design can most effectively
unwanted increase in ship's speed and a tuming be applied in situations where tug assistance is required
moment, which should be avoided. during a transit, such as in channels, fairways and port
approaches, more or less as an escort tug. However, if of
Carrousel tug designs, accurate model studies for the sufficient bollard pull, it cah be used during mooring/
optimum location of the çarrousel in relation to the unmooring opei"ations as well. The carrousel tug
locations of centre of pressure at different angles of Multratug 12 showed remarkable dynamic forces, but
inflow, focusing on such aspects as the overall behaviour was limited in bollard pull due to the small installed
and optimum performance of the carrousel tug when power. However, in a new carrousel tug the required
towing, while appropriate reserve buoyancy, freeboard power can be installed to achieve the requested bollard
and hull shape, and in particular safety of operations and pull. This can be done with either conventional highly
safe limits, should be studied as well. Further aspects efficient propeller shaft lines or with thrusters to enhance
to be considered are workable heel angles, safe abort manoeuvrability. For tug operations in coní:ined spaces
manoeuvres and performance in wave conditions. a short and wide-bodied twin propeller shaft tug can be
used or, if considefed necessary, with twin thrusters.
While high steering forces can be generated, attention is
also needed to determine whether high and controllable
braking forces can be delivered without giving the ship a 2.15 DOTtug
rate of tum if the latter is not wanted. The DOT (Dynamic Oval Towing)-tug is a conventional
tug with a movable towing point which is realised by a
Carrousel tug applications heavy rail around the superstructure along which the
Basically the carrousel tug makes effective use of the towing hook (or towing point) can travei. The system
hydrodynamic forces working on a tug hull, which allows the tug to tum in any direction with the towline
means that with increasing speed towline forces increase. fastened; consequently the tug can pull either over the
When speed decreases the effectiveness of the carrousel bow or over the stern without releasing the towline.
tug decreases. This is in contrast with the requirements Furthermore, the system prevents capsizing of the tug
for tug assistance in many ports. ln harbour operations wh_en the towline under high tension comes at right
tug assistance is generally needed at speeds below angles to the tug. Basically the DOT systein is the sarne
approximately six knots. Full tug power is. then often as the movable towing point system on a carrousel tug.
heeded for steering, braking and controlling a ship's As can be seen with Multratug 12the original carrousel
position. This means that for a carrousel tug, bollard pull system is located at a lower height a.bove the deck, which
is an important factor as well, results in smaller heeling angles.

The carrousel tug is not specifically designed for tug A small number of DOT tugs have been built, mainly
operations at the ship's side as applied in many ports smaller conventional tugs.

Figure 2C.15: Combi-tug Multratug 12 modified as carrousel tug during full Source: Macduff Ship Design, UK
scale triais Figure 2C.16: DOT tug Ugie Runner.
Tug Use in Port 49
Chapter 2

FAST tug types

2.16 lntroduction aft in the direct mode, which will be explained later in the
book, a similar effect may play a role.
This sectjon deals with tugs with Forward and Aft a
Single Thruster or a single Voith propulsion unit (so­
called FAST-tugs), of the following types: In both cases, and also when there is a failure with the
thruster at the end where the towline is not fastened, the
• SDM (Ship Docking Modules) / ATI (Asymmetric
other thruster is still available and can be used to try to
Tractor Tugs)( see paragraph 2.17). avoid an accident, although when operating as forward
• EDDY (Efficient Double-ended Dynamic) tugs (see tug on a line, the situation might become risky. If the
paragraph 2.1�). tug is equipped with a carrousel system, however, these
• CRT(Carrousel RAVE Tug)( see paragraph 2.19). aspects don't play a role.
• Giano tug ( see paragraph 2.20.)
Toe usefulness and benefits of such new designs have to
FAST-tugs differfrom all foregoing tug types, although, be proven during daily practice, not only regarding the
they could be compared to some extent with a combi­ design, but also with respect to training needs. After the
tug ot maybé even more with a Rotortug. With the sarne initial design, sometimes modifications take place - as
power fore and aft, the handling of these tugs differs has been the case with the SDMs andGiano tug. For both
totally from the usual tug types, as does ship handling tug types, modifications of the original skegs or number
with these tug types. Other ways of ship handling are of skegs were needed.
possible, but other i'isks are introduced when not being
fully trained in handling these tugs. Although the tugs that are already operational, such as
the SDMs, EDDYs and Giano tug, perform satisfactorily,
There are some important facts to keep in mind with some aspects require attention:
respect to this type of tug. This is because because at • In the first place, as mentioned above, the
each end of the tug is only maximum 50 per cent of the consequences should be well understood of the fact
total power available, wlüle tractor tugs and reverse that the large power a tractor tug/reverse tractor has
tractor tugs have at their forward end 100 per cent power at the forward end of the tug is much less with these
available. Where tugs are under influence of interaction FASTtugs.
effects, as can be the case near the bow of a ship at speed, • When free-sailing dose to a ship, it should be well­
the tractor tugs and reverse tractor tugs with their 100 known how to compensate for the interaction effects
per cent power at the forward part of the tug, can :much working on the tug, especially near the bow of a ship
better compensate for the suction forces and turning having speed. If the wrong thruster is used, it may
moments working on the tug by steering away from the introduce the same risks as when a conventional tug
ship's hull or by controlling the heading. is. trying to enlarge the distance between tug and
ship's hull.
If FAST tugs are designed as hybrids, the power can • Seaworthiness is another impôrtant point requiring
even be much less when sailing in economical mode attention.
with red.uced power, eg diesel-electric. This can become • Skeg-thruster interaction is always an item that
parti.culady problematic wheri operating dose to the bow
of a ship at speed, for instance when preparing to make requires attention.
a towline connection, due to the interaction effects. With • Location of thruster handles: thruster handles should
a tractor or reverse tractoi' tug redundancy will also be be positioned such that no mistakes can be made
larger, because when one thruster fails these tugs can between which handle is for the forward thruster and
often still operate to some extent. which one for aft.
• Quickly stopping a free-sailing tug or making a
There are, however, some other aspects. When towing on crash-stop: how this should be done in the :m:ost
a line at an angle at a ship having speed, the less power effective wày while not diverting from the track or
at the tug's end where the towline is NOT fastened heading- which can be necessary in busy shipping
has its effect on the operation. Toe tug will not be able areas - should be known for each particular tug
to veer away from the shlp as far as with a tractor tug type. One tug may set the CPP propellers on astem
or reverse tractor tug. Toe hydrodynamic force will with the loss of about 55 per cent propeller thrust
become too large and the tug may swing around, unless (which can be less with specific propeller designs),
other measures are taken to keep the tug operational, for or in the case of diesel-electric propulsion the fixed
instante by fast slacking of the towline. When operating pitch propeller revolutions may be reversed, also

50 Tug Use in Port

with a loss astem thrust, or another tug may tum the Seabulk Towing has three SDMs Mark I and one SOM
thrusters so creating on unstable tug, or a tug has Mark II. SDM Mark II is a follow-up of the original SDM
the sarne thrust ahead an astem without the need/ design with the sarne dimensions but somewhat higher
p9ssibility to·turn the propulsion units. bollard pull. The first SDM was the New River, delivered
• Fail safe. When a forwarâ tug is towing on a line to in1997, followed by St ]ohnsin 1998, Escambia in 1999
assist a ship having speed, will the tug be in danger and the SDM Mark II Suwannee Ríver in 2000. Towing
in case of a breakdown of one of the thrusters, in company Marine Towing of Tampa acquired two SDMs
particular when that thruster fails at the geatest Mark II in the years 2000-2002, named Florida and
distance from the towing point? How to handle such Endeavor. Tug Florida has been renamed as Mobile
cases should be known. When the towing point is Point and now belongs to Seabulk Towing, Florida.
changecl for this reason, as is the case on one tug type,
one should be careful not to introduce other risks. ln Main paiticulars
the past, the safe location of the towing point has been Toe main particulars of the SDM Mark I and Mark II are
the subject of an extensive study with Voith tugs as follows:
• To what extent the effect of the thrusters is reduced .M.fil:k.l Ms![k li
when for instance (sideways) pushing ata ship with
speed ar with no speed. The thrusters are then rather Length overall 27,4m 27,4m
dose to the vertical ship's hull.
• Tug handling is not just handling a free-sailing tug, Maximum beam 15,2m 15,2m
but knowing how to use the tug in the most safe and Draft 4,90m 5,0 m
effective way to handle ali kind of vessels in a safe Engine power 4.000 hp 4200 hp
and efficient manner, including the risks involved.
• Bollard pull SStons 60 tons
Proper training, because handling of these tugs
differs considerable from other tug types such as The main differences of the SDM design compared to
ASO or Voith tugs. other harbour tugs are as follows:
• Not only tug masters have to be trained but pilots • Shallow flat bottom and an elliptical form.
should also learn the capabilities and possible
limitations of the new tug types. • Very wide beam compared to the more or less
• normal length of a harbour tu:g.
Performce in the indirect mode of the FAST tugs
could be compared with performance of, for instance, • Two aziinuth thrusters and two skegs in the
Rotortugs to get an idea of the escort capabilities. following configuration:
• Capabilities of the EOOY,Giano tug and SDM could - One azimuth thruster is located at approximately
be increased by the use of a cmousel system as with a quarter of the tug's length from forward and at
the Carrousel RAVE Tug. some distance to starboard from the tug's centre
Up until now only a few tugs have been built of these - and the other furuster is located at approximately
FAST type tugs. Toe various types are addressed below. a quarter of the tug's length from aft and at some
distance to port of the tug's centre line.
2.17 SDM (Ship Docking Modules) - ln the centre line at each end of the tug one skeg
is placed, in total two skegs.
2.17.1 Design
This type of harbour tug has been developed by Hvide The original idea of the SDM was to have a highly
Marine (USA), now Seabulk Towing in Tampa (USA), manoeuvrable harbour tug complying with the following
and Elliot Bay Design Group. requirements typical for harbour towage:

Figure 20.1: Forward view SOM Figure 2D.2: Side profile SDM

Tug Use in Port 51

modulating dutches between each engine and thruster
are of heavy duty type, allowing for precise propeller
speed, even down to zero, irrespective of engine speed.
1his is of greatbenefitfor manoeuvring but also when
operating the FiFil system. The tugs with MTU engines
have also Twin Disc clutches but Schottel propeller.

Towing winch
The towing winch installed on the Spanish tugs has
a maximum brake holding capacity of 135 tons and a
quick release towing hook of 50 tons SWL is also fitted
for secondary use. The towing winch is placed beneath
the bridge deck, but can be observed by the tug master
Photo: Seabulk Towing & Seacor lsland Unes through a window in the deck. The towline, 150m
Figure 2D3: Large working deck aft of SDM Escambia with Dyneema with a 50m long pendant of conventional fibre,
winch and two fairleads. See also the 'soft loop' fenders made of can be deployed through fairleads, one amidships and
recycled tyres. one right aft. The whole tug concept is based on having a
towing tu:g capable to prodtice a high and equal bollard
• Maximum bollard pull in ali directions. pull in any direction.
• Getting in position quickly.
• High side-stepping performance. Safety aspects
• The possibility to work under the flare of large ships. • High stability.
• Ability to work in co:rifined areas and in semi- • Large working deck aft increases safety of tug crew
sheltered waters. during operations.
• As indicate above, the deckhouse construction is
SDMs perform indeed well in co:rifined areas as tight. slips well within the bulwarks, which enables the tug to
and dry-docks. operate under the fl.are and/ or overhanging stern of
ships. Also the distance of the superstructure to the
ln 2004 Remolques y Servidos Maritimos S.L. (Reyser), towing point avoids the possibility of collision with
now P&O Reyser, ofBarcelona, Spain, was licensed to the vessel be towed.
construct five SDMs to be built in Spain. ln Spain these
tug types were also named ATT, Asymmetric Tractor 2.17.2 Manning
Tugs. Toe five Spanish tugs. are of two classes - see tablé
at foot of page. The crew accommodation on the USA SDJY.fs, and in
particular on the Mark I, is minimal. They were initially
All the five units have the sarne dimensions as the SDMs built as two-man day boats, but that has never been the
Mark II. case. So, theoretically; two men can operate the tugs,
although on the Sparüsh SDMs there is requirement from
The Spariish version is almost identical to the USA Mk Flag Authorities of a crew of three persons in port and six
l persons outside.
I design with almost identical dimensions, but have a
larger bollard pull and larger crew acconunodation. The
tugs built in 2005 have Caterpillar 3516B main engines 2.17.3 Manoeuvring performance
and the tugs built in 2008 have MTU main ehgines . The Free sailing speed is approximately 12.5 knots and a side­
Caterpillar engines produce 2 x 2,536 bhp at 1,600 rpm, stepping speed of 6.5 knots can be achieved.
giving a bollard peak pull of 74.5 tons (65 ton.s average). Due to the wide beam, stability of the tugs is large and
Power from each engine is transmitted to Rolls-Royce consequeiltly the tugs can operate safely.
US 205 FP propellers in fully steerable propulsion units The sides of the tugs are flared in order to provide also
via Twin Disc slipping clutch units. To.e Twin Disc speed larger righting moments when heelihg and to prevent

Class Name Zamakona YearBuilt Operating Port Main Engines

1 Salvador Dalí 611 2005 Barcelona 2 x CAT 3516-1,840
1 Ramón Casas 612 2005 Barcelona kW@ 1,600 rpm. BP
75 tons.
li Eliseo Vázquez 651 2008 Ferro! 2xMTU
li Clara G 652 2008 Santander 2,000 kW@ 1800
li WillyT 653 2008 Barcelona rpm.
BP 78 tons.

52 Tug Use in Port

Photo: Rafei Cabal Alvarez, Barcelona pilot Photo: Rafei Cabal Alvarez, Barcelona pilot

Figure 2D.4: SDM pushing at ship's side. Figure 2D.5: SDM as forward tug with towline through
after fairlead.
contact between the tug's underwater part and the ship's
A tank test carried out by MARIN in the Netherlands in
Toe two skegs improve course stability and aid in 2008 showed that the ATis are also capable of working
dry-docking. There is a hole in the skegs to reduce the outside the port in wave conditions and are able to carry
difference in pressure between both sides of the skegs out escort duties. Simulation studies were also carried
caused by the accelerated water flow into the forward out by Siport XXI in Madrid in 2010 to demonstrate the
nozzle and exiting from the aft nozile. Without these escort capabilities.
holes the tug captains had to correct the tug's track by
steering the aft thruster 5-10 ° to starboard. For some specific ship assist manoeuvres, see paragraph
Loss of effectiveness will be the case when one, or both
thrusters, is operating dose to the ship's hull, which will 2.17 .4 Some disadvantages of the present design
often be the case in the USA, where the tugs generally As with all the tugs, also the SDM/ATI has some
operate in such a way. This loss of effectiveness may play disadvantages, although it should be kept in mind that
a role when the tug is pushing due to the obstructed water the tug was designed as a pure harbour tug. Some
flow towards the propellers and in particularwhen pulling disadvantages are:
a:t dose distance to the ship's hull (see figure2D.4). View from the wheelhouse
Although the ATis have an excellent view from the
The original SDMs are mainly harbour tugs, which is wheelhouse, a negative point is that the large funnels
included in the name, and operate successfully inside the limit the all-round view of the tug master and especially
ports of which prevailing conditions and circumstances in a more or less athwartships direction, which can create
will have played a role in the design. problems when coming alongside a ship or berth.

Photo: Seabulk Towing &

Seacor I sland Unes
Figure 2D.6: SDM at dry
dock. The two thrusters,
skeg and hole in the skeg
can be clearly seen.
Tug Use in Port 53
Photo: Simulation Centre
Sipórt21, Madrid
Figure 2D.7: Simulation
of ATT's escort
This is a problem often seen in other tug designs as well.
ln the new ATI version Reyser is preparing for2020 ,
project ATI2020 , this problem will be solved.
Water on deck
One of the other disadvantages of the current design is
the amount of overcoming water when sailing in waves,
as the height at the bow is low, around 3m above the
waterline. On the other hand, the superstructure protects
the aft deck very well, keeping it completely dry. This
disadvarttage will also be solved in the ATT2020 version.

2.17.5 New ATT design

Toe Spanish owner, P&O Reyser, designs new ATTs
without the present drawbacks which should become
operational in2020 . Toe new ATI version is called
ATT2020. Toe tugs will have following modifications: Figure 20.9: ATT 2020.
• Foredeck will be made higher to improve the
capability to opetate cmtside the port. 2.17.6 Ship assist manoeuvres
• An additional deck below the bridge so increasing As explained before, the SDM/ATT has such dimensions
height and visibility. and thruster-skeg confi.guration because of the specific
• Stronger fenders of cylindrical shape ali around the requirements of harbours with narrow and confined
waterline. spaces, which is the case for.example in Barcelona, where
• New low emission engines. the ATT has been proven a good design. The pictures
over the page show some specific assist manoeuvres with
• Oil recovery equipment. an SDM and ATI.
• Improved accomínodation with individual bathroom
in éach cabin. Because of the high side forces that can be applied, the
tugs are very suitable to work in narrow areas, although
,-,-----,----,--,=--��---=,----,-----,� =- ---=�""�""-=��- when operating at thé ship's side the large beam can be a
, disadvantage when passing bridges, in locks and dry­
docks, where the available width is mostly at a mirúmum.
Toe tug could then tow oli. a line, using either the centre
staple or aft staple. The latter enables the tug to apply
sideways forces to the ship within a smaller width, or
working with a double towline as shown in figure2D.10.

More general assisting methods with SI)Ms

ln the USA the tugs are usually operating at the ship's
side (see figure2D.11a; B,C,D) while in Spain tugs are
usuallymade fast bythe certtreJead forward and aft (see
figure2D.lla; A), although qther assisting methods are
used aswell (seefigure2D.llb).
Photo: Oscar Martinez Lezcano
Figures2D.12 and2D.13 show various common metho.ds
Figure 2D.8: Water on foreship of Clara Gsailing in wâvés which can be applied by ATis. Toe direct towing mode
54 Tug Use in Port
is the usually method in Spain. Toe figures also show the be utilised morefrequently it would then be recommendable
tówing points used and the thruster settings. to investigate if the aft towing point could not be placed above
the aft thruster. Much higher towing line forces could then be
Note: ln figure 2D.13-A the aft towing point is used. The achieved in the indirect towing mode.
towline force creates with the hydrodynamic force working on ln figure 2D.12, positions B and C, the aft towing point is also
the tug a large turning moment. This limits the aft thruster used. Using the midships towing point could probably create
in applying force in the towline, because it would then create higher towline forces at a ship having speed, due to the effect of
an extra turning moment. If the indirect towing mode would the hydrodynamic forces working on the tug.

Direct method to control Ship course

by means of SOM tug

Photo: Oscar Martinez Lezcano (P&O Reyser Santander)

Figure 20.1O: ATT working in narrow space with double towline.

Assist modes SDMs

Figure 20.12: ATT made fast forward centre lead.

e= D

Figure 20.11 a: Basic assisting modes in Spain (A) and

the USA (B, e, D).

Pr Propeller thrust H Hyd rodyna mie forc�f

Hs Sldeways component of hydrodynamlc forces

Figure 20.13: A: indirect towing mode

Figure 2D.11b: Various SDM/ATT tug positions as used in Spain. B: direct towing mode.
Tug Use in Port55
Polar Diagram of the SOM
119.000 lbs.
109.000 Lbs.

119;QOO Lbs. 109.000 Lbs.

�.:[.t--__ __::,,,.'......J

:--13,88 Kgs./Hp-�12,88 i<gs./ Hp

Figure 2D.14: Diagram showing pushing Photo: Rafei Cabal Alvatez, Barcelona pilo!
e�ectiveness. Nett pushing torce (bollard pull) Figure 2D.15: SDM forward and aft handling an LNG carrier.
1s about 90 per cent of maximum pushing
force due to the not optimal flow of the water
towards the thrusters.

2.18 EDDY similar size and bollard pull and executing the sarne
m�oeuvres at the sarne location, are proven). Two­
2.18.1 Design thirds of the fuel savings is attributable to-the hull
Typi�al for_ ali _EDDY (Effident Double--ended Dynamic) shape �d the lower displacement, while the hybrid
tugs 1s the m-line thruster arrangement; with one thruster propuls1on system counts for the other one-third of
at a0 end on the centreline of the tug, and the towing the savings.
pomt m between the thrusters. The designer daims this • Low noise levels, mainly because the two thrusters
layou� offer� superior effectiveness and competitiveness
have no interference, but also due to the hybrid
for ship-ass1st and escort tugs in the range of22-40m.
The current EDDY tug portfolio ranges from 24-37m propulsion system.
and 45-100 tons bollard pull. • Low wake: the absence of stern waves for speeds up
to 10 knots for the 30mversion (and up to 8 knots
Other important characteristics:. for the 24m version), allows the tug to maintain a
• The standard propulsion system is a diesel-electric/ high mobilisation speed, resulting in fast ship assist
round�trips and lower fuel consumption.
diesel direct hybrid propulsion system, with batteries
as opti.cin. • High static and dynamic stability, high freeboard,
• The 30m EDDY, for instance, when sailing in the well protected and in the centre line located thtusters
(avoidingsteel-steel contact with the assisted vessel)
hybrid transit mode uses one 500kW generator for
speeds up to 9 knots and two for speeds of up to 11 and easy tug handling. A subdivision of the hull
in five compartments which are dosed during
�ots. For higher transit speeds of up to 13.4 knots operations (certified unmanned engine room) and
JUSt one main diesel engine can be used. Both main
double outside doors for the accommodation makes
engines will only be required during ship-assist
operations or for maximi.un towline pull. it virtually unsinkable.
• Very low fuel consumption (overall reductions from • From a builder's viewpoint, EDDY mgs are
developed for simple constructi.on and require
30 per cent up to 50 per cent compared to mgs of


Photo: Hans. Hoffmann, Rotterdam pilot

Figure 2D.16: The EDDY tug 30-65. Figure 2D.17: lhe EDDY 1 (EDDY 30-65).

56Tug Use in Port

Figure 2D.18: Hybrid propulsion EDDY 24-75 - diesel direct/
diesel-electric (yellow: main engines: blue: electro motors; silver: Photo: lskes Towage and Salvage
generators - two main generators for electric sailing and one is
the harbour generator). Figure 20.20: Tug Telstal'(EDDY 24-75) operating in the
IJmuiden locks with two towlines. Notice the towing pins, The
�, two towline gives a faster and better contrai capability than ]ust
"-'-- one centre fine.
., �-
2.18.3 Manoeuvring
Specifi.c EDDY ship-assist and escott performance
features are:
• High towline forces (dose to maximum BP) are
available over 270º .
• High side-stepping speed of 7 knots and e�se (and
safety) ofside-stepping.
• High manoeuvrability in a1l directions.
• High steering-forces in the inclirect mode, partly due
to the concept and hull shape but also due to the high

.."" stability of the relatively wide hull (above water) and
the location of the thrusters.
• ·EDDY1 has aSafeWinch,which will be dealt with
Figure 2D.19: All-electric EDDY with podded drives. in Chapter 7, while Telstar has a standard winch
• The tug Telstar (EDDY type) has two separately
significantly less steel and only a minimum of
equipment. Construction of these tugs is thus not
only economical but also fast.
• The intrinsic simplicity of the concept and forward
thinking during the development phase make
EDDY tugs fit for the installation of LNG or CNG
tanks, exhaust-gas after-treatment systems, all­
electric propulsion systems (inclucling high-power
podded drives and rim-driven thrusters) and further
automation of propulsion control systems, such as a
single�joystick control system .

2.18.2 Steering and thruster control

Standard bridge equipment is two separate thruster
controls. Joystick, or master-pilot system, is an option.
Stopping the tug when having speed ahead can be
done by turning the thrusters, or faster by reversing
revolutions of the electromotor and consequently
propeller revolution. Turning the thrusters at full speed Photo: Henk Hensen
creates some temporary course instability in tug's Figure 20.21: Tug Telstar(LOA 25.45m, beam 12.20m, BP 75
behaviour. tons}, effectively pulling the ship alongside in the locks.
Tug Use in Port 57
driven winch drums, allowing the tug master to use
two towlines if needed. See figure2D.20.
• As an option the tug may be equipped with towing
pins. See figures 2D.20 and 2D.21.
• An aft winch is an option.

2.18.4 Ship handling

EDDY tugs opera te very well in confined spaces. As
indicated above, due to their characteristically forward­
aft in-line thruster arrangement, EDDY tugs are capable
of generating towline tension continuously, and in any
direction. When operating inlocks, the tug can move
very dose to the vessel, the tug master being completely
free in selecting the best angle of attack for each situation
including remairung parallel to the lock's side, as can �--
be seen in the various pictures below. Depending on
the required towing force, these tugs can thus keep
the assisted vessel under control at ali times. These
manoeuvres can be executed either with a single towline,
as well as in a twin-tow line configuration. The required
space for EDDY tugs is thus lower compared to ASO or
tractor configurations of the sarne size particularly with
th.e twin-towline concept, because the EDDY can operate
within the breadth of the assisted ship. See figures 2D.20

Photo: Henk Hensen

Figure 2D.22: The EDDY tug Te/starhas an additional towing
point right above the aft thrusters, increasing tug capabilities.

Also, propeller wash can be directed such that it reduces

interference ·with the assisted vessel's underwater
body, resulting in. a more effective pulling power and
consequentlybetter control over the vessel.

Towline tension can be continuous, also during Figures 2D.23a, b, e and d: Various pictures showing the
repositioning of the tug , which enhances the safety of capabilites of the EDDY tug in confined spaces, such as a lock.
operations. As,well as criticai operations in locks, this is
also a valuable feature for narrow river operations and
for small, congested, pdrl basins.

Various manoeuvres in confined spaces are shown in the

pictures of figure2O.23a-d.

58 Tug Use in Port

2.19 Carrousel RAVEtug (CRT) bollard pull at 10 knots is at least 150 tons steering force
and 170 tons braking force.
2.19.1 Design
The Carrousel.,.RAVE tug (CRT) coriceptis a novel The CRT ];las a separate powe;rpack for the split drum
development in the tug industry. Toe design is a joint winch, which is diesel-hydraulic. Two small diesel
co-operation of Robert Allan Ltd, Voith and the Dutch engines drive the hydraulic pump. Toe unit has its own
companies Novatug and :tv.lultré!,shlp, The prototype diesel oil tank and hydraulic oil tank. It is not a render­
design is for a 70-ton static bollard pull tug with a recovery winch.-Hauling in is possible with towline
carrousel system and two Voith propulsion systems. forces of less than25 tons. If towline forces are higher and
Two CRTs have been built for Multrashlp Towage and the towline should be hauled in, the tug can reduce the
Salvage: Multratug 32 and Multratug 33. Both started towline force by changing heading and then the towline
operations in the fitst half of 2018. can be hauled in. Toe winch control is such that before
the brake is engaged again, it automatically regulates
The Carrousel RAVE tug is a RAVE (Robert Ali� Ltd that three windings are on the drum and it is put in the
Voith Escort) type tug eqüipped with a carrousel system. correct position. An advantage of this system is that the
The tug has two Voith Sclmeider propulsion units, one winch can be made light and compact. Furthermore, if
aft and one forward, both situated in the centre line of the brake is engaged the two diesel engines of the power
the tug. The carrousel system is situated oil the main pack are stopped.
deck in between the two propulsion units. The towing
winch of the carrousel system can tum around ih.e tug's
2.19.2 Safety
The carrousel poses risks for the crew on deck if not
proper handled orif safety measures ru:e not taken into
The tug's length is 31.9m, width 132m, installed power 2
account. A number of precautions have been taken:
x 2,650kW. It has a static bollard pull of 70 tons; dynamic
The crew is allowed to go on deck only if the towline is
between the pins (see figure 20.26). When not in use the
carrousel is locked by the towline which passes through
the p:ins and is fastened to a pólder. In this way also a
heaving line can be made fast in a safe way. When the
heaving line is fastened to the messenger line, the towline
has to be slacked but then it temains between the pins
and thus not create any danger for the crew.

Furthermore, if someone opens the door to go on deck

or to the bridge - see for instance.port side door in figure
2D.2.6-while the winch is working, a loud alarm will
star.t warn:ing the person in question. The tug master can
see on a camera monitor if somebody is indeed standing
at the door. While the winch is working there is no need
to pass through the door, because the inner stairways can
Courtesy: Novatug, the Netherfands
be used to go to the bridge.
Figure 2D.24: Carrousel RAVE tug with two Voith propulsion
systems in the centre line of the tug; towing point can move As an additional safety measure the carrousel will be
around the superstructure; on bow and stern are towing pins. eqüipped with anhydraulic brake.

Photo: Maritimephoto.com Photo: Ron van Maanen

Figure 20.25: CRT Mu/tratug 32 when almost ready, showing Figure 2D.26: View of the forward deck of Multratug 32with
towing pins, winch and winch power pack. split d rum winch and railihg fixed on the carrousel.

Tug Use in Port 59

2.19.3 Ship handling and performance
During securing and releasing of the towline, the lead of
the towline is through the two hydraulic activated towing
pins on the bow, against the bulwark. This enables the
crew to work on deck in a safe way. If needed, the two
towing pins can also be used f or ship assistance by taking
the towline through these very strong pins.
There are also two hydraulic towing pins in the baj.wark
on the aft deck. This arrangement gives the possibility to
operate the tug in three different ways: by the carrousel
with the towing line in any required direction for
maximmn dynamic forces, by the towing pins af the bow
and by the towing pins at the stern.

Steerin Force ton -·,f,- Photo: Hans Neels

0 1 l) 1 1 1 O 1 (1 1 13\J 1,0 110 1
•- j10
' Figure 20.29: CRT Mu/tratug 32 in action as stern tug.
: ,.
J �� high, it can quickly be reduced. Training of tug masters
1 !O
should focus, among other things, on this aspect.

AB scrid, the Voith propulsion units are in line. However,

the thrust is a little out of line. Both are turned 5-10°
,., degrees ·out of the centre line in arder to ensure, among
' . 1U) other things, that the forward thrust flow is not directed
-- 1 13'
in the aft Voith Schneider unit - which would cause a
,., reduction in bollard pull due to the higher speed of the
''° CD
1 1SI ii1 water inflow into the thruster.
2.20 Giano tug
2.20.1 Design
Giano: where does that name come from? Giano is the
Figure 20.27: Performance diagram of CRT as stern tug. oldest god of Roman-Italian pantheon, knowil since the
Diagram baseá on model tests performed at SVA. 8th century BCE, and associated with travelling, trading
Note: Not all test have been performed with fuUpower (reserve and shipping, among other things. He has a double
power available) nature; symbolised in his two faces - seeing into the past
with one face and into the future with the other.
Please note the performance diagram of figure 2D.27,
above. AB mentioned in the diagram caption, many of The Giano tug is a new design and has, like the EDDY,
the tests have not been carried óut with fu.11 power. This one thhlster forward and one aft, both situated in the
means there.is reserve power availàble to quickly change tug's centre line. The tug has a high side-stepping
the heading of the tug, which will immediately result in performance and has escort capabilities. It has two escort
a reduction of the towline force, This is crucial because winches; one forward and one aft, and consequently a
if at certain moment the towline force would become too towing point forward as well as aft , dose to the tug' s
bow and stem.

., Originally, the tug had three large keels. After triais,

the central keel was removed. The Giano tug, built in
China, was being furi:her tested in Italy in spring 2016
and started her service in Naples for Rimorchiatori
Napoletani in November 2016. In 2017 oneGiano tug
1 was operational. Orders have been received for hew

Main characteristics of the Giano tug are as follows:

' length 25.75m; breadth 13.02m, engine power 4,562hp,
BP 55 tons in all directio:hs, and side-stepping speed 7
Courtesy Novatug knots; Toe tug has controllable pitch propellers and has
Figure 20.28: Artist's impression of Carrousel RAVE Tug a LR escort notation. There is also a concept with a larger
operating as bow tug. propeller, 6,940hp and 75 tons bollard pull. The tug has a

60Tug Use in Port

Photo: Captaln Ugo Savona,Glano tug
Figure 20.30: Giano tug with high positioned winches and Figure 20.31: Giano tug.

full somewhat raised bow and a fl.at stem and can easily
run astem. The tug has two hydraulic rescott winches
with a maximum pull of 75 tons and 190 tons brake
holding power, and towlines made of Dyneema. The tug
has a double hull and is very wide. Ratio L/B is about 2.

It has two separate engine rooms and a separate

generator roam. Winches are situated high on deck and
so do the fairleads, which could result in large heeling
moments in dynamic situations in case of peak loads
in the towing line. It is claimed not to be a problem
because of the high stability. The stability exceeds the
IMO requirements (International Code on Intact Stability)
coming into force in 2020. This code requires, among
other things, that tugs engaged in escort operations with
the maximum heeling lever in an equilibrium situation,
the heeling angle should be 15° or less. This value in
the static situation is 8º for the Giano tug as has been
determined during full scale trials; Photo: Captain Ugo Savona,Giano tug
Figure 20.32: Giano tug pushing sideways.
A reason for such high fairleads is to have the towing line
running horizontally from the winch through the staple
without first running down from the winch and then
upwards to the ship. However, during ship assistance
the towline will often have an angle in the fairlead, either
horizontally or vertically at high sided ships, or both.

2.20.2 Manoeuvring
The two skegs form a kind of tunnel. These skegs have
underwater fendering, which enables the tug to push full
power sideways at a ship stopped in the water, without
getting a list (see figure 2D.31). When sideways pushing
at a ship having speed, a part of the power is needed to
move the tug forward with the ship, reducing the direct
Photo: Captaln Ugo Savona,Giano tug
pushing force, unless ship's speed is very low and/ or
Figure 20.33: Giano tug in the indirect operating mode.
friction between tug fendering and ship's hull is such that
the tug can be more or less pulled through the water by
the ship. However, when pushing sideways flat against pushing at an angle to the ship, these hydrodynamic
the the hull of a ship having speed no use can be made forces can create high pushing forces depending on tug's
of the hydrodynamic forces working on the tug. When pushing angle and ship's speed.
Tug Use in Port 61
There is another aspect to take into account. As with, -r��-
- . !' --�

for instance, the SDMs, there may also be some loss of

pushing effectiveness when pushing sideways due to the
not optimal flow of the water towards the thrusters

Furthermore, during normal ship handling usually

altematively pushing and pulling is needed. Then a
towline is needed and pushing can be dane by tug's bow
or stern, instead of sideways.

Escort capabilities of the tug will be large. High steering

forces can be generated due to the fact the forward
towing point is situated only at a small horizontal
distance away from the forward thruster.

In the situation as shown in figure 2D.33 the centre

of hydrodynamical pressure will be situated forward Photo: Captain Ugo Savona,Giano tug
creating forces in the towline which increase with ship's Figure 2D.34:Giano tug preparing to pass the towline at the bow
speed. The forward thruster can create additional forces of a ship having speed.
in the towline. The aft thruster is needed to keep the tug
in position with the most effective heading. Escorting near the bow of a ship having speed. 1t can compensate
over the stem might create higher forces because the for the.interaction forces, such as suction forces and
aft towing point lies more directly above the thruster. turning moments working on the tug, when taking into
Provided the tug is handled well, it can operate safely accountwhat has been said in paragraph 2.16.

62 Tug Use in Port

Chapter 2

Specific Tugs. Research. Performance.

2.21 Tugs handling LNG carriers. LNG pulled away? Much depends on the source of the gas flow, If
staying in the dangerous area, how to save the crew if engines
terminal tugs are stoppe<J with rigsavers? Clear instructions are absolutely
Depending on the location and the service to be needed for such dangerous situations.
provided, ship handling tugs at LNG terminals should
comply with certain requirernents, apart from the Additional or other requireinents may apply, such as
requirements for proper dynamic stability, behaviour in for the new 80 and 85-ton ASD-tugs being operated by
sea conditions that are endttrable for the crew, op_timum Svitzer Australia on the Gorgon project - the Svitzer
fendering, ali around visibility from the manóeuvring Euro, Svitzer Boodie, Svitzer Dugong, Svitzer Perentie;
stations, etc. These requirements could also include: and, at the Wheatstone project, SvitzerKadala, Svitzer
Mulga, Svitzer Dugite and Svitzer Gwardar. These tugs
• Seaworthy and be able to operate in wave conditions
have been designed and equipped as follows:
appropriate to the client/terminal specific • Double hulls.
requitements for intended ships visiting.
• Sufficient bollard pull to handle in the prevailing • LNG alarms, remote closing fire flaps and
environmental conditions of wind and waves the pressurised accommodati.on.
largest floating object that can be expected at the • Dynamic escortwinch with the capability to release
terminal. the line unde:t full towing conditions, ininimising
• A powerful escort towing winch with quick response slack rópe events and shock loads even in extreme
render-recovery capa.bility. weather.
• Escort capabilities. • Side pocket ladder systems and wide opening
bulwark doors on both sides to assist in MOB
Furthermore the following might be required: recovery.
• Gas detection alarm systems in thewheelhouse. • Capability for pilot transfer through a specially
designed pilot-boarding platform.
• Gas sensors with sensors around the deckhouse, at
engine room intakes and accommodation ventilation. These tugs will also have the following eco-friendly
• Explosion-proof motors for air intake fans on main
• Diesel-electric propulsion
deck and deckhouse.
• Main engines equipped with 'rigsaver' - a safety stop • ·Non-hydraulic deck equipmertt to ehsure no oil or
system if gas is sucked in. liquid spillage (the equipment will be electric).
• Surfaces finished in a low-sheen silicon paint to
• Spark arresters in exhaust systems.
reduce water reflection.
• Remotely operated ventilation dampers.
• Low-spilling sodium deck lights to reduce water
• Fire-Fighting 1, or above, with water-spray. penetration and disturbance during night operations;
• Fenderingwith water lubrication for pushing also turtle friendly,
operations and with such characteristics that a very • Double-walled fuel tanks to prevent leakage.
low contact pressure can be realised of, for instance, • Solar panels for water heating.
not more than 14t/m2•
• Water recycling plant from the ACsystems to be re­
• Anti-spark fendering.
used for deck washdowns.
• All essential electrical equipment on deck of a
• Battery packs for electric driving- used for about 20
certified safety standard, suitable for use in the
minutes at a time to get in or out ofthe tug pellS (a
specific LNG zone.
pen is a tug betth, well protected and sheltered, often
• Intrinsically safe externai electrical points. constructed of floating pontoons).
• Anti-static synthetic towlines. • Wind turbine for loading batteries when at tug berth.
• Additional FiFi requirements
Shell's Prelude is a very special subject as mentioned
Note: earlier in the Rotortugs section; it is one of the first FLNG
Clear instructions are neededfor the tug master and his crewfor (floating liquefied natural gas) projects. The 488Il). (!) long
how to handle events in case a dangerous sifuation is developing floating wüt is to be stationed230km off the Australian
with gas, due to a leakage or explosion,for e�ample. Shóuld coast ih 240m of water for 25 years and will operate
the tug release the towline and saíl to a safe area, with all the continuously, in terms of gas processing and the loading
posSible consequences? Or should the vessel being handled be of LNG, LPG and condensate tankers.
Tug Use in Port 63
KT Marine Services Australia supplies three 42m, 100 FiFi
tons bollard pull ISVs (Infield Support Vessels) for the The possible need for FiFi (Fire-Fighting) classification
Prelude. These vessels are Rotortugs equipped with has been mentioned already. FiFi classes as given by
SafeWinches, type ART 100-42, and named RT Beagle DNV GL are shown in Table 2E.1, below.
Bay,RT Roebuck Bay and RTKuru Bay.
Hazardous areas classification
Other tasks include escorting and berthing LNG Other requfrements may apply to tugs handling LNG
carriers, condensate tanker tow-backs, pilot transfer, carriers or operating in hazardous areas. Hazardous area
floating hose handling, as well as an integral part in are classified into zones based on an assessment of the
security, emergenc:y response, rescue and evacuation frequency of the occurrence and duration of an explosive
requirements. gas atinosphere, as follows:
• Zone O: An area in which an explosive gas
For terminal tugs, such as the above mentioned tugs atinosphere is present continuously or for long
operating in ar near LNG terminais, other specific design perfods. Unofficially: explosive atinosphere for more
requirements exist with respect to operations in open than lOOOh/yr.
waters. These tugs usually operate over the bow and • Zone 1: An area in which an explosive gas
often proceed with the stem into the waves. Therefore
the aft deck ofsuch tugs sho:uld have a lot of shear and atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operations.
Unof:ficially: explosive atmosphere for more than 10,
smooth upgoing lines in the underwater hull form aft
which should create the tendency when proceeding but less than l,000h/yr.
astem the tug's stem to climb out of the water. It should • Zone 2: An area in which an explosive gas
be said this requirement does not apply to terminal tugs atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation
alone, but also to all ASO tugs operating bow-to-bow at a and, if it occurs, will only exist for a short time.
ship having speed. Unofficially: explosive atmosphere for less than 10,
but still suf:ficiently likely as to requite controls over
Note 10: ignition sources.
Winch considerations.
In open sea exposed conditions, the relative motions between Sources of ignition should be effectively co:ntrolled :in all
tugs and vessel are relatively large and vary strongly due hazardous areas by a combination of design measures,
to wave spectra and hull rejlections. M.any operations are and systems of work, such as:
performed at a sigrtificant angle to wind and waves adding • Using electric: equipment and instrumeittation
alsó heeling effects. The situation is further complicated by classified for the zone in which it is located.
(very) short towlines with large vertical angles. Finally, many • Earthing all plant/equipment.
towlines consist of high strength Dyneemafibres without the • Prohibition ofsmoking/use of matches/lighters.
use of a stretcher. The total combination requires a robust
render-recovery winch with very high response speed to • Control of maintenance activities that may cause
instantly release the towline at overload and instantly retrieve sparks/hot surfaces/naked flames through a Permit
the Iine a slack line, and well trained winch drivers to.support to Work system.
the Master. • Etc.

