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F(s) f(t) t > 0 F(s) f(t) t > 0

1 (t) s cos wt
s  w2
2

e Ts (t-T)
sz z 2  w2
1 e  at
s  w2
2 sin( wt   )   tan 1 ( w / z )
w2
sa sin( wt   )
s sin   w cos 
1 1
t n 1 e  at s 2  w2
( s  a) n (n  1) 1 1  at
1 1 e sin wt
(e  at  e  bt ) ( s  a ) 2  w2 w
(s  a)( s  b) ba
1 1  wn t
s 1 e sin wd t