Water Monitor System Capacities

Class notation Fire Fighter (1) Fire Fighter (11) Fire Fighter (Ili)
and (li+)
Number of monitors 2 2 3 4 3 4
Capacity of each monitor (m /h)
3 1200 3600 2400 1800 3200 2400
Number of pumps 1-2 24
"' 2-4
Total pump capacity (m /h}
3 2400 7200 9600
Length of throw (m) ) 1 120 180 150 180 150
Height of throw (m) l 2
50 110 80 110 90
Fuel oil capacity in hours l
3 24 ,
96 110 90
1) For class notation qualifier 1, measured horizontally from the monitor outlet to the mean impact area.
For I+, 11 and 111, measured horizontally from the mean impact area to the nearest part of the vessel
when all monitors are in satisfactory operation simultaneously.
2) Me.asured vertically from sea level to mean irnpact area at a horizontal distance of at least 70 m from
the nearest part of the vessel.
3) Capacity for continuous operation of ali monitors, to be included in the total capacity of the vessel's
tuel oil tanks.
Table 2E.1.

64 Tug Use in Port

--·.r�- - .

Photo: Michael Cassar, Malta

Figure 2E.1: Smoky

harbour tug -ASD-tug,
LOA 29.95m, breadth

2.22 Eco- tugs fuel consumption and/or air pollutio� Ho:w this is
achieved will be discussed below.
Tugs that have been designed in such a way that they can
operate effectively in an environmentally friendly way by
Two basic systems will be addressed:
reduced consumption of fossil fuel and/or reduction of
air pollution are referred to here as Eco-tugs. A. The system of reducing fuel consumption by hybrid
technique, which means the tug uses two or more distinct
Many actions have been undertaken in recent years to types of power.
significantly reduce air emissions from ships. These air B. The system of using fuel that causes less air pollution.
emissions include carbon dioxide (C02), sulphur oxides
(S0�), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter A - System of reducing fuel consumption by
(PM)1• Most of these actions (for Preventing of Air
Pollution from Ships) have been taken through .Annex
hybrid technique
VI of MARPOL, an intemational instrument developed
Toe various propulsion systems will be classified as
through the futernational Maritime Organization (IMO)
follows (based on the study Design �d control of hybrid
that establishes legally-binding intemational standards
power and propulsion systems for smart ships: A review
to regulate specific emissions and discharges generated
of developments. R.D. Geertsma, R.R. Negenborn,
by ships. Toe IMO emission standards are commonly
K.Visser, J.J. Hopman. Elsevier Ltd. 2017)
referred to as Tier 1 - 111 standards.
• Mechanical propulsion.
ln the IMO circular :MEPC.1/Circ.778/Rev.2 of 6 April • Electric propulsion.
2017 a list is presented of special areas, emission contrai • Hybrid propulsion systems, which include:
areas and particular sensitive areas in various parts - Electric propulsion With hybrid power supply.
in the world with the specific MARPOL amendments,
protective measures, and the dates these amendments - Hybrid propulsion with hybrid power supply.
and measures come or carne into force. - Electric propulsion with DC hybrid power
See also Index of MERPC Resolutions and Guidelines supply.
related to MARPOL Ar)nex V1 (see References).
The images shown on the following pages (also based
PM stands for particulate matter (also called particle on the above mentioned study) give an indication of the
pollution): the term for a mixture of solid particles and_ liquid various systems.
droplets found in the air. Some particles, such as dust, dirt,
soot, or smoke; are large or dark enough to be seen with the
naked eye. Others are so small they can only be detected using
an electron microscope.

Toe forementioned actions .to reduce air emissions of

ships also have their effect on tugs. Toe reason why more
and more Eco-tugs are built with the purpose of reducing
Tug Use in Port 65
A. Mechanical propulsion (figure 2E.2)
The propulsion can be with fixed pitch propellers,
controllable pitch propellers, azimuth thrusters, VS
(1) propulsion, etc.
Mechanical propulsion has only three power conversion
stages: the main engine, the gear box and the própeller,
(7 which leads to low conversion lasses.
However, mechanical propulsion is particularly efficient

at design speed, which is between 80 per cent and 100 per
cent of the top speed.
Mechanical propulsion has a poor fuel efficiency and
high emissions when sailing at speeds below 70 per cent
of top speed.
Tugs only require 20 per·cent of their maximum power
requiring for towing during transit, which leads to poor
specific fuel consum.ption and high emissions. Thus,
(3) electric or hybrid propulsion could be considered to
Legend: improve part-load fuel efficiency. Nevertheless, this is yet
(1) prime mover only the case ona limited number of tugs.
(2) gearbox
(3) propulsor
(4) variàble speed motor (M)
(5) auxiHc!ry loads
(6) AC electrical network
(7) diesel generators (G)

Figure 2E.2: Typical mechanical propulsion system.

B. Electric propulsion (figure 2E.3)

Most electrk propulsion systems utilise fixed pitch
propellers, because the electrical drive can run at every
speed in forward and reverse direction and deliver full
rated torque at every speed. As such, the speed of the
ship or tug can be fully controlled without the need for a
controllable pitch propeller.
When engines are running on part load, which is often
(2) the case with tugs, it will lead to poor fuel consumption
and a lot of emissions. Only a few harbour tugs have
electric propulsion

(1) diesel generators (G)
(2) AC electrical network
(3) transformers
(4) frequency converter
(5) propulsion motors (M)
(6) auxiliary loads and motors (M

Figure 2E.3: Typical electrical propulsion system layout.

66Tug Use in Port

C. Hybrid propulsion (figure 2E.4)
Ships that frequently operate at low speeds, such as tugs,
can benefit from a hybrid propulsion system.
ln hybrid propulsion, a mechanical drive provides
propulsion for high speeds or with high efficiency.
Additionally, an electromotor (2), which is coupled to the
sarne shaft through a gearbox (3), provides propulsion for
low speeds, thus avoiding the main engines inefficiently
in part load.
Hybrid propulsion is typically economicalwhen the
operation profile has distinct operating modes with a
significant amount of time at low power, which is the
case with tugs.
When the electric drive is designed to run parallel with
· the mechanical drive, it can be used to :increase the top
speed, or mrudmum. towing power, and so reduce engine
thermal load:ing and thus NOx emissions.

(3) (1) direct mechanical drive
(2) electric motor/ generato
(3) gearbox
(4) AC electrical network
(G) generators
(M) motors

Figure 2E.4: Typical hybrid propulsion systern.

D. Electric propulsion with hybrid power supply
(figure 2E.5)
ln electric propulsion with hybrid power supply, a
combination of two or more types of power source can
provide electric power. The power sources can be:
1. Combustion power supply, from eg diesel engines.
(2) 2. Electric chemical power supply from fuel cells, and
3. . Stored power supply from energy storage systems
(see 2), such as batteries and flywheels.
Fuel cells are .still seldom used in the maritime
environment. Research is focused on more compact
storage of hydrogen, fuel cells that can use other fuels,
such as LNG or even diesel oil. At present the main type
of energy storage is the battery.
The energy storage can provide the required electrical
power and enable switching off one or more eng:ines
leads when they would be running inefficiently at part load.
The energy storage can then be recharged when the
engine is running in an operating point with lower
emissions. This can save fuel, teduce emissions, reduce
noise, increase comfort and enable temporarily sailing
(1) diesel engine without emissions, noise and vibrations from engines.
(2) energy storag Furthermore, the battery can enable peak shav:ing: the
(G) generators battery delivers power during periods where high power
(M) motors is required and recharges when less power is required.
The battery can also provide back-up power during a
failure of combustion power supplies (diesel generators).
Figure 2E.5: Typical electric propulsion system with hybrid Popularity of batteries is growing fast. For tugs and
power supply. ferries, for example, the potential reduction of fuel
consumption and emissions has led to investigations
and application of electric propulsion with hybrid power

Tug Use in Port 67

E. Hybrid propulsion wítli liybrid power supply
(figure 2E.6)
This system utilises the maximum efficiency of the clirect
rriechanical drive (1) and the flexibility of a combination
ofcombustion power from prime mover(s) (2) and stored
(3 powedrom energy storage (3) for electric supply.
Hybrid propulsion with hybrid power supply has been
researched extensively and has been applied in harbour
Research at Delft University of Technology suggests
that hybrid propulsioh with hybrid power supply can
detiver significant savings in local emissions, partly by
using energy from batteries that are recharged with shore
If the control mode of the plant is determined in an
optimum way by the operating mode of the vessel
(towing, high speed transit, low speed transit or stand
by) and the battery state of charge, positive results can be
achieved because the operating modes of the plant lead
to very distinct loading of the system. For example, in
low speed transit or standby, the main engine loading is
Legend: very low and, therefore, switching off the engine stops
(1) direct mechanical the engine operating inefficiently.
(2) diesel generators Toe hybrid propulsion configuration allows designs
(3) energy storage in which the main engines cannot deliver full bollard
(G) generators pull on their own. However, a design that for delivery
(M) motors of full bollard pull depeneis on an electro motor or
batteries potentially introduces reliability and safety
Figure 2E.6: Typical hybrid propulsion system With hybrid risks. Therefore, itwould be better to design the main
power supply. engine such that it can detiver full bollard pull without
additional power from the electromotor.

F. Electric propulsion with DC hybrid power

supply (figure 2E7)
Toe most important reasons for applying DC systems
are increased fuel efficiency when running generators
in part load and reduced power conversion losses.
Toe DC architecture allows the diesel engine to run at
variàble speed, potentially leading to a reduction fuél
consumptions, emissions, noise and engine mechanical
and thermal loading.
Applications that utilise DC hybrid power supply
systems are ferries, drilling ships, research vessels and
wind fartn support vessels,

From the foregoing it has become clear how important

batteries are for hybrid vessels and, obviously, for only
battery-powered vessels. For that reª5on classification
society DNV GL started a Joint Development Project
(JDP}, designed to advance the understanding of the
use of lithium-ion batteries in the shipping industry.
More than dozen partners joined the initiative, including
flag states, research institutes, battery and propulsion
suppliers, ship owners, operators and yards. Including
Legend: batteries in ships, whether as a hybrid or fully electric
(G) generators system, offers the industry the opportunity to improve
fuel economy, reliability and operational costs. Toe
(M) motors project started in 2017 and results will become available
Figure 2E.7: Electric propulsion with DC hybrid power supply. in2019.

68Tug Use in Port

Various hybrid systems have been briefly explained. TRNST 2: One maín engine running. This main engine
Operating modes may have following names and drives the propeller (diesel-direct) and the generator
functions (see paragraphs C and E above): in the propeller shaft which provides electricity for the
• PTI (power take in)- Booster mode: the.shaft electro motors of the other two thrusters (diesel-electric).
generator then functions as àn auxiliary motor, and Toe tug can then sail with a speed of 9 knots.
works concurrently to the main diesel engine. ASSIST: All main engines running, maximwn speed and
• PTI - Fully electric mode. ln this mode batteries power available.
generate the energy for the propulsion. The main When a diesel generator is running the batteries are
diesel engine and the generator sets are off.
• PTI - diesel-electric mode. This mode is used at low
loaded at the sarne time.
speeds and does not need the main diesel engine.
The generator sets are functioning and feed the
tug's loads as well as the main propulsion. The shaft
generator functions as propulsion motor. The system
can also be used in the event of a maín diesel engine
failure (PTH: power take home).

Other operating modes can be:

• PTO (power take of) - Parallel Mode. Additional
power of main diesel engine ín case power required
for propulsion and vessel's loads is higher than
generator sets can provide. PIO - Transit Mode. The
main diesel engine supplies power needed for the Source: Kotug
propulsion (and ship's consumers). Generator sets
Figure 2E.9: Hybrid system of a Rotortug: hybrid propulsion
off. PTO - Shore Connection Mode. All engínes are
system with hybrid power supply.
switched off.

Different systems have been mentioned that can cut Five aspects are of crucial importance for safe operations
fuel costs and make tugs more environment-friendly. of an Eco harbour tug:
Whatever system is used, an optimum working power, or • Full power should be available in a minimum of
energy, management system is needed to achieve the best time and preferably without extra handling of press
results. buttons or switches. ln emergency and stressful
situations, the focus of the tug master is on the
situation; extra handlings distract the tug master
from the immediate actions to be taken and/ or lead
to mistakes.
• · Full power should be available during at least some
hours to enable the tug to, for instance, stay pushing
over a long period to keep a large ship alongside
during stormy weather.
• Switching of the various drive systems should be
simple so that in stress situation no mistakes will be
• Toe eco-system should be fully reliable.
• Stability should not negatively be affectéd (applies to
section B}.
Photo: Piet Sinke

Figure 2E.8: Engine contrai system of Kotug's hybrid tug HT B System of using fuel which causes less air
Evolution (LOA 32m, beam 12.6m, BP 83 tons). pollution
Explanation (see also figure 2E.9): Apart from possible exhaust gas treatment systems, there
Top button left: selection between HYBRID and NON are other options to reduce air pollution by tugs, even in
HYBRID. combination with the above-mentioned systems:
• The possibility of running the engines on diesel and
Middle button left: IDLE: On batteries only when
moored, waiting for a ship or waiting until pilot is on LNG, so-called dual-fuel engines.
board. Thrusters can be used, but only with propellers at • LNG only as fuel.
very low speed. • Compressed natural gas (CNG) for which storage
TRNST 1: One generator running producing electricity requirements are less stringent than for LNG (see
for the electro motors at the three thrusters (diesel­ below).
electric) and the tug can sail with a speed up to 6 knots. • Studies are ongoing to see if methanol could be used
Tug Use in Port 69
When it .comes to the allowable locations of LNG storage
tanks on board a tug, there are specific classification
society, national authority, and intemational code safety­
based restrictions. LNG tanks should be kept at a certain
distance from the side shell, froin the bottom, and from
engine room spaces. These major location restraints,
along with the space limitations, make it difficultto fit
significant quantities of LNG on board a tug, especially a
compact tug. There are furthermore specific mandatory
Photo: Plet Sinke and class requirements for safety and gas systems that
Figure 2E.10: Hybrid tug Ginga, with mechanical and electric cover the ventilation of the LNG system's tank hold, tank
propulsión (LOA 38m, width 10m, BP 55 tons, speed 14.8 connection spaces, gas regulation units, engines, double
knots), Tokyo Kisen, Japan. walled piping systems, bunker stations, air locks and the
like. If an oil recovery system is also required it becomes
as fuel. Methanol is mainly produced by natural gas even more complicated.
synthesis. The most used alternative fuel after LNG, Toe characteristics of LNG and ali the specific
it is available on a large scale. It is toxic and has a requirements make the storage of LNG on board a tug
low flashpoint of only 12° C. For this reason there with rather small dimensions and high powered engines
are several requirements for storage and handling a complex issue.
of methanol on board ships. Methanol as a ship The LNG storage tank should not placed at such a height
fuel is interesting for ship operators because it does that it will affect a tug's stability in a negative way.
not contain sulphur and is liquid in ambient air Toe sarne applies to a partly filled LNG storage tank,
conditions, which makes it easy to store on board due to the effect of the free liquid surface in the tank.
ships. Converting engines to the use of methanol is Furthermore, work on deck, lead of the towline, visibility,
not complicated, and it is available in many po�s etc, should not be limited by ventilation pipes and other
around the world. constructions needed for LNG.
• Ammonia as marine fuel is also being studied. One of
the first working engines run on ammonia was built Contrary to what has been said above about the location
in 1935. Ammonia is liquid at a temperature of -34° of the LNG fuel tank, Mitsui OSK Lines' (MOL) new tug
C, but the volume needed for the sarne energy is at has the fueltank high up-on deck (see figure 2E.11). Toe
least three times as high as with conventional fuels. tug will enter service in Osaka Bay in April 2019.
• Hydrogen. Ferries using hydrogen as fuel are Particulars of the tug are:
scheduled to enter into service in 2021. It is a clean Tug with azimuth thrusters; LOA: 43.6m; beam: 9.2m;
energy source, bountiful in supply, non-toxic and engine power: 2 x 1,618kW (2 x 2,200 hp); BP 50 tons. The
highly efficient; but it is expensive, there are storage tug can run on LNG and on diesel (dual-fuel engines).
complications and it is highly flammable. Locating the LNG in such a high position puts great
• Lignin -with cellulose, the chief constituent of demands on the tug's stability, especially with this slender
wood. Dutch scientific institute Chemelot InSciTe tug, having a length:beam ratio of approximately 5.
said in 2018 that lignin will soon be processed on a MOL declares that the size of the tank is such that good
commercial scale th.rough a biobased process, and stability is ensured, which should also be the case when
the oil produced ( crude lignin oil - CLO) will be the tank is partly filled and the free liquid surface in the
used as marine fuel that will be more durable and tank starts to play a role. The LNG tank will hamper any
environmentally friendly than the bunker fuels that towing operations on the aft deck. However, these tugs
are currently used. operate over the bow.
LNG will be addressed separately below. Toe 32m long harbour and terminal ASD-tug KST
Liberty, whose naming took place in April 2018, also has
LNG its LNG tanks on the after deck.
LNG as fuel for tugs is a growing market: in 2017 six With respect to LNG-fuelled tugs, a new mandatory
gas-powered tugs were in service and eight on arder. It safety code for ships using gases or other low-flashpoint
compiles with present and future emission r�quirements. fuels entered into force on 1 January 2017, along with
Engine maintenance and noise level are lower. The newtraining requirements for seafarers working on
problem with LNG as fuel is the space and the location.
Conventional tugs store diesel fuel in tanks of all shapes,
making use of tight spaces that can be of limited use for
other purposes. LNG should be stored in specific tanks
which have to comply with specific requirements.
LNG is a liquid and should be kept at a temperature of
-162º C. The energy density of LNG is about ha1f that of
diesel. This means it requires twice as much storage as
diesel for the sam.e energy needed. ln gaseous condition Courtesy Mltsui OSK Unes, Japan
the volume of LNG is about 600 times as large. Figure 2E.11: MOL LNG tug.

70 Tug Use in Port

these ships. The lntemational Code of Safety for Ships
using Gases or other Low-flashpoint Fuels (IGF Code)
aims to minimise the risks to ships, their crews, and the
environment, given the nature of the fuels involved.

There are various standards and guidances focusing on

LNG bunkering, such as:
• 15O/DIS 20519 Specificatíon for bunkering of gas
fuelled ships. 2018.
• SGMF (Society for Gas as a Marine Fuel) LNG
Bunkering Safety Guidelines. 2015.
• IACS Recommendations on LNG bunkering (Rec.
142). Jurte 2016.
• IAPH (Intematioilal OrganiSation of Ports and
Harbours) LNG bunker checklist. Photo: Captain Sergei Milchakov, St Petersburg
• EMSA (fürropean Maritime Safety Agertcy) Figure 2E.12: ASD-tugs Tornado, !ISD2810and Akmalworking
ln broken ice in the Port of St Petersburg, Russia.
Guidance on LNG bunkering to Port Authorities and
Administrations. 31-01-2018.
new eco-friendly design Wãrtsila HYTug series, launched
Note 11: in 2017. Apart from a modular hybrid propulsion these
As mentioned earlier, although LNG is mentioned as fuel, it tugs have a wheelhouse design with a high visibility,
cannot be used as fuel. It has to be reconverted to gas, which se:rni-enclosure bow winch, side shoulders and low hull
can be used as fuel, if temperature etc is suitable resistance.

Finally: Diesel-electríc 2.23 Ice tugs

Diesel engines are very efficient and robust energy
sources. Their drawback is that efficiency and emissions Ice conditions and requirements
are directly related to the revolutions and cylinder loads. ln general, at least the following local ice conditions
For a ship sailing at one speed and power rating, diesel should be considered for requirements for tugs operating
propulsion offers an attractive and efficient solution. And in ice, including local envirorunental conditions such as
for this given speed and power rating, emissions can be wind and current that may effect ice conditions:
further reduced by exhaust treabnent. • Type of ice, salinity, snow coverage.
Tugs have large fluctuating revolutions and power rating • Level of ice thickness in normal and more extreme
with large variations. As a result diesel direct propulsion situations.
has lower efficiency and Jar higher emissions at non • Ice coverage.
optimal speed and power ratings. Exhatist treatmentsfor
• • Amount of severity of ridging, consolidation of
off-designconditions is very complicated.
For these varying conditions, diesel-electric propulsion
offers interesting perspectives. Due to the diesel-electric • Ice drift and ice pressure; the local ice condtions.
configuration, revolutions and power can be better • Land fast and grounded ice.
matched to optimal efficiency.
Issues of importance for design or selection of ice tugs are:
LNG can be used as fuel for a combustion motor directly • Required ice breaking capacity versus other required
driving the propeller shaft; however, for varying capacities. Ice breaking performance for a given
revolutions and powers, this still remains a difficult and level of power or, on the other hand, a reduced fuel
complex system. For tugs, a more attractive solutio:h is a consumption for a given level of performance.
LNG-electric system, whereby LNG is used as fuel for a • Tug type: ASD or conventional, both being most
combustion motor driving a generator. This also allows suitable for severe ice conditions.
the inclusion of part diesel-electric generators, whereby
either LNG or diesel fuel can be used, or an attractive • Main engine and propulsion system. Direct
combination. mechanical fpp or CPP, or various diesel-electric
arrangements. ln this selection, the most important
Since LNG fuel is rather complicated to contrai properly
issues are: torque/rpm curves and the machinery's
with rapidly varying loads, a practical solution is offered ability to be used for prolonged periods at high
by a stable generé:l.tion of main power by LNG generators
power, including tolerance for extremely rapid load
and small fluctuation diesel generators.
variations. The complete propulsion line must be
calculated, the propeller as weakest point and engine
Several eco-tugs have been built. Examples are Carolyn
Dorothy (Foss), Svitzer Gaia, Sv.itzer Boodie, Svitzer as the strongest.
Mulga, RT Evolution (Kotug), Ginga (Tokyo Kiso), • Nozzle or open propellers.
EDDY-1, Fairplay XI, Noordzee (Dutch Royal Navy), BB • Torsion loads and vibrations in propulsion line
Power (Bukser og Berging), Dux (0stensj0), etc::, or the owing to propeller ice contact, ice between hull and
Tug Use in Port 71
propeller biade and blockage of nozzles owing to ice.
• Engine cooling arrangements.
• Internai heating; noise contrai.
• Design and system solutions to minimise extemal ice
build-up; means to remove ice from deck, deckhouse,
winch, ladders, masts, aerials and superstructure.
• Towing gear operability to maintain. workability
of lines, winches and fenders; protection against
freezing spray and snowfall. Towlines should be such
that minimum breakihg load will not be negatively
affected by low tempe:ratures.
• Extremely good searchlights, working lights�
radar(s), and general visibility issues, including
window heating and demisting arrangements, wiper
heaters and washing-line purging systems. Photo: Captain SergeiMilchakov, St Petersburg
Figure 2E.14: ASD-tugs Tornado, ASD281Dand Akmalworking
Furfuermore: in ic:e in the Port of St Petersburg, Russia.
• Stability requires specific attention because of the
normal class, are usually required. In addition, heating
possiblity of ice accretion on board the tug, which
can be very dangerous. Ice growth on superstructure, arrangements for fuel tanks, ballast tanks, and other
tanks vitàl to the ship's operation may also be required
mast, winch, etc, can occur very quickly during
freezing temperatures, quickly decteasing the tug's depending on the class.
stability. Ice accretion should be a factor to be taken
into account for the tug's stability. Tug type and equipment
Much depends on the local situation, as described above,
and on the tasks to be perfor:med. Tug type with respect
Note 12: For thosefurther interested ín the severity of icirtg,
the Mertins Diagrmn gives an indication of how much ice can to propulsion and propeller type is a specific issue.
be develaped during various condítions of windforce, seawater The following is based on designers and tug masters'
temperature and air temperature. See: Operations of ships experience and research:
in cold climates with emphasis on tankers and the new
requirements. DNV. November 2003. ASD-tugs
What the best tug type is depends totally on prevailing
Not all ships are built to an ice class. Building a ship ar ice con:ditions a:hd type of operatiorts, although most
tug to an ice class means that the hull must be thicker versatile in general is an ASD-tug. Experience with
and more scantlings (aggregate of girders, beams, and ASD-tugs equippedwith CPP propellers is optimal. CPP
bulkheads resu.lting in stronger strudural integrity) must makes recovery of thrust after ice blockage very fast
be in place. Sea chests (openings in the hull for seawater and easy to perform, and even · reduces nozzle blocka
· 0o-e
intake) may need to be arranged differently depending incidents.
on the class. Sea bays may also be required to ensure
that the sea chest does not become blocked with ice. Voith tugs
Most of the stronger ice classes require severalforms of Regarding Voith tugs in ice, opinions and experiences
rudder and propeller protection. Two rudder pintles are differ. Some say Voith typically does not work in
usually required, and strengthened propeller tips are anything over very light ice conditions, mainly due to
often required in the stronger ice classes. More watertight ice blocking and to some extent to vulnerability in real
bulkheads,, in addition to those required by, a ship' ice condtions. In ice conditions the normal coupled Voith
... ... s control systemlimlts fhe possíbility OI êlearing ice OI eaéh
propulsion unit independently with propeller washes.
Experiences show that Voith tugs get easily blocked in
anything but lightest ice, partly also due to the tractor tug
concept which doesn't have a hull ploughing ice away
from the propulsion units, as is the case with azimuth
tractor tugs.
However, a recent report comes to a totally different
conclusion (see Maritime Journal, 16 February 2012. A
study of Voith tractors in ice). It was produced following
testing at the Aker Arctic Ice Laboratory in Helsinki,
and in the circulation tank at Voith's headquarters
in Heidenheim. It indicated that even under extreme
conditions, tugs with Voith Schnei.der propellers have
Gourtesy Damen Shipyards proved to be highly effective icebreakers.
Figure 2E.13: Stronger structural iiltegrity is needed for ice tugs. The.findings are consistent with the p ractical experience

72 Tug Use in Port

«f Svitzer in Gothenburg, URAG in Bremerhaven and confirm the results of the study. "I have carried out
Bugsier in Rostock. numerous towingjobs irl ice. Quite frequently we have
to clear the channel in Rostock harbour but we hà.ve also
_he impact point of the ice floes at the propeller blade. is had successful operations iniced-up Swedish waters.
U::>-ually in the upper part of the biade near the bearings. Unlike jet (nozzle) propellers, which are quickly blocked,
This results in a lower bending moment. The magnitude Voith Schneider propellers have no problem with ice
f the bending moment has a significant influence on the floes. The VSP can push the ice aside without âny trouble.
5a'\>i.ce life of the propeller biades. The propeller slipstream can be steered in such away
L Collision with the ice floes occurs atthe leading that the ice is quickly and completely flushed away and
edge of the biades. ln this load situation, the section what's more, the wake of the Voith Water Tractor has
modulus of the biade profile is at its highest, which another interesting effect; the charme! clearance is much
reduces the risk of damage. wider. This is beneficial for the ships that follow us."
2. The ice floes are immediately pushed to the side after Further study might be needed to find out why these
the first impact with the propulsion system and do differences in experience exist.
not get caught in the VSP.
Tttgs with open propellers are favoured in very hard ice
3. Voith water tractors have the advantage ofhaving
conditions, because blocked ice in nozzles results in zero
VSPs positioned dose together and rotating
thrust. However, bollard pull in relation to installed power
outwards. The general advantage of the tractor
is signifitant lower with an open propeller. It should
concept lies in the deeply immersed propellers,
furthermore be well considered that ttigs in ice might well
which are less likely to get in contact with ice. be using over 80 per cent of time over 80 per cent of MCR.
You really need power, machinery built for thattype of
Comments from Captain Siegfried Kempe, a tug master usàge, and thrust to make yo11 move and/or clear the ice
aboard the Voith tractor tug Bugsier 16 since 1994, with independently controlled propeller washes.

Thickness of flat ice

40cm 60cm 80cm 100cm

Name / country of register Ice CJass

Lowest > Highest

IFinland / Sweden Category II IC IB IA IA Super

IRussian Marine Register

Ice 1 Ice2· Ice3 Arc4 Arc5
'issue 2008)

lAm.erican Navifmtion Bureau DO IC 1B IA IAA

IBureau Veritas ID IC 1B IA IA SUPER

CASPPR, 1972 E D e B A

China Classification Bureau B B3 B2 Bl Bl*

DetNorske Veritas ICE-C ICE-IC ICE-1B ICE-lA ICE-IA*

Germanischer Lloyd E El E2 E3 E4

Korean Marine Re2i,ster IS4 1S3 IS2 ISl ISS

Lloyd Re2ister lD IC IB IA lAS

Nippon Kai.ii Kyokai ID IC 1B IA IA Super

Italian Re2ister ID IC 1B IA IAS

Table 2E.2: Ice class notations

Tug Use in Port 73

beam 14m, draft with skeg 7.lm, bollard pull ahead 97

tons, speed 14.4 knots and Ice Class ARC6. It has been
designed_for wide range of operations: ice breaking in
the port and approach charinel, escort of LNG carriers,
esco:i:t operations afspeeds up to 10 knots, towing,
pilotage of vessels and mooring to berths, fire-fighting,
participation in rescue operations and oil spill cleaning,
etc. The tug can also carry three 20ft containers.
The tug has seven watertight compartments, double hull
and bottom, making it almostunsinkable.
Propulsiqn is byAzipods. Total power is 9,400 hp (7MW)
and the tug has four main engines.
Yurt"bey is designed for operating in temperatures down
to ..:50° C. This has been achieved by various measures:
Courtesy Donmar forward and aft towing winches are located in enclosed
Figure 2E.15: Tug Yuribeyis engaged in ice breaking, escorting spaces, coamings of doors, covers, fittings, handrails,
and towing, etc; it has Azipod propulsion. communication andnavigation antennas and other
<levices are electrically heatéd. The air take-in for the
engine rocím and living quarters, passes heaters, so
ensuring preheating. Two boilers are installed on the tug,
providing heating of incoming air, heating the vessel's
spaces and tanks�

Tug ice breaking bow

The tug ice breaking bow is a new development
designed by ILS Ship Design & Engineering; With such
a removable bow a typical pusher tug can be converted
into an ice breaking tug for inland waterway- towage
requirements. It is claimed that the fi:tst versioh will
enable the tug to break 70cm ice at 2 knots and 40cm ice
Courtesy Donmar at6knots.
Figure 2E.16: Forward enclosed winch.
Training is a necessity for tug masters operating in ice
and should focus on:
• Safe and effective handling of his tug in ice.
• The a.bility to read and predict ice and ice conditions,
visually, on radar information and on ali available
preliminary information, in order to be able to find
the easy spots · and cracks in ice, to assess the risk of
nozzle blocking, predict th.e possibility of passing
through a ridge withoutramming, etc.
Much can be learned on simulators, but experience has to
be built up in daily pradice.

Courtesy Donmar Note: Much information comes from the paper Equipment
Figure 2E.t7: Aft enclosed winch. and operational Issues for Terminal and Escort Work in Ice
Conditions. See References.
Much also depends on tug design and really on how you
operate the tug and plan the whole assistance operation.
2.24 Research
V arious ice class notations exist. Table 2E.2 gives an Various new tug types have been developed during
indication of the various ice class notations.For ice dass thé last years whichhave been addressed in the former
vessels from different countries/registers, corresponding paragraphs. Although ongoing research results in
ice classes are approximate and the final decision on continuous improvements of modem tug types, only
using a vessel is the owner's responsibility and risk. daily practice of ship handling shows to what extent the
new tugs meet the expectations and what the capabilities
Purpose built ice tugs and limitations really are. Nevertheless, research is
A purpose built ice tug is the Yuribey,built for the essential to produce ever better tugs, be it for normal ship
extreme conditions at the Arctic Rµssian port of Sabetta, assistance, operations in waves,. for escorting or for the
Yamal península, Kara Sea. The tug has LOA of39.54m, living conditions of the tug crew.
74 Tug Use in Port
Photo: Damen Shipyards Photo: Oamen Shipyards
Figure 2E.18: Tank tests for escort performance with Damen Figure 2E.19: Svitzer Oeben ASD3212 escorting in the indirect
ASO tug 3212. mede in real-life situation.

Research not only focuses on hull form, skegs, ropes, representation of the boundary layer around a ship.
deck equipment, operations in waves, etc, but also on
such aspects as liveability on board, automation and Tug boats are typically full bodied vessels and introduce
sensor information. A very wide range of interest, al1 large, turbulent, sometimes separated, flows along the
focused on increasing performance and safety. thick bodies. Today tugs are being calculated with CFD,
andreasonably accurate resistance and flow distribution
Apart from model tests and tank tests a method used in into the propeller area can be calculated for tugs; in
the design stage is CFD (computational fluid dynamics). recent years even the flow around hull with appendages
CFD is the use of applied mathematics and physics in indirectmodes can be determined. However, one
implemented in dedicated software to simulate how has to consider that every single condition calculation
a fluid (gas or liquid) flows, and how the fluid affects requires a significant amount of computer power and
objects as it flows past. CFD has been around since the time. And that analysing various conditions and speeds
early 20th century and many people are familiar with it is very costly and time consuming.
as a tool for analysing air flow around cars and aircraft.
lt is also often used in ship and tug design, for instance Thus, CFD simulations provide the designer withhigh
to optimise the tug's underwater body, the inflow of the quality information on the entire flow around a tug.
propeller disk and to optimise nozzle performance. Among others, Lloyd's Register gives guidelines for
CFD Escort Performance (publication ShipRight. Design
At the start (around year 2000) potential flow calculations and·Construction. May 2016). However, to successfully
were possible, but since 2010 onward it has also been use CFD for practical calculations of complex turbulent
possibleto make viscous flow calculations to investiga.te flow, a thorough understanding of the errors involved
complex turbulent flows. Potential flow calculations can in such simulations is required, and the relation to the
be valuable to enable a ship designer to study smooth hull co:mputational set-up employed. Adding complexity to
shapes and slender bodies, particularly in the forward the simulations has an effect on the errors. Therefore,
area. Gradually the flow turns into turbulent flow along a procedure of verification and validation should
me hull's length due to friction and the formation of be followed. Verification to quantify the numerical
a boundary layer. For flow and distribution into the uncertainty can for instance be done by systematically
propeller, detailed viscous flow calculations are needed reducing the cell size of the grid, and validation focuses
that can account for the frictional effects and a correct on the modelling uncertainty.

1 ASO Tug 3212-14 knots 1

Courtesy Damen Shipyards

Figure 2E.20: CFD simulations of flow pattern around a tug at Courtesy Damen Shipyards
speed. Figure 2E.2t CFD of wave pattern around a tug at speed.

Tug Use in Port 75

Considering the ever increasing computer power, thereis at the manufacturer's recommended continuous rating
a bright future for CFD in the shipping and tug industry. (MCR). Tests tan_ also be carried out at engine overload
However, there is also a clear need of good designers conditions, fotinstaitte with a maximum rating that can bê
and users, as indeed the well known statement applies to maintained for aminimum of one hour, and also with just
CFD as well : Garbage in, Garbage out! one propeller working.

Note 13: When seeing theflow pattern around the tug infigure Bollard pull tests are carried out with engines ahead and
2E.21 it can be obsetued that there is an increased water speed increasingly, especially for azimuth tugs, on astem. Bollard
along the sides of the tug (the blue coloured lines) and a retarded pull tests should be carried out with sufficient underkeel
jlow (red lines) at the bow and stern. This is exactly in linewith clearance and line length to avoid the tugs's propeller
the water flow around a ship to be discussed in Chapter 6. wash havingany influence on propulsor performance and.
hence towline force. Other factors affecting the towline
Publication of research results are always very welcome force are current, waves and wind, which should be
so that all involved in one way or another in tug design, minimal during testing. Bollard pull is measured by an
tug building and tug operations can learh from the results electronic load cell connected in series with the tow line.
and/ or make use of them when needed and applicable.
An example: Based, among others, on the results of Classification societies issue different regulations for
the research carried out during the SafeTu.g JIP Goint thehollard pull tests. ln 2016 a Joint Industry Project
industrial project) at MARIN, the Netherlands, which was initiated by MARIN with the objective to derive
reported in 2010, Bureau Veritas published the Safety requirements regarding towline length, water depth, test
Gi#delines for Design, Construction and OperationofTugs in duratiort, environmental conditions and instrumentation
July 2014. based on scientific proof. Together with more than
30 companies clear definitions and procedures were
developed to ensure the reported performance of a tug
2.25 Tug performance represents the tug's maximum performance that can
With respect to tug performance it is good to understa:hd be realised in service conditions, irrespective of trial
some basic principies. The first item deals with conditions, that can represent contractual performance
performance at speed, which is discussed in detail in obligations.
Chapter 4, and the second mainly with bollard pull
conditions. Based on a large matrix of model and full scale bollard
pull tests it shows that for most tugs no performance
1) When the tug's propeller wash is more or less degradation takes place when the water depth is
with the direction of the water flow, the propeller is approximately 6x the propeller immersion depth with a
said to be operating in positive flow conditions. This is, line length of SOx propeller diameter. In conditions lower
for instance, when a bow tug is pulling a ship having than these thresholds performance degradaticm cah be
headway. When the tug's propeller wash is more or less expected. Water density also affects bollard pull, whereby
against the direction of the water flow, it is said to be the thrust in high density water is hlgher for the sarne
operating in negative flow conditions. This is, for instance, power éompared to the thrust in fresh water. Toe largest
when a stern tug is braking a ship's speed. uncertaintyinbollard pull is, however, the sensitivity
of the load cell measurement <levice for alignment,
Although greater thrust is produced when operating in a
incorrect calibration prócedures, te:mperature, torsion and
negative flow, torque loadings on the propeller and engine
instrumentation drift. Frequent recalibration and proven
increase considerably, particularly with increasing speed
insensitivity to these factors is necessary for accurate
of the water flow. As the negative flow may also result in
bollard pull measurement.
an unstable flow through the propeller, it may produce
fluctuating loads and vibrations.
During bollard pull trials, the towline force should be
2) The linê pull is essentially dependent on the recorded electronically using a sainpling rate of lHz or
square of the propeller revolutions, and the engine power better to avoid aliasing (= digital disturbance, distortion).
is dependent on the cube of the revolutions. This means The figure certified as the tug's continuous bollard pull is
that if propeller revolutions are dôubled, the force will the towing force recorded as being maintained without
increase by a factor of four, while the required engine any tendency to decline for a duration of not less than
power increases by a factor of eight. This relatiofiship not 5 minutes for harbour tugs. Repeatmeasurements are
only applies to bollard pull conditions, but approximately tecommended to give insight in the repeatability of the
to most tug operations in port. load cell and stability of the tug and towline force. The
bollard pull triai code is schedule to be finalised and
The efficiency of an open propeller - as already mentioned published in 2018.
- can be increased by fitting a nozzle. Tugs with the sarne
BHP may have a different bollard pull depending on Table 2E.3, opposite, gives a range of the ratio bhp
whether the propellers are fitted in a nozzle or not. Also, bollard pull or different propeller configurations. Because
the type of propeller and nozzle fitted is im.portant. To the relatiori. between bollard pull and engine power
determine the towing force of a tug, bollard pull tests depends on several factors, such as hull form, nozzle and
are carried out at different engine ratings, particularly propeller type and size, etc. these values do vary.

76 Tug Use in Port

Tug propulsion type Bollard Pull in Bollard Pull in equal installed power. Side thrust and the influence of
Tons/kW Tons/bhp interaction of propellers on side thrust are clearly shown
in the diagram.
Azimuthing thrusters
Stern drive 1.5-1.7 1.1 -1.3 In this thrust vector diagram the ahead values given are
Tractor 1.3-1.5 1.0-1.1 also more or less maximum values. The astem thrust
of ASD-tugs may vary between 90 per cent and 95 per
Voith Schneider tractor 1.2-1.4 0.9-1.0 cent of ahead thrust. In the diagram the astem thrust of
Conventional drive conventional tugs with controllable pitch propellers is
Nozzled propeller 1.8-2.0 1.3-1.5 given. The astem thrust of conventional tugs with fixed
Open propeller 1.3-1.5 1.0-1.1 pitch propellers is higher and around 65 per cent of
maximurh ahead thrust, but it depends strongly on the
nozzle type, propeller/rudder design and configuration.
CPP* -2% For example, the Towmaster system may improve ahead
ICE* -2- -4% according to ice class thrust to even more than 1.50 tons BP/100 BHP, while
a very good astern thrust of more than 70 per cent of
·Not applicable on Volth Schneider propulsion maximum ahead thrust can be achieved.
Source: Damen Shlpyards, the Netherlands
Note 14: Particularly for the more sideways thrust, it is
Table 2E.3 Ranges in relationship between brake horsepower difficult to say how accurate the thrust vector diagrams are.
and bollard pull for different tug types. Brake horsepower (bhp) Simulated or calculated performance diagrams should therefore,
is measured at the flywheel; shaft horsepower (shp) is measured as far as possíble, be validated infull scale trials.
at the propeller shaft (shp = ± 0.97 x bhp)
These diagrams show the achievable thrust at zero speed
Toe relationship between engine power and bollard in different directions for a number of tug types with
pull varies also with the extent of engine power and in equal power installed. The achievable ahead thrust per
such a way that a conventional tug with 700bhp and a lO0bhp installed power as shownin the diagrams is 1.1
fixed propeller can attain two tons/100bhp, while for tons for a VS tug, 1.4 tons for tugs with azimuth thrusters
conventional tugs with about 6,000bhp with nozzles, and 1.5 tons for conventional tugs with propellers in
towing force may even be less than 1.3 tons/100bhp. nozzles.

Propeller performance is also shown in so-called thrust Note 15. A good indication of a tug's ship assist performance
vector diagrams. Several kinds of these diagrams exist, over a range of speeds can be given by so-called polar diagrams
ali of them giving different information. Thrust vector as is shown in Chapter 4.
diagrams give information on propulsion performance
with zero speed in different directions, whlch is also
important inforrnation to assess the tug's assisting
performance. An example of thrust vector diagrams
with an indication of thrust forces is given in figure
2E.22. It gives propulsion performance at zero speed for

90% or ahead 9CI% of :aho.ad 45% or aliead

---- ...
,,� _,-------------- ----- '\

Figure 2E.22: Example of a

I \

ASTERN ) thrust vector diagram.

: :--
Legend a) Tractor tug:

Voith; b) Tractor tug:
'�·······-·········- ........... ' I azimuth propeller in
nozzles; e) Stern drive
-- ------------------- ___
,( tug: azimuth propeller in
d) Conventional tug:
twin screw (cpp) nozzles
..... ____ .,,,,. 50%
and bow thruster; e)
Conventional tug: twin
screw (cpp) with nozzles.

Tug Use in Port 77

3.1 lntroduction of tugs used. In the next chapter the large influence of
ship's speed cm the performance ofthe different tug types
ln the first chapter different types of port were discussed. in relation tô the assisting methods is considered. Tug
ln these portstugs may render one of the following assistance as may be required in ports is first addressed
services: in more detail to obtain a better insight into what tugs
• Tug assistance during a transit to or from a berth,
should be capable of doing.
including assistance during mooring and unmooring
operations. Tug assistance during a transit may comprise:
• Tug assistance mainly during mooring and • Passage through a river or channel.
unmooring operations only. • Enfry manoeuvres into a harbour or turning basin
from river, channel or sea.
To what extent tug assistance is considered to be • Passage through rni.rrow harbour basins.
necessary depends on particulars of: • Passing narrow bridges or locks.
• The ship - including type, size, draft, length/
width ratio, loading condition, windage and Over theJarger part of a transit route the speed of a
manoeuvrability. vesselis mbstly within the range of about 3-6 knots and
• The berth and nearby manoeuvring area - including
sometimes even higher. At these relatively low ship's
type and size of berth, alignment, berthing space, speeds the influence of wind, current and waves is more
manoeuvring space near the berth, size of turning pronounced, affecting the required pa:th width adversely
circle, water depth, influence of current and wind, dueto the larger drift angle. Steering ability is less at
and availability of mooring boats. lower speeds, and is adversely influenced bywind and
• The transit route - su.ch as width, length and depth,
ctirrerit. 0n the other hand, speeds lip to 6 knots may
the bends in that route, maximum allowable speed,
become rather high for effective tug assistance.
trafficto be expected and whether moored ships have
to be passed, plus the influence of current, wind,
When port configuration is such that tugs are mainly
waves, shallow water and bartks.
usedfor mooriil.g and unmooring operations, then tug
assistance may comprise:
The important difference between tug assistance during • The approach phase towards turning basin or berth.
mooring/umnooring operati.ons and during a transit • Turningin a turning basih.
lies in the differehce in ship's speed, which is a major • Mooring and unmooring operations.
factor of importance for selecting the most appropriate
type of tug and method of tug assistance. The various
Contrary to. transit speeds, ship's speed during these
rnethods of tug assistance ernployed in ports around the
world are reviewed in this chapter, including the types manoeuvres is norinallyvery low or zero. Although tugs
should be capable of controlling a ship's heading and
speed and compensating for the influence of wind and
curreitt while approaching the turning circle or berth, the
influence of ship's speed on the performance of different
tug types is less predomihant.

Tugs assisting during transits, taking into account the

assisting method applied, should be capable of:

Giving steering assistance and controlling ship's speed

Steering assistance while the ship has headway may be
necessary in narrow passages, when passing bridges or
negotiating sharp and/or narrow bends in the fairway,
river or channel, or when entering harbour or turning
basins under the varying influence of current and wind
conditiôns. Controlling ship's heading and speed may be
required when approaching the harbour or tuming basin
or when entering a lock.
Photo: Pilot John Traut
Figure 3.1: Port of Báltimore. Mortrac tug Harriet Moran (LOA Compensatingfor wind and citrrent during transit while
28.2m, beam 8.9m, 3,005hp) and reverse�tractor tug April a ship has.speed
Moran (LOA 26.5m, beam 10.5m, 5,100 hp) pushing atthe While transitino-
o a channel, river or harbour basin a
stern of a ship dead in the water. A Mortrac tug is a combi-tug. ship under the influence of wind and/or current may .
Harriet Moran is a single screw tug with a tripie rudder system experience drift. This can be compensated for by steenng
and a retractable azimuth bow thrnster of 640hp. a drift angle or by a higher speed. A higher speed is

78Tug Use in Port

Photo: Kees Tom
Figure 3.2: Combination
of tug towing on a Une
and tug at the ship's
side (shoulder). Tanker
GenerB Ulysses-, ASD­
tugs Smit Sche/de (LOA
28.67m, beam 10.43m,
BP ahead 59 tons, astem
56 tons) and Fairplay
24 (LOA 34.75m, beam
10.80m, BP ahead 52
normally not possible in confined port areas and due to for tugs and the method of tug assistance, while ship's
the limited width in narrow passages only small drift speed is an essential factor.
angles are acceptable. Tug assistance is then necessary.

Tugs assisting ships during a transit normaliy also assist 3.2 Assisting methods
during mooring/unmooring operations and the final 3.2.1 Assisting methods in use
approach and departúre manoetivres as tugs tised for Toe different ways ships are handled by tugs in various
mooring/unmooring operations only. Ali these tugs areas and ports around the world can indeed mainly be
should, with the assistance method applied, be capable of traced back to large differences in local circumstances.
effectively: Methods of assistance that different tug types are used
for have already been mentioned briefly while discussing
Controlling transverse speed towards a berth while the various types.
compensatingfor wi1ld and current during mooringl
unmooring operations Assessment of assisting methods in use ali over the world
During mooring operations a ship's longitudinal ground shows only two markedly different methods:
speed is practically zero and, when there is no current, • Tugs towing on a line.
the ship has hardly any speed through the water. Toe • Tugs operating at a ship's side.
sarne applies when a ship has to be turned in a turning
basin. Mainly crosswise pushing and/or pulling forces Irrespective of tug type, both methods can be applied
have to be applied by the tugs. by. almost ali tug types, although for some tugs effective
towing on a line can be somewhat problematic. The
The tug assistance required as outlined above has capabilities of modem and new tug types are large and
been somewhat simplified. In any particular case the this sometimes results in different ways of shiphandling.
complete tug assistance procedure may consist more This has been shown in the former chapter but are still
of a combination of the separate aspects that have related to the two methods mentioned.
been described. Environmental conditions have a large
influence. For instance, when tugs are used mainly for ln European ports towing on a line is mainly used, while
mooring/unmooring, the influence of currents can be in the USA and West Pacific ports tugs usualiy operate
such that although ship's ground speed is low, say two at a ship's side, although in different ways depending on
knots, the speed through the water can be rather high. the type of tug used. Particularly in Europe and in the
With a bow current of two knots, the speed through USA there is a tendency towards the use of more flexible
the water is already four lmots. Situations then become types of tug. This tendency has an impact on the assisting
comparable to tug assistance during a transit with the methods used in Etrrope as well as in the USA, which
higher ship's speeds and the associated requirements for should be kept in mind when reading this paragraph.
the assisting tugs.
In some ports combinations of methods are used, or
Additional services such as mooring boats also affect the introduced, depending on the local situation or new tug
extent and method of tug assistance. When no mooring type. For specific situations or circumstances, assisting
boats are available the tugs must be stationed and methods are applied other than those in normal use. So
operated in such a way that the ship can be pushed/ it is possible that in ports where tugs normaliy work
pulled up to a berth. alongside, they will occasionaliy assist while towing
on a line, for example when narrow bridges have to be
It can be concluded that the port confi.guration, the passed or when ships have to enter a dry dock. Changing
influence of the environmental conditions and port the assisting method can become necessary at seaside
services have a prominent bearing on the requirements terminais, where tug assistance is affected by waves. If
Tug Use in Port 79
in calm weather it is normal practice to assist alongside a
vessel, it may be considered safer to tow on a line when
weather and sea conditions deteriorate in order to avoid
parting towlines and losing control of the vessel.

According to research carried out in 1996 into assisting

methods in use in ports around the world, thé two
methods are generally applied in the following ways,
assuming two tugs assist a vessel: l?reaS:lln!J;
1 -, i "(
Tugs alongside during approach to the berth and pushing
or push-pull while mooring
This method is normally used in the majority of ports in
the USA, Canada, Austrçilia, Malaysia, S01.1.th Africa and
also at large oil terminals in Norway. While the method
used in these ports is similar, the type oftug differs. The
way tugs are secured using this method depends mainly
on the type of tug. When using tugs with omnidirectional
propulsion they are made fast at the forward and aft
shoulder, generally with one bow line from the tug in Figure 3.3: Tugs alongside at approach and push-pull while
case of A$D/ reverse-tractor tugs and with a line from the mooring/unmooring.
tug's stem when tractor tugs are used (see figure 3.3).

ln the USA tugs may be secured alongside a ship by one,

two or three lines, depending on the type of tug, the
local situation and the assistance required. Conventional
tugs normally operate with two or three lines made fast,
though in some cases only one lineis déemed sufficient
(see figure 3.4). The forward line is a tug's backing line to
be made fast to the ship. The spring may come from the
forward winch through a tug's most forward bow chock
ar fairléad. 0n other tugs both lines may come from a
winch. The third line, the stern line, is needed when a
tug has to work atright angles to a ship to prevent the
tug from falling alongside when the ship has forward or
astern movement through the water, or to compensate
for the transverse effect of a tug's propeller when going
astern. This line may come from a winch or be fastened
on a bitt. It also compensates for the influei;ice of the
shlp's propeller wash when the ship's propeller is going
astern� A forward as well as an aft tug may be secured in Figure 3.4: Conventional USA tug secured with backing, spring
thisway. and stern lines. ln s1.tuation 2 the ship moves astern. lf ship
moves ahead the stern line will lead forward. Depending on thfi
Owing to their better manoeuvrability, twin screw tugs assistance required and local situation, one, two or three lines
or tugs with steei'able nozzles normally operate with may be required.
fewer lines when assisting at a shlp's side. Usually one or
two lines will then be sufficient. -for instance in the port of Cape Town ships upto 100 M
in length are sometimes handled as a 'dead ship' by a VS
ln the USA other methods are also used by tugs operating tug lashed up alongside (see figure 3.7).
at the ship's side. When breasted or alongside towing,
also called 'on the hip' or 'hipped up', tugs fonyard and/ ln USA ports, methods are also used that differ from
or aft are lashed up solidly alongside a vessel (see figure those discussed above. For example, in certain situations
3.5). This alongside towing is also operated in many other tugs may work stem to stem with a vessel. A ship rnoving.
ports in the world, but mainly when handling barges. astem can be steered by a tug pushing at the ship's bow.
When a tug is lashed up, tug and ship work like a twin Pushing at the port side of the bow will give the ship a
screw shlp with two ihdependent rudders. When lashed swing to starboard, pushing at the starboard side of the
up forward to a ship with the tug's bow facing aft, the bow will give the ship a swing to port (see figure 3.10).
tug's engine and rudder combined act like a kind of
steerable bow thruster (see figure 3.6). A ship can then ln some ports in the USA and in the Panama Canal a
tum on the spot or move sideways. Alongside towing stern tug is used as shown in figure 3:8. A rudder tug can
is also used in USA ports to handle a 'dead shlp', and control a ship's speed and a conventiqnal tug can steer a
occasionally applied in a similar way.in some other ports ship in the required direction by giving forward thrust

80Tug Use in Port

Taiwan and Hong Kong (see figure 3.11). Toe after tug
is made fast by a tug's bow line amidships or at the
starboard or port quarter aft and follows the ship. Toe
forward tug is made fast at the forward shoulder, also
with a bow line. The after tug is used for steering and
speed control. During berthing manoeuvres the tugs
change over to the push-pull method. Tugs in these
porti. are ali of similar design, more or less specifically
Figure 3.5: Alongside towing (USA). constructed for this type of operation. They are reverse­
tractor tugs ar sometimes ASD-tugs, with 360º steerable
thrusters under the stem and made fast with a line from
the wg's forward winch. For certain specific manoeuvres

these tugs have to assist while towing on a line, for
". ' example when assisting ships to enter dry docks or
floating docks.

Apart from the countries mentioned above this method is

applied in some other parti. around the world either with
Figure 3.6: Forward tug secured alongsíde. As shown the ship reverse-tractor tugs or with tractor tugs. Furthermóre,
can tum on the spot and when the tug applies hard port rudder cortventional tugs are sometimes used for this method,
and engine ahead, the ship moves crosswise. Ship's ahead as is the case in some USA ports whereby the stern tug
power to be equal to tug's ahead power. operates like a rudder tug. While berthing this tug stays
dose behind the ship's stern and pushes it towards the
berth on the tug's bow line.

Tugs towing on a líne during transit toward.s a berth and

while mooring
This is the assisting method used specifically in Europe,
most often when conventional tugs are assisting vessels,
Figure 3.7: Alongside towing in Cape Town for a 'dead ship' up but other types of tugs are also used for this method.
to 1 00m in length. Toe method is also applied in many other porti. of the
world, especially in ports working with conventional
and applying starboard or port mdder. Other types of tugs (see figure 3.12). ln many of these ports, ships are
tug such as VS tugs and ASD-tugs also use this method. assisted by tugs during transit towards the berth, eg, on
Asimilar method is sometimes used on Dutch inland the river, from the river into the harbour and through
waters. harbour basins up to a berth. The advantage of this
method of assistance is that it can be used in narrow
Forward tug alongside and aft tug on a line during waters. This method is also used, therefore, when passing
approa.ch towards a berth and push-pull while mooring narrow bi:idges or entering locks and dry-docks. ln such
This method, whiéh does not differ much from that situations theforward tug sometimes has two towlines,
mentioned above, is mainly found in the ports of Japan, so-called cross lines ar gate lines or both lines may come
from a double winch at the tug's bow as can be the case
on some reverse-tractor tugs. The tug can then react very
quickly and only a little manoeuvring space is required
(see figure 3.13).

Tug's bow to port,. shlp wiD Tug's .bow to starbóard,

goto starboard shlp will go'toport

Tug's englne astem, ship's

speed will decrease Courtesy Panama Canal Authority
Tug may be fastened with one or two lines Figure 3.9: Tug Cerro Picacho, tractor tug (LOA 28.9m,
beam 13'.5m, BP 82 tons), operating as steering tug in the
Figure 3.8: Rudder or steering tug. Panama Canal.

Tug Use in Port 81


Át a very low speed a
conver\Vonal tug can move ta
e.g. pos!Uon 1 & 2 for speed
amlrcl and slêering ar to
posltlon _3 for steertng.

e 1: B�asting,
3 Tugs pos!Uons
/� ,_,• _'._ _ Tugs positlons 2: Positlonlng.
Tugs positlons 3: Controlllng
, \ lraôSverse epproa'Ch speed.
1· "
( �
\ �
\,, · �{j��boat
Figure 3.10: ASO tug Gramma Lee TMoran (LOA 26.7m,
breadth 9.Bm, engines 5,100 bhp) pushing the bow of Dueen
Mary //to port on her maiden voyage to New York, April 2004.

Figure 3. i 2: Towing on a line at the approach and while mooring.

Figure 3. 13: Ship is passing a narrow bridge and a conventional

tug forward is assisting with two crossed tow lines. The tug can
react quickly and only a little manoeuvring space is required.

Figure 3. i 1: At approach, forward tug alongside anct stern tug on

a line; push-pull while berthing.
·, Tractortug may be elttler ln
posHlon 1 (apeed/course control) or
The type of tugs used were originally conventional tugs ln pôs!Uon 2 (�ng_or$nd by).
with a small engme and a streamlined underwater body. Tug cen dlange poelllOl1 from 2 to
1 ata ia1her hlgh ahlp'a epeed.
These were vety effective when a ship had some speed,
by màking use of the tug's_mass and the hydrodynamic
forces on the tug's hull. The increasing size of ships
required the introduction of more powerful tugs. Modem
conventional tugs are more manoeuvrable and have
more engine power and generally a smaller length/width
ratio. These tugs are still effective when a ship has speed. 1
.,· - tJ.. •• - -. ,dii
Due to the limitation in capabilities of conventional tugs,
new tug types have been introduced such as tugs with Figure 3.14: Towing on a line at the approach and push-pull
azimuth propulsion. Also, VS tugs have for inany years while mooring.
been used for towing on a line.
the better the capabilities are applied to shiphandling.
When more than two tugs ate used during berthing the The method is practised where mainly tractor, reverse­
forward and aft tug will usually stay _on the towing line tractor or ASD-tugs are used.
to control approach speed towards a berth while the
other tugs push at the ship's side. Coml?inations ofthe above systems
ln many ports various tug types are operated and to
Tugs towing on a line during approach towards a berth assist larger ships more than two tugs are often required.
and push-pullwhile mooring Moreover, port entry or berthing mahoeuvres can be so
This assisting method is beconúng common practice in complicated that not just one assisting method is used
ports where towing on a line is carried out with highly but a combination. As an example of a combined method
manoeuvrable tugs such as tractor, reverse-tractor or the assisting m:ethod applied in an Australian port for
ASD-tugs (see figure 3.14). The more familiar pilots and large bulk carriers entering the harbour is shown in
tug captains become with the capabilities of these tugs, figure 3.15✓ opposite.
82 Tug Use in Port
engine is not an option because of the wind or because
poor steering performance with stopped engine; ln these
cases, the time that the stem tug is pulling can take much

Figure 3.15: Combination of different assisting methods. Keeping ship's speed under control is becoming more
Reverse-tractor tugs or ASD-tugs alongside and on a line aft. A commonly utilised. Tugs should be capable of doing so
conventional tug forward. A good configuration for steering and, but vibration on board the tugs can be tremendous. For
in particular, when only a short stopping distance is available. this reason tug masters may be unhappy with the speed
Nearer the berth one of the tugs alongside has to shit to the control method when it is used for long periods of time.
other side to push. See also .earagraph 4.3.4.

Speed control by stern tug

3.2.2 Push-pull versus towing on a line
Omni-directional stem tugs are sometimes used to: The push-pull method has been discussed aswell as
• brake the ship's speed or; towing on a line, and even the possibility of using a
• to keep the ship's speed at a low level of, eg, 3-4 combination of both methods.
knots which is lower than the ship's Dead Slow
Ahead speed, while the ship keeps its engine running Tugs operating alongside in the push-pull modehave
in order to be able to steer. the advantage that they can act rather quickly with short
response times, which is of particular importance during
The first can be necessary in case of an engine break­ berthing operations. The risks associated with tugs
down and the ship has to be stopped, or perhaps when working in dose proximity to the bow of a ship having
approaching the tuming circle to help in braking the speed, such as interaction forces and tuming moments,
speed. Simultaneously, the method can be used to avoid are negated.
the transverse effect of the ship's propeller when the
engine is running astern which could have a negative On the other hand, there are some drawbacks having
éffect on the manoeuvre. Toe time that the tug is pulling tugs operating in this way:
is usually only short. • Towlines are often very short which presents a
problem in wave conditions.
The second method is utilised when approaching a • Whert pulling with short towlines, there is a loss of
lock (see figure 3.16), when passing a narrow bridge in pulling effectiveness caused by the tug's propeller
windy conditions with a high windage vessel, or when wash hitting the ship's hull at right angles. Tugs
moored ships have to be passed with a low speed. It is may lengthen the towline if equipped with a towing
also used when the Dead Slow Ahead speed of the ship winch and so decrease the negative effect.
is too high, more than 6-7 knots, too high forthe forward • In case of conventional tugs, pulling effectiveness
tugs to make fast safely, and continuously stopping the is low due to the low propeller performance when

Photo: Port Towage Amsterdam

Figure 3.16: Azimuth
tractor tug Arion (LOA
28.75m, beam 9.1m, BP
45 tons, pulling backwards
on tanker Torm Loke and
so enabling the tanker to
keep engine running and
ship steerable.
Tug Use in Port 83
engines are running astem.
• Combined width of ship and tugs can be a problem
in narrow passages such as locks and bridges.
• Tugs must be used on the opposite side to which ship
is to berth. There is no flexibility in berthing side as
soon as the tugs are fastened alongside.
• When the shiphas to be tumed, the turning lever is
relatively short, namely, the distance between the
two tugs at ship's side.
• With high windage ships and tugs fastened at the
leei;ide, the tugs may become jammed between ship
and shore or quay if the winds or gusts become too
• Toe tug masters have only little insight into the
manoeuvres being undertaken by the pilot.
Courtesy Panama Canal Authorify
When tugs are towing on a line the risks of interactions Figure 3.17: Ship entering the new Panama Canal Lock with
do play a role, in particular when passing a towline near forward tug with two towlines.
the bow. Response times may also be somewhat longer.
There may also be a loss of towing effectiveness when the
propeller wash impinges on the ship's hull, depending on
the length of the towline and towing direction.

Towing on a line has a number of important advantages:

• Towlines are longer, consequently effect of waves
and even waves of passing ships are smaller.
• H necessary total path width can be decreased to
approximately the width of the assisted ship, which
is important for bridge and lock passages. The
capability to do so is enhanced with conventional
tugs and ASD-tugs working over the stern. Total
path width can be further reduced by using two
towlines (see figures 3.9 and 3.13) and by specific tug
types, such as the Rotortug and the new types of tugs Photo: Adri van de Wege
with one propulsion unit forward and one aft. Figure 3.18: Ship entering locks at Terneuzen with forward tug
• With a tug towing on a line forward and aft, the ship Multratug 14 (Voith Schneider tug, LOA 34.50m, beam 11.60m,
can either moor with starboard or with port side BP 75 tons, with one towline.
alongside. times. However, securing tugs with two towlines can be
• Tugs operate at the safe side in case of crosswinds or problematic with the trend toward minimum numbers of
cross currents and avoid getting jammed. crew members on board ships.
• ln case where the ship has to be turned, the turning
lever is as large as possible. More modem tug types such as Rotortugs and the tugs
• Tug master has a better view of how the ship is with one propulsion unit forward and one aft have
behaving, eg, does it drift, tum in the wrong direction specific manoeuvring capabilities that are also able to
or too slowly, and can anticipate if necessary. assist within the ships width.See paragraph2.11.3 and
• During mooring tug masters have a good view of 2.18.3.
distances forward and aft and can inform the pilot if
there is a risk of hitting any obstacles. 3.2.4 Relationship between type oftug and
assisting method
3.2.3 Locks and. tug assistance As can be seen, there is a relationship between type of tug
Large ships entering locks are assisted by tugs in various and assisting method used. An essential factor is whether
ways. ln most cases just one towline is used (see figures a tug should be suitable to operate at a ship's side, tow
3.16 and 3.18). However it núght also be possible that the on a line, or both. For the attentive reàder it will also be
assisting tugs use two tow lines from two independent clear that the most suitable tugs are not always available
winches as is the case in the new locks of the Panam.a or used.
Canal (see figures 3.9 and 3.17). These tugs are well
equipped for this type of operations. Toe advantage ln the ports of Japan, Taiwan and Hong Kong there is
of using two lines is to enable the tug to be effective in one assisting method and mainly one type of tug. Toe
the limited width of the locks and to reduce response reverse-tractor tug with its omnidirectional propulsion

84 Tug Use in Port

at the stem is well suited to operate the assisting method be followed for berthing and unberthing. Depending on
in use - on a line at a ship's stem and alongside at the a ship's size, strength and engine power, berth location
forward shoulder. ASD-tugs are, however, also used and ice conditions, ships may berth or tinberth with or
for this method. It is anticipated that for these ports the without tug assistance. How tugs can be used during
reverse-tractor tug is the type that will usually be ordered berthing and unberthing in ice is considered in this
in the future. section. For tugs that are designed for operations in ice
condition, please see Chapter 2.
There is often a steady development towards a particular
tug type. For instance, yearsago there were still several Mooring in icy conditions is usually time consuming.
VS tugs in the Port of Yokohama. This type has now been Each port has its own method of assistance in ice
replaced by the typical Japanese type of tug, the reverse­ conditions. The methods discussed here are based on
tractor type. experieríce in one of the largest Baltic ports, where
shipping is impeded by ice for several months each year.
ln Europe towing on a line is general practice, originally Methods in other ice ports may not differ greatly.
just with conventional tugs. Due to the limitations
of conventional tugs, various tug types with omni­ 3.3.2 Types of ship for manoeuvring in ice
directional propulsion are now increasingly being used,
resulting in a change to more flexible ass_isting methods. As mentioned before, ships may berth or unberth in ice
This is the case in many other ports where originally with or without tug assistance. It depends on the size
mainly conventional tugs were used. of ships, strength and engine power, berth location and
ice-conditions. Regardless of a ship's size, strength and
ln the USA tugs operate at a ship's side most of the time, engine power, not allvessels can pass independently
and for many years the conventional tug was practically through ice owing to their construction and/ or loading
the only typé to be found. The limited manoeuvrability condition. A vessel operating in ice should be so
and low astem power of these tugs is partly compensated ballasted and trimmed that the propeller and rudder are
for by the use of extra towlines, installation of high completely submerged. If this cannot be done and the
engine power, specific propeller /rudder configurations propeller blades are exposed above the water or are just
and/ or specific assisting methods. Also in many ports under the surface, the risk of damage due to propellers
of the USA and Canada there is a tendency towards the striking the ice is greatly increased. Such vessels and
use of more flexible tug types - tractor tugs as well as other vessels which may damage their propellers or
reverse-tractor or ASD-tugs. As in many ports elsewhere, rudders when they have stemway and/ or when a ship's
conventional tugs will nevertheless continue to be built in engine is working astem and light draft vessels with
the future. bronze propellers which cannot be ballasted or trimmed
sufficiently require tug assistance.
ln Australian, New Zealand and South African ports
tugs mainly operate at a ship's side. The majority of the Note 1:
tug fleet already consists of those with omnidirectional Tests ín ice conditions in the North of the Bay of Bothnia in
propulsion and new buildings will mainly comprise this March 2016 with newly developed bronze propellers showed
type. that these propellers can be suitabte for vessels in 1A Super
ice conditions. The testing conditions gave reliable results and
As can be seen in Chapter 2, after the Voith tugs, ASD­ input for the propeller design for 1A and 1A Super ice class
and reverse tractor tugs, many new tug types have been vessels (for Ice Class notations, see paragraph 2.23).
developed with new and more extensive capabilities.
These are sometimes in response to the needs of a specific With respect to berthing procedures ships can be divided
port or just as a new idea. The increasing variation in tug into two main groups:
types offers an opportunity to select the most suitable tug • Ships that can work with their engines on Dead
for a port, taking into account port particulars, existing Slow on a spring line, without the danger of parting:
assisting methods and future developments in port and eg, small vessels and ships with controllable pitch
shipping. propellers.
• Ships with large engines, high starting power and high
3.3 Tug assistance in ice propeller thrust at minimum propeller revolutions, not
ablé to work at Dead Slow withoutparting the spring
3.3.1 lntroduction
line, even when a double line is used.
During winter months, shipping traffic to and from
several ports in the world is impeded by ice. Ports are
kept open as long as possible by icebreakers so that 3.3.3 Preparation before berthing or unberthing
ships can be berthed. When ice is not too thick; ships Before mooring, a berth should be prepared by an
themselves may be able to break it. In other cases an icebreaker or by tugs when ice is too thick for the
icebreaker, if available, or tugs otherwise, are required ship itself. Ice should be broken near the berth and an
to do so. But ali an icebreaker and tugs can do before a approach route towards the berth should be made. Prior
ship's arrival is to break the ice. They cannot completely to departure ice should be broken around a ship and a
remove ice from a berth, so certainprocedures have to departure route should be made.
Tug Use in Port 85
~ The most reliable tugs in ice conditions are normal ice
strengthened conventional tugs with open propellers.
Twin screw tugs are preferable because of their better
manoeuvring propertiés.

Propellers and tudders may have ice protection and

nozzles may be fitted with pràtection bàrs or ice knives
fore and aft of the nozzle. Although nozzle construction
itself may be adapted to ice conditions, in particular
shallow draft tugs with nozzles are very limited in
their performance when operating in ice, due to the fact
that nozzles are often blocked with ice. This does not
mean however that this type of tug is worthless in those
conditions. They can create an effective ·surface stream
for moving ice in situations as explained later. Deep draft
Photo: René Beaumont, Canada tugs are more reliable during towing operations.
Figure 3.19:Tug with ice scraper on the bow to clear ice from
dock and lock walls. See also figure 3.39, Toe best type of tug for operating in ice conditions are:
• Conventional twin screw tugs, preferably with open
3.3.4 Tugs and tug· assistance propellers and
The way ships are handled by tugs in ice conditions • ASO- tugs and comparable tugs.
depends largely on the type of tug. Tugs needto be Voith tugs are sometimes used as well.
adapted to work in ice conditions. Those with light
draft and propellers .fitted in nozzles have very limited With regard to open propellers, full scale triais were
capabilities, because when they are moving astern the carried out in 1984 in Finland with two ice-going tugs,
nozzles immediately fill with ice. Even with tug engihes one fitted with an open propeller and the other with a
on ahead ice can fill the nozzles. When this happens steerable nozzle, to investigate their performance in ice
the tug �hould immediately be stopped and the nozzles conditions. During a twenty hour test the nozzle of the
cleared by repeatedly reve:rsing propeller thrust. That latter tug was blocked twelve times and the tug had to be
is why this type of tug, and other tugs having problems stopped each time.
in ice, should not tow on a line. The assisted vessel
might not react fast enough and/ or not be able to stop ln this paragraph the tugs referred to are ASD-tugs
immediately to avoid danger of collision or worse. operating over the stern, because the percentage of
conventional tugs in the world total tug fleet is becoming
For these tugs in particular, but also in general, towing on ever smaller.
a line in ice conditions is not without risk, as explained
later. Towing ona line is only acceptable when a ship
is moving at a very controlled low speed on a straight 3.3.5 Ice blockage ahd nozzle clearing
course or when taking easy bends in a channel or river Performance of tugs with azimuth thrusters in nozzles
and during berthing or unberthing operations. Assistance operating in ice can be im:proved by proper designs such
in ice conditions during arrival and departure is then as adequate clearance between the hull and the thrusters
carried out mainly by pllShing and includes breaking the and by short reaction times for pitch changes or for
ice and sweeping away the ice from between ship .,md turning the thrusters adequ,ately to remove ice blotkages
berth. Without the help of tugs it is almost impossible, in as quickly as possible. Nevertheless, the thrusters will
most cases, to remove ice from between a ship and berth. inevitably become blocked now and then, although much
depeneis on the ice condition.
Note 2:
ln thick ice in the Port of St Petersburg, the ASD�tugs, when The following is based on the experience of tug masters
operating as bow tug, use ship lines which are taken on the aft skilled at operating in ice conditions.
hook (no aft winch avaílable) and then proceed with the bow
into the ice to protect propellers and nozzles. A key factor is that the tug master-should basically
operate in such a way that the risk of ice blockage is
While preparing a berth location, tugs often work very minimised. The tug master be able to recognize ice
dose to the dockside. Some objects may stick out or blockage problems quickly and react rapidly when
overhang, so tug sides should be clear of overhanging needed.
fenders, etc. Tugs should, of course, always be very
careful when working between a ship and the dockside. A signal for ice blockage is t hat one or both propellers/
thrusters start to vibrate. It may also be seen on the
With respect to tug towing wires or topes, they should meters which propeller is affected, or which one is most
retain their strength in low temperatures but should serious. Conventional tugs with fixed pitch propellers in
never be allowed into icy water because it will then be nozzles, should reverse the propellenevolutions to clear
very hard to handle them. the ice out of the noziles.

86 Tug Use in Port

FPP propeller, the clearing procedure starts.
2. The loss of power will be first compensated by
increasing the power of the other propeller.
3. Then the propeller of the blocked thruster will be
set for 30 per cent astern. The tug's speed will drop
� . ··
unless the power of the other propeller is sufficiently
_,. .. -· ··' .. . increased, especially important during operations.
1 4. Mostly it works, otherwise sarne system should be
vibration, stop propell used as with fixed pitch propeller.

It is also possible that ice blocks become trapped between

two blades of a controllable pitch propeller. The tug

{l �2 [}�
master is then not able to adjust propeller pitch affecting
operations. This can lead to damage. ln this case also, the
sarne system should be used as with fixed pitch propellers.

It will be clear that ice blockage can be risky during

tug operations, in particular when a tug is fastened by
thrusters crosswise to blow out ice its towline to a ship having way on, depending on the
location of the tug and the way the tug is operating.

O?:-':' ·,:· ·
' ,·- ;;;;_8, ,·'
Regardless of good clearing procedures, nozzles and
' ' __ propellers often do become damaged when working in

- - ' .
ice, or sometimes nozzles get even lost. Thruster remova!
-- . :!
at ship yards is someti.mes considered, although this is

. _r �
. -· -
not a simple process.
3 The risks mentioned above are further illustrated in the
thruster can be turned 180 degrees several time pictures in the following paragraphs.

Figure 3.20: Schematic overview clearing procedure. 3.3.6 Berthing in ice

ln case of controllable pitch propellers, if possible, pitch A berth should be approached at a small angle. As soon
should be reversed to get the ice out. as the forward spring is secured the engine should be set
to Dead Slow Ahead. Propeller revolutions or p:i:opeller
pitch should be increased gradually, just avoiding
With ASD-tugs and comparable tugs possibilities are
breílkin.g the spring. It is best to double the spring and
the rudder should be used to swing the stem of a vessel
in an:d out and away from the dockside. Toe water flow
If the tug still has speed through the water, one thruster
caused by the propeller will force ice out from between
can be declutched and thruster tumed to wash the ice
the ship and the dockside and wash it away astem of
out. When cleared, the thruster can be tumed back, the ship. The engine should be kept running until the
clutched-in and rpm be increased. If the other thruster is propeller wash has swept away all loose ice. Toe ship can
blocked as well, it can then be declutched and tumed till then be berthed. ln this way, provided it is weak ice, it
the ice is washed out. Then it can be turned back and be can be removed completely from between the ship and
clutched-in and rpm be increased. It may even happen berth. In the case of dense and thick ice the assistance of
that tbis has to be done three times in five minutes. tugs is required.
Other methods often used are: In some cases berth location could be such that a berth
A. Thrusters withfixed pitch propellers can be approached parallel to the dock (see figure.3.21).
1. Tug master feels a vibration of the propeller. In this case ice may be pushed away by the bow. If there
Propeller will be stopped and declutched. is unbroken ice on the starboard side it will push the ship
2. Both thrusters will be set crosswise in such a way towards the berth and prevent her swinging out. Care
that the working propeller can blow out the ice out should be taken to avoid anyice getting between ship
of the blocked thruster. Care should be taken that the and dock. It may be necessary to move the ship forward
working propeller does not get blocked by ice. and astern a few times to move the ice out or to press
the ice together between ship and dock. This can only be
3. In addition, the blocked thruster can be turned 180° done in the case of young and weak ice.
severa! times, until the ice is out of the thruster.
Sometimes, approaching parallel to the dock may not be
B. ASD-tugs with variable pitch propellers. possible due to the presence of large pans of ice or dense,
1. As soon as the tug master feels vibratfon of the thick ice directly in the ship's track. Other methods
Tug Use in Port 87
'· '•·.�

--- -- --

Figure 3.21: Ship approaches the berth nearly parallel to the dock. Ice is pushed away by the bow. The ship is pressed towards the
berth by unbroken ice on the starboard side.

A B e

Figure 3.22: Tug assistance

D in ice during approach to the
berth and while mooring.

· .. \

--� -. � .. ), : ..· .

Figure 3.24: Tug sweeping ice away from between ship

and dock.
swing its stern in and out by rudder action and use of the
engine, as explained.
Photo: Ca1>tain Sergel Mllchakov, St Petersburg
Figure 3.23: Tug Tomado (ASD-tug type 281 O; 4,250hp) Sweeping ice away from round the bow area can also be
sweeping ice away between ship and berth. Ship's spring line done effectively by a tug just ahead of the ship (see figure
is ashore. 3.24). With its stem directed towards the ship's bow, the
should then be adopted such as the use of tugs. Severa! tug can sweep ice away by putting its engines ahead. ln
prócédures for the use of tugs in ice during an approach this case the ship should not pass any head lihes, which
towards a berth while berthing or unberthing .are now would prevent the tug working in this way.
Since ice atthe bow is usually squeezed between bow
and dock, getting it out is very difficult. Good results can
Jn general, while approaching a berth in ice, the bow be achieved when there are 20-30m of free berth ahead
of the vessel should be kept as dose as possible to the of a ship's planned position. The ship should approach
berth with the assistance of a tug pushing at the bow (see its berth ahead of the planned position (position 1 of
figure 3.22 A, B). The ice between the bow and the dock figure 3.25). Breaking ice at the outer side of the ship and
will tendto push the bow aside. After the forward spring sweeping ice away from between the ship and dock are
has been secured the tug can break the ice outside the then cartied out. The ship can then be brought alongside
ship and then wash the ice away from between the ship and moved astem while the tug is constantly pushing the
and the dock (see figure 3.22 C, D). The ship itseH can bow towards the dock.
88Tug Use in Port
Figure 3.25: Mooring in ice when some 30m free berth is Figure 3.30: Two tugs operating bow-to-bow clearing ice
available in front of the bow position. between ship and berth while other tugs keep the ship in
A bow thruster can also be very effective in sweeping ice position.
away (see figure 3.26). A ship should approach the berth
atan angle. After the forward springs and head lines Another method by which good results are obtained
are ashore, the stém is taken as far as possible out by is moving the ship astem towards the berth to moor
rudder and ship's engine. The bow thruster should then with its starboard side alongside (see figure 3.27). After
be set to take the bow off in order to create a water flow approaching the berth at a small angle and securing the
between ship and dock. The bow should be held to the back spring, the engine should be set for astern. The
dockside by the ship's ropes and by the pushing tug. The propeller stream is normally very strong and will move
water flow of the bow thruster will sweep ice away from the ice between the ship and dock quickly in the direction
between the ship and dock. of the bow. The bow should be swung in and out by tug
or bow thruster. This method is used and suitable for
larger vessels, as propeller thrust astem is lower than on
-- ) ahead and consequently the tension in the spring line(s)
-----: .. will be less.

Figure 3.26: Cornbination of tug and bow thruster while

,_ . - . \,

Figure 3.27: Good results when approaching the berth astern Photo: Captain Sergel Milchakov. St Petersburg
and mooring starboard side alongside. Figure 3.31: Tug sweeping ice away between ship and berth. A
second tug, ASD-tug Akmal near the bow, is making roam for
the ice coming out.

These berthing procedures whereby a ship uses engine

and spring lines is not suitable for ships with large engines
and high starting power and/or high power on Dead
Slow. All operations in ice with these ships are normally
carried out by tugs. After approaching the berth at a small
Figure 3.28: Tug assistance when mooring in ice with ships and angle, a spring line and head line are made fast forward
powerful engines. (see figure 3.28). One stem tug on a line is used to take the
stern from, the berth and a second tug is used for pushing
the stem towards the berth. This tug will also clear the ice
between ship and berth. Ship's propeller wash is not used.
Berthing will, in general, take a long time.
ln some cases, when possible, it is better to approach the
berth astem with a stem tug towing on a line (see figure
Figure 3.29: Ship approaching the berth astern. One aft tug 3.29). By giving short 'kicks ahead' on the ship's engine to
secured. Occasional bursts ahead on the engine blow stop the vessel, ice will be pushed away from the dock in
away the ice. the direction of ship's movement.
Tug Use in Port 89
Figure 3.32: Ship of medium size departing. Before departure
tugs have broken ice around her in areas some 20-40m from
bow and stern.

-. .. --,-
�.�:.!' --� _-:._ _.e,;-

Photo: Captain Sergei Milchakov, St Petersburg

Figure 3.36: Ship entering the port backwards through the ice
with after tug fastened with ship's line.

Figure 3.33: Unmooring bow first. A stern tug is required when

ice near the stern needs to be broken and when the stern may
touch the berth when the bow is puUed off. Sometimes a third
tug is required to break ice alongside the vessel.

,- -

--- •._,r _----r,�----•- • •-

.. - ;._.

Photo: Captain Sergei Milchakov, St Petersburg

Figure 3.34: ASD-tugs Tornado and Akma/preparing a turning
circle in ice for the ship to be turned.
Photo: Captain Sergei Milchakov, St Petersburg
Figure 3.37: Ship moving backwards with after tug fastened with
two ship's fines - ASD-tug Sevruga (3,200 hp).

With large ships, good results in removing ice from

between ship and berth are sometimes obtained with
two tugs working bow-to-bow. These two tugs, moving
together forward and astem between the ship and berth,
Figure 3;35: Ghannel through the ice prepared by icebreakers sweep ice away. The safety of these tugs is ensured by
or strong tugs. A ship moving astern through the ice is an additional three tugs keeping the ship in position as
safest. When the stern tug is stopped in or by ice the ship can shown in figure 3.30. Obviously, a large number of tugs is
immediately be stopped by propeller. required in this case. ln case of a small ship one tug could

90Tug Use in Port

Photo: Jean Hémond,. Canada
Figure 3.38: Tugs operating in
ice. Docking bulker Panagia in
Quebec Harbour after steering
be use for clearing ice by setting one thruste:r on ahead 3.3.9 Finally
and one on astem, so both thrusters in opposite direction. Assisting ships when berthing or unberthing is an
important task in ice covered waters, a task which takes
3.3.7 Unberthing in ice much time and effort.
Before unberthing, tugs should break ice around the ship
and in areas of about 20-40m distance from the bow and However, engine and/ or rudder failures may happen on
stem. board ships when proceeding through ice. ln that case the
available tugs should also be able to assist, as is shown in
Some vessels can be taken off the berth by the stern with figure 3.38.
the assistance of a stern tug towing on a line (see figure
3.32). At the bow the ice between bow and dock will The tugs may have to carry out specific duties in ice, for
prevent the ship from coming too dose to the berth. ln instance scraping ice from the walls of docks and locks.
addition, the stem tug will drift the ice between the ship Some tugs on the St Lawrence Seaway are equipped to do
and dock, which again prevents the ship from coming too so; they have on the bow ice scrapers as can be seen on
dose to the dock when moving astern. the tug in figure 3.39.
Sometimes it may be necessary to unberth the ship bow
first (see figure 3.33). A second tug may then be needed
to break ice near the stem and to prevent the stern
from coming too dose to the berth. Sometimes even the
assistance of a third tug may be required to crush ice at
the outei: side of the ship.

When a departing ship has to be swung around after

being unberthed this should be carried out in a prepared
area or ch<llmel in the ice. This area or channel should be
prepared by large tugs or icebreakers prior to departure.
Tugs handling the ship can assist the ship in swinging
and break ice when necessary.

3.3.8 Safety of tugs in ice

Tugs are at great risk when towing on a line through a
channel in ice. As previously mentioned, when a tug has Photo: René Beauchamp, Canada
to stop due to nozzle blockage with ice, the ship should Figure 3.39: ASD-tug Ocean Serge Genols with ice�scraper on
also be stopped immediately. The tugmay also enter the bow (7 January 2018).
dense ice and consequently lose speed very quickly. The
assisted ship, therefore, should always use engines with Further practical and useful information regarding
utmost care. Even then the safety of the tug is still at risk. navigating and manoeuvring in ice can be found in:
It is for these reasons that the safest method of towing on Handling Ships in Ice by Captain J Buysse. The Nautical
a line is moving a ship astem (see figure 3.35). The engine Institute
should at a11 times be ready to go ahead. When necessary, Polar Ship Operations by Captain Dul<e Snider. The
the ship can be stopped immediately. Nautical Institute

Tug Use in Port 91

4.1 lntroduction
Now that various assisting methods and types of tug
have been introduced to the reader the more practical
subject - effective ship handling with tugs - is addressed.

Whena ship is stopped in the water, meaning she has no

speed through the water, the effect of, let us say, a 30 tons
BP tug is the sarne irrespective of type, assuming thàt the
tug operates in the most effective way. Differences in tug
performance mainly become apparent when a ship has
speed through the water. The emphasisirt this chapter,
therefore, is on tug performance while assisting ships
under way.

When considering effective ship handling with tugs there

are, apart from the essential issue of bollard pull, two
very important aspects to be considered: B
• Correct tug positioning.
• The righttype of tug.

Different tug operating positions are considered in

relation to their effect on a ship. Tii.e performance of
different basictug types are discussed, taking ínto
account both the various assisting methods and the
different tug positions relative to the ship. With respect
to type of tug, specífic aspects of various tug types are
necessarily discussed in a fairly general way, since
there are so many variations in design within each
type. Reviewing them all individually goes far beyond
the scope of this book. However, knowing the basic
principles may also result in a better understanding of
the variations in design of these tug types. The sarne
applies to the Related tug types and the FAST tugs, the Figure 4.1: Location of the pivot point for a ship at speed
tugs with one thruster forward and one aft. The related Situation A: Ship turning with starboard rudder. The pivot point
tug types have a certain similarity with the basic tug lies between bow and amidships
types. Both tug types have been addressed in Chapter 2, Situation B: A tug is pushing forward. Although the pivot point
along with their specífic capabilities,. lies further att, the effect forward is low because of the opposing
hydrodynamic forces also centred forward. When starboard
4.2 Basic principies and definitions rudder is also applied the pivot point moves further forward
Fôr a gooci understanding of tug performance and ship Situation C:Atug is pushing att. The lateral resistance forward
handling with tugs some basic principles and definitions contributes to the swing. The pivot point lies far forward,
are first considered. These include the pivot point, towing particularly when starboard rudderis also applied.
point, pushing point and lateral centre of pressure, direct
of the vessel to be assisted is very important. It affects
and indirecnowing arid tug stability.
the choice of operating positions for the assisting tugs.
When a ship is dead in the water and forward thrust is
4.2.1 Pivot point applied with pórt or starboard rudder, the pivot point
Toe pivot point is an imaginary floating poínt, situated lies farJorward. As soon as a ship gathers speed the
somewhere in the vertical plane through stem and pivot point moves aft. Once a ship is in a steady turn
stern, around which a vessel tums when forced into a with rudder hard over the pivot point settles in a position
directional change. The form of the submerged body, approximately one third of the ship's length from the
rudder size and type, trim, underkeel clearance and bow (see figure 4.1 A).
direction of movement all affect the position of the pivot
point of a vessel. The exact location of the pivot point is For a good understanding, figure 4.1 requires a little
thei:efore not stationary but variable. explanation. Ih this figure three ships are shown with
different forces working on the ships; A force applied to
For effective tug assistance the location of the pivot point a ship, for instance a tug force or a rudder force, gives

92 Tug Use in Port

Figure 4.2: Location of the
pivot point in a ship with zero
Situation A: Tugs of equal
power pushing/pulling
forward and aft. The pivot
point lies amidships. The
tugs towing on a line have a
longer lever and so a largar
Situation B: Forward tug
pushing; the pivot point fies
far aft. When an after tug is
pushing, the pivot point lies
far forward.
a transverse force and a turning moment, resulting in pushing forward tries to move the bow to starboard,
a lateral velocity and a rate of tum. The arrow V is the say. To.is creates an opposing hydrodynamic force, also
direction ship's centre of gravity (g) may move as a result centred forward (see figure 4.lB). Toe hydrodynamic
of th.e lateral velocity caused by the rudder force or htg moment counteracts the tuming moment exercised by
force, and the forward velocity of the ship. The lateral the tug. Toe effect of the pushing tug is very small. This
movement of th.e ship is opposed by the hydrodynamic is also one of the reasons why the effect of a bow thruster
forces centred forward on th.e ship having headway, is small on a ship making slow to moderate speed ahead.
which also creates a turning moment 1his turning ln addition, the tug's underwater resistance counteracts
moment opposes (situation B) or assists (situation C) the the turn.
turning moments created by th.e tugs. Toe location of
the pivot point (PP) results frqm the motion of the ship lt should however be noticed that the effect of the
caused by the various forces mentioned working on the forward tug differs wíth ship's hull form, draft and
ship. trim. For conventional ship forros, on even keel in deep
or shallow water, the opposing hydrodynamic force is
Beamy full bodied ships have a smaller tuming diameter indeed centred forward, as mentioned in 'Performance
and a further aft pivot point than slender ships. When and effectiveness of omni-directional stern drive tugs'
a shlp is down by th.e head turning diameter is also less (see References). When, for instance, taking a tanker
and th.e pivot point lies further aft than when on an even in ballast and trimmed by the stem, the opposing
keel. hydrodynamic force is centred much more aft, resulting
in a·much 1arger effect of the pushing tug forward.
Turning diameter is independent of ship's speed as long
as engine propeller revolutions or propeller pitch match When a tug starts pushing a ship underway at a position
a ship's speed but is dependEmt on rudder angle applied. aft, the pivot point shifts forward. Toe pushing force has
When in shallow water, such as in most port areas, a long lever artn and the lateral resistance forward then
tuming diameter increases considerably, due to the larger contributes to the swing (see figure 4.1C). It is evident
hydrodynamic forces opposing the tum. fhat fhe further forward and/or aft of the pivot point that
tugforces are exerted on a ship, the longer the lever arm
A ship moving astem has its pivot point somewhere and hence the more effective the assistance will be.
between stem and midshlps when tuming, eg, by use
of a bow thruster. Toe exact position of the pivot point, Aship dead in the water (see figure 4.2A) with one tug
therefore, is different for each individual ship, ship pushing (or pulling) forward and one with the sarne
condition and circumstances. bollard pull, pushing (or pulling) aft, pivots around its
midships when on even keel. For the same size of vessel
The pivot point also changes position when, in addition and sarne conditions, rate of tum depends on the tug's
to rudder force, other forces such as bow thruster or bolla:td pull artd on the lever arms between tugs. The
push/pull forces from an extemal origin, such as tugs, longer the lever arm the larger the tuming effect of the
are applied. When, in order to assist a ship under speed tugs. When a tug pushes at the bow or stern of a ship that
ànd in a tum, a tug starts pushing at the bow in the is stopped in the water, the ship turns around a point
direction of the tum, the pivot point moves aft. This is located approximately a ship's width from the stem or
because the ship tends to turn around a point which bow respectively (see figure 4.2B),
lies further aft than when only rudder force is applied.
Although the lever arm of tug force would be rather long Other forces of externa! origin that affect the position
the effect is not very pronounced, so there is another of the pivot point are wind and current. ln port areas,
aspect to be considered. As explained earlier, a tug wind and current may vary in speed and direction
Tug Use in Port 93
Source: VoithTurbo Schneider Propulslon
Figure 4.3: Staple on Voith tractor tug Velox- see red arrow Photo: Plet Slnke
(LOA 37.0m, beam 14.0m, BP 65 tons, steering force at 10 Figure 4.4: Double fairleads on ASD-tug Venus (LOA 24.47m,
knots 131 tons). beam 11.33m, BP ahead 67.4 tons, astern 65.6 tons).
depending on location. Relative wind and current The last three systerns mentioned shift the towing point
directions may also vary during a transit to or from a to the 1ower side of a tug heeling due to the towline force
berth due to changes in a ship's heading. For instance, and so decrease the heeling lever, as will be shown in the
when entering a harbour basin -from a river the current stability paragraph below. These systems have a positive
gradually detreases but also changes in relative direttion. effect on a tug's performance and on a tug's stability.
As a result, the influence of wind and current on a ship ln particular the effect of a carrousel system is largely
fluctuate. Depending on the angle of attack and point of positive on safety of operations regarding stability and
applicatioh, wind and current may decrea.se or increase performance. Some tugs have more than one towing
the rate of tum, moving the pivot point furtherforward point, eg, some Voith tugs have an additional towing
or aft, or may have only a sideways effect. point at the tug's aft end.

4.2.2 Towing point, pushing point and lateral Toe gob rape system allows the towing point to be shifted
in a longitudinal direction, increasing tug's performance. If
centre of pressure. Direct towing and indirect the tówing point is shifted to the after end of the tug, it has
towing. Skegs. also a positive effect on safety of the tug.
The relative positions of the centres of three different
resultant forces are mainly responsible for a tug's Deck equipmentwill be further addressed in Chapter 7.
performance. These are centre of thrust, the towing
or pushing point and the lateral centre of pressure of For tugs pushing at a ship's side the contact point or
the incoming water flow. ln particular, the mutual pushing point is of importance.
relationships between towing or pushing point, centre
of thrust and centre of pressure affect not only the Before discussing the capabilities and limitations of
effectiveness but also the safety of a tug. different tug types the towing and pushing point in
relation to the location of propulsion and centre of
The towing point pressw-e are considered,
For tugs towing t:m a line, the towing hook or towing
winch is not necessarily the towing point. Toe towing The lateral centre of pressure
point is that point from where the line goes in a straight Toe lateral centre of pressure is a non-stationary point. Its
line from the tug towards the ship. ln most cases it is location depends on the underwater hull form including
the staple or fairlead. The location of the towing point is appendages such as rudder, propellers and skeg, on the
extremely important with respect to stability, safety and trim ofthe tug and the angle of attack of the incoming
performance of a tug. water flow. The influence of rudder and propellers on the
The towing points shown in figures 4.3 and 4.4 are fixed location of the centre of pressure seerns to be rather high.
points.Towing poinfs can also be tnovable, as is the case
with the: Tractor tugs and espeóally VS tugs have a large skeg aft,
• gob rape system; resulting in an aft lying location of the centre of pressure.
• radial towing hook;
fucoining water flow exerts a force on the tug. The point
• carrousel system. and DOT system (see Chapter 2); of applicap.on of this force is the lateral centre of pressure.
• azimuth friction free towing point, auto position Toe direction and magnitude of the force depends on the
escort winch, certain staple designs. underwater lateral plane and shape, the angle ofattack,

94 Tug Use in Port

the under keel clearance and on the speed squared. pressure C. Toe force.in the towline in combination with
Speed, therefore, is a dominant factor. force L creates a counter-clockw·ise tuming moment.

The exact location of the lateral centre of pressure and the Consider two locations of propulsion - position Ps for
magnitude and direction of the resultant force created stem driven fugs, a conventional fug for example, and
· by the incoming water flow for different angles of attack position Pt for tractor fugs. Toe smaller the distance
and speeds can best be determined in a towing tank. The between T and C the smaller is the turning moment.
locations of the centre of pressure mentioned later are Thus less steering power, by either rudder deflection or
merely an indication and are based on observations and omnidirectional propellers, is needed to counteract that
information, eg from Voith. fuming moment. Consequently, more engine power
is available for towing. If propulsion is located aft at
\Vhen water flow towards a tug comes from abeam, Ps, starbóard rudder or thrust is needed, giving a little
caused either by crosswise movement of a tug through more drag but also an additional force in the towline. If
the water or by a current at right angles, the centre of propulsion is located forward (Pt) then sideways steering
pressure generally lies behind midships in a position power is needed, but in the opposite direction. This
about 0.3 to 0.4 x LWL from aft. For conventional tugs consequently decreases the towline force.
it is probably more often in the vicinity of 0.3 x LWL
from aft and for tractor tugs closer to 0.4 x LWL from With increasing speed, force F increases and
aft. Reverse-tractor fugs and ASD-fugs may have a more consequently lift force L. Toe higher the speed the more
forward lying centre of pressure, depending on the hull steering effort is needed. Therefore, the higher the speed
and skeg design. the larger the difference in towline forces between a
conventional and tractor tug.
When a fug turns with its bow into the direction of
water flow, the centre of pressure moves forward. The Towline forces also create list. Considering the direction
smaller the angle between incoming water flow and fug's of steering forces it is evident that with the propulsion
heading the more forward the centre of pressure lies. For located in position Ps the sideways steering forces
conventional and tractor tugs the centre of pressure does increase the fug's list, while with propulsion located in Pt
not generally move forward of amidships (0.5 x LWL). steering forces counteract the list caused by the towline
Reverse-tractor tugs and ASD-tugs may experience a force. When an ASD-tug is operating like a conventional
position of centre of pressure forward of midships with a fug its high steering forces result in larger heeling forces.
forward incoming water flow. When a fug is fuming with This is also due to the fact that the centre of pressure of
the stem into the water flow the centre of pressure moves this fug type lies generally further forward than with
aft and with an acute angle of incoming water flow will conventional tugs, resulting in a larger tuming moment
liefar aft. to overcome. The larger heeling moment is more or less
compensated for by the large beam of this fug type.
Figure 4.5 shows a tug moving ahead, towing on a line,
assisting a ship under speed. The resultant force created Al�1.0ugh the towline position discussed here is the most
by incoming water flow is force F, assumed to be centred effective for both conventional and tractor fugs when
approximately near amidships, location C. Force F can operating as a forward tug on a line, the towing point on
be resolved into lift force L and drag force D, comparable tractor fugs is located further aft for safety reasons and
with the lift and drag forces on rudders or aeroplane for better performance as stem tug. This is explained
wings. Lift force L gives an additional force on the later. Toe consequence of the further aft towing point on
towline and drag force D has to be overcome by the fug's a tractor tug is an even less effective fug as forward tug.
thrust. Towing point T lies a little behind the centre of More sideways steering power is needed to counteract
the larger anticlockwise turning moment, resulting in a
further decrease in towline force. By giving more engine
power in order to achieve the sarne towline force as a
conventional fug would exert, the tug comes more in line
with the towline, resulting in higher turning moment
and drag force to be overcome. At higher speeds drag
force may become so large that a tug is unable to react
sufficiently to the force and swings around.

The consequence is that when working forward a

conventional fug is more effective when towing on a
line than a tractor fug in case the ship has speed on.
The better the omnidirectional thrust performance of
a tractor tug the more effective it will be. Reducing the
underwater resistance of a tractor fug would increase
its effectiveness as a forward fug. However, this would
have consequences for its effectiveness as stern fug when
Figure 4.5: Forces created on assisting tug moving ahead. operating in the indirect mode whereby use is made of
Tug Use in Port 95
1 ' .
I · .1'.

; ' \

Figure 4.6: Forces created on assisting tug, moving astern

Pt is centre of propulsion for tractor tugs;
Ps centre of prapulsion for conventional tugs and ASD-tugs.

the hydrodynamic forces on the tug's hull. Therefore a

Figure 4.7: Tug working on a gob rope. Ship has a very low
compromise has often to be found for the location of the speed ahead. Tug can steer the vessel by going ahead or astern
towing point and also for the underwater profile of a tug. on the engine. Conventional twin screw tugs don't always need a
gob rope; they can make a couple by the propellers
ln figure 4.6 the tug is moving astem through the water. to stay broadside.
The centre of pressure lies much further aft, eg, at location
C for conventional tugs as well as for tractor tugs. between the after end of the tug and the towing bitt or
winch. By shifting the towing point from T1 to T2 (see
Tractor tugs are considered fust. The towing point Tis figure 4.7), the tug can stay brQadside on and steer the
very dangerous, not only because of the large heeling ship bymoving ahead ór astem using the tug's engine.
moment caused by the hydrodynamic force on the tug's By shifting the towing point to a position at the stem of
hull, but also because large crosswise steering forces (at the tug, the tug can be pulled astem by a vessel without
Pt) have to be exerted by the tug in order to compensate the danger of capsizing. The tug can then use its engine
for the turning moment created by the incoming to control the ship's speed. Conventi.onal twin screw tugs
water flow, giving additional forces in. the towline and often use the propellers instead of a gob rape to keep the
additional heeling forces. At higher speeds and/or tug in the position as indicated in figure 4.7.
too large angles of attack of incoming water f l ow the
resulting heeling forces may cause capsizing of the tug. As can be seen at figure 4.7 the use of the ship's engine on
The large vertical distance between the propulsion units ahead can become very dangerous for the tug. The ship's
and towing point also contributes to the high heeling propeller wash will hit the underwater hull of the tug
moment. Therefore although towline forces are high for and so given it an extra heeling force, in addition to the
tractor tugs it is much safer to locate the towing point heeling force created by the towline force.
aft at a small distance abaft C, the centre of pressure for
smaller angles of attack. (ln VS tractor tugs the towing Relationship of movable towing points and centre of
point lies generally just above the middle of the skeg) The pressure is of even greater importance.
tug then comes in line with the towline when its engines In figure 4.7 is shown how a gob rape works in relation
are stopped and very little steering power is needed with the location of the towing point. If the towing point
to keep the tug in the most effective position when the would be shifted far aft, as can be dane with a gob rope
indirect towing method is applied. winch, the tug will swing with the stem towards the
attended ship.
Neither do conventional tugs operate as shown in figure
4.6, because with higher speeds it is almost impossible Therefore, the location of a carrousel system and DOT
to steer the tug safely and is therefore very dangerous. system is very critica!. With a towline force at aboutright
If the angle of attack increases, the increase in towline angles to the tug, the location of the towing point should
forces might cause the tug to capsize. At very low speeds be such that no turning moment is created with the
conventional tugs may operate broadside, for instance as hydrodynamic force working at the centre of pressure.
a forward tug steering a ship which is moving astem or
as a stern tug steering a ship moving ahead. Especially on Toe other systems, such as the radial towing hook,
single screw tugs, this can only be clone with a gob rope azimuth friction free towing point, auto position escort
or by passing the towline through a fairlead situated aft, winch and certain staple designs, don't move or move
as is the case on some combi- tugs. The gob rope system only a little in a longitudinal direction. This means that
is dealt with in more detail in Chapter 7. Using a gob rope the horizontal distance between towing point and centre
the towing point can be shifted to a position somewhere if pressure do not change much. Toe focus of these

96 Tug Use in Port

at speeds higher than five to six knots. With the indirect
towing method, the tug makes use of the hydrodynamic

111111111 111111111
forces created by incoming water flow on the tug's skeg
and/or underwater body. The aft lying towing point
of the tractor tug, and consequently the small distance
between towing point (T) and centre of pressure (C),
implies that only a little crosswise steering power of a tug
is needed to keep the tug in the most effective position to
exert the highest steering forces to the assisted ship.
The ASD-tug/reverse-tractor tug has generally a larger
distance between the towing point (T) and centre of
® pressure (C).Consequently, more crosswise power is
needed to keep the tug in the most effective position, thus
decreasing towline force.

ln the indirect towing mode tugs can give high initial

steering forces to a ship underway at speed, as can be
seen in some performance diagrams in section 4.3.4. As
soon as a ship starts turning she gets a drift angle and
speed of ship's stern, being at the outside of the tum,
increases initially, so tug's speed has to increase, resulting
in even higher steering forces. Toe indirect towing
method is further dealt with inChapter 9 - Escorting.

From this brief explanation of direct and indirect towing

it is apparent that the locations of the centre of pressure
and towing point are very critica!. A more forward lying
towing point in a tractor tug, closer to (C), results in
higher towline forces, but the safety of operations in the
@ indirect mode and as a result performance decreases.
A more forward lying centre of pressure in ASD/reverse­
Figure 4.8: Direct and indirect towing methods tractor tugs does not affect tug safety but increases the
Top: Direct Towing Method - A: Tractor tug; B: ASD/Reverse­ tug's performance as a stem tug.
tractor tug.
Position 1: Steering and retarding Position 2: Retarding. To minimise steering effort in keeping a VS aft tug in line
Bottom: lndirect Towing Method -A: Tractor tug B: ASO/ with an escorted vessel when no assistance is required,
Reverse-tractor tug. a second towing point is installed at the after end of
Position 1: Steering and retarding Position 2: Retarding. some VS tugs, which pins the tug under the towline
and reduces the steering effort required. When steering
systems is mainly on the crosswise movement of the assistance is required then the original towing point more
towing point. forward is used again, which should be possible without
releasing the towline.
Direct and indirect towi1tg metliod
The direct and indirect towing methods are explained
in figure 4.8: P is the propulsion,C is the location of the
centre of pressure and T is the towing point.

The direct towing method is carried out by an after tug

on a line at relatively low ship speeds.The tug pulls in
the required direction, either to give steering assistance
and/or to control the ship's speed. Tractor tugs assist
with their stern directed towards the stern of the assisted
ship and ASD/reverse-tractor types of tug assist with
their bow towards the stern. Whether tractor tugs or
ASD/reverse-tractor tugs are more effective in steering
control depends on the relation between the distance P-T
andC-T, the tug's engine power and thrust performance
in the pulling direction, but also on the tug's underwater
plane. The smaller the distanceCT in relation to PT the
better the tug'sperformance in the direct towing mode. Courtesy Kotug
Figure 4.9: Rotortug Endeavour (LOA 31.95m, beam 12.60m, BP
The indirect towing method is applied by an after tug 80 tons), operating in the indirect mode.

Tug Use in Port 97

ln ASD-tugs, specific designs are used to bring the (with skeg aft).It generates additional towing forces
centre of pressure more forward, eg in the USA ASD- when operatirig as stern tug in the indirect towing mode
tug Kinsman Hawk. This tug is designed with a deep because it increases the tug' s lateral underwater area
forefoot which results in a more forward position of the and brings the centre of pressure more aft, closer to
centre of pressure and the stern is cut away significantly the towing point. The skeg may have a specific forin to
to provide a dean flow to the azimuth propellers and generate the highest possible lift forces.
to push the tug's centre of pressure forward as well.
Forward skegs at the bow, or in combination with a b) An aft skeg on tugs n,ot being tractor tugs: A
bulbous bow, can be found on a number of ASD-tugs, vertical fin attached to the tug's underwater hull in the
which also brings the centre of pressure more forward. centreline of the after section at some distance before the
propellers, to give the tug a better course stability when
Focus has been on tractor tugs and ASD / reverse-tractor free-sailing ahead.
tugs. It gives a basic insight into the factors that play a
role and helps to understand the working of, for instanée, e) A flat vertical skeg, or box keel, in the centreline
the Related and FAST tug types. These tug types can also of severa! ASb-tugs and reverse-tractor tugs, which
be effective in the indirect mode, as has been shown in extends for some distance before thé propellers to the
Chapter2. forefoot and so bringing the centre of pressure more
forward, closer to the forward towing point. It provides
Pusliing point also better course stability when free-sailing ahead and
When puslüngat a ship's side, the larger the distance often, depending on skeg form, particularly astern,
between the propulsion unit(s) (P) and the pushing point because this is crucial for safe bow-to-bow operations
(Pu) in relation to thedistance between the centre of with a ship having headway. The skeg generates
pressure (C) and the pushing point (Pu.), the better the additional towing forces whén operating as .stem tug in
tug can work at rightangles (see figure 4.21). the indirect towing mode and when ASD-tugs operate as
conventional tugs ata ship having speed.
Skegs and their effects
Thetug's underwater form should be such that the d) Skeg at the bow of an ASO or reverse-tractor
tug can perform in the best possible way. Skegs can tug. Such a skeg improves the course stability when
contribute to a tug's performance and tugs are often free- sailing astem (not ahead) and increases a tug's
designed with some sort of skeg performance when operating as stem tug in the indirect
mode lllld to som:e extent as bow tug when operating
Apure harbour tug should in general be most effective bow-to-bow at a ship having headway.
at ship speeds below six to seven knots, when the
assisted ship is slowing down and has to stop its main e) Twin skegs as can be seen on some azimuth
engine, losing its controllability to a large extent and tracfor tugs and double skegs as is the case with the
during turning, berthing and unberthing ope:tations Gianotug.
when hardly any use can be made of the· ship' s own
manoeuvring <levices, except for bow and stern thrusters. A combination of the skegs mentioned can be found as
Such a harbour tug should be able to apply the highest well, for instance of skeg types e and d.
possible towing forces in alUhe required directions and
with a short response time. High pushing forces may When reading section 4.3 for the capabilities of the
be needed with thetug operating at right angles to the varióus tug types in the differenf situations, it is good tó
ship still having speed. Alow underwater resistance is consider at the sarne time the possible skegs and their
effects. However, stability will be addressed first.
therefore needed.

On the other hand, a tug may hàve to operate at higher 4.2.3 Stability
speeds, and escorting of ships may be one of the tug The book Tug Stability. A Practical Guide to Safe Operations,
tasks. Then a well designed tmder water body, including published by Toe ABR Company, UK, deals in detail
a skeg, plays an important role in generating high with tug sl:ability. The reader is therefore strongly
towing forces in the indirect mode by making use of the referred to this instructive publicationas it contains much
hydrodynamic forces workirtg on the tug's hull. practical information Some essential aspects will be
addressed below.
As can be seen a skeg may be effective for one task, but
ineffective for other tasks. With regard to skegs it should Qperational stability, one of the basic design
thérefore be well considered what is expected from a tug. requirements, is of great importance for harbour
There is a large variety of skegs and ongoing research and terminal tugs due to the nature of their work.
for the best skeg type. Mainly the following skegs can • Conventional tugs, when towing on a line as a forward or
be found on tugs, of which some have already been after tug, can experience very large athwartships towline
mentioned when discussing tug types: forces. Toe sarne appliesto ASD-tugs when towing on a
line as a conventional tug. High towline forces can also
a) Toe skegon tractor tugs. This type of skeg occur when conventional tugs are operating in the way
provides better course stability when free-sailing ahead showh in figure 4.7,

98 Tug Use in Port

Figure 4.10B: GM and Stability Levar GZ.
Figure 4.1 OA: Heeling forces working on a conventional tug
arm GZ. By plotting the righting arm at düferent heeling
when towing on a line. M = lnitial Metacentre. COP= Centre of
angles in a graph you will get the stability curve.
Pressure. COB = Centre of Bouyancy. CG = Centre of Gravity.
Basically the stability of a ship and tug is indicated by the
V= Transversa Speed.
distance between M and G,what is called the GM. It can
Tractor tugs and ASD/ reverse-tractor tugs also already be seeil.,the higher the centre of gravity G, the
éxperience high athwartships towline forces when smaller GM. Severa! factors may affect the location of G,
indirect towing. At high speeds these forces can be f ar in consequently GM, which might even be the case during
excess of a tug's bollard pull. Towline forces can increase tug operations.
even further due to dynamic forces caused,among
other things,by irregular engine performance and/or GM can even become negative,for instance in case of
tug control, tug movements due to waves, and when heavy ice growth on the superstructure ahd tnasts; a
towlines are used with too little stretch, such as steel most dangerous situation. Not only is GMimportant,but
wires or towlines made of HMPE fi.bres such as Dyneema also the range of the stability curve. Furthermore, ratios
and Spectra. between certain areas below the stability curve (righting
lever curve) and below heeling lever must comply with
Tugs with azimuth propellers may heel over appreciably certain regulatory requirements. To.is brief explanation
if thrust is suddenly applied athwartships. These tugs will also give a better understanding of the stability
tend to be powerful with respect to their size and for recommendations for tug masters given at the end of this
aziinuth tractor tugs in particular the deeply immersed section.
point of application of thrust,i.inplying a long heeling
lever,resulting in a large heeling moment. Whether the Th�refore, all these aspects should be taken into account
indirect or direct towing mode is applied this heeling when tug stability requirements are considered. Means
moment counteracts the heeling moment created by of increasing stability and reducing the heeling effects of
towline force. When conventional tugs tow on a line the extemal forces on a tug include the following:
heeling moment caused by transverse steering thrust
enlarges the heeling moment created by towline force,as High GM and good dynamic stability
explained when discussing lateral centre of pressure. The Good static and dynamic stability is required because of
sarne happens when ASD-tugs operate like conventional the high dynamic forces a tug experiences. A tug needs
tugs while towing on a line. See paragraph 2.11.1 for a considerable residual dynamic stability when,due to
similar situation with Rotortugs,which. also applies to a sudden force,she heels over considerably. Toe tug's
FAST tugs. In figure 4.10A heeling forces duê to towline beam has a large influence on its GM (Initial Metacentric
force,lateral resistance and steering force are shown Height). Making a tug beamier results in a larger GM and
for a single screw conventional tug. It gives an idea of righting moment,assuming all other factors influencing
the forces working on a tug,irrespecti.ve the type of its stability are unchanged. The length/width ratio. of
tug. The sarne forces are working on a1l the tug types as harbour tugs is decieasing and many modem tugs have a
mentioned in Chapter 2. length/width ratio of approximately 2.8:1 or less. Several
harbour tugs with lower length/width i:atios have been
Before going on,first a brief explanation of the most built, such as the USA tractor tug Broward (LOA 30m,
important aspects of stability. ln figure 4.10B a tug is BP 53 tons) with a length/width ratio of 2.5:1 or the
shown with a heeling angle. Toe centre of gravity,which Canadian reverse-tractor tug Tiger Sun (LOA 21.7m,
is average location of the weight of the tug,is indicated beam 10.7m, BP 70 tons) with a length/width ratio of
by G and the centre of buoyancy Bl is shifted to BO 2.0,as is the length/width ratio of the Giano tug. SDMs
because of the list. Ship's weight and buoyancy are equal, have a length/width ratio of even less, viz 1.8. There is
otherwise the tug would sink deeper or would raise. Toe an ongoing tendency to build beamier ASD-tugs. The
forces of weight and buoyancy combine to reduce the requisite of a larger beam is that freeboard should also be
list. The arm or lever between these forces is the righting increased, otherwise deck edges wi11 submerge• sooner.
Tug Use in Port 99
Tugs are sometimes designed with sponsons, which to the tmving point. Toe higher towline forces that can
create larger righting moments at smaller heeling angles. be generated and the lower centre of pressure result in
Sponsons are strongly flared sections in the sides of a larger heeling angles and consequently in higher stability
tug, commencing at or just below the waterline, Which requirements.
result in a substantial increase in deck area and reserve
buoyancy without increasing the beam of the watérline. Reducing the height of the towing point and shifting the
location to the lower tug side
Several factors have influence on a tug's stability. Toe heíght of the towing point above the lateral centre of
Increasing a tug's beam has already been mentioned. pressure should be as small as possible in order to reduce
Lowering the height of the deckhouse, and making the the heeling moment created by towline forces. If a tug is
deckhouse from aluminium, are design factors that can equipped with a towing winch the lead of the towline is
increase the stability of a tug. Lowering the towing point normally such that it .first passes through a towing bitt,
will reduce the heeling angle. During tug operations staple or fairlead before it goes to the ship. In any case,
stability changes continuously, this is because of factors whether towing bitt, staple or fairlead, the height of
such as slack tanks, empty bottom tanks, water on deck, these fixed points front where the towline leaves the tug
waves, ice growth, rough tug handling and open doors. should be as lbw as possible .above the lateral centre of
Ali of these can affect a tug's stability in a negative way. resistance. The sarne applies to a towinghook.
Note 1:
Increasing a tug's beam, or in other words making a tug wider,
has the consequence that such tugs become course unstable,
which means thatfrequent steering control actions are needed
to keep the tug on course. This fact is evident in that autopilots
often have difficulty holding a course when on passage.

Reducing the transverse resistance of the hull -- -��-----��------�--'

Making tl,.e undérwater lateral area smaller and
minimising appendages such as skegs allows a tug to be
pulled more easily through the water instead of rolling
over. Low transverse resistance of a tug's hull also
increases its capability of working at right élngles to a
ship's side with a ship underway and reduces its heeling
Figure 4.12: Effect of radial towing hook
For tugs inaking use of the underwater body, like With a radial hook the heeling levar arm a is shorter than with
conventional tugs towing on a line and ASD-tugs and the tówing point in the centre line of the tug (lever arm b). With a
tractor tugs using the indirect towing method, this is radial hook the righting lever arm e is much longer than without
contradictory to their required performance. For a good (lever arm d). With an equal force in the towline as shown in this
performance these tugs need an optimum underwater figure, the list Will be much less in case of a radial hook. A radial
form with a large lateral area in order to be able to hook is a substantial improvement.
generate high towline forces. A skeg is added to increél.se
lateral area, which also lowers the centre of pressure and
often brings the centre of pressure horizontally closer

Photo: IMC Corporate Ucenslng, the Netherlands

Figure 4.13: Multratug 12carrousel tug dynamic escorting. The
red ring is the carrousel. Tug dimensions: LOA 29.07m, beam
Photo: Mampaey, the Netherlands 6.96m, total engine power 2 x 331 kW, static BP 21 tons (15 tons
Figure 4,1 l: Radial towing hook. Hook can travei over the ring maln propeller + 6 tons azimuth bow thruster), dynamic pull 90
but not lift from it. tons at 1 O knots.
100 Tug Use in Port
Shifting the towing point to the lower part of the tug, The DOT system described in paragraph2.15 is a siinilar
when heeling due to a crosswise towing force, also has system, as is the case with the carrousel of the RAVE tug,
a positive effect on the tug's stability (see figure 4.12). also discussed in paragraph 2.19.
There are various systems making this pos!>ible. Most
important are.the radial towing hook (figure 4.11) and the Radial systems have a positive effect on stability and
carrousel system (figure 4.13 and paragraph 2.14). Other therefore on safety and performance. ln particular the
systems are discussed in Chapter 7. carrousel system also increases the capabilities of a tug to
a large extent.
When using a towing arm or radial towing hook, a tug
heels so far until the heeling moment is counteracted by Reducing the height of the pushing point
the larger induced righting moment. A radial hook is a The vertical distance between the pushing point and
substantial improvement for tug safety anel pei:fortnance. lateral centre of pressure should be as small as possible
in arder to reduce the heeling moment created by lateral
Stability curve for tug resistance when a tug is pushing at a large angle to a
ship's side.

A towline with good shock absorption characteristics

This is required to reduce sudden heeling moments
caused by high peak forces in the towline. Towing
winches can be equipped with load reducing systems,
although these are not suitable for narrow port areas,
when such a system would slacken the towline at high
loads, for instance, when the tug is dose to a dock wall.

Tug freeboard being such that the deck edge is not

immersed at too small a heeling àngle
Figure 4.14: Stability curve showing effect of a carrousel with It has been discussed that increasing a tug's beam will
radius of 0.5B and of similar radial supports with shorter lengths. improve its stability. However, increasing the beam alone
is not enough. The requisite is that tug's freeboard should
Explanation figure 4.14: The vertical lejfaxis shows the lengths then also be increased. This is regardless of the fact that
of the righting arm (Stabz?ity lever) and the heeling arms at the a lower freeboard means a lower main deck, which also
various tug heeling angles shown on the horizontal bottoin line. means a lower towing point with a smaller heeling lever.
Four different heeling levers are shown with decreasing effed Additionally, the aft deck may be used to transport loaqs,
on the tug's heel: a container for example, and hence a higher freeboard
1. The red curve shows the heeling lever (or heeling arm) will also allow an increase in the maximum weight
when the towline is made Jast in the centre of the tug of deck loads. From a stability point of view it can be
(heeling lever centre). concluded, that an increased beam together with a larger
2. The dashed orange line shows the heeling lever when the freeboard will have positive effects on a tug's stability.
towline is Jastened at a radial support wíth a length of 1/6
of the beam. Stability rules
3. The green dashed line shows the heeling lever for a radial There is a variety in stability l'Ules, either recommended
support with a length.ofl/3 of the beam. or mandatory, issued by classification societies, national
4. The black line shows the heeling lever for a carrousel with authorities, etc. Due to this wide variety in standards,
a radius of½ the beam (heeling lever carrousel). which is undesirable from both safety and practical
perspective, a group of classificati.on societies led by
Heeling lever centre (no 1), resulting from an Blireau Veritas h;'lS developed harmonised towing
athwartships towline force applied to a towing point at and escort stability regulations within the scope of the
the centre line of the tug, causes a heeling angle of 31 º. At SafeTug Joint Industry Project organised by MARIN, the
that point the righting ann is as large as the heeling arm Netherlands, which have subsequently been proposed
Heeling lever resulting from the sarne force but in this to the Intemational Maritime Organisation (IMO)
case the athwartshlps towline force is àpplied to the with a view to create one internationally applicable
carrousel (no 4). This force causes now a heeling angle standard. After severa! rounds of debate IMO, on 25
of 18°, where the stability arm is as long as the heeling November 2016, adopted the proposed amendments to
arm. This is the situation as shown in Figure 4.13 where the Intemational Code on Intact Stability, 2008 (2008 IS
the tug heels approximately 20°. The tug will not capsize Code), which includes stability criteria for tugs.
because at larger heeling angles the righting arm is larger These l'Ules, which apply to new tugs, will take effect on 1
than the heeling arm. January 2020 (keel laying date) and are considered a large
What can aiso be seen is the large reserve stability, improvement compared to the existing stability rules for
the safety margin, in case of a carrousel, which is an tugs.
important aspect for the dynamic stability. The effect of
the radial supports (nos 2 and 3), such as the one shown A tailored approach might be needed for more out-of-the
in figure 4.11, is less. hox designs, such as the EDDY Tug, CRT, etc.
Tug Use in Port 101
Toe nvro intact stability regulations apply to shlps of IlVfO stability criteria for harbour tugs, coastal or ocean-­
24m length and over(in accordance with the definition going towing operations are as follows:
of the Intemational Convention on Load Lines, 1966, • For self-tripping: Criteria for the stability curve with
amended), operating in international trade. One cotild respect to reserve stability are given, whereby itis
interpret that most harbour tugs are therefore not required that the available energy to right the tug ·
required to comply with these stability regulations, (restoring energy) is to be equal to or greater than the
butm practice most (harbour) tugs are certified for available energy to heel the tug (undet application of
intetnational voyage and national authorities require transverse thrust).
compliance with the international regulations even for • For tow-tripping: The tow tripping heeling lever
domestic vessels. Furthermore, classification societies
is calculated on the basis of a transverse heeling
typically align their rules with internatio�al �egulations
moment generated as the tug is pulled sideways
where relevant, For example, Bureau Ventasmcorporated
the new IMO regulati.ons in its dass rules in July 2017 through the water with a speed of 5 knots. Toe
heeling angle at the point of equilibrium in the
(applicable to new builds), which is an example of
early implementati.ón of new intemational standards. stability turve, where the heeling arm isof the sarne
Consequently, as almost all harbour tugs are built under length as the righti.ng arm, should not be less than the.
classification rules, these regulations will have a major angle of down flooding.
impact on the towing industry going forward.
This latter requirement does raise some doubts due to
Note 2: limitations in the applicability of the calculation method
Tugs below 24m in length are not bound by the stability (which was developed for conventional tugs and does not
criteria of the 2008 IS Code. Hotvever, tugs are generally built consider modem tugs "such as ASD-tugs working over
to conform the rules of a classiftcation society and then comply the bow), the absence of a residual stability requirement
with the rules of that specific class, including stabilíty rules. and the fact that merchant ships - in particular large
But Jrere a strange situation arises because there are container ships - may enter the port at speeds well in
considerable differences in requirements between the ·· excess of 5 knots.
classijication societies, a situation that should not exist and
which affects the safety of tugs. The harmonisation efforts It should be understõod that the rules mentioned here
described above, which have resulted in the newly adopted IMO for tugs are in addition to the standard stability rules for
regulations, should help to alleviate this issue, as clas�ificatfon ships. These roles include, among others, the following
societies typically apply the sarne standards also to shtps with requirements for ships operáting in ice:
length below 24m.
Toe IlVfO rules (RESOLUTION MSC.267(85). Chapter 6)
Toe new IMO rules classify the tugs in three groups: include, among others, following requirements for ships
• Shlps engaged in hatbour towage. This means tugs operating in ice:
• For anyshlp operating in areas where ice accretion is
intended for assisting shlps or floating structures
within sheltered waters. likely to occur, adversely affecting a ship's stability,
• Ships engaged in coastal or ocean-going towing. This ícing allowances should be included in the analysis of
conditions of loading.
means tugs intended for assisting ships or floating • Administrations are advised to take icing into
structures outside sheltered waters in which the
forces associated with towing are.often a function of account and are permitted to apply nati.onal
the tug's bollard pull. standards where envirorunental conditions are
• Shlps engaged in escort operations. This means a considered to warrant a lúgher standard than those
recommended in the following sections.
tug specifically engaged in steering, braking and
otherwise controlling the assisted ship during Similar requirements can be found in rules of
ordinary or emergency manoeuvring, whereby the classification societies: For instance, BV requires
steering and braking forces are generated by the provisions to be made for a safe margin of stability at ali
hydrodynamic forces acting on the tug's hull and the stages of the voyage, regard being given to additions of
thrust forces exerted by the propulsion units.
weight, such as those due to icing and to losses of weight
due to éonsuinption of fuel an stores.
Toe nvro rules (which are recommendations) address two
different girting situations, being: It is important to take into consideration the down
• Self-tripping; the fendency ofa tug to overtum itself floodiilg angle of a tug. This is i;he heeling angle at
under influence of the heeling couple created by the which the first non-weathertight opening is immersed,
towline force and propeller forces. whlch means that the tug is considered as lost. Toe main
• Tow-tripping; the tendency for the tug to veet off, concern is with regard to the engine room ventilator
eg due to loss of propulsion or steering on board openings. For most harbour tugs these openings are
the tug, and drag the tug along. This is a classical required to be fitted with weathertight closing devices
stability issúe for fugs, whereby the towline force is under the ICLL (International Convention of Load
opposed by the hull resistance of the tug creating a Unes) requirements, but, for operational reasons, need
heeling moment. to be kept open (air supply to engines). In thatcase they
102 Tug Use ih Port
should be considered as down flooding points for the bollard pull for tugs with azimuth or cycloidal propellers.
putpose of the stability calculations. This additional Heeling arm should be taken from the top of the towing
safety measure has now been incorporated into the IMO bitt to the centre of buoyancy-or for an approximati.on to
regulations. h,:i.lf the mean draft.

IMO stability criteria for escort tugs are as follows: Other semi-static Inethods i;ll"e used, allowi.ng fora
ln addition to requirements for the stability curve constant athwartships towline force acting on the hull,
with respect to residual stability, ensured through causing it to be dragged bodily through the water, as is
the implementation of area ratio requirements for the the case with the IMO criteria for tow-tripping.
stability curve, the maximum static heeling angle of
15 degrees applies, which corresponcis to the point of The sarne kind of requirement can be seen in Norway
equilibrium where the heeling arm is of equal length to where a five knot transverse speed with a tow of 65 per
the righting arm (intersection). cent of the bollard pull should be possible without deck
The IMO stability rules have also been changed in such a
way that the mandatory requirement for a quick release It is anticipated that due to the new IMO regulati.ons
applies to the towing winch as well. these traditional standards wi1l be replaced by the new
harmonised regulations.
ln this respect it should be noted that the lnternati.onal
Association of Classification Societies (IACS) was Unfortunately, in a tug's working environment large
working in 2017 on a Unified Requirement for towing dynamic forces far in excess of statk (or quasi-static)
winch emergency release systems. The mandatory class values may be developed and these are almost impossible
requirements will be applicable to towing winches on to estimate accurately. When designing tugs, therefore,
ship handling tugs operating within ports, terminais and stability and in particular reserve stability should be
confined waters and will include requirements for the considered very carefully, taking into accow1t all relevaht
controlled release of the tug's towline tension in normal factors including type of tug! required assisting methods,
and dead ship conditions. propulsion system and working conditions. It is clear that
good stability not only improves a tug's safety but to a·
As a follow up of the new IMO tug rules some experts large extent a tug's capabilities and performance. With
recommend clear instructions for the tug master on respect to escort tugs, stability requirements are further
limiting operating parameters by a real-time stability discussed in Chapter 9.
monitoring system and alarm, or other effective warning
systems. Stability recommendations for tug masters
Real time monitoring of the down flooding points, and The stability of a tug changes continuo:usly as soon as
the ability to dose the openings, is also crucial to make the tug has left the berth. Toe tug is using fuel from the
the tug 'fail safe' or even safe after failing when heeling lower bunkers, fuel tanks may become slack, outside
beyond the down flooding angle. It should be possible thé port the tug may come into waves and water may
to force-dose the down flooding points instantaneously, come on deck, etc. These are mainly negative effects on
including engine room air inlets. Care should be taken stability which can be cumulative. The tug master has no
that crew members can leave spaces to be closed in time. influence on some of these effects, but on others he does.
Therefore, a tug master should know how stability may
National authorities or classification societies be affected during daily operations, and in what way he
traditi.onally have their own specific regulations or can contrai the negative effects on stability that can play
guidelines. For example, the USCG requires thattugs an important role on tug safety and safety of operations.
shall either meet the static towline pull cri.teria or the A number of practical aspects to be taken into account
dynamic towline pull criteria. The stati.c towline pull with respect to stability are given below.
cri teria include a required minimum GM by which
no deck-edge immersion will occur dtie to the heeling Note 3: The photo offigure 4.17 is on fhe front cover of the book
effect of deflected propeller thrust at full helm, taking Tug Stability. A Practical Guide to Safe Operations. This
into account the tow hook height above the centre of bookis indispensablefor tugmasters to understand stability.
the propeller shaft. The dynamic towline pull criteria
require a certain residual righti.ng energy at the point Knowing the capabilities and limitations of the tug
of equilibrium of the righting and heeling arm curves. Concerning stability, the most important factor for tug
The heeling arm curve should be,calculated on a given masters is to know the capabilities and limitations of
formula which takes into acco-unt the deflected propeller their tug. Thís will help them to avoid situati.ons that
thrust and height of towing point. they cannot handle safely and conditions with which the
tug cannot cape. Likewise, as much as is possible, a tug
The American Bureau of Shipping gives master should be prepared for extreme and unfamiliar
recornmendations for residual dynamic stability based on situations which may arise unexpectedly. Preparing by
a towline pull at 90° of 50 per cent of bollarci pull for twin collecting as much information as is possible and through
screw tugs with normal propellers and 70 per cent of analysis of how, or if, the job can be done safely.
Tug Use in Port 103
Stability bookon board
Many harbour tugs, and ali terminal tugs and escort tugs,
will have a stability book on board. It is important for tug
masters to study the stability book to gain insight into
the stability of the tugs they command. GM and stability
curves are given for varfous loading conditions and may
show whkh loading conditions will require specific
attention. It may also be seeíl which openings, including
engine room ventilation openings, are regarded as closed
for the stability calculations and those which absolutely
shouid be closed d:uring towing opei'ations. However,
be aware these are standard situations. Like many things
Photo: Kees Tom, the Netherlands
during dynamic towage operations, the stability situation
alters continuously and can become worse than that Figure 4.15: Muftratug 28 getting water on deck (ASO hybrid
shown in the stability book. tug, LOA 32.14m, beam 13.29m, BP ahead 95 tons
astern 89 tons.
Heightof centre of gravity (KG) Icing
The importance of the height of the centre of gravity In cold areas, when weather conditions are such
with regard to the tug's stability has been explained. The thatice accretion can take place, care should be
position of the centre of gravity shown in the stability taken to select appropriate m:easures to minimise
book only applies to that loading condition for which it ice growth on board. These measures include, as.
has been calculated. However, there are severa! situations much as is possible, decreasing speed, changing
that will influe:hce the height of the centre of gravity, course, and remova! of ice at the first opportunity.
mostlyin a negativeway. This means that there will
be situations that create a higher centre of gravity and Trim
consequently less stability. Therefore following aspects Trim by the head has a negative effect on the tug's
factors require attention: stability and should be avoided.
Stability is calculated for a number of different Openings
loading conditions as can be seen in the stability When a tug is assisting a ship it may experience large
book. Usually, the largest GM is achieved with angles of heel. This is due to high heeling forces working
bunkers full. ln a case where all, or nearly all, on the tug. Large heeling angles may occur when there
lower tanks are empty, the GMwill be reduced, is a risk of girting or if the tug gets alongside under the
and in the worst case, stability may no longer overhanging bow at the port or starboard side of a ship.
comply with the class reqúirements. This is an Furthermore, because of high speeds, and consequently
important aspect fo be aware of. ln addition, sorri.e large interaction effects, the tug may come under the bow
tugs also have water ballast tanks which, when or could be hit by the bulb. Ali of these risky situations
filled, add more weight, creating a larger GM, but will cause the tug to heel considerably. If any such
smaller stability range. Regarding the managemeht situations causes water to flow into the tug, the tug will
of bunkers and ballast tanks, there is another capsize qukkly making it very difficult for the tug crew
importartt aspect to keep in mind as indicated to leave the tug safely.

Slack tanks have a negative effect on stability and
care should be taken. to minimise the number of
slack tanks as much as possible in order to reduce
the negative effect on stability.

Water on deck
·Mass of water on the deck of the tug means that
a lot of extra weight is added at a relatively large
height. This affects the tug's stability in a negative
way. The centre of gravity will become higher and
GM will be reduced. ln addition to that, water on
deck has the sarne negative effect as slack tanks;
therefore, it is good to keep these things in mind
when tug operations are carried out. For i:nstance,
when operating in the indired mode at high
Photo: Harley Marine, USA
speeds, or in wave conditions, and particularly
when the tug's stability has also been reduced in Figure 4.16: Tug Bob Francowith some ice growth (ASD-tug,
other ways. LOA 36.6m, beam 10.7m, BP ahead 64 tons, astern 58 tons).

104 Tug Use in Port

Therefore, care should be taken during tug operations
that all openings through which, at large angles of heel,
water can flow into the tug, are closed. This also includes
the wheelhouse doors which are often left open; a bad
example of which is shown in the photograph of figure
4;17! It is recommended that a remote control be fitted in
the wheelhouse for doors and other openings to be closed
during towage operati.ons.

· Engine room ventifation openings are a probleín. These

openings cannot be closed during tug operations because
the engine needs large volumes of air. ln fact they need
so much air that even with one air inlet closed, the tug's
engines may only continue to operate for a short period
before losing power and shutting down. A further
problem, if closing one or more of the engine room ,.:_.•�i-�- �: --•...
ventilation inlets, is that the engine room air pressure
Photo: Fabian Schlosser, IDMovie, The Netherlands
will become comparatively low, making it difficult -
or even impossible - to open the engine room doors. Figure 4.17: Cutting the towline of a conventional tug to prevent
Nevertheless, at criticai moments it should be possible to capsizing.
dose those vulnerable engine room ventilation openings.
considered way for a conventional tug operating at the
On some tugs closing can be done by hand, which can
stem of the assisted ship, and if manoeuvres are made
be a problem in stressful situations, and particularly
with the help of a gob rope, the ship's speed should be
with a two-man crew. Be further wained that in many
kept very low.
cases, gravity forces experienced at large angles of heel
will have their impact on the force required to move the If changes have been made to the position of the towing
hinged covers and also to unlock them from the base point, either horizontally or vertically, or if the lead of
position. Other systems, such as remate and mechanical the towline has been changed, checks must be made
controls, do exist and it is recommended to use such to determine the altered effect on the tug's stability,
systems to allow sufficient air for the engine during and if these changes do not have a nega,tive effect on
emergency situations, but also prevent water inflow if the tug performance and tug operational safety. Any such
tug gets a large list. changes must be recorded in the stability booklet and
approved by class or any local authority.
Note 4:
Comments from an experienced tug master: Ship-tug interaction
There is a conundntm here, being that it is important to When a tug is manoeuvring in dose proximity to a ship
mention engine room vents in thís context, but the expectation having speed, particularly near the bow of the ship,
of closing th.em to prevent dov.mflooding is unreasonable in a varying interacti.ons forces ànd tuming moments are
practical sense. As mentioned, the prímary purpose of these affect:ing the tug. This is explained in Chapter 6. These
closings is for fire control. Every tug that I have worked on interaction forces and tuming moments may create a
has had manual closing devices. Most of these are heavy and risky situation for the tug. They increase approximately
awkward, some almost inaccessible, and that is during drills in with the square of the speed and if not anticipated in the
good conditions. Dangerous heeling angles greater than those correct way the tug may come in contact with the ship's
at which primary downflooding would occur will come on so side, bow or bulb and may be tumed over. In particular,
quickly, and be so dramatic, that the only practical solution is the situation can be dangerous for conventional tugs and
to recover equilibrium through the release of the towline. The ASD-tugs operating over the stern in the manner of a
point has been mmle that tug masters must be familiar with conventional tug. Consequently, during tug operations,
the stability characteristics of their own tug. This íncludes particularly near the bow of a ship having speed, and
knowing the angle at which downflooding will begin, but most when preparing to pass a towline for example, the ship's
importantly, knowing how to avoid th.e.se situations in thefirst speed should be kept low to minimise the effect of tug­
place. ship interaction. The attended ship should also avoid
The new Stability rules (see paragraph state that when large course and speed changes when tugs are operating
closing of engine roam ventilations is hàrdly practicable, these· dose to the bow.
openings will be considered as downfiooding points.
Towing winches
The lead of the towline; gob rope Different types of towing winches are fitted to tugs as
Care shotild also be taken that the towing point is as low will be explained in Chapter 7 . The characteristics of
as possible, and that the towline runs free and clear of these towing winches will vary. It is necessary therefore,
any obstructions. It is iínportant that the towline does that tug master and crew are well instructed about the
not in any way restrict the tug in its manoeuvres as this capabilities, limitations and operat:ing procedures of
would become dangerous for the tug. The sarne applies their winches, including the constant tension or render­
to the use of a gob rope. A gob rape should be used in a recovery systems. Confidence and experience in handling
Tug Use in Port 1 OS
the winches is of particulí;II importance in case of extreme · paragraph atténtion has been paid to those factors that
and emergency situations. can negatively infl.uence stability. These are factors
in which tug masters play a crucial role as do the
Quickrelease systems. Maintenance and testing operational Ihartagers of towing companies concetning
An efficient and reliable quick release system is of safe working procedures.
paramount importance for the safety of the tug and safety
of the crew hiembers. Therefore quick release systems With•reference to what has been discussed here, tug
should be maintained carefully and tested regularly, masters lllil.Y experience certain design aspects, ship · or
preferably with the highest towline loads that can be tug manoeuvres, procedures, speeds, or circurnstances,
expectéd. This is irnportant because these are the loads which affect the stability of their tug in an unsafe or
experienced during critica! circumstances when the quick unacceptable way. If this is the case, then it should be
release system may be needed. discusséd with the towing company so that what has
been experienced can be verified and, where necessary,
0n some smaller or older tugs the towline is still belayed improved, so that such risky situations can be avoided.
on the towing bitt. When this method is used, an axe
or sharp knife should be available to cut the towline in 4.3 Capabilities and limitations
case of emergency. However, this only works for fibre The capabilities and limítations of different tug types are
towlines and therefore the use of wires in this way now considered, based on the two principal methods of
should be avoided. tug assistance:
• Tugs towing on a line.
Towlines; regular checks
Towlines are the êrucial link between tug and ship • Ttigs operating ata ship' s side.
and should be handled in a professional way by being
regularly checked for condition and residual strength. Be Furthermore, the performance of different tug types
aware that the stretch of conventional towlines decreases and the effect of tug assistance on a ship's behaviour
during its usable life as does its strength. is highlighted. Rudder tugs, more or less comparable
to tugs operating at a ship's síde but able to assist in
Sharp turns steering to port as well as to starboard, are mainly dealt
If stability parameters are at their minimum, care with in Chaptei' 9 while discilssing escorting with normal
should be taken with sharp turns at high speeds as they harbour tugs..
produce large heeling angles. ln addition, dramatic
tug manoeuvrés may also lead to significant build The different tug types considered are those that can
up of water on deck, introducing additional loss of most be found in ports, being the conventional tugs,
stability. The buíld up of water on deck may also cause ASD-tugs and tractor tugs. Toe reason why these tugs are
a significant risk of flooding through openings such as considered specifically.
accommodation doors and engine room vents.
Toe performance of the Related tug types Rotortug,
Maximum heeling angle Z-tech tug and RSD-tug can then also better be assessed
ln general, 'deck edge immersion' is seen as the on this knowledge and the performance shown in
maximum heeling angle for tugs not equipped with Chapter2. The sarne apples to the Related tug types
a carrousel system or a large radial arm.. It indudes a Carrousel tug and DOT-tug, which is basically the sarne
reasonable safetymargin. On the other hand, when the as the carrousel tug, of which working and performance
deck edge immerses, forinstance when operating in the have been dealt with in this chapter and Chapter 2.
indirect towing mode, the longitudinal underwater area
Specific capabilities of the Fast tug types SDM, EDDY,
becomes much larger than when the tug has no list and it
Giano tug and RAVE tug have been discussed in
further increases when the heeling angle gets even larger.
Chapter 2 as well. The reader is challenged to assess
This results in higher hydrodynamic forces working
the performance and safety of these tugs based on the
on the tug hull and consequently higher heeling forces.
knowledge leamt here and the information shown in
Furthermore, the heeling tug deck will have the tendency
to work itself deeper into the water. Therefore, deck
edge immersion is a good warning that safety margins
are getting small and it will become risky if thé heeling 4.3.1 Capabilities and limitations of basic tug
angle further increases. Especially when higher speeds types
are involved (more than 4 - 5 knots) water may flow onto Good co-operation between pilot and tug captain is
the deck with increasing force and magnitude, resulting indispensable for smooth, safe ship handlingwith tugs.
in more downward force and capsizing moment. This Safety applies both to the ship concerned and to the tug
process should be carefully considered. and her crew. Good co-operation is based on a good
understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the
Finally attended ship and, in particular, of the assisting tugs.
It cannot be emphasised enough that an appropriate
stabilityis a crucial factor for tug safety, the safety of Tugs towing on a line
tug crew andfor a good performance of the tug. ln this The capabilities and limitations of tugs towing on a line

106 Tug Use in Port


Tractor tug Conventional tug

Figure 4.18: Basic difference between tug types.

The main difference between types of tug with respectto performance when towing on a line:
Conventional types of tug -towing point located forward of propulsion.
Tractor types of tug -towing point located aft of propulsion.
are closely related to the location of the towing point and steering assistance or creating sideways forces on a ship
the propulsion units, as explained in section 4.2.2. That's having speed than a conventional tug. As explained
why, in Chapter 2, tugs were classi.6.ed accordfug to these in section 4.2.2, a tractor tug lies more in line with the
locations. Of course, a tug's manoeuvrability and stability towline and consequently a relatively higher sideways
are also factors of major importance when considering resistance has to be overcome at the expense of effective
capabilities and llinitations, but that applies to any towline pull.
situation and to any type of tug.
A conventional tug (see figure 4.19 B), or ASD-tug
hl figure 4.18 a conventional tug is shown with its operating over the stem, can tum the tug around the
propulsion aft and towing point near midships. It could
also be an ASD-tug when towing on a line and using
the after winch or towing hook in the way conventional
tugs do. Toe other tug shown is a VS tractor tug. It may
also be a tractor tug with azimuth propellers or even a
reverse-tractor tug. As can be seen, the location of the
propulsion and the towing point in a tractor tug are
opposite to those in a convencional tug. Toe consequences
of this are discussed now.

Forward tugs towing on a line
Forward tugs towing on a line are dealt with first (see @
figure 4.19 A, B). Irrespective of the type of tug, a forward
tug towing on a line can give steering assistance or
deliver crosswise forces to ah assisted ship to starboard
as well as to port. However, there is a difference in
response times between the performance of tractor and
conventional tugs. When required, a tractor tug can move
easily and quickly from one side to the other eg from
starboard bow to port bow to deliver steering assistance
or to keep the bow up into the current or wind. This is
due to its ability to detiver side thrust from the forward
located propulsion units. A conventional tug takes a little © @
longer. ln addition, to manoeuvre a tug from one side to
the other, captains of conventional tugs often tum their Figure 4.19: Comparison between tractor type tugs and conventional
tug at the beginning of the manoeuvre round the towing tugs when towing on a line with a ship having headway.
point on a tight towline. Itspeeds up the malioeuvre but A: Tractor type of tug, or reverse tractor type, made fast as
is not necessary and not advocated, because it results in forward tug.
a short pull in the wrong direction which may adversely B: Conventional tug, or ASD-tug operating over the stern, as
affect the manoeuvre, especially for light ships. forward tug.
C: Tractor type of tug as after tug.
A tractor tug (see figure 4.19 A) is less effective in giving D: Conventional type of tug as after tug.

Tug Use in Port 107

towing point, has a lower resistance to overcome owing itself uses mosf of its engine power to stay free froril a
to the smaller angle of attack of the incoming water flow ship's hull and this results in additional towline force.
and can make better use of the hydrodynantlc forces, all
of which contribute to a more effective towline pull. With a good conventional tug forward on a line, or an
ASD-tug operating ovet the stern, sideways f orces on
In general, the effectiveness of a conventional tug a ship can be exerted to compensate for the wind force
increases, depending on the angle (b), and of a tra tor by applying rudder whilst at the sarne time the tug is
tug, decreases with increasing ship's speed. The higher counteracting the turn initiated by the ship's rudder
a ship's speed the larger the difference in effectiveness as shown inJigure 4.20. The effect is greatest at low
between tractor and conventional tugs. The lower the ship's speed with not too large or heavy ships. A similar
underwater resistance of a tractor tug and the better method ;._ rudder hard over towards the berth, engine
the omnidirectional thrust performance the higher the on dead slow ahead and the f orward tug pulling off the
effectiveness. With resped to this, it has been experienced berth - can be applied when unberthing with just one
that for the sarne ship's speed an azimuth tractor tug tug. Care should be taken not to overtake the tug.
can operate at a larger towing angle (a) than a VS
tractor tug and consequently can apply higher sideways When forward tugs towing on a line give steering
and steering forces on a ship, owing to a better thrust assistance, this generally results in a f orce vector tending
performance in directions other than ahead or astem. to increase ship's speed. There is another important
aspect to be aware of when tugs operate on a line - they
With a tractor tug care should be taken that, with often have a tendency to keep towlines tight when no
increasing speed, angle (a) is not getting too large assistance is required. This also has an unwanted speed
otherwise the tug cannot overcome sideways resistartce increasing effect on the assisted vessel and shouldhe
any more and will, unlessthe line is quickly slackened, avoided as much as possible. Pilots therefore often arder
swing around on the towline secured at the aft towing tugs to keep the towline slack when no assistance is
póint and will come alongside the vessel. li the towline is required.
on a quick release towing hook or on the winch, the line
can be released by the qukk release mechanism. It can be When reverse-trador tugs (and ASD-tugs operating as
concluded that a tractor tug fotward is limited by a ship's revérse-tractor tug), assist as a forward tug on a line they
speed. operate in a similar way to a tractor tug but with the
tug's bow directed towards the ship's bow. These tugs
For a conventional tug angle (b) can be very large have a comparable performance to tractor tugs and the
without any problem. A conventional tug can create large difference in effectiveness depends on the sarne factors
forces in the towline, even with a large towing angle
(b), by increasing angle (e). With increasing ship's speed
due attention should be given to a tug's heading. When
angle (e) between a tug's heading and incoming water
flow becomes too large the tug might not be able to come
back in line with the assisted ship and, as a consequence,
athwartships towline forces may get too high. This may
also be the case with an ASD-tug when operating like a
conventional tug. The high athwartships towline forces
might overturn the tug if the towline cannot be released
in time. This is called girting, which also happens when
a ship's speed is too high in relation to the tug's speed or

It often happens that quick release hooks cannot be

opened in case of emergency, especially when towline
forces are very high and the towline, if fastened directly
to the towing hook, has a large vertical angle with the
plane of the tug deck. Towing winches with quick release
systems are safer, although problems can be experienced
with these quick release systems as well. See therefore
Chapter 7. Nevertheless, ship's speed should always
be carefully controlled when tugs are towing on a line
forward and, as far as possible, the pilot should closely figure 4.20: When port elm is appliedand
observe the behaviour of the tugs. the tug puns to starboar to counteract the
port swing initiated by t e port rudder, the
When a shíp's speed is very low a conventional tug can ship drifts less by the w nd or even moves
give very effective steering assistance when operating as a little crosswise to st rboard. A similar
shown in position B lb. A tug's resistance creates high manoeuvre can be utilis d when unberthing
steering forces without increasing ship's speed. The tug with the assistance of ne tug forward.

108Tug Use in Port

as mentioned earlier when discussing the direct towing towing point can be transferred to & position at the after
method. See also paragraph 6.3.13 section, operating end of the tug, the tug can swing around from position 1
bow-to-bow. to position 2 at somewhat higher speed.

Stern tugs towing on a Íine At very low speeds, of not more than three knots,
For tugs operating as a stem tug on a line the .situation conventional tugs can move from position 1 to a position
is totally different. It depends entirely on the type of tug broadside astern the ship as shown in figure 4.5. Toe
and ship's speed whether steering assistance can be given tug then lying broadside on can give steering assistance
to both sides.. From the point of view of ship assistanceit to both sides. Twin screw tugs often don'tneed a gob
is also very important whether a stem tug can central a rope to operate in a similar way, owing to their higher
ship's speed. Whether this is possible or not depeneis also manoeu�ability.
on the type of tu.g and ship's speed.
It is clear that at speeds above about three knots, oruy
In figure 4.19 C a tractor tug is shown agairt. At lower steering assistance cân be given and oruy to one side.
speeds a tractor tug can give steering assistance by At very low speeds steering assistance can be given
the direct towing method (see position la, lb). Giving to both sides and a ship's speed can be controlled. A
steering assistance in position lb will not increase the conventional tug is very restricted in its movements as a
ship's speed. 0n the contrary, in this position braking stern tug owing to the location of the towing point.
forces are also applied. A speed increasing force vector
is applied in position la. ln position la a tractor tug is In addition, when a conventional tug is working dose
less effective than the ccmventional tug of figure 4.19D to or behind a ship's stern as discussed, a ship should
(position 1). This situation is comparable to that of be very careful in using its propeller or the tug might be
forward tugs towing on a line, as previously discussed. overtumed by propeller wash. Toe risk for a tractor tug
If required, a tractor tug can easily change from positions and ASD/reverse-tractor tug, on the other hand, will in
1 to position 2 for speed contrai or to a position to give general be less due to the location of the towing point
steering assistance to port. Even at higher speeds (eg near the tug's stem or bow. This applies wheri ship's
seven knots) a tug can safely swing around from position engine is working on.ahead or is set for ahead. In case
la to position 2 owing to the aft location of the towing of the latter the large propeller wash may spoil a tug's
point. ln some ports position la, instead of position 2, is manoeuvre, for instance when the tug is preparing to
also used as a standby position. pass a towline.

At higher speeds the indirect towing method is normally If working on a short towline, excessive vibration of
used for steering control (see position lc). Steering the azimuth propellers may bé experienced, due to the
assistance at higher speeds can be given to port as well as turbulence from the ship's propeller. Lengthening the
to starboard. At the sarne time the tug is able to control towline will reduce this effect.
the ship's speed.
It becomes really dangerous when tugs are dose to the
ASD-tugs and reverse-tractor type tugs perform in a stern and the ship's engine is set for astern, in particular
similar way, but with the tug's bow now directed to the with large engines. Regardless tug type a pilot should
ship's stem. An ASD/reverse-tractor tug will generally always inform the after tugs when he has the intention to
be somewhat less effective than a tractor tug when using use the engine.
the indirect towing method for steering assistance. The
factors influencing performance and effectiveness of A tractor tug, approaching a ship sternwards, experiences
these tugs in comparison to tractor tugs have already the influence of a ship's propeller wash on the skeg
been mentioned when discussing the indired and direct Careful steering is then required, to keep the tug on a
towingmethods. straight course. This is also the case when the tug is
secured and has to stay straight behind the vessel, as
A conventional tug can oruy give steering assistance to mentioned while discussing direct and indirect towing
one side; in figure 4.19D this is oruy possible to starboard. methods.
When giving steering assistance a conventional tug
delivers longitudinal forces whichmay increase a ship's From the above it is clear that prior to securing tugs
speed. Moving to a position to starboard of the ship's foi:'ward or aft the position of the different tug types
stem, for instance, to give steering assistance to port or in general and of conventional stern tugs in particular
to compensate for wind or current forces at that side is should be well considered, taking into account the forces
impossible at speeds higher than one to two knots. of wind and current to be compertsated, bends to be
taken, etc.
At speeds over three knots, it is dangerous to manoeuvre
from position 1 to position 2 in order to control the ship's Each type of tug has severa} versions with varying
speed. A tug may come broadside on with too high capabilities, which should be regarded as well when
towline forces and may capsize urtless the towline is positioning tugs. A twin screw conventional tug, for
released in time by the quick release mechanism. When instance, will generally perforin better than a single
a tug is equipped with a gob rape winch, by which the screw tug.
Tug Use in Port 109
Tugs operatíng ata ship's side
Tugs operating at à ship's side while the ship has some
speed are shown in figure 4.21. Three types are shown
..:_ a tractor hlg (which can be a VS hlg or one with
azimuth propulsion), an ASD/reverse-tractor hlg and a
conventional tug.

Pushing mode
Whether one type of hlg is more efficient in pushing than
another depends on how well a tug can push effectively
without increasing ship's speed. The better a hlg can
work at right angles to the hull of a ves$el underway,
the more effective itis. It depends largely on the ratio
a:b (see figure 4.21A): the relationship between the lever
of propulsioi:l. (P-Pu) and the levei' of hydrodynamic
forces (C-Pu). The better a hlg can overcome the hlrning
moment :tesulting from hydrodynamic force working
on the tug by the moment created by sideways thrust
of the propulsion, the better a hlg can work at right
angles to the ship and the more power is available for
pushing. In addition, the vertical location of the centre of
pressure, stability and freeboard are important factors. Figure 4.21: Comparison of different tug types when PL!Shing (A)
Tug fendering should prevent a tug sliding along a ship's ar pulling (B) at a ship's side.
hull, otherwise one or two towlines are required. The ship has headway. Locations of the lateral centre of pressure
are approximated. Apart from the underwater resistance tug
Owing to its aft lying centre of pressure a conventional performance depends on: a) maximum heel; b) propulsion
tug may find it difficult to come to or remain at right performance - omni-directional propulsion systems are very
angles when a ship has speed through the water. suitable owing to the possibility of applying forces in any
Conventional tugs generally have a large underwater required direction; e) ratio a:b (a= distance between propulsion
plane and an important consideration for effective and pushing ar towing point, b = distance between lateral centre
pushing is steering performance, which is less than of pressure and pushing or towing point). The larger the lever a
that of tugs with omnidirectional propulsion systems. in relation to lever b the less side thrust required to keep position
Depending on the sihlation conventional rugs may use and the more thrust available for effective pushing or pulling.
stern lines to stay at right angles to a ship's hull when
the ship gathers speed, as shown in figure 3.4. However, capability for operating at the ship's side, namely the
excessive speed impairs safety as the line may part. tnaximum heeling angle. In this respect the height of the
or result in capsizing the tug. Devices increasing the pushing point is important. The heéling moment caused
steering performance of coriventional hlgs, such as high by hydrodynamic forces increases by the speed squared.
1ift rudders, Towmaster or Nautican rudder system, This is counteracted by sideways steering forces and by a
increase their pushing capabilities. hlg's stability. The higher the pushing point the larger the
heeling moment and the less it can be compensated for.
The ASD / reverse-tractor tug with its highly efficient
steering propellers and the far aft lying propulsion Conventional tugs, due to their often large underwater
in combination with a generally more forward lying plane, experience heeling moments which are more
centre of pressure is very effective at pushing. Former difficult to compensate for by their lower steering
hlg company C H Cates & Sons of Vancouver, now forces. Wide beam tractor tugs and ASD/reverse..,;tractor
Seaspan, claimed that their reverse-tractor tugs can hlgs with their effective and - for tractor hlgs - deep
detiver a 90º side push at ship speeds up to eight knots set steering power, are in a much better position to
instead of the usual four knots for conventional hlgs. compensate for heeling moments. As said, they are
Three to four knots is generally the maximum speed capable of remaining at right angles to a ship's hull at
for effective pushing by conventional tugs, although it much higher speeds than conventional tugs.
depends on their engine power and propeller /'.rudder At high ship speeds, tugs can push at a smaller angle.
configuration. Tractor tugs are also much m.ore effective Lift forces also create pushing forces, which can be rather
than conventional tugs due to their omnidirectional high (see figure 4.22). This effect can be seen in graphical
propulsion. f ormat in figure 4.25.

Whether tractor hlgs are more or less effective than ASD Pulling mode
reverse-tractor tugs depends on the ratio a:b as shown in Tugs operating at a ship's side need good astern power,
figure 4.21A, the hlg's underwater body, its engine power which should be about the sarne as their ahead power.
and thrust performance in the required direction. Tugs with omnidirectional propulsion are therefore very
suitable for push-pull work. ln figure 4.21B, the sarne
There is another aspect which determines a tug's three types of hlg are pulling, secured with one line. The
110Tug Use in Port
conventional tugs pulling, even when using a stern line,
can only be low.

Tractor and ASD/reverse-tractor tugs perform much

better, because while pulling they can apply forces in the
direction of ship's movement. That is a big advantage of
omnidirectional propulsion systems engaged in push­
pull operations. Whether one of these types is more
effective than another depends on the sarne factors
Pushing force mentioned when discussing the direct towing method,
namely the ratio a:b, a tug's underwater size and profile,
its enginé power and thrust performance in the pulling
Hydrodyriamic Qt� An important aspect to take into account is loss of
pulling efficiency due to a tug' s propeller wash hitting a
ship's hull. This force can be as large as its bollard pull,
sometimes even larger. The effect is far less if the distance
between tug propeller and ship's hull is increased.
Tractor hlgs therefore push and pull with their stern so
Figure 4.22: Pushing force created by hydrodynamic force on a as to keep their propellers as far away as possible from
tug's hull a ship's hull. In addition, tractor tugs with azimuth
A tug keeping position at an angle with the ship's hull may propellers, when pulling, can set their propeller thrusters
also exert rather high pushing forces caused by the water flow, at an angle, thus diverting the propeller wash. Toe sarne
depending on the ship's speed and the tug's underwater hui! form. applies to ASD/reverse-tractor tugs. Higher pulling
ship is underway through the water. Toe situation does effectiveness can also be achieved using a longer towline.
not differ very much from situations when stern tugs This can only be done when only pulling is required, not
are towing on a line in the direct mode, as discussed pulling and pushing, otherwise it lengthens response
earlier. Only for conventional tugs the situation is rather time. Toe effect of propellerwash is further discussed in
different. in paragraph 4.5.2, and Chapters 6 and 7.

The longer tugs can pull effectively with increasing ship When changing from pulling to pushing tug captains
speed the better. lt is obvious that the conventional tug should be aware of the dynamic forces in a towline.
will swing around. The tug needs a stern line leading Paiticularly with a steep towline angle and in wave
forward to be able to pull at right angles. For the situation conditions these forces may draw the tug quickly in the
shown, the paddle-wheel effect of the tug's propeller direction of the shlp when its engine is suddenly stopped.
also adds to the swinging motion. Tugs with twin Whjm stern thrustis also applied a tug may hit a ship's
screws, steering nozzles, a Towmaster system or flanking hull with force (see figure 4.23). See also the note at the
end of paragraph 6.3.2 regarding damage to ships caused
rudders perform better. Toe maximum ship's speed with

Stopping assistance
From the foregoing it is also clear that ASD-:tugs, reverse­
tractor tugs and tractor tugs operating ata ship's side
have better performance when braking assistance is·
required than normal conventional tugs. This is due to
omnidirectional propulsion, which provides almost the
sarne bollard pull astern as ahead.

4.3.2 Capabilities and limitations of other tug

Factors used to a:ssess the performance of the basic tug
Figure 4.23: Effect of dynamic forces in the tow line types are also applicable for assessment of the other tug
Pulling with a short and steep towline crea:tes high forces in types, such as the related tug types (Rotortug, Z-tech
the towline; which are very much enlarged by waves and swell. tug, RSD tug, carrousel tug, DOT tug) and the Fast tugs
As soon as tug engines are stopped, the tug will immediately (SDM, EDDY, Carrousel RAVE tug, Giano tug). These
be puUed backwards towards the ship by force F caused by factors include towing point, pushing point, centre of
stored energy in the elastic towline. So, when the tug captain is pressure of hydrodynamic force and location and type of
asked to stop pulling he should be aware of this effect and when propulsion.
ordered to change over from pulling to pushing, astern thrust
should be applied very carefully. Some of the tugs mentioned have been designed for
Tug Use in Port 111
specific reasons, such as the Z-tech tug, a tug originally assist in steering and in compensating wind and current
designed to be able to operate under the flare and forces, but often also detiver an unwanted force which
overhanging stem of large container ships, the RSD to increases a ship' s speed.
have an ASD-tug and tractor tug combined in one tug,
as is also the case with the Z-tech tug, and the SDM As forward tug on a line a conventional tug can assist
designed to have a tug to operate in confined port areas. in steering to both sides but as stem tug it has its
limitations. At higher speeds, steering âssistance can only
The Rotortug has two mainlocations for the azimuth be given to one side. Qn.ly at very low speeds is steering
propulsion units, two units forward and one unit aft. control to both sides and control of ship's speed possible.
It resembles a tractor tug with a large azimuth thruster
aft, a kind of active skeg These thruster locations enable As both a forward and a stem tug, capsizing (girting) is
the tug to generate higher towline forces when, eg in possible as a result of the position of the towing point
the indirect mode, towing on a line with the thrusters(s) in combination with induced strong transverse forces.
near the towing point and higher pushing forces by the To minimise risk of girting a completely reliable quick
thruster(s) located dose to the pushing point. ln addition, release system should be used. A radial towing hook or
with this thruster configuration the Rotortug can operate equivalent system also decreases the risk of capsizing.
within the width of a ship as shown in paragraph2.ll.
The ability to provide stopping assistance is nil for
The Z-tech tug and RSD tug can basically be compared forward tugs towing on a line and limited to very low
with an ASD-tug and a tractor tug as discussed above. speeds for stern tugs towing on a line. Ship's engines
should be handled with care when conventional tugs are
The carrousel tug and DOT tug are the tugs with a varying dose to the stem. Dueto these limitations as a stem tug,
towing point location. This increases to aJarge extent tug positions should be carefully planned in advance.
the capabilities and safety of the tug when towing on
a line. Pushing capabilities are the sarne as a normal The pushing effectiveness of conventional tugs decreases
conventional tug, and pulling with the engine on astem quickly with increasing ship's speed; pulling is only
has the sarne disadvantages as a conventional tug. possible at zero or low speeds, depending on whether
a stem line is used. Ship's speed should be carefully
The FAST tugs are a special dass of tugs. They have ali conttolled so as to take account of the limited capabilities
one thrusters forward and one aft. These tugs can work of a conventional tug operating at a ship' s side.
in the sarne way in narrow spaces as the Rotortug. Toe
tugs are also very manoeuvrable and when towing on Note 5:
a line and when pushing, the thrusters near the towing Often conventional single screw tugs are considered in this
point or pushing point can create additional towline force paragraph. This is not without reason because síngle screw
and pushing force. A point to take into account is that, tugs have the largest limitations. Manoeuvrability of twin
compared to other omni-directional tugs, the tugs have screw or triple screw conventional tugs is better compared to
only half of the total power available at each end, which single screv; tugs, particularly when they are also equipped
can be a disadvantage with certain assisting methods, with speciftc rudder systems or with steerable nozzles.
such as wheii. towing on a line with a ship having
headway. Single screw tugs equipped with a azimuth bow
thrusters, the so-called combi-tugs, have larger
Although performance is at least the sarne, there is one capabilities than normal conventional tugs, in particular
exception and that is the CRT1 the Carrousel RAVE Tug. when also equipped with an extra towing point aft. They
This FAST tug has a carrousel system. The carrousel
have a better performance when towing on a line, when
increases performance and safety of the tug considerably. pushing and have larger capabilities as stem tug.
Apart from the carrousel, the tug has fixed towing
points (towing pins) forward and aft and can so assist in
Tractor and reverse-tractor tugs towing on a line as
multiple ways, more than the other FAST tugs. As with
the other FAST tugs, at each tug end there is only 50 per forward tug are able to render assistartce to both sides.
cent of the total tug power. As forward tugs only steering assistance can be given,
and these tugs may also deliver an unwanted force which
increases a ship's speed. As forward tug these tugs are
4.3.3 Summary not as effective as conventional tugs for a ship underway
Many differences in performance, capabilities and at speed.
limitations of different tug types have been reviewed.
For the reader's convenience a brief summary follows As stem tug, reverse-tractor and tractor tugs perform
of the most important aspects. It is assumed that ali very well. They can provide steering assistance to both
tugs discussed are suitable for their tasks and have the sides and contrai a ship's speed even at rather high
required stability, sufficient freeboard, proper towing speeds, although a reverse-tractor tug may be somewhat
equipment and manoeuvrability. less effecti.ve than (VS) tractor tugs in providing steering
assistance at higher speeds (indirect mode). Risk of
Conventional tugs can be very effective when towing on capsizing hardly exists during normal port operations
a line at a ship having speed through the water. They can and when operating as stern tug, they are hardly affected
112 Tug Use in Port
by a ship's propeller movements, although care should specific tug or for a very limited number of tugs of which
be taken when ship's engine is started on astem. ali details of rudder, propulsion, stability, maximum list,
hydrodynamic coefficients and so on are known.
Tractor and reverse-tractor tugs operating at the side of a
ship at speed through the water are effective in pushing Desktop computer simulation programs exist, based on
and pulling and in applying braking forces. It should be a steady situation - equilibrium of forces - by which
noted that tractor tugs have a relatively large maximum the performance of different tugs and tug types can be
draft, which can be a disadvantage in shallow waters. determined. With these simulation programs capabilities
produced by different variations of tug design can be
The real ASD-tugs are multi-functional and can be predicted,
effective as a forward tug on a line when operating as
conventional tug. As forward tug, ASD-tugs can also Simulatión programs may not normaliy take into account
operate as a reverse-tractor tug. As stern tug on a line accurately ali factors in.fluencing tug performance, such
ASD-tugs generaliy operate as a reverse-tractor tug with as ship-tug interaction, flow field around a ship, influence
the sarne high performance. When pushing and pulling of water depth and confinement on the flow field, and the
at the side of a ship at speed, ASD-tugs are very effective, influence of ship's wake on a tug's braking performance,
also in applying braking forces. which are discussed in Chapters 6. There may, therefore,
be some inaccuracy in simulation results, depending on
The other tug types, such as the related tug types the situation. Limitations in simulation programs and
(Rotortug, Z-tech tug, RSD tug, carrousel tug, DOT inaccuracies should be known, including the effect on the
tug) and the FAST tugs (SDM, EDDY, Carrousel RAVE simulation results.
tug,Giano tug) have ali their specific capabilities,
although the Z-tech tug and RSD tug does not differ Real capabilities and in particular limitations are, of
much from ASD-tugs and azimuth tractor tugs. course, experienced during daily ship handling only,
The carrousel and DOT tugs are very safe tugs, have but the results of simulation programs can verify what is
larger capabilities than normal conventional tugs and the explained in this book.
risk of capsizing is nil.
The Rotortug can basically be compared with a tractor Performance diagrams
tug, but the propulsion locations forward (one) and aft Perfonnance of a conventional and an ASD-tug when pushing
(two) increase the capabilities when towing on a line and at a ship underway at speed
when pushing and pushing. They are also capable to The graphs in figures 4.24 and 4.25 are based on
operate in narrow spaces as locks and bridges. simulation studies and provide an insight into the
The tugs with one thrusters forward and one aft, the Fast capabilities of a conventional tug and an ASD-tug when
tugs, have basically the sarne capabilities, but have only pushing.
half the total power at each end of the tug.
The conventional tug has twin screws and three rudders,
The CRT, Carrousel RAVE Tug, with the carrousel and length overali of 40m, beam 1 lm, 5750 BHP (open
extra towing points forward and aft, has a large variety in propellers), 50 tons bollard pull and draft 5.2m. The
assisting methods and can generate high towline forces. maximum pushing forces of this tug were determined at
various ship' s speeds taking into account, among other
4.3.4 Effectiveness of tug types things, maximum heel at deck edge immersion. The
Model testing and full scale trials have been used to graph shows maximum transverse pushing forces and
determine tug capabilities. Most tests focus on the the longitudinal forces exerted at the sarne time. It also
abilities of one specific tug or tug type. Voith has done, shows the tug's pushing angle. The tug is pushing with a
and still does, considerable work regarding VS tractor bow line.
tugs. In the past, Aquamaster carried out several studies
regarding tugs with azimuth propellers. Recent studies As indicated in the graph, the pushing angle becomes
and full scale trials that have been undertaken mainly smaller as soon as the ship gathers speed. The
assess specific tugs and tug type escorting capabilities. hydrodynamic forces on the tug's hull may then start
to play a role. However, the transverse pushing forces
Most of these studies and trials, therefore, only involve exerted by this tug decrease with ship's speed higher
some specific aspects of ship assisting manoeuvres than five knots, but longitudinal forces increase very
required during daily tug handling. Of course, severa! quickly at speeds above four knots. These longitudinal
variations in the design of a specific type of tug exist. forces increase ship speed.

Simulation programs provide the possibility of gaining When no bow line is used the longitudinal forces and
insight into a more extensive range of a tug's ability also the transverse forces exerted at speeds higher than
using, for example, a full mission bridge simulator. When five knots are less, so tug performance is less. In waves
these programs are carried out in close co-operation of approxim.ately six feet high, tug performance drops
with pilots and tug captains and are, as far as possible, quickly at speeds higher than three knots.
verified in full scale trials, the results give quite high
reliability. Simulations are mainly carried out for one According to the sarne study, the effectiveness of
Tug Use in Port 113
conventional tugs with inferior rudder performance

Pushlng Forces (wlth bow fine) Pushlng Angla
decreases quickly at ship speeds of abotit four knots.
50 ,s). 90
� ,,.
45 60
"'--(;}"'" ln pradice a speed of five or even four knots is a rather
i 70 high limit for conventional tugs to exert transverse forces
30 --�.. - "--- �i 60
effectively. The study results may be affected because not
-O- Tra�averoe Forc� 1 '©._ 1
all factors influencing tug performance could be taken
25 into account. Naturally, differences in performance exist
-0- Longitudinal Forde
20 -·-0- Pushlng Angle
� 40 between various types of conventional tugs. ln general,
1 however, the upper limit at which effective sideways
15 t 30
,,( pushing forces can be exerted is found to be about three
5 ,/- 20 knots. This is also proven by full scale triais in the USA
o u
- - / 10 in 1982 with a 1,700hp twin screw tug with nozzles, two
steering rudders, four flanking rudders and without
-s o
o 2 4 5 6 the use of auxiliary towlines. The length of the tug was
Tankor Speed (knots) 30m. ln addition, effective pulling forces were possible at
maximum speeds of less than one knot.
Figure 4.24: Performance and behaviour of a 40m conventional
tug. The main conclusion is that at ship speeds higher than
around four knots, and for less manoeuvrable tugs three
so Tug . . tons).
r Force P (metric .?rlft Angle and. PropeUer An�les 120 knots, the performance of conventional tugs is very pobr.

At these higher speeds transverse pushing forces are
Pushing Angle a== 90 degrees
rnirúmal, but longitudinal forces increase very quickly,
50 -º�
.............; ..... 100 thus increasing ship's speed, which is not desirable.

40 ------ a-----:-�.ll · · · : 1J
Next the performance of an ASD-'tug when pushing is
considered. Particulars of the tug are: 31m length overall,
: Propeller
', 60
beam 10.7m, 3,600bhp, 50 tons bollard pull, maximum
e-- Tug Force, P
... ... ,
allowable heel 6°.
a-- DriftAngle,b
..... ,....
11 ••••••• Propeller Angles, c ......
As can be seen in the gtaph this tug performs very well.
20 ·· · ·•· • •·· ·---��-
..,.........�·-·•···----·--�....- ..::-"" a...., The tug exerts only transverse forces and no speed
••••••• . Huíl'II·-•••
.•·li increasing longitudinal forces. The higher the speed the
20 larger the hydrodynamic forces on thé tug's hull and the
larger the lift forces created by the hull. At about eight
': __,.--/_.,.•.>···"····
O 2 4 6 a 10
and a half knots, 80 per cent of the transverse pushing
force is developed by the lift force.
.Speed V (knols)

Tug stability, freeboard and height of the pushing point

have a large influence on maximum achievable pushing
forces. Llmiting factors are maximum engine revolutións,
engine torque and excessive heel.

The two graphs show a large difference in ptishing

effectiveness between ASD and conventi.onal tugs. An
ASD-tug is still effective at a much higher speed while no
ship's speed increasing longitudinal forces are exerted Oh
the ship.

p Performance of an ASD and ATD-'tug while towing on a line

The diagrams shown in figure 4.28, over the page, have
been produced by the TUGSIM simulation program of
Damen Shipyards, in the Netherlands. Tug performance
in the diagrams is limited by a tug's maximuin list- deck
edge immersion, and maximum engine load is accounted
a: Pushing Angle
b: Drift Angle The TUGSIM program operator actually steers the
e: Propeller Angles tug, controlling the rudder and/ or thrust angles and
thrust magnitude. This prevents theoretical solutions
Figure 4.25: Performance and behaviour of a 30m ASD-tug for being calculated in which a steady situation exists, but
pushing. situations in which the tug could never be manoeuvred.
114 Tug Use in Port
Courtesy: Damen Shipyards Courtesy: Damen Shipyards
Figure 4.26: ATD-tug 2412 Twin Fin. LDA 24.74m, beam Figure 4.27: ASD-tug 2411. LDA 24.47m, beam 11.33m,
12.63m, BP 70 tons. BP 70 tons.

The graphs show an ASD and a ATD-tug towing on a under the hull of a tractor tug causes additional frictional
line at different speeds - six, eight and 10 knots. The main resistance.
objective of the graphs is to show the maximum steering
and braláng forces which can be achieved. Particulars of The graphs give a good indication of the performance
the tugs are shown in figures 4.26 and 4.27, above. of both tugs, but it is good to keep in mind the
aforementioned remarks. ln addition, if the ASD-tug
With the graph a comparison is made between a typical should be equipped with a radial towing equipment,
ASD-tug type and ATD-tug type with twin fins. The performance will increase.
statical BP of both tugs is equal, and is 70 tons. However,
escorting performances do differ a lot. Both tugs have a When looking at the graphs:
maximal allowable heeling angle described by the class The ship is at the centre O of the graph, sailing direction
rules of 11 degrees (this maximal angle is based on the is indicated at the left side of the graph. Both tugs are
statical stability of the tug and with enough margin upon operating in the direct and indirect mode, whichever is
this angle to have reserve for dynamical effects such as most effective. It can be seen that steering effectiveness
in waves, etc). If the vessel is reaching this angle in the (delivering of steering forces to the ship) of the forward
calculation, the thrust is reduced or the thruster angle is ASD- and ATD tug is decreasing fast with increasing
changed in such a way that the heeling angle reduces to speed.
the maximum allowable heeling angle again.

If a traditional skeg is compared to the twin fins, on Braking performance of the aft ASD-tug does not change
higher assisting speeds (>6 kts) the maximal allowable so much with speed. Maximum steering performance
roll angle allowed by class rules is giving significant decreases also with increasing speed, which is caused by
differences between both. The point of application of the the limiting heeling angle.
hydrodynamic forces working on the ASD-tug is lowered The ASD graph of eight knots shows the tug in the
by the skeg underneath the hull. With the twin fins this is power indirect mode, whereby the towline is about at
much less the case resulting in a smaller heeling angles at right angles to the ship. The tug could even go to a more
higher speeds. forward position, but then the steering forces decrease
There are some other aspects to keep in mind when
assessing the graphs. ln the first place the larger width of At six knots performance of the ATD and ASD-tug do not
the ATD-tug, which has a large positive effect on a tug's differ so much, although the ASD-tug delivers somewhat
stability and consequently on the tug's performance. 0n higher steering forces. Braking performance of the ATD­
the other hand, performance of propellers of an ASD­ tug is also less. Six knots is more orless a normal speed
tug sailing ahead is somewhat higher than of a tractor in ports.
tug due to the fact that the speed of the water inflow
into the propellers is smaller than with a tractor tug At eight knots the performance of the aft ATD tug
with their deep lying propellers below the tug's hull, operating in the direct and indirect mode looks
and furthermore the higher velocity of the water flow somewhat better than of the ASD..,tug. At higher speeds
Tug Use in Port 115
lUGSlM-diagramfor ASDTug TUGSIM · diagram for ASO Tug TUGSlM· cfügram/or ASDTug
Vs=6knots Vs=8knots Vs•lOknots

; - i


o 10 20 30 .co so' 30 41:> so (-0 71)
Steerlngforce [tt>n) ,Steérlngf!)fte [ton]

TUGSIM-diagram for AIDTug TUGSIM- diagramfor ATDTug· TUGSIM-cf,agr.,mforATDTug

Vs=.6knot, Vs =.8 knots Vsa::lOlmots
·100 -- - ---
. - ·100


1" .:;�
,; ·30

f- 2,

I •�t:=t-t--t--�t--i
� 10
� 20


o � � � 40 � � ro
Steeringforce [ton]

Courtesy: Damen Shipyards

Figure 4;28: Polar diagrams of ASO and ATD-tug of 70 tons bollard pull for different ship speeds.
A visualisation of TugSim graphs is shown in Chapter 8.

the .ATD-tug outperforms the ASD-tug with respect to required by a VS tractor tug or ASD /Teverse-tractor tug,
braking and steering forces. for instance at speeds of more than five knots, the braking
force that can be applied is higher when the tug is pulling
Speed control- braking assistance at a small angle with the ship's centre line rather than
Tractor, ASD and reverse-tractor tugs perform very well pulling straight astem, as can be seenin the TUGSIM
as stern tugs for steering assistance and speed control. performance graphs.
This resulted in competition between the designers of
cycloidal propellers (VS) and azimuth propellers about When braking assistance is requited at high speeds by
which type of tug, VS or ASD, performs best as stem tug a conventional tug operating over the bow as stem tug,
at higher speeds. This is mainly due to the discussions it may not be possible to reverse fixed pitch propellers
with respect to escorting, dealt with in Chapter 9. due to the high propeller load which has to be overcome
However, one aspect is briefly discussed here, the by the engine, although the effect of it can be reduced
braking performance of tugs equipped with azimuth by proper design and tuning of the engine. For the
thrusters, because it is important for daily assistance in sarne reason, at a crash stop VS pitch levers should be
ports. ln this respect some terms have been introduced by set in accordance with the ship's speed and azimuth
Aquamaster. thrusters have to be rotated to astem but can be set,
with independently controlled thrusters, at an angle
It should be noted that when stopping assistance is with the tug's centre line to avoid stalling. fu the case
116 Tug Use in Port
of azimuth thrusters with controllable pitch propellers, factors such as the influence of environmental conditions,
.=:Stern pitch should be applied in accordance with ship's particulars of the passage or fairway towards the berth,
�eed when a ship having a rather high speed has to be available stopping distance, size of turning circle,
stopped. Because of the low performance of controllable berth location, and so on have to be taken into account.
pitch propellers going astem, tuming the thrusters like Together these factors determine what should be
furusters with fixed pitch propellers is more effective in expected from tugs - steering assistance, compensating
applying braking assistance. extemal forces of wind and current, assistance in
stopping the ship or a combination thereof. Ship's
ln the direct assisting method, Aquamaster daimed that berthing si9-e is also an impórtant factor to be taken into
at speeds of up to eight knots braking forces can reach account when positioning tugs. And, of course, it is very
values up to one and a half times the bollard pull astem important to know the number, type and bollard pull of
with azimuth thrusters (of ASO/reverse-tractor as well available' tugs.
as tractor tugs) rotated 180º, the thrusters thus working
in line with the tug's centre line in negative flow. At ln figure 4.29 different tug positions are given. A ship has
' speeds higher than eight knots braking forces drop off headway and has to make a tum to starbóard. Tugs have
dramatically, regardless of the power applied. Engine to assist. Whether a particular type of tug is more or less
load then also increases rapidly to an overload condition. effective in one or more of the positions shown has been
This braking method is called the Reverse Arrest Mode. discussed already and is summarised in paragraph 4.6.
Attention now tums to the effect on a ship when tugs are
A second Way of applying braking force in the direct operating in one of these positions.
assisting method is the so-called Transverse Arrest Toe location of the pivot point is taken into account.
Mode. Large arresting forces can be created by pointing
the thrusters outward at an angle of approximately Forward tug no 1, towing on a line, is capable of exerting
90º . These forces result from momentum drag and quite high crosswise steering forces on a ship. Toe effect
aré generated when the propellers accelerate the can be limited because of the transverse forces near a
athwartships component of the wash. Toe forces increase ship's bow to be overcome, as explained when discussing
with speed and exceed the astem bollard pull at speeds the pivot point. It is clear that for a particular ship
higher than eight knots without overloading the engine. these transverse forces are proportional to the draft and
underkeel clearance. Also, the more the tug is pulling in
So, below eight knots the Reverse Arrest Mode can be line with a ship's heading the more the tug will increase a
used (thrusters rotated 180º in line with the tug's centre ship's speed.
line) and at speeds higher than eight knots the Transverse
Arrest Mode (thrusters at an angle of 90° with tug's Position of tug no 2 is not so good for the steering
centre line) can be applied. See figures 9.8 and 9.12 for the assistance required. Toe tug has to overcome the sarne
different terms used and the achievable braking forces. transverse forces as tug no. 1, but the lever of crosswise
steering forces exerted by the tug is much shorter and the
Note 6: tug's underwater resistance opposes the tum. Also, when
The eight knots criterion is just an indication and may differ a ttig is unable to push at right angles to a ship's hull it
between tugs. For instance, on ASD-tugs 2411 fttted with will increase a ship's speed.
a load cell measuring towlineforces, it has been experienced
consistently that six knots is the point at whiôz transverse Regarding tug no 2, it should be kept in mind that this
arrest becomes more effective than reverse arrest mode. At tug might eveh have an opposite effect. Simulation
speeds over six knots, moving the thrusters into a reverse arrest studies carried out by, among others, Dr Paul
position results in immedi.ate loss ofload on the towline and Brand.ner and described in his thesis 'Performance and
greater risk of engine overload.
effectivertess of omni-directional stern drive tugs' (see
References) show that a tug pushing at the bow of a
Although eight knots is a high speed for tug assistance in
loaded tanker on a steady course, with an initial speed
port areas, itis good to know how thrusters can be used
of four knots, the engine on Dead Slow Ahead and
to deliver high retarding forces. This way of applying
rudder amidships, has a tendency to turn against the
braking forces can be utilised by ali tug types with
pushing direction of the tug. Toe tests were carried out
steerable thrusters, such as the Rotortug, Z-tech tug and
with a depth/ draft ratio of 1.2. This effect has also been
RSD tug. Tugs with only one thruster forward and one
aft can deliver high braking assistance but are limited experienced during full scale trials. During these trials a
because applying the transverse arrest mode is not loaded tanker was on a steady course at five knots speed,
possible. Tugs with a carrousel system can brake a ship's the rudder amidships, and the engine was stopped. A
speed effectively by operating crosswise behind the ship, conventional tug started to push on the port shoulder.
a method sometimes also applied by Voith tugs. After an initial tum to starboard the ship started to tum
to port, while speed increased.
4.3�5 Effective tug position It does in no way say that for other ship types or other
Positioning tugs depends on several factors. Firstly, loading conditions, the sarne effect might be experienced.
ship's particulars such as type, size, draft, windage Toe opposing transverse force at the bow differs by ship
and manoeuvrability have to be considered. Secondly, type, draft, trim and under keel clearance (see above for
Tug Use ih Port 117
centred lateral resistance, which contribute to the
swing. Toe tug's underwater resistance gives additional
turning effect to starboard. When tug no 4 cannot work
at right angles, ship's speed increases, but as a result
of the higher rate of tum caused by the pushing tug
and consequently the higher drift angle, ship's speed is
hardly affected. If the tug has a bowline secured, it could
also assist in the starboard swing by going astem, in the
sarne way as tug no 3. ln that case the whole tug has to
be pulled crosswise through the water by the ship's stem
and hence opposes the tum somewhat.

Tug no. 5 is in a very effective position. The longest

possible lever for steering forces and the transverse forces
centred forward contribute to the swing. Also, the tug
does not increase ship's speed. 0n the contrary, the tug
also provides retarding forces while applying steering

Tug no. 6 is in a similarly effective position to tug nó. 5,

but has the disadvantage that this tug increases ship's
speed. Toe sarne would be the case with a rudder tug
(not shown in figure 4.29).

The difference in effectiveness between a forward

pushing and aft pushing tug can also be seen when a ship
gathers speed. For instance, assume that tug no. 3 and no.
4 are of sarne type and bollard pull and both pushing at
right angles. At zero speed the ship, on even keel, moves
crosswise. For reasons explained, as soon as ship's speed
increases, the effect of tug no. 3 is smaller than that of tug
Figure 4.29: Effect of different tug positions. no. 4 and the ship starts turning to starboard. Toe same
applies to tugs of similar capabilities when towing on a
line forward and aft.
tug no.1). ln the report (thesis) menti.oned above, test
results of other loading conditions are given. If the sarne For swinging, eg when the ship is stopped in the turning
tug is pushing at the shoulder of the tanker when in deep circle, tugs no 1 and 5 or 6 are in the best position due to
water, in ballast condition and trimmed by the stern, the the long lever of exerted tug forces.
tug does tum the tanker in the required direction and
the effect does not differ much from a tug pushing at the The most effective tug positions have now been
quarter (tug no 4). reviewed. Which positions should be used during
passage towards a berth and while mooring/unmooring
Apart from what has just been mentioned, the positions
depends on what is required from the tugs and this
of tugs no 1 and 2 are not always inadequate. It depends
on the situation and circumstances, because the tugs ate depeneis on the ship, local situation, circumstances and
in a good position to compensatefor drift forces caused ship's berthing side.
by wind and/ or .current from starboard. If required, tug
no. 1 can easily compensate for the wind and current If steering assistance to starboard is required during
forces from port as well. This flexibility in operation is an passage towards a berth then tugs no. 3, 4, 5 and 6 are
advantage of the forward tug towing on a line. in a good position. Tug no 5 can even give steering
Tug no 3 can assist the starboard tum by going astem. a.ssistance to both sides. The sarne would be the case with
ln doing so, an additional starboard tuming cóuple a rudder tug. If crosswise drift forces fróm port have to
is created by the tug's and ship's engines working in be compensated for in a narrow fairway, tugs no. 3 and
opposite directions. By going astern the tug is slowing 4 are in a good position and also tugs no. 1 (when this
down ship's speed, and thus increasing the effect of tug shifts to port), 5 and 6. ln case stopping assistance
the ship's engine on the rudder. The tug's underwater is :tequ.ired tugs no. 2 and 3 (with bow lines) and 5 will
resistance contributes to the sta.rboard swing. If tug no. 2 assist effectively.
had a bow line, both tugs 2 and 3 are in a good position
to take off ship's headway, if required. If tug assistance is required during mooring/unmooring
operations then several combinations are possible, also
Tug no 4 is in an effective position to assist the starboard depending on tug type. For mooring of large ships even
tum by pushing, because of the long lever and forward four tugs may be used. Often tugs nos 3 and 4 are used
118 Tug Use in Port
Photo: Henk Hensen
Figure 4.30: Tug pushing
full power at port shoulder
of a ship still having forward
speed. Pushing effect in
this position is not large. ln
addition, there is a forward
force component increasing
ship's speed.
for pushlng and 1 and 5/ 6 for controlling the approach influence of wind and/ or current can be compensated as
speed towards the berth. much as possible and changes in heading can be made
in a safe, efficient way. A ship can also berth either side
If tug no 1 is a tractor tug, reverse-tractor tug or ASO- tug using this system.
operating as a reverse-tractor tug, then tug no 1 together
with tug no 5 can easily push as well as control the ship's Towing on a line, therefore, has the advantage that
approach speed towards the berth during mooring. tugs are normally positioned at the safe side of the ship
and are flexible regarding berthing side. Even in the
Whether the required tug forces can be delivered worst case, when wind and/ or current are getting too
effectively, depends on a correct assessment of the strong, tugs on a line can assist up to the last moment,
required bollard pull and the right choice of the type minimising the risk of severe damage.
of tugs with respect to the tugs' positions and assisting
methods. When omnidirectional propulsion tugs are used for
towing on a line they are able to change over to the push­
Although the largest percentage of tugs belong to the pull method during berthing without the need to release
basic tug types, if other tug types are used their specific the towline. This shortens berthing time, because no time
capabilities and limitations should be well knówn and on is wasted in retrievihg towlines or repositioning tugs. ln
the basis of this knowledge should be used at the inost addition, a ship can be kept under better control because
effective position, taking into what has been discussed towlines stay fastened while tugs either push or pull.
Tugs at a ship's side are positioned according to berthing
4.3.6 Towing on a line compared with operating side, to the forces of wind or current to be compensated
at a ship's side for and/ or the changes of heading to be made during
transit towards a berth. When positioned to compensate
ln Chapter 3 different assisting methods were discussed. for wind and/ or current forces this may be the wrong
Which assisting method is most appropriate for a position for berthing. Tugs thert have to be shifted before
particular port depends oh the local situation, the mooring takes place - common practice in some ports.
circumstances and the available tugs. Nevertheless, Hówever, this means that a ship has no or little assistance
it is good to have an idea about the advantages and during shifting of the tugs and may start drifting.
disadvantages of the two basic methods. Attention has
been paid to this aspect in paragraph 3.2.2. Various When positioned to compensate for wind and/ or current
aspects of both methods have been dealt with, such as forces, risk is involved for both tugs and ship when these
the small manoeuvring lane within which tugs towing forces are underestimated and a ship starts drifting.
on a line are able to operate and the limitations of tugs When it becomes too dangerous for the tugs they may
operating at a ship's side due to waves were mentioned. try to get out from between the ship and the leeward or
Available tug types is a factor that has to be taken into downstream fairway or channel banks, leavihg the ship
account as well. This aspect and at what ship's side tugs without any assistance.
can be made fast best, although depending on the local
situation, will get some further attention below.
4.4 Design consequences
Different types of tug can be used for towing on a line, What has been discussed with respect to the performance
some more effective than others. ln a fairway passage of different tug types has resulted in an altemative
towards a berth tugs are normally positioned so that the design for some VS tractor tugs. The reason why is clear.
Tug Use in Port 119
for operations by typical harbour tugs is: apprapriate towline configurations to be used. And as the
tug motions at the wheelhouse position turned out to be
Visíbility: determining for some conditions, also human operator
ln several ports a visibility of 0.5 miles is found to be the motion criteria were identified.
limit. Visibility restrictions of towing companies do not
always align with the port restrictions. Concerning the offshore betthing assist operations in
waves specifü: studies were undertaken on the local
Maximum signijicant wave height: waves fields around the to be assisted vessel, on the
Conventional tug types: 1.5 - 1.8 m fender design and on the vessel - tug propeller wash
Tractor types of tugs (including reverse-tractor tugs), interaction.. Toe latter showing significant reductions in
ASD tugs: 2.0 m� effective bollard pull.

4.5.2 Terminal and escort tugs. lmproved tug Basic design aspects
performance in waves Hull &appendages
ln addition to typical harbour tugs, more tugs have to As already said, two dominant types of tug design were
operate in wave conditions. This can be as a result of the taken as the starting point of the studies, the azimuthing
growing ship size and high dead slow speeds, as can be stern drive (ASO) witha forward winch and the VS
the case with container vessels. As mentioned above, they tractor tug. The latter using a dedicated hull fin to
may require tugs to make fast earlier and at locations generate indirect towing force, the first by using the total
where waves are starting to play a role. Furthertnore, tugs hull including skeg as the 'fin'.
have to operate at LNG tenninals which can be located at
offshore locations and at FPSOs, FLNGs, SPMs, etc. The tug motions caused by waves showed that in
particular the roll motions limit the tug operation
It requires seaworthy tugs capable to perform in wave in waves. For well designed tugs both the towing
conditions. The sarne applies to escort tugs. These tugs performance and the safety are maintained even in high
have to operate in port approaches where waves still play sea states.
a role.
Rali motions however lead to too high accelerations,
To get better insight into what could be done to particularly in the horizontal transverse direction.
design tugs in such a way that they can operate in a Potentially harming the tug master and/or deteriorate
safe and efficient way in waves the }IP Ooint Industry his steering performance, in addition it negatively affects
Project) SAFETUG was carried out by MARIN, the the towline behaviour. ln the follow-up of the initial
Netherlands, in the years 2005-2010 in co-operation with motion studies, variations were investigated in main hull
a large representative group of the tug industry ahd dimensions (B/T= Breadth-DraftRatio) and (chined) hull
including the end-users. Its main objective addressed form, size of :bilge keels and skegs, and variations in GM.
the operability envelopes and the related design Each of them has a significant influence on the roll motions
requirements. Toe results were used to address various and GM in particular is relevaht and needs consideration
design aspects enabling the towage operations in waves relativé to the dominant local wave periods.
and safeguarding the crew. Results addressed both
offshore slow speed direct assistance as well as transit, A summary of conclusidns:
direct and escorting assistance athigher speeds. Below a • The skeg1 area, aspect ratio (AR) and distance to the
suinmary is given of some of the results. centre of gravity (COG), has a positive (arder of 10
per cent), but not large effect on the roll damping.
The SAFETUGJoint Industry Project focused on a • Bilge keels are not always applied on tugs;
number of outstanding issues: however at low speeds they increase roll damping
Firstly, identifying the towing and motion performance considerably (20-40 per cent, but not so much at
while operating in waves. It did so for the indirect zero speed).
(escorting assist) as well as for the direct towing mode, • Toe type of propulsion has effect on roll behaviour;
for a typical ASO design and for a Voith design. As both create dam.ping, an active roll damping using
the risk of capsizing is increasing in the dynamic wave Voith Schneider is very effective (order 50 per cent).
environment, also ultimate stability tests while operating • Specific choice of hull type increases roll damping
in waves were conducted. for instance through a single hard chine design
(order 40 per cent), B/T ratio is less important for
- 1
Secondly improving the tug
design, primarily by looking
reducing roll.
. ,
�__ at reducing the rali motions Stability
�!QJ ---- lnn th rough changes m· des1gn.
· Stability refers to both transverse (capsizing) stability
� and longitudinal tow stability. The study focused on the
ln addition, some typical ultimate (dynamic) stability tests inhigh. waves during
Figure 4.32: SAFETUG JIP operationally driven issues
logo were addressed. To mention 1
Full bodied hull forms can have an added bottom keel skeg,
the design of the winch and the others have an dedicated high aspect ratio skeg
Tug Use in Port 121
A tractor tug is very effective as a stern tug on a line. It terminal tugs, escort tugs and ISVs.
operates with the stern directed towards the ship and
the tug captain facing aft. Titls is also the direction of the 4.5 Environmental limits for tug operations
assisted ship's movement. When operating at a ship's
side a íug captain is also usually fadng aft and the sarne 4.5.1 Harbour tugs
applies during mooring and unmooring operations. Harbour tugs can operate in all conditions of current and
wind. However, during fog the situation is different. Fog
So what can be seen are some VS tractor tugs, as for in confined port areas makes tug assistance very risky.
instance the Scandinavian terminal tugs Baut, Boris, ln good visibility a tug captain assesses his position and
Boxer, where the wheelhouse is turned 180º. The stern is speed mainly in relation to the speed and heading óf the
highér to give better protection agaínst incoming waves. attended ship, and also in relation to the surrounding
These tugs will be considered when discussing escorting. area, such as buoys, beacons, river banks and quays.
Similar changes to VS tug design can be found, among
others, in the VS tug Redbridge, where the tug funnels are Compared to ship movements, tug movements are much
placed forward of the wheelhouse, giving an optimum faster, making it difficult to manoeuvre using the tug's
view aft for the captain. Toe stern in this design is also radar. ln addition, tugs often operate dose to a ship's
raised. ln addition, altemative towing points can be used, side, resulting in a distorted or partly blank radar picture.
as mentioned in section 4.2.2. Furthermore, during fog a tug captain may lose a good
view of his towline. Altogether this makes tug assistance
Since ASD-tugs mainly operate over the bow as a reverse­ dl.ll'ing fog much more difficult than when visibility is
tractor tug as is the case with bow-to-bow operations, good. For this reason restrictions on tug assistance under
the tractor tug becomes a good alternative. Most tractor poor visibility conditions exist in anumber of ports. Titls
tugs can also work well under the flare and overhanging subject is further discussed in paragraph 6.3.12.
stem of eg large container ships. This has led to. the
development of tugs that can be considered as tractor tug Several ports lie dose to open sea and terminals, eg LNG
or as an ASD-tug; they combine two tug types in one; as terminais, and their approaches may be situated in open
is the case with the Z-tech tug and RSD tug. waters. Furthermore, the length of breakwaters may not
keep pace with the growing size of particularly container
Toe risks related to conventional tugs because of the vessels, forcing tugs to operate outside the breakwaters.
towing point near the middle of the tug has more or less Consequently, tug assistance may also be required in
led to the development of the carrousel system. open sea. For harbour tugs, passing towlines in wave
conditions is difficult. Harbour tugs operating at a ship's
The need to operate in narrow spaces in ports and side have short and often rather steep towlines. When
harbours was a reason to develop the SDM. tugs operate on a wave exposed slúp's side, dynamic
forces in the. towline may reach high values and lines are
It can be conduded that based on experience in specific liable to part in deteriorating wave conditions. So, very
ports and with specific tugs there is a continuous search strong and sometimes double fibre lines of high stretch
for improvement. Improved designs are also needed due properties are often used.
to new tasks a tug has to carry out, as the case is with
However, if circumstances permit, tugs can also change
over to towing on a line, allowing them to handle a ship
more safely since if towlines are longer they can better
absorb dynamic forces. When tugs are equipped with
towing win.ches line can then be paid out as deem:ed
necessary and be shortened when conditions improve or
when entering port.

On the other hand, in wave conditions harbour tugs

can, instead of towing oh a line, operate more effectively
� and at higher wave heights at the ship's leeside, if
circumstances and ship manoeuvres allow. It ali depends
on the local situation.

t_ _:,;:�_.: __ ,..... ,:., _-_:':,___ _______ -::.,,,-� �:-��I

ln wave conditions the risk of girting for conventional
Passing towliiles can be carried out more safely with
Figure 4.31: Svitzer's VS tug Redbridge (LOA 33m, beam more highly manoeuvrable tugs. Tractor tugs wil1 in
11.2m, BP 43 tons). A specific design, meeting several particular operate more safely and can provide assistance
operational requirements; it has an optimum view of the after in somewhat larger wave heights. Anyway, waves
deck from the wheelhouse, unobstructed by funnels and a much limit the operating effectiveness of harbour tugs when
higher sheer at the stern to keep the aft deck clear of water when towing on a line as well as operating at a ship's side
running astern at speed, particularly in wave conditions and when exposed to waves. Performance decreases with
when escorting. increasing wave height. An indication of the upper limits
120Tug Use in Port
indirect towing, observing the effect on both types of coming from astem or against the waves, which is a
stability through variations in GM and the longitudinal big difference.
and vertical towing point position. The study has • With respect to the aforementioned item, of
resulted in updated (escorting) stability requiremehts importance is also if a regularwave pattem or are
mainly prepared by Bureau Veritas. waves coming in from different directions, which for
instance can be the case after ·a depression has passed
ln general both type of tugs showed, when designed over the area. Anirregular wave pattern is more
according to the current stability standards, safe problematic.
behaviour against various stability failure modes, •
eg nose diving, broaching, throwing over or loss of Finally, sometimes tugs can operate sheltered from
stability due to water on deck 0bviously the bow first sea waves, in the lee of the to be assisted vessel.
type. of operations with some additional freeboard
in the bow are inherently more safe than de lower Towing performance
deck first operations. Exceptionalhigh waves during As earlier stated, the effectiveness of a harbour tug
escorting, leading to large amount of water on the aft decreases rapidly if the wave height exceeds certain
deck 'straighten' the vessel and release the large angle. values. However to exploit the full capabilities of a
Ali under the condition that the usual calm water modem tug additional 'operational' aspects need to
longitudinal stability is maintained. be addressed. Highly relevant aspects are the winch,
tow lines and fender characteristics, next to the human
Propulsíon system factors in rela.tion to the moti011. critería. 0bviously the
Oearly the conventional two shaft propulsion system assessment of the type and specific wave operation
isn't very suitable for the required tow angle control environment need to be looked at and preferably
and agile response when operating in waves. Both the simulated in advance.
Azimuthing and, more so, Voith-Schneider propulsion
systems have the ability to direct effectively the required One of the important overall outcome of SAFETUG is
propulsion thrust and directiort. that even relatively small tugs can operate in higher Wave
conditions than stated above in paragraph 4.3.1, valid for
Operational. aspects normal harbor tugs. The tug's performance and safety
is unchanged but does however require specifíc design
and operation requirements and tug master handling
Prior to discussing some operational aspects of operating capability.
in waves it is ttseful to make some remarks about swell
and wind waves. Below a surrrinary is given on a number of operational
• Wave height is usually given as H•. Hs is the aspects to be addressed in the acquirement process of
significant wave height, commonly referred to as these more appropriate tugs. To mention the following;
'seas' in the Marine Forecast. It is about the wave tow lines, winches, fenders, type of operations, towing
height estimated by an experienced observer. It is performance and human factor aspects.
the average of the highest one-third (33 pet cent)
of waves. Since the signilicant wave height is an Summary
average of the largest waves, one should be aware
SAFETUG focused on tugs ·operating at high speeds
that most individual waves are lower - but some
in waves, as is the case with escorting, and on tugs
waves can be higher. As a general rule,the largest
operating at no or low speed in waves ,as is the case with
individual wave one may encounter is approximately
offshore berthing/unberthing. The most relevant findings
twice as high as the significant wave height (or seas).
• This means that if claimed that a specific tug can
Tow lines and winches
operate in an H, of, let us say, 3m this tug should be
designed to cope with higher waves, up to about 6m, • Towline dynamics and tug motions are of paramount
aswell! importance to extending the operations of tugs in
• Wave height is one aspect, but wave period is of even higher sea states.
greater importartce. There is a difference between • A good winch is a prerequisite for escort operations
sea waves and swell waves. Swell waves have in waves. In general, for operations in waves a
long periods and cause larger ships to roll but do render-recovery winch that can cope with large
not affect tug performance as the short period sea variations in the towline force, without introducing
waves do. So, wave period is, next to wave height a oscillations in the system is needed.
necessary factor to be mentioned when claiming a • A careful combined modelling and simulation of
certain· operational window. ln the SAFETUG project, tug and vessel motion, winch behaviour and line
because of their relevance to tugs, sea waves have response gives the for the required operati.ons the
been considered. necessary insight in the design requirements for
• Not only wave height and wave period are important the tug, winch and lines and in the limits of a safe
for tug operations, but also wave direction. Are operation. Toe inclusion of the tug master in a full
waves coming from abreast, from astem, or from mission simulator training further identifies the safe
ahead. Is the ship to be assisted sailing in waves operational limits and the required training.

122 Tug Use in Port

from the ship's hull have an average loss of 43 - 64 per
• The subject of fenders and their role in improving cent! The 43 - 64 per cent loss is an important finding for

the limits of operatlon in waves has been studied harbour tugs as well. Loss does decrease if towline is set
within SAFETUG. No major system inhovations has at a much larger length and increases when underkeel
been identified, however more firm limits has been clearance decreases. Setting the thrusters- at an angle will
identified. also decrease the loss. See also paragraph 5.2.6.

Type of operations & towing performance The highest loss is found in waves, which can be up till
• Based on tank tests it is believed that (high) bow almost 90 per cent. Pushing force in waves also decreases
first escorting is an 'ultimate' safe arrangement for considerably, depending on wave direction. Figure 4.27
escorting. For example with an ASD-tug severe water shows the effective pull force on an LNG carrier for an
may come on th� aft deck, but the tug's bow does not applied bollard pull of 80 tons.
dig into the water. The high forepart of the tug has an
important impact on the inherent ultimate safety. • Based on questionnaires completed by tug masters of
• There are a number of effects influencing the mainly ASD-tugs, showed following limiting wave
effectiveness of a tug in waves in direct tow operation heights for working in waves:
at zero speed around terminais. An operability 0-2 knots 3- 7 knots 7-8 knots
concept assessment method was defined calculating a
number of steps. See also added schematic figure 4.33.
Braking/ 3.1m 2.7m *)- 2.0m *)-
1. To.e local wave field around the to be assisted
steering 3.1m 2.5m
vessel. Pulling 3.4m 3.1m
2. The thrust degradation due to thruster Pushing 2.8m 2.3m
ventilation and the efficiency lo:ss due to tug/
wave motions in the calculated wave field. Although the values are rather high for the low
3. The interacti.on with the hull of the assisted and medium speed, it shows that the limiting wave
vessel due to the tug's wash. heights for pushing are lowest. The SAFETUG study
shows that, depending on wave period and direction,
On the latter (no 3) many tests have been carried out with limiting wave heights for pushing is between 1.5 and
the ASD-tug to determine what these interaction losses 2m, which is also lower than shown in the table.
could be in calm water and for two wave directions. The
main results for calm water are as follows: • Potentially the escort towing performance capability
Tugs towing at the bow and stern there is hardly any of the tug itself in a11 tested wave conditions (up to
difference. The highest average loss is 12 per cent. 2.5m in 6s wave period, up to 4m in 10s wave period)
showed in most cases values equal or close to equal
Tugs pulling at the ship's side at mostly one tug's length those of the calm water escort condition.

position linei\',1inch/fender. properties

global. wavo fiold
local !
wave field
� T" H, (lt.:11'..·:m;:1:1:ton�r
lt.;::\f WU','C' fo!!�:
�� + 1h:1J:.
d:I� r
� �BP - F,..• ,-F,,n(T,H� -.•;a·.:-c

�F +�
T, H, ,.�
+ "slack line" loads and

locai wte field - � motions
bollard pul
BP�r----(T, H )

in waves
iug_type �
rtomin· ai. bollard pull
\\ t
;1BP+F•. ,F... (BP,T,,
2 80 t
ihr1_:..-tr!r-!1Uli lf\t�':':')�•".'•r. 1

-==-=··�-- -=-- ...:..-,r=·-:-...,..._.,..,

�--· ••-•-,,-,,-...�-a.�•--.r.••• -.... •

Source: MARIN
Figure 4.33: Schematic presentation of the Offshore Berthing Operability concept.
Tug Use in Port 123
With respect to what has been mentioned above, here are
some valuable remarks from an experienced tug master:
Wave period and direction are often more important
than wave height. Where seas are short and steep, ie
in relatively shallow port approaches, there is a big
difference when assisting on the lee side as against the
weather side. Approaching the ship to pass the towline is
more difficult with beam or following seas, particularly
on the weather side. ln these conditions, 1.5 - 2m seas are
Source: MARIN quite difficult on harbour tugs. Experience has shown
Figure 4.34: Effect of tug positions. Effective pull in calm water that tug design plays a huge part. Some modem tractor
for an 80 ton ASD-tug pulling at about one tug's length from the tugs are vulnerable to water ingress through the large
ship's hull as a result of tug's propeller wash impinging on the side engine room fan exhaust ports, even leading to
ship's hull. blackouts on board. Toe safety of crew wotking on deck
is always a concem in heavy weather; these concems
• The transit towards a to be assisted ship in these arise from water sweeping the deck and also from
same conditions, more than the escorting or direct obstructions such as hawse pipes, deck fittings and rape
assist opetations, tumed outto give rise to the baskets etc. Many tugs designed to be most efficient in
highest, critical transverse accelerations at the tug harbour towage do not cope so well with rough water.
master position Conversely, I have worked in open water ports where
long period swells of 3-4rit are regularly coped with due
Humanfactor to different assist methods and different tug designs and
• Two aspects of the human operatot are of importance. size.
The earlier mentioned transverse accelerations, which
limit the tug master, and the tug master training If a tug is said to be suitable to operate at a certain wave
requirements when working in waves. height, the operations the tug should carry out should
• SAFETUG compared the measured accelerations be well collSidered. Ali aspects of the operati.orts should
be taken into account. One of these aspects is making
on deck and in the steering positi.on with known fast in waves for instance at high vessels, such as a bulk
standardized devised criteria like the Moti.on Illness carrier in ballast or a large container vessel, which can be
Rating (MIR) and the Moti.on Induced Interrupt troublesome in waves.
(MIi). The study concluded that only through the
acceptance of high exceedance levels on these Note 7:
criteria enables the use of the higher potential of the See for reJerences SAFETUG documents in Referentes list.
tugs. High quality and specific chairs cansupport
these often short duration levels and/or specific
operational measures can support the safe deck
• Ali tug assist operations in waves require a operation
specific training of tug masters, given the complexity
of the tug- winch-line -vessel interactions.

After SAFETUG developments in tug designed for
operations in waves continued. A few examples:

There is indeed a tendency to design tugs in such a way

that they can operate in higher waves. An example is
the ASD-tug Svitzer Lindsway (type RAstár 3400 - LOA Source: MARIN
34m, beam 14.50m, draft 6.55m, BP ahead + 100 tons). Figure 4.35: Tests with ASD-tug in Wave tank.
Toe published information shows that, due to specific
hull forro, roll amplitude and roll accelerations have been 4.6 Conclusions regarding tug types
reduced significantl.y, thus providing a safer and more From the foregoing can be learnt the difference in
comfortable platform for tug crews and are now being performance of various typical harbour tug types. This is
asked to conduct berthing operations in 3m significant important knowledge. It is essential, however, that each
wave heights. tug and tug type has such a design which ensures safety
and good performance. This means that such aspects
Escort tugs are equipped with render-recovery winches, as stability, location of towing and pushing points,
also called dynamic winches. The sarne applies to fendering, skegs, propulsion, etc, require due attention.
terminal tugs that have to operate in waves. The old If these aspects are realised in an optimum way, then the
effecti.ve system of bilge keels can again be found on right tug type can be considered for operations in ports
modem tugs. and fairways.
124 Tug Use in Port
In Chapter 1, factors have been cliscussed that play a role be handled safely and efficiently. When manoeuvring,
in the decision which tug type is best for a certain port the pilot should keep, as far as is possible, a close eye
have. Toe tasks that tugs have to carry out have increased on the assisting tugs. He will then see how the tugs
considerably and that has consequences for the design. It are performing, can take action when they don't act as
is notonly ship handling in ports and fairways, but more expected, or when a tug's safety is at risk.
and more tugs are employed at remote areas and used
for escorting as well. ln case tugs have to operate in wave Communicatians between pilots and tug captains
conclitions additional requirements apply such as with For effective co-operation between pilots and tug
regard to skeg and hull design,towing winch and fender captains a good communication system is indispensable.
characteristics. Portable radio-communication sets have been used for
years by pilots. When of a good make these sets are very
Safe operations and good performance are the two main handy and work satisfactorily. Radio sets should be
factors for considering a tug type, therefore, it is crucial tested prior to a pilot boarding a ship and it is pest that
to know the capabilities and limitations of the various tug every pilot has his own set.
To be able to carry out operations in a safe way, or in Tug orders should be given clearly and be open to only
other words with a low risk, it has been shown that the one interpretati.on. Tugs should be addressed by name
following aspects are important: or by operating position. Tug captains should confirm
• Toe location of the towing point. and repeat the orders given, stating their tug's name or
• The type �d location of the propulsion units. position. Any possibility of misunderstancling should be
• Stability and freeboard.
Furthermore: Many ports prefer to use a standard system in English,
• Toe type of towing winch. but it will take years before such a system could be
• Hull, skeg and fender design. introduced worldwide.
Another item is: ln nearly ali ports the language between pilots and tug
• Ease of tug handling. captains is a kind of slang and is therefore not always
comprehensible to the master of a slüp. Although pilots
Other aspects may be important f or a certain port, such and tug captains understand each other well enough,
as the maximum draft of tugs. Maximum draft of tractor it is a strange situation because the ship master is still
tugs, and other tug types with the propulsion units under responsible.
the main body of the tug, is in general larger than of It would therefore be better if tug orders were given in
other tug types. English, according to an intemationally agreed standard
vocabulary. Using understandable English is fine in
Paragraph 4.3.1, and to some extent paragraph 4.3.2, English speaking countries, but it does cause problems
gives a summary of the capabilities of various tug types. in many non-English speaking countries. ln particular,
Other aspects of importance about safe operations are tug captains often speak only the local language. An
dealt with in Chapter 6. intemational standard vocabulary is, for that reason,
hardly feasible. ln addition, a standard vocabulary cannot
As explained in this chapter, performance of tugs can be cover non-standard situations. ln criticai situations
shown by so-called polar d.iagrams, which show the tug's pilots and tug captains should be able immediately to
capabilities at various towing angles and ship speeds. understand what is wanted. A change in communication
Also pushing performance at various speeds can be made procedures might result in misunderstandings. This
shown. should be avoided.
Regardless of whether tug orders are given in English or
Whatever the capabilities and limitations of a tug, the
not, the ship's captain should always be informed about
risks are low and performance at its best if the tug master
the tug manoeuvres to be carried out. Nevertheless, the
is well trained and knows what a tug can do and not can
use of a basic system for tug orders in a port, a port's
do. A good knowledge of this is also of great importance
approach channel and when escorting is necessary, even
for a pilot and a ship's captain. though only a local system, but should be standard for
all local pilots and tug captains. Furthermore, the ship's
4.7 Some other practical aspects captain and the tug captains should always be informed
There are other aspects which are important for safe and by pilots about the intended ship and tug manoeuvres.
efficient ship handling by tugs.
See Chapter 8 for further cliscussion of training in
Co-operation communication procedures.
Pilots, ship masters and tug captains should know
each other's capabilities and limitations regarding ship Tuguse
and tug manoeuvres. This knowledge is the basis of Harbour tugs handling a ship should have a reserve of
good co-operation and understancling between them. power, be able to react fast and to handle a ship in such a
Only then will manoeuvres go smoothly and a ship way that a minimum of space is required for the ship and
Tug Use in Port 125
assisting tugs. Where tugs are slower to react, towlines Example: A container ship lying bow out alongside the
longer, and tug power sinaller, the more manoeuvring berth has to depart with strong onshore winds. Tugs are
space is required for a ship and assisting tugs. However, ordered. Total bollard pull available seems just sufficient
manoeuvring space is usually very limited in port areas. to pull the ship off the berth. So far, no problem.
However, as soon as the ship's engines are started and
Tug size and power should be relative to ship size. Large she starts mo,ing, the tugs towing on a line take position
and powerful tugs should normally not handle small to be able to keep pace with the ship, so their pulling
ships. Tug actions in that case could induce too large effectiveness on the ship decreases, and in addition
movements of the attended ship, resulting in inefficient the effect of forward pulling tug decreases because
ship handling and in a worst case damage to the ship. ln of the hydrodynamic force is also becoming centred
addition, bollard pull of the separate tugs handling a ship at a forward position at the ship and is counteracting
should not mutually differ too much. the pulling tug. The ship may so drift alongside the
berth again and additional or stronger tugs have to
Tug configuration should be planned well in advance, be ordered, which takes time. When moored port side
taking into account available tugs, the capabilities and to and departing astem out of the harbour basin with
limitations of different tugs, manoeuvres to be carried an onshore wind the effect is even worse due to the
out, the influence of wind, current, and so on. transverse effect of the ship's propeller.

Repositioning of tugs may sometimes be considered SJzip pulled or pushed around by a bow tug gathers speed
necessary during a trip, but should be avoided as far A tug pulling or pushing at right angles to the bow
as possible, particularly if shifting the tugs involves of a ship stopped in the water will give the ship a
releasing and refastening towlines. Thís takes time, lateràl velocity and a rate of tum, causing the ship
especially with the limited number of crew members on to pivot around a point somewhere near the stern.
board nowadays. During the time of shifting a tug, the As a consequence the ship's lateral centre of gravity
ship has less or no tug assistance and in the worst case follows a curved path. A body following a circular path
towlines may foul ship's or tug's propeller. experiences a 'centrifuga} force', and such a force also
acts on the ship's centre of gravity moving along the
Speed curved path. A 'centrifugai force' is always directed
Ship's speed should be carefully controlled in relation to ouhvard and perpendicular to the curved path. This
the linútations of the tugs involved. This generally means 'force' originally acts almost in line with the ship, thus
that speed should be low, taking into account the effect causes the ship to gather headway. Toe fluid forces also
of cutrent and wind. ln any case, the lower a ship's speed contribute to this effect.
the more effectively tugs can operate and the safer. Also
other factors are important with regard to ship's speed
and tug safety, such as the way tugs assist, interaction
effects between tug and ship and shallow water effects,
which are discussed in the following chapters.
'fün!(er 1200:oop lçin�es_ �tsfÍl,a,:!)�OÍ).
Decreasing effectiveness oftugs when a ship gathers speed 1nit1al)y·s1atlona_ry; �ij�'. ír:iia\e�al
The difference in pulling effectiveness that arises between djrectío,nat·�V by,SQ,t9n �ug/S.liip
g�thers headw;,y.d9e_to. 'c,eriWt,,g11I,fq,ce'_
a forward tug and stern tug when a ship gathers speed
has been mentioned earlier. This is because the centre -Ship's pgsition-plotted
of hydrodynamic forces will settle somewhere aft when every:-1.20 s.
the ship moves aft and forward when the ship moves
forward and is opposing the towing tug. However, in
addition, an effect to keep in mind is the decreasing
effectiveness of tugs in general when.a ship, initially
stopped in the water, gathers speed. This has sometimes Source: T E Tomassen
resulted in waiting time for ships. Figure 4.36: Tug effects on a ship.

126 Tug Use in Port

Chapter 5
Two High Sided Vessels

Photo: Leoencis Vanderstek

Figure 5.0: Container ship Eleonora Maersk (LOA 398m, beam 56m, installed power 108,878hp). Containers stacked up to nine high
on deck. Top of containers approximately 37m above water, resulting in a longitudinal wind area of around 14,000m2•


Photo: Kees Tom

Figure 5.1: Car carrier Dover Highway (LOA 200m; beam 32.26m).
Tug Use in Port 127
5.1 lntroduction of side thrusters is sometimes taken into account; this is
Tug configuration, the number of tugs and total bollard because a side thruster may replace part of the bollard
pull used are normally based on a pilot's experience pull required. Whether this is the case depends on
and may vary depending on port conditions and the ship, the local situation, the circumstances, port
circumstances. ln general this system works well. regulations and reliability of the side thrusters.
However, with increasing ship size it becomes most
important to determine what exactly is needed to 5.2 Factors influencing total bollard pull
handle a ship safely. Experience alone in such a case required
is too narrow a basis and may not cover all situations
and conditions which might be encountered. Accurate The following main factors influence tug assistance:
information on wind, current and wave forces is • Port particulars, including:
therefore essenHal. This is particularly the case when Restrictions in the fairway, port entrance, passage
large container ships, car carriers, deep draft tankers to a berth, turning drcle, manoeuvring space at a
or buli< carriers have to be handled in unfavourable berth or harbour basin, available stopping distance,
environmental conditions and in confined port areas. locks, bridges, moored vessels, water depths, speed
restrictions, and so on.
Another consideration iS that, because of economic • Berth construction, including:
pressure, shipping companies often try to minimise tug Type of berth: open, eg jetty; or solid.
assistance costs. This can easily lead to a dispute between • The ship, including:
the pilot, master or shipping agency about the minimum Type, size, draft and underkeel clearance, trim,
number of tugs to be used. Ships equipped with bow windage, and factors such as engine power ahead/
thrusters and/ or stern thrusters often use one or two tugs astern, propeller type, manoeuvring performance,
less. Side thnisters, however, have limitations to their and availability of side thrusters .and specific rudders
maximum power and effectiveness, which decreases very • Environmental conditions, including:
rapidly when a ship gathers headway. The tug assistance Wind, current, waves, visibility, ice.
required is, therefore, often subject to discussion about • Method of tug assistance, including:
acceptable limits of safety. Pilot and master, if well Towing on a line, operating at a ship's side or a
prepared, can avoid these discussions and are in a better combination of methods.
position to take the right decision.
The port is more or less a constant factor. Particulars of
Depending on the local situation, tug assistance on port layout, such as fairway, port entrance, passage to
arrival or departure generally comprises three phases: the berth, tuming circle and berth locatiort, determine
• The phase whereby a ship has reasonable speed a basic number, type and total tug bollard pull for a
The ship can sti.11 use her engines and rudder to particular class of ship. This is based on local experience
compensate for drift forces caused by wind, current and sometimes, for more difficult situations, on simulato:
research, An indication of bollard pull required for
and/ or waves, by steering a drift angle. Depending
tankers, buli< carriers and container vessels is given
on the situation, tugs may assist.
below. Berth construction has to do with the transverse
• The intermediate phase approach speed towards a berth, which is also dealt with
When a ship has to reduce speed, entering a dock, in this chapter.
harbour basin, tuming circle or approaching a berth.
The ship also has to be stopped within a certain ln addition to tug assistance requirements following
distance. When reducing speed, a ship's steering from port layout and berth construction, the varying
performance also decreases. Toe propeller has to be environmental factors influencing the required total
stopped, the influence of wind and current increases bollard pull for a particular ship are:
and tug assistance is needed more frequently and to a • Wilid
larger extent. • Current
• The phase involving the final part of the arrival • Waves
Toe ship is practically dead in the water, such as in Th.ese factors have to be considered in relation to ship
the turning circle and/ or when berthing. The ship is details such as size, draft, windage, underkeel clearance,
very restricted in manoeuvring performance and not etc. The manoeuvring performance of a ship may
able to compensate for wind and current forces. Tugs influence required tug assistance in a positive or negativi
have to assist fully. way. The towing method should also be taken into
account. Reduced visibility is also considered a factor
For ships influenced by wind, current and waves of importance regarding tug assistance. This is true, but
this last phase, when a ship is stopped in the water, it mainly concerns specific safety procedures for tug
is most important for assessment of the bollard pull assistance during fog. Reduced visibility, therefore, is no
required. Therefore, it is this phase which will mainly be discussed further in this chapter. Tug assistance in ice
considered. conditions was dealt with in Chapter 3.

ln considering the bollard pull required, the availability The total force acting on a ship could, in theory, be

128Tug Use in Port

compensated for by tugs when bollard pull equals the the mass of the vessel that counts. How much tug
total forces of wind,curtent and waves. However,there power is needed to handle a large loaded tanker? ln
are some important factors to be taken into account: general currents don't play a role, unless there is some
• Tugs are not always pulling or pushing at right cross current near the jetty. Wind has relatively a small
angles to a ship. Fot instance, during arrival or effect on the tanker. So,how to determine the required
depattu:re manoeuvres,a ship may have some bollard pull? The required bollard pull is just a matter
forward or astem movement. Tugs try to keep of acceleration and deceleration or in other words how
pace with a ship,and thus use engine power in fast can tugs stop a sideways movement,give the ship
the direction of ship's movement at the expense of a sideways movement or tum a vessel? Any tug force
pull or push forces. The sarne happens in situations would be sufficient if time does not count, because F
where there is a current and a ship has relative speed = m x a (F = the force; m = the mass of the vessel; a ;:::
through the water. the accelération). The formula shows that in cases of no
• Bollard pull actually available may,due to wear and wind,current or waves,even a little force will start to
fouling, no longer be a full 100% compared to the move a large vessel.
original bollard pull tests.
• Forward and after tugs often cannot pull or push at However,time counts. Therefore a fast acceleration or
deceleration is needed and consequently the higher the
full power simultaneously,even when the required tug force the better. Toe required tug force is therefore
bollard pull forward and aft is carefully considered, mainly based on experience.
taking into account possible yaw moments caused
by wind and/ or current or tri.m. A ship may start ln the following paragraphs, first wind, ctirrent and wave
to swing. At one end of the ship the tug then has to forces working on a ship will be considered and the tug
reduce power in order to stop the swing. forces needed to keep the ship under control. After that
• The propeller wash of tugs towing on a line may the second situation will be dealt with,viz,ships with a
hit a ship's hull and decrease pulling effectiveness. large mass.
This can be influenced to a certain extent by correct
towlinelength and towing angle, as explained later.
• Tugs must have sufficient reserve power to push or 5.2.2 Wind forces
pull aship up against wind and current or to stop a The forces on a ship caused by wind can be calculated by
drifting ship quickly enough and bring it back to the the formulae:
required track. Lateral force: Fyw = 0.5CYw p V2 AL Newton
Longitudinal force: Fxw = 0.5Cxw p V2 At Newton
So,when calculating the forces of wind,current and
waves on a ship, a specified safety actor should be taken Yaw moment: Mxvw = 0.SCXYw p V2 AL LBP Newton metres
into account for bollard pull required. ln the graphs CYw = Lateral wind force coefficient.
showing bollard pull required to keep a ship up against a Cxw = Longitudinal wind force coefficiertt.
beam wind, cross current and beam waves,a safety factor Cxvw = Wind yaw moment coefficient.
of 20 per cent is included. For tugs pulling at a ship's side p = Density of air in kg/m3•
this safety factor is not sufficient due to the large loss of V = Wind velocity in m/ sec.
pulling efficiency, which is separately considered. AL = Longitudinal (broadside) wind are in m2•
AT = Transverse (head-on) wind area in m2•
5.2.1 The two main situations to be considered LBP = Length between perpendiculars in m.
To determine the total required bollard pull it is The lateral force,longitudinal force and yaw moment
important to understand the two basic situations: coefficients depend on a ship's form,draft and trim,
• External forces,such as forces of wind, current and superstructure such as bridge, deckhouses, masts and
waves that have to be compensated by tugs,which is ramp,and angle of attack of the wind. It should also be
in particular the case with ships with a high windage, noted that deck cargo, as on container vessels,should be
and the included in calculating wind areas. The coefficients CYw,
• Mass of a ship, as is the case with loaded tankers and Cxw and Cxvw differ by ship and can be determined by
bulk carriers. means of model tests in wind tunnels.
. .

These are two totally different situations and require a For several ship types the wind coefficients are known
separate approach which will be explained first. for all angles of attack and certain loading conditions.
For tankers they can be found in 'Prediction of Wind
Wind,current and waves create forces on a ship. These and Current loads on VLCCs' and OCIMF's 'Mooring
forces have to be compensated for by forces generated Equipment Guidelines'. Lateral forces are largest and
by tugs. The forces working on a ship can be calculated therefore inost important for calculating bollard pull
and based on the results the required tug forces can be required. Cvw varies between approximately 0.8 and 1.0
determined. for beam winds, depending on ship's type and loading
condition, but lies mostly between 0.9 and 1.0. With value
ln case of a loaded tanker or bulk carrier,it is primarily 1.0 for CYw, 1.28 kg/m3 for density of air and calculating
Tug Use in Port 129
Figure 5.2: Bollard pull
100 150 ioo 250 300. 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 ºº 750
required to compensate
RequlredTotal Bollard Pull ln M�trlcTonii 1
i 1 1
for beam winds.
the outcome in kilograms instead of Newtons, the Note 3:
formula for beam wind forces can be simplified Careshould be taken when calculating the required bollard pull
to: Fyw = 0.065V2AL kgf. for large liquefied gas carriers. The lrtteral :Vind �oeffic.ient f?r
these ships varies between 1.1 for gas carners with prismatic
To allow a safety margin of 20 per cent, 25 per cent tanks (up to 260,000m3) and 0.9 for gas carriers with spherical
should be added to the previous formula, resulting in tanks (see References for 'Prediction of Wind Loads on Large
the following handy formula for estimating bollard pull Liquefied Gas Carriers'). Therejore,for gas carriers with
required for beam winds: prismatic tanks at least 10 per cent should be added to the
outcome calculated by the formula or indícated by the graph
infigure 5.2. For loaded oil tankers the outcome is too hig�,
because the lateral wind coefficient offully loaded tankers zs
Toe graph in figure 5.2 is based on this formula. The approximately 0.7. For fully loaded oil tankers, however, it is
safety factor of 20 per cent included is in some cases even generally more the mass that counts.
higher, because for a lateral wind.force coefficient the
value 1.0 is allowed, which is sometimes only 0.8 or 0.85, Note4: .
although diffi�ult to assess in daily practice. The graph is . .
Computer programs are on the market to calculate the required
only valid for tugs towing on a line or pulling at a ship's bollard pull forward and aft for various types of shíp and for
side on a rather long towline. Toe original graph was various conditions of wind and current. One such a program is
produced by UK National Ports Council; Deparhnent of the Tug Assist Tool developed by MARIN, the Netherlands.
Industry (September 1977), but is modified for the book
Tug Use in Port. For winds not coming from abeam the total bollard pull
required can roughly be derived from the bollard pull
Note 1: The fonnula Fw = 0.08 V2 Ai kgf is based on a density required for beam winds. It can then be seen that when
of air of 1.28kg/m3 which applies to dry air of Oº Celsius. and 1 the angle of attack of the wind is between abeam and
atrnosphere (1,000kPa) air pressure. up to approximately 30º each side of abeam, �ebollard
If for an actual situation a more accurate outcome is needed, pull required is nearly the sarne as for beam wmds. In
density of air should be calculated based on the actual general, yaw moment is maximum for quartering winds
atmospheric air pressure (if needed taking into account height),
temperature and humidity.
Density of air increases w.ith air pressure and for the sarne atr :..'.,· 5-

pressure decreases withhigher temperatures er; humidity. It
means that with a local high pressure the required bollard pull
calculated with the mentioned formula is somewhat too low,
particular with low temperatures and dry air.

Note 2: ln the, graph maximum longitudinal wind area is

10,000m2• With present very large container ships, wind area
can even be larger. The graph can still be used for larger wfnd
areas. Assume a wind are of12,000m2• Then take the required Photo: Piet Sinke
bollard pull for 10,000m2 and simply add the required bollard Figure 5.3: LNG carrier Seri Ayu with prismatic tanks (LOA
pull for 2,000m2 wind area. 283m, beam 43.4m, 145,000cmª.

130 Tug Use in Port

but depends, among other things, on type of ship, loaded approximations for evaluation of the lateral wind force
condition, trim anel deck cargo. and boUard pull required.

Wind does not blow constantly with the same force - A ship drifts under the influence of wind when the wind
wind velocity fluctuates continuously. Therefore not forces acting on her are not, or notfully, compensated for
just mean wind velocity should be accounted for, such by tugs. A factor influencing drift velocity is underkeel
as an hourly mean or a 10-minutes mean, but the higher clearance. A driftihg ship has a relative speed through the
winds that may be experienced during shorter periods, water, as with current. The drift speed of a ship decreases
eg, 1 minute mean, and wind in gusts and squalls. A with underkeel clearance, because the forces created by
wind meter, properly installed with a recording device the opposing water increase when underkeel clearance
at a pilot station, harbour office or nearby mefeorological gets smaller. This is considered later when discussing
station, may give the best information. If considered current forces.
necessary gust factórs, eg, from PIANC, can be applied
tentati.vely to find the relationship between mean wind Of course, a smaller drift speed does not imply that less
speeds and associated maximum speeds for shorter bollard pull is needed. A drifting vessel has to be stopped
periods. and pulled back through the water. Stopping a ship
from drifting and pulling back also needs more power in
Wind velocity also varies by height, as shown in the shallow water than in deep water. The amount of water
graph in figure 5.4. The graph is based on the following moving with a ship when drifting, the added mass, also
formula: increases with decreasing underkeel clearance, requiring
Vw = Vw (10/h} l/7 additional bollard pull to stop and pull back a drifting
Vw = wind velocity at 10m height (m/s). vessel in shallow water.
Vw = wind velocity at elevation h (m/s}.
h = elevation above ground /water surface (m) 5.2.3 Current forces
Toe current forces acting on a ship can be calculated
in the sarne way as wind forces. For the sake of
completeness, the formulae used in OCIMF publications
35 are given:
Lateral force:
30 Fyc = 0.5CYc p V2 Li,p T Newton
Longitudinal force:
25 Fxc = 0.5Cxc p V2 Lbp T Newton
Yaw moment:
MxYc = 0.SCXYc p V2 LBr2 T Newtonmetres
CYc = Lateral current force coefficient.
15 Cxc = Longitudinal current force coefficient.
CXYc = Current yaw moment coefficient.
p = Density of water in kg/m3•
10 =
V Current velocity in m/sec.
Lur = Length betweert perpendiculars in m.
5 T = Draft

0-l--.j,,c:=+---'---l---'-----l----\----l Toe current coefficients, Cyc, Cxc and CXYc, differ by a

0.5 0;6 0:7 0:8 0.9 1 U t2 ship's underwater shape, draft, trim and angle of attack,
Ratio \\:md V�lodty at (H) to Yelocity at l01nHeigltt and are also affected by underkeel clearance which
has a very strong effect on the coefficients. These are
Figure 5.4: Wind height velocity ratio. determined by using ship models in test tank studies.
For calculating wind force in the equations, basically its
velocity at the standard 10 metres height should be used. For the bollard pull required, the maximum transverse
For wind velodties obtained at a different elevation, forces exerted by a crosswise current are important. The
adjustments to the equivalent 10 metre velocity can be transverse force is calculated using the formula:
made with this formula. Fvc = 0.5cvc p V2 Lbp T Newton
For certain ships the standard wind height may be too
high, whilefor some other ships it might even be too low, The lateral force coefficient for cross currents in deep
as can be the case with large fully loaded container ships, water is around 0.6. This is, among other things, the
car carriers, LNG carriers, etc. OCIMF-coefficient for loaded tankers. When CYc equals
The 10 m wind velocity can then be transferred by the 0.6, density of salt water is 1,025 kg/m3, adding 25 per
graph of figure 5.4 to the height required. cent for loss of tug's effectiveness and giving the outcome
On the other hand, wind indications given by a in kilograms instead of Newtons, the following simplified
wind meter on top of a ship's mast usually give safe formula for cakulating the approximate bollard pull
Tug Use in Port 131
Undenvater Lateral Area (Square Meters) reduced to 10 per cent, the bollard pull
3000 4000. i'equired is nearlyfive times as high as
1.0 in deep water, approximately:
F. = 185 V2 Lõp T kgf
25 per cent has in all cases been included
for safety reasons.

i 0.4 Toe graph in figure 5.5 gives an

indication of bollard pull required
for cross currents and is based on the
0.2 aforementioned formulae and OCIM.F
coefficients for loaded tankers. The
o outcome includes a 20 per cent safety
margin. Toe graph is onlyvalid for
1 tugs towing on a line or pulling at a
50 ______ 1 ______ >6 ship's side on a towline which is not
too short.
.s 100
=ã. 1
The effect of reduced underkeel
1 cléarance on current force is also
-e, 1
______ T ______ T ___ _
1 1 clearly shown in figure 5.6. Starting
1 1 with a current force of 10 tons, the
1 1
1l 200 ------T------T------r--- sarne current velocitycauses a strongly
·ã 1
1 1
increasing force on the sarne ship when
250 1 1 1 1
------ �------1------�------ T--- underkeel clearance decreases.
1 1 1
jl.05 With a small underkeel clearance,
current f orces decrease quicklywhen
the angle of attack of the current
Source: UK National Ports Council 1977, modified becomes less than 90º to a ship's centre
Figure 5.5: Bollard pull required in a cross-current. line. Longitudinal forces then increase.
Note: Ton is equal to 1,000kgf (:;;;9.BkN). The effect of the current forces on a
ship maythen even be in the opposite
required f or cross currents in deep water can be used : direction to that expected, in particular when with a
F. = 40V2 Lbp Tkgf small underkeel clearance the c.urrent is coming in at
about 20-30º on the bow. When, eg after unmooring,
Note 5: Depending on the percentage of the ship's draft the turning ,vith the assistance of tugs a deep loaded buli<
current veldcity is given, and on the under keel clearance a carrier ,v:i.th a small underkeel clearance ina river
small correctíon fai:tor çould be applied on the current velocity with current, the ship maygather headway and move
given to get the correct average current for the calculation. See against the current direction coming in from the port or
'Mooring Equipment Guidelines', OCIMF. starboard bow. Pilots have experienced such effects and
while turning have constantly to applyastern power to
Current velocity is taken in metres/ second, the outcome chec.1' the ship's headway.
in kilograms. This formula is onlyvalid for deep water, ie
more thari six times ship's draft. Not only do current forces increase considerablywith
decreasing underkeel clearance. Small underkeel
Sh,ce underkeel clearance in port areas can be small, clearance also results in a larger turning diameter, a
the current forces in these conditions
a,.-e at 1east as important as they are in
deep ·water. With underkeel clearance
decreased to 1.5 x ship's draft, bollard
P' -- required increases considérablyto
appro.xm1ately: Q":um<v
O.5xDraft 0.2xDmlt
Fe = 110 V2 Lbp T kgf

v\�ith a.."1 underkeel clearance of 20 per

cent of s..hip's draft, the bollard pull
requ.ired is roughly:
//'·-·Z .7.;-J;Z,-·z. 2 ·7
F, = 150 V2 Lbp T kgf
Source: OCIMF
Wnen 'Clderkeel clearance is further Figure 5.6: Effect of underkeel clearance on current force.

1321.; ;; !se in Port

decrease in rudder effectiveness and an increase in Kllogram Force per M Length between PP

stopping distance. To compensate for these effects, 500
48 0 ... : , í ;
i---1--- -r. -'i··• -·11 - i - . l;- 1

m -+--·F1J :t: : 3 �> � =

i • -L
the assistance of tugs might be welcome for safe '

· 1 · . · i .
shiphandling. Underkeel clearance also considerably
affects the duration of swinging a ship around. The
transverse forces to be overcome fore and aft of 400 . ·+----l-• I .. '
· ··+· .... · ·• · ···· ; · ·-
s8o ... i--· · - + . . +-
--t- ... L. -
----l - - · j. - ·· ·•·
-J.��.i �-j--i-.·�- .,r·..-...•·r1 -. :�-�.··;·-··-i
midships increase with decreasing underkeel clearance.
Consequently, the duration of swinging around ::g · •-··!----; -.L���. � -! -·�
1 · · ·t · · --·-r ····- r----t-· ·i····-
increases, unless more bollard pull is used. 320

�=�:�� :.�ET.tT:l
00 i· · i

l :J-_!-1
3 -+ ·· 1
5.2.4 Wave forces

:. -F :=)- ·: · �r�: 1 ' -_ ·.: - r ��.� - . f � �.i-

Depending on environmental conditions in and • 1 ' • 1 ' 1
around a port, wave forces may also be a factor to be
t ··--1·. ·1 ·-- ·t

l!!-Tl-.tl1 LLt1i·• ·-•·

considered when establishing the bollard pull required. .. ··· -- ········ -·
Harbour tugs can only operate effectively up to a certain
í 1 T :
maximum wave height (see Chapter 4), so only short
beam seas are considered. It is difficult to calculate wave
forces exactly. lt is assumed that a ship's draft is large
enough to reflect the waves completely. Because of the
relatively short wave period it is further assumed that
60 1!
j: -!-
_.1; Í1 ··--!.• ····· '.1 ··-·-,: ...
4o · --··- 'j ·· ·-T 1 ····-·- ·�--- ·i•-· ·r! · ·
waves do not cause any ship motion. ln practical terms it 20 ·- -··.t-· i•
means we are considering conditions such as those found o
in windy but sheltered areas. The waves are short and o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.8 1.8 2
Slgnlflcant Wave Helght {M)
steep and the wave length is small relative to the length REQUIRED BOLLARD PULL FOR BEAM WAVES
of the ship. We are not considering open areas, where (Only valld tor ahort perlod wav85)

ocean waves or swell might impinge upon the ship and Figure 5.7: Bollard pull required for beam waves
cause it to heave, roll and pitch. The forces per metre
of ship's length dueto these short period waves then
amounts to approximately: 5.2.5 lhe effect of ship's mass and berth
Fwave = 0.5 p gÇ2 Newton
As mentioned earlier, tugs should have sufficient reserve
Because a ship's hull is not flat over its whole length and power to stop a drifting ship. A comparable situation
draft, the total force on a ship caused by short period exists during berthing. An arriving, a ship is stopped
waves is roughly: parallel to a berth or jetty and is then pushed, pulled or
heaved alongside. Wind, current and even waves may
Fwave = 0.35 p gt:/ Newton also push a ship towards a berth. Due to these forces
a ship gains transverse speed which should be slowed
p = Density of seawater in kg/m3• down by tugs to 'dead in the water' or to a safe berthing
L :;; Length of waterlinei assume length speed at the moment a ship touches the fenders. So,
between perpendiculars. tugs have to oppose the forces of wind, current and
ç = Wave amplitude, equal to 0.5 x wave waves, and in addition have to reduce the transverse
height (H.). approach speed of a ship towards a berth, which requires
Hs = Significant wave height from trough additional bollard pull. Of course, the wind may blow
to crest, as indicated by an experienced offshore and tugs may need full power to push or pull a
observer when estimating visually. ship alongside. But even when there is no wind, current
or waves, bollard pull is needed to control a ship's
A 25 per cent safety margin is again added, and transverse speed.
converting to kilograms instead of Newtons and wave
amplitude in significant wave height, the simplified The larger a ship's displacement the more bollard pull
formula for roughly calculating the bollard pull required is needed to stop sideways movement. Not only the
to hold a ship up against short period beam waves reads: displacement but also the water mass moving with
a ship influences bollard pull required. This is called
Fwave= 112 LH.2 kgf 'added' or 'hydrodynamic' mass. Virtual mass is the
stun of displacement and added mass. Toe exact amount
0n the basis of this formula the bollard pull required of added mass is difficult to determine. The added
is represented in the graph in figure 5.7. An example: mass increases with decreasing underkeel clearance.
A ship has a length between perpendiculars of 200m, Furthermore, it depends on a ship's underwater shape
and estimated wave height is lm. The force of the beam and is very large with a sideways motion. It then
waves on the ship is then (see formula): normally varies between 25 per cent to 100 per cent of a
ship's displacement. Many formulae used for calculating
112 x 200 x 1 x 1 = 22,400 kgf = 22 tons virtual mass of a berthing ship, especially for fender
Tug Use in Port 133
total tug power required to stop the ship in 30m is
approximately 23 tons.
• A 250,000 dwt loaded tanker
Draft 20.4m (67ft) and displacement nearly 300,000
tons - much more power, almost 60 tons, is needed.
• A container ship
LOA 294m, beam 32.2m and draft 12.2m (40ft),
displacement 80,000 tons. She has to be berthed at
a solid berth. Based on the assumptions above the
bollard pull required to stop her in approximately a
ship's width is 12 tons.

These calculations give an indication of the forces

required. ln line with experience they show that large
Photo: Alan Loynd, Hong Kong
displacement ships require large stopping forces.
Furthermore, berth construction is a factor influencing
Figure 5.8: Berthing at jetty with open construction. Hong Kong. approach speed.
design, indicate values ranging from 1.3 up to more than
2.0 times the displacement. Loaded tankers and bulk carriers withlarge displacement
need the largest tug power for controlling transverse
Berth construction also affects approach speed. Solid speed. These ships are less affected by wind. When there
berths reduce a ship's approach speed because a water is any current, berth construction should be such that
cushion builds up between ship and berth. Open berths the cu,rrent runs in line with the berth or jetty, though
or jetties do not reduce approach speed as the water can unfortunately this is not always so. ln any case, tugs
flow away in any direction. should have sufficient reserve power to compensate
for any current and/or wind effect. ln general, when
For fender calculations it is generally recommended to handling heavy ships, tugs Use a substantial part of their
apply for a water depth of 1.5 times ship's draft as virtual power to control transverse approach speed towards a
mass 1.5 times the displacement and for a water depth berth.
of 1.1 times, ship' s draft as virtual mass 1.8 times the
displacement. As draft decreases the bollard pull required for
çontrolling transverse speed becomes less, as indicated
As virtual mass 1,8 times displacement is taken and berth in the examples for a loaded and ballasted tanker. Lateral
construction is then accountêd for. A rough indication wind area increases and consequently available bollard
can thus be made of tug forces required to stop sideways pull can be used to keep the ship up into wind, current
movement: and/or waves, if necessary.

0.09 D xV? Newer tugs are able to operate for a limited time ai: 110
For open berths: tons per cent MCR. This means that for a short period these
s tugs can deliver additional bollard pull, an advantage in
criticai situations.
0.07D xV?
For solid berths: ----- tons For ships affected by wínd, current and/or waves a
s safety margin is included in the graphs, also for the
purpose of controlling transverse speed. For loaded
vi = Initial speed in metres/sec vessels, tankers and bulk carriers, bollard pull required
D = Displacement for controlling transverse speed is included in the
s = Stopping distart.ce in metres formula in section 5.3.1.

This formula is based onzero final speed and the 5.2.6 Tug wash effects
cakulated force is in tons. Final safe approach speeds for ln certain pulling situations, a tug's propeller wa:sh
VLCCs are generally a màximum of 6-8 cm/ seé. impinges on a ship's side, bow or stei:n, reducing pulling
effectiveness. The smaller a ships underkeel clearance the
ln the following three examples an initial speed of 0.5 larger the negative effect of propeller wash hitting the
knots (0.25 m/ sec) is assumed and tugs start pulling hull. lncreasing propeller revo1utions or thrust worsens
when a ship is 30m away from a berth. Transverse speed the situation because counter effect also increases, caused
should be zero when a ship touches a jetty or berth. by a larger, more concentrated propeller wash. Proper
towline length and towing angle reduce this adverse
• A 250,000 dwt ballasted tah.ker effect. Toe less the underkeel clearance and the more
LOA 340m, beam 38m, draft 9m (29.5ft) and power needed, the longer a towline should be.
displacement 124,000 tons. She has to be berthed
alongside an open jetty. According to the formula the ln figure 5.11 severa! towing positions are given for a

134 Tug Use in Port

Figure 5.11: Different towing positions.

Photo: Rotterdam pilot Mari]n van Hoorn

Figure 5.9: Tug's propeller was hitting the ship's hull, reducing
towing effectiveness.

Force dueto Coanda E

Figure 5.12: Coanda effect.

Photo: Baltimore pilot John Traut loss in effectiveness due to propeller wash, towing
Figure 5.1 O: Tug towing on a long line to minimise negative positions and towing directions 3f and 3a are considered
effect of tug's propeller wash hitting the ship's hull. the most effective. Tugs operating at a ship's side, in
ship stopped in the water. ln positions 1f (f=forward) and positions 4f and 4a, have a large loss of effectiveness
la (a=aft) there is a fair possibility that the pulling tugs when pulling. When operating in the push-pull mode
experience loss of pulling effectiveness due to propeller towline lengths are short and pulling effectiveness can
wash hitting the bow and stern almost at right angles. A even be less than 50 per cent, depending on how close the
ship's hull forro, shape of bow and stem and whether she tug's propellers are to a ship's hull.
has a large bulbous bow, influence loss of effectiveness.
For the pulling tugs, eg tug lf, it might even be possible Tug propellers should be as far as possible away from
that the tug's wash effect causes a turning moment on a ship's hull. Conventional tugs, towing on a line, have
the ship in an opposite directi.on to that expected from their propellers closer to a ship's hull compared with
the orientation of the tug. Such an effect is shown in tractor tugs, reverse-tractor and ASD-tugs. The latter
figure 5.12. The ship is loaded, has a bluff bow and a two types, when towing or pulling over the bow, have
small underkeel clearance. A conventional tug is pulling their propellers furthest away from the ship's hull. This
at right angles to the ship's hull on a short towline. is of special importance for tugs operating at a ship's
The consequence is an almost total loss of towing side or in narrow harbour basins where they often have
effectiveness by the reaction force R of the propeller to work on short towlines due to limited manoeuvring
wash hitting the ship's hull. ln addition, the bulk of space. VS tugs have less pronounced propeller wash
the accelerated water flow goes around the bow of the compared with convent:ional tugs and tugs w:ith azimuth
ship and remains attached around the curved surface. thrusters, in particular those with propellers in nozzles.
This is called the 'Coanda Effect'. The flow creates a low Consequently, the negative effect of VS propeller wash
pressure resulting in a force F. This has to do with the hitting a ship's side is less. Tugs with azimuth thrusters
Bernoulli Effect, which is explained in the next chapter. can set their thrusters at a small angle, at least with
The result is that the pulling force T is opposed by the independently controlled thrusters, thus deflecting the
react:ion force R and the only force left is force F, g:iving wash.
the ship a forward and starboard instead of port tuming
movement. So, loss of pulling effect:iveness of forward and aft
tugs towing on a line can be minimised by appropriate
Compared to positions 1f and la of figure 5.11, positions towline length, changing towing angle and/ or thruster
2f and 2a may show less loss of effectiveness. Regarding setting. A towing winch is very useful for adjusting
Tug Use in Port 135
towline length in accordance with circumstances. For a ship and of tug performance.
tugs operating at a ship's síde, when pulling, the larger
the dístance between propellers and ship's hull the better. Ships affected by current, wind and/or waves
The graphs in figures 5.2, 5.5 and 5.7 give an indication
For tugs operating at a ship's side on short towlines of the bollard pull required by ships affected by wind,
and holding her up into the. wind, current or waves, the current and/ or waves. As an example for using the graphs:
required pull in the graphs in figures 5.2, 5.5 and 5.7
should be increased by, say, at least 20 per cent, resulting Container ship: LOA 294m, length between
in a total safety margin of 50 per cent. This is however perpendiculars 28hn, beam 32m, draft 12.5m,
just an approximatíon. water depth 13.8m. Top of containers to waterline
approximately 22m. Onshore wind at right angles to the
During the SAFETUG project (see Chapter 4) severa! berth. Wind speed 30 knots (7 Bft). Th.e location of the
tank tests were carried out with tugs pulling at an LNG container berth is not too good, with a cross current of 0.5
carrier. Some of the most relevant results are given in knots. Short period waves of 0.5m height are also coming
paragraph4.5.2. It shows that when pulling at about one from a directioil. perpendicular to the berth.
tug's length from the ship's hull, loss of pulling effect can
be between43and·64 per cent! ln waves, loss .can even Ratio draft/water depth 13.8: 12.5 = 1.1
be up to 90 per cent To decrease this loss, towline length Area above water, app:rox 294 x 22 = +6,500 m2
should be increased considerably. Underwater area, approx 281 x 12.5 = ±3,500m2
Displacement = 75,000 t
5.3 Bollard pull required
When towing on a linear pulling at a ship's side on a
5.3.1 Bollard pull required based on not too short towline, the following compensatory total
environmental conditions bollard pull is required:
ln the following assessments of required bollard. pull
it is assumed that equal tug power is required forward Th.e onshore wind (figure 5.2) = 117tons
and aft, which is not always the case. Yaw moments The crosswise current (figure 5.5) =42tons
can be caused by wind and depend on the wind force, The waves 281 m x 30kg (figure 5.7) = 8 tons
angle of attack and on the ship's profile above the water, Total bollard pull required = 167 tons
which varies with draft, trim and deck cargo. ln addition,
current may cause a yaw moment, depending on the To compensate for wind, current and waves, four tugs
current velocity, angle ofattack and ship's underwater with at least 40 tons bollard pull are needed. ln the total
profile which varies with draft and trim. Although with bollard pull required for wind, current and waves a safety
beam winds or currents a ship may experience a yaw factor of at least 20 per cent = 33 tons is included. This
moment, they are generally largest with quartering reserve power is also, among other things, sufficient to
winds and currents. Yaw moments caused by currents contrai approach speed towards the berth. Without any
even increase with decreasing underkeel clearance. Yaw current or waves, four tugs of approximately 30 tons
moments caused by wind and/ or current may result in a bollard pull would be needed or, when available, two of 60
higher bollard pull requirement forward or aft. tons, to compensate for wind forces.

Th.ere is another aspect to be taken into account. When Most container ships, car carriers, ro-ro ships and so
f or example pulling a ship off the berth, the lateral on are equipped with bow thrusters or bow and stem
underwater resistance becomes effective. 0n a ship thrusters. lO0hp of a bow thruster is about 1.1 tons force,
having a large stel'Il. trim, the centre of pressure of the lO0kW about 1.5 tons force� for a ship 'dead in the water'.
lateral resistance lies aft of amidships. When forward The effectiveness of stem thrusters is generally somewhat
and aft the sarne amount of bollard pull is used, the after less. If the above mentioned container vessel is equipped
tug(s) have to use more power than the forward tug(s) to with a bow thruster of 2,500hp (1,840 kW), then 28 tons
pull the ship parallel off the berth. A ship down by the less bollard pull is required forward. If just the infl.uence
head may require more bollard pull forward than aft. of wind is to be compensated for, this would lead to a
reduction in the number of tugs of 30 tons from four to
It is because these turning moments vary so mil.eh, three, ie orte forward and two aft.
only the required total bollard pull is consideréd. How
much bollard pull or how many tugs fo rward and aft It is clear that whether a bow thruster can replace a tug
are required should be carefully considered each time, depends on the forces to be compensated for and the
based on an assessment of the actual situation and bollard pull of the available tugs. It also depends on the
circumstances. local situation, circumstances and port regulations as
to whether side thrusters can replace one or more tugs.
Therefore, experience is an indispensable fador. As For certain situations, for example when passing narrow
mentioned earlier, master and pilot are in a better brídges where tug assistance is required, it is preferable
position to assess requirements for tug assistance and to have a forward tug on a line. Regardless of the fact that
unwanted effects to be avoided if they have a good a ship is equipped with a bow thruster, its effectiveness
understanding of the forces and other factors influencing decreases very quíckly as a ship gathers forward speed.
136Tug Use in Port

._____--:•.� •·m:..::.•.-----r":ll !f:"

Photo: Kees Tom
1 1 li
Figure 5.13: Loaded
bulk carrier Berge
Stah/, LDA 342m,
beam 63.5m,
summer draft
23.035m, dwt
365,000 tons.
At a speed of two knots tbrough the water, effectiveness 5.3.3 Number and total bollard pull of tugs as
is usually reduced by 50 per cent compared to zero used in a number of ports
speed. At four knots the effectiveness of a bow tbruster is
;reduced almost to nothing. At such speeds a bow thruster There is no unifomi. system in use in ports around
cannot replace a forward tug. the wo:dd giving a relationship between size of ship
It should also be noted that the effect of a bow thruster on and number and power of tugs required. Calculations
a ship becomes less with decreasing underkeel clearance, are mostly based on length overall, but deadweight,
due to the higher forces needed to tum a ship, to move displacement or gross tonnage are also used as factors.
a ship sideways or to stop a.sideways movement and
to compensate for the influence of currents. Therefore a Decisions on the number of tugs to be used in ports and
ship equipped with a bow thruster, which normally uses the bollard pull required are mainly based on experience.
no tugs, may require tug assistance in shallow water For the majority of ships and situations a more or less
conditions. standard number and/ or bollard pull is used. Large
ships and more specific situations or circumstances are
When tugs operate in push-pull mode and have to hold generally assessed separately by the pilot and/ or port
a ship on short towlines up into wind, current and/or authorities to detetmine the tug assistance required
waves, the required pull in the graphs in figures 5.2, 5.5 and where necessary and ü possible this is dane in
and 5.7 should be increased by at least 20 per cent. ln consultation with the master. Simulation studies are
the case of the container ship with a bow thruster and sometim.es needed to assess requirements for specific
an onshore wind of 30 knots, a total bollard pull would situations or specific ships.
then be needed of about 140 (117 tons + 20 per cent) - 28
(bow thruster) = 112 tons: roughly a 40 ton tug at the Inmost ports shipmasters or pilots are free to order
forward shoulder ànd two of 35 tons at the after shoulder the number of tugs and/ or bollard pull they consider
(quarter). necessary to handle a ship safely. ln some ports it is
compulsory to use a fixed number and power of tugs,
depending on the type; size and draft of the ship,
5.3.2 Bollard pull required for ships with large environmental conditions and location of the berth. It
displacements may also depend on whether a ship is to berth port or
As mentioned in paragraph 5.2.1 ships with large starboard side to.
displacements - with a large mass - requite a different
approach. An approach based ôn experience. This obligation, though generally a minimum
Loaded tankers and bulk carriers have large i'equirement, exists in a number ofFar East and
displacements. For these type of slüps the following Australian ports and at some large oil terminais. For
empirical formula can be used, based on the ships equipped with side thrusters, a reduction in the
displacement of the ships: number of tugs or required power is sometimes allowed.

( displacement ) ln figures 5.14, 5.15 and 5.16, tug use for general cargo
Required bollard pull = ( X 60 ) +40 ships, container vessels, tankers and bulk carriers
(metric tons) ( 100,000 ) in a number of ports is shown. With regard to these
graphs, on departure and for ships partly loaded or in
Note 6: ballast, fewer tugs or less bollard púll than indicated is
Sometimes tugs have to assist in station keeping at offshore sometim.es used.
installations, such as SPMs and F(P)SOs. Although required
bollard pull as discussed generally also applies to these tugs, The sarne applies to ships eguipped with bow and/
the render isfurther rejerred to the information included in or stem thrusters. Sometimes, if equipped with a bow
the OCIMF publications 'Recommendations for ships'fittings thruster, though not in every port, one tug less is used
for use with tugs' and 'Mooring Equipment Guidelines' (see than indicated in the graph and when equipped with
References). both bow and stem tbrusters two tugs less than indicated
Tug Use in Port 137
Number of Tugs TotalBollard Pull

4 200


100 150 200 250 300 m. Length o.a.

Figure 5.14: Total bollard pull in tons and average number of tugs for container and general cargo vessels as used in a number of
ports around the world. Depending on the port and local circumstances less tugs may be used when ships are equipped with
side thrusters.

Number ofTugs Total Bollard Pull


120 150 200 250 350 m. Length o.a.

Figure 5.15: Total bollard pull in tons and average number of tugs for tankers and bulk carriers as used. in a number of ports around
the world (based on LOA}.

NumberofTµgs TotalBollardP\lll

20,000 100,QOO 200,000 300,000 Dcadwcight Tonnsge

Figure 5.16: Total bollard pull in tons and average number of tugs for tankers and bulk carriers as used in a number of ports around
the world (based on deadweight).

138 Tug Use in Port

may someti.mes be allowed. Furthermore, ports or failures when starting bow thrusters and deck machinery
terrrrinals may have a limited number of tugs available to - such as mooring winches or cranes- when insufficient
assist ships varying in type and size. electrical power is available. Awareness is required that
the starting current of electrical motors may be several
The graphs in figures 5.14, 5.15, and 5.16 give the times the full 'on load' current. Starting large motors
minim.um, maximum and average total bollard pull used may trip breakers and lead to blackouts. Despite built-
in a number of ports, including the average number of in safety features in modem ships to prevent such an
tugs. For bollard pull used the upper line of the graph is occurrence, it is a sensible precaution to establish routines
assumed as the requirement for more difficult situations to ensure the àvailability of adequate generating power
and the lower line for normal and easier situations. before starting large electrical motors. Many modem
ships have automation to ensure that before items such
The average bollard pull used shown in figures 5.14 as the bow thruster can be started there must be sufficient
and 5.15 for bulk carriers and tankers is more or electrical capacity available; however it is not unknown
less comparable with the outcome of the previously for the automation to fail.
mentioned formula based on displacement for ships of See 'Reducing the Risk ofPropulsion Loss. Operational
deadweight up to about 230,000 tons. guidance for preventing blackouts and main engine failures'.
The London P&I Club, Bureau Veritas, TMC Marine.
Note 7: September 2017, and article Shiphandlers Beware (Rejerences).
The graphs o/figures 5.14, 5.15, and 5.16 are the outcome of a
research carried out some 20 years ago. Since then; and even It is not only engine failures that cause ships to become
before, there is a tendencytowards ever stronger tugs, although unmanoeuvrable. Rudder failures also occur, such as
not always needed. It means that the data shown in the graphs with the Bow Singapore, Port Phillip Bay, Victoria,
still gives a good ínsight into what is really needed, regardless Australia, on 19 August 2016 where the rudder ceased
the fact that stronger tugs and more bollard pull may be responding to helm inputs and remained at 5º to port.
available and can be used, which then create a larger marginfor
safe operations. Planning of tug assistance for such situations is almost
impossible. However being aware that engine failures or
5.3.4 Loss of propulsion and rudder failures blackouts may happen in a port area, precautions can be
The required tug bollard pull in various situations and taken with respect to type of tugs and tug positioning,
circumstances has been discussed. There is, however, one that the ship can be kept under control in case of an
situation that requires tug assistance which may occur engine failure. For instance, by using aft tugs with omni­
unexpectedly, and that concems engine failures. ln 2014 directional propulsion units which can brake the ships
88 losses of propulsion incidents were reported in the speed and assist steering if necessary.
ports of San Francisco, Los Angeles/Long Beach and San
Diego. Of these incidents 14 were fuel switching related 5.3.5 Summary
and 26 suspect fuel related. For ships affected by wind, such as container vessels,
ro-ro vessels, car carriers, gas carriers, tankers and
Some other possfüle causes for :fuain engine failures are: bulk carriers in ballast, the bollard pull required can be
• Blackout. approximated using the wind graph f or cross winds.
• Fuel oil poor quality or conta:tnination (eg fines, The influence of current and waves can be accounted for
water ar bacteria inside the tank). using the current and wave graphs.
• Insufficient attention to proper fuel changeover
procedure when entering or exiting SECA. When assessing bollard pull required, the assisting mode
• Failure of starting air (insufficient pressure in the -whether on a line or operating at a ship's side - should
bottle). High or excessive num.bers of engine starts be taken into account. For tugs operating at a ship's side
and stops while manoeuvring will deplete pressure on short towlines the results of the wind, current and
in the main engine start bottles. This may lead to wave graphs should be increased, roughly esti.mated, by
the engine failing to start with a consequent loss of 20 per cent when pulling.
navigational control at critica! times, such as when
docking. It is important that the start air pressure For ships with large displacements, bollard pull required
is monitored while the ship is being manoeuvred can be approximated using the f ormula based on
and also vital that the pilot and bridge team are displacement.
made aware of the maximum number of consecutive
engine starts they can demand. The graphs showing bollard pull used in a number of
ports give an indication of the bollard pull required for
• Loss of control air pressure.
more difficult arid more normal situations.
• Loss of lubrication.
• Engine automated shut down or even slow down at a Ships with side thrusters, partly loaded ar departing
criticai ti.me. may use less bollard pull than indicated. However, this
depends on the local situation, circumstances and port
A significant number of blackouts are caused by electrical regulations.
Tug Use in Port 139
Control of transverse speed towards a berth is included manoeuvring areas place a heavier demand on towing
in the graphs and formulas. For a rough check the assistance. More powerful tugs also mean higher costs for
formula as shown in section 5.2.5 can be used. towing companies.

It is recornmended that tug placement is arranged in such Due to the high costs of tugs and their crews the
a way that, in case of an engine f aih.1re, the ship can be inefficiency of tug fleet use may result in the availability
kept under control. of tugs coming u.nder pressure, which is the case in a
number of ports. However, the availability of a sufficient
Some additional comments: number and bollard pull of tugs, especially during
peak hours, is an essential factor in good service to the
shipping industry and to running a port efficiently.
5.3.6 l nfluence of tariffs on availabilityan d But considering the position of towing companies,
number of tugs used availability alone does not pay. Neither does increased
Shipping companies hàve to pay for the use of tugs, tug power, unless tug tariffs are also based on total
though in some ports tug tariffs are included in port bollard pull used.
dues; Tug tariffs are usually básed on the size of ship
and number of tugs or total bollard pull used. In many Depending on shipping traffic in a port, a more efficient
ports ships are charged extra for tug assistance during tug fleet-without affecting the availability of tug
adverse weather conditions such as strong winds, ice or assistance - can be achieved by the use of less units but
fog. The sarne applies to tug services during night hours, of higher power. Less tugs can thus be used per ship, for
at weekends and when tug assistance takes longer than a example, for large tankers or bulkcarriers. These types of
specific basic time period. ship normally use a standard number of tugs of certain
bollard pull. Beyond peak hours less tugs will then be
Tug tariffs often affect the number or bollard pull of tugs u.nused.
used. That is why some attention is paid to thissubject,
bearing in mi nd that circumstances and tariffs differ by In ports where problems emerge regarding the
port. availability of tugs and tug power a review of the existing
tug fleet may be necessary including a review of tug
Ship arrivals and departures have an irregular pattern tariffs. This may result ln less units ofhigher power, as
and may be influenced, among other things, by the mentioned above.
working hours of dock labour and wind and tidal
restrictions. This means that ships may arrive during Regular meetings between port authorities, towing
peàkhours, for example during hours of slackor high companies, shipping companies and pilot organisations
tide. The number of tugs in a port is to some extent is necessary, in order to keep port services at an
determined by shipping traffic during these peak hours. acceptable level without raising tug tariffs too much. It
A number of tugs rendering assistance during busy hours might be worth considering in consultation with towing
will be unemployed outside those hours, so peaks in éompanieswhether a basic tug tariff could be included in
shipping traffic affect eff:i.cient employment of a tug fleet a port tariff to ensure minimum availability of tugs.
in a negative way.
As indicated, in certain ports tug tariffs may influence
To run a fleet more effidently and to reduce costs a tug the availability of tugs and consequently a pilot1s work.
company could consider redudng the number of tugs. Pilots should be permitted to assess the minimum tug
However, this automatically affects the availability of requirement to handle a ship safely. On the other hand,
tugs duting peak hours, causing waiting time or resulting it is quite reasonable that the cost of tug assistance is a
in fewer tugs being used for a particular ship movement, factor taken into account by a shipping company when
ordering tugs, although economy should never have
thus affecting safety.
priority above safety. The cost of tugs is frequently the
background of discussions between masters and pilots,
A category of ship with an irregular pattem of tug use
when the number required is discussed, except for ports
is those with side thrusters, twin screws and high lift
where the use of tugs is compulsory or strictly regulated.
rudders, and large container vessels, cruise vessels,
ferries, car carriers and ro-ro vessels having a large
A good contract between shipping companies and tug
windage. These ships often don't use tugs or oítly a
owners, stating the number and bollard pull of tugs to be
minimurn number, except when the wind is increasing. used, and covering circumstances when additional tug
This can happen after weeks of calmweather. These ships power might be needed, eg adverse weather conditions,
affect the availability of tugs, especially during adverse is strongly recommended. When tug assistance is
weather conditions, resulting in a further decrease in tug necessary it can then be expected that the required
fleet efficiency. number and bollard pull of tugs will be available without
additional cost.
In addition, ships are getting larger and consequently tug
power has increased considerably in recent yeai:s. Port
dimensions have often not expanded proportionately 5.3.7 Powerful tugs ora variety in tug power
to the increase in ship sizes so large ships in restricted In several ports a tendency can be observed towards tug
140Tug Use in Port
fleets with only powerful tugs, for instance tugs in the There are other advantages with less powerful tugs, such
range of 60 -100 tons bollard pull. This is in line with as towing rapes whlch are lighter and easier to handle.
what has been concluded in the foregoing paragraph. With the present powerful tugs there is often a ptoblem
It is also understandable because of the increasing ship with shlp bollards and fairleads being not strong enough
size, such as container vessels. There ate, however, some to cope with the hlgh towline forces of the very powerful
drawbacks of such a strategy. More powerful tugs allow tugs. This would not be the case if less powerful tugs
the possibility for larger ships to use fewer tugs. For are available and are used. An example of using two
instance two powerful tugs of; let us say, 60 tons instead less powerful tugs instea:d óf one strong tug is the dual
of four tugs of 30 tons. This has some consequences, such escorting method, escorting with two tugs instead of one.
as: This wil1 be dealt with in Chapter 9, Escort Tugs.

When the shlp is handled by two powerful tugs and one Of coursé, fastening two tugs costs more time than
tug suffers a breakdown, only one tug is left and the shlp when fastening just one, regardless of the fact that the
may get into difficµlty, eg in case of a hlgh sided ship in towing material is lighter. In addition the use of two tugs
windy conditions. The sarne problems may arise with a may cost more than the use of just one tug, although
ship with a large bow thruster and a powerful tug aft. it depends on whether or not tug tariffs are based on
bollard pull.
If the aforementioned ship had used two less powerful
tugs forward and aft instead of one, there would not Nevertheless, for certain situations the use of smaller
be such a large problem if one of the tugs breaks down units instead of a.smaller number of very powerful tugs
because one tug is still left. The sarne applies to the shlp will increase safety of operations.
with the bow thruster.

Tug Use in Port 141

6.1 lntroduction underkeel dearance this effect is more pronounced.
Pushing tugs are also affected by this type of
Previous chapters dealt with the characteristics and interaction when propellers are dose to a ship's hull,
effectiveness of various types of harbour tug. Another due to interruptecl water flow towards the propellers.
very important aspect, sometimes mentioned in those
chapters, is the risk harbour tugs may encounter when
• Tug hull - ship hull, interaction
rendering assistance. It is an essential point when engaged The influence of this effect on tug performance is
in shiphandling operations. Essential, because it is not particularly marked when a tug operates at a ship's
only the safety of a tug and her crew that could be at risk side. This kind of interaction is also influenced by
but also the safety of a vessel. When rendering assistance shallow and narrow waters and in particular by
tug captains and pilots should be fully aware of the risks ship's speed, affecting tug safety as well.
involved. Since a number of unsafe situations can be traced • Shíp propeller/ship hull - tug interactíon
back to interaction effects, attention isfirst paid to this These interactions affect performance when
subject and also the influence of shallow water on several operating as stem tug in the propeller slipstream or
interaction effects and the tug assistance required. ship's wake. The effect of ship's wake increases in
shallow and narrow waters.
6.2 lnteraction and shallow water The points above show that there are several kinds of
effects interaction affecting tug performance. Tug hull - ship
hull interaction affects tug safety as well. This effect
6.2.1 lnteraction effects influencing tug
and ship propeller / ship hull - tug interactions are dealt
performance with in this chapter. Toe others have been discussed in
There are different kinds of interaction. Some influence previous chapters. Small underkeel clearance affects
tug performance, others affect tug safety, some both. some of the interaction effects, as indicated. It is worth
Interactions influencing tug performance are: considering sóme other effects of shallow water.
• Tug propeller - tug hull interaction 6.2.2 Shallow water effects with respect to tug
For example, the astem thrust of a reverse-tractor assistance
tug/ASD-tug is 5-10 per cent less than ahead thrust, Some effects of shallow water have already been dealt
as a result of propeller wash hitting the body of with when discussing the bollard pull required in
the tug forward of the thrusters, and so reducing rélation to current forces and a ship's displacement. Toe
bollard pull when astern thrust is applied. 0n the rélationship between decreasing underkeel clearance and
other hand, performance of propellers of an ASD-tug increasing bollard pull required to hold a ship up into
sailing ahead is somewhat higher than of tractor tugs, a current or to stop a sideways moving ship has been
due to the fact that the speed of the water flow near mentioned previously.
the propellers is smaller than with the tractor having
their propellers below the tug's hull. There are other shallow water effects hecessitating tug
• Interaction of tug propellers assistance and requirfug the full attention of pilots and
This is especially the case with azimuth thrusters and tug captains. There are situations where these effects
VS propellers. Depending on thrust direction, the occur and tug assistance is then very wekome. Shallow
two propellers of tractor and ASD/ reverse-tractor water, meaning small underkeel dearance, has the
tugs interact to a certain extent and also depencling following effects among others:
on thrust directions, and affect a tug's perform.ance.
• Tug - ship interaction due to tugfendering
• Increase of bank suction and bow cushion effects
Fender characteristics such as energy absorption A ship proceeding to one side of a river or channel
capabilities and friction coefficients may influence the and dose to a bank experiences suction forces
interaction of forces between rug and ship and also towards the bank These forces are not uniformly
tug perform.ance. The sarne is the case when a ship's distributedover a ship's length. Their resultanfacts
hull is covered with ice. somewhere abaft of midships. Toe overall effect is a
• bodily attraction towards the bank - bank suction -
Tug - towline interaction and a yawing effect away - bow cushion. A ship can
Tug reactions such as tug list and consequently proceed in a stable situation parallel to the bank by
tug performance are influenced by towline applying rudder towards the bank. But as soon as
characteristics, especially by its dynamic load this stable situation is disrurbed, eg by an irregular
absorption capabilities. profile of the bank, even a submerged bank, or by
• Tug propeller - ship hull ín,teraction careless steering, a ship inay sheer away from the
Toe reduction in pulling performance due to tug bank. If this happens it is difficult to control the ship
propeller wash hitting a ship's hull has been dealt and she may even sheer to the other side of the river
with in previous chapters. In the case of small or channel.
142Tug Use in Port
Bank suction and bow cushion effects are more
pronounced with smaller underkeel clearances. ''''
They can be kept under control by keeping away , • ·�':': · Following water from
from banks as far as possible and by adjusting channel tums and
moves ship aside
ship's speed. Bank suction and bow cushion effects
increase proportíonately with ship's speed, namely,
by the square of the speed. At a speed of four knots
attraction towards a bank and yawing moment away
from it are four tiines as high as at two knots. Also,
with a lower ship's speed, more reserve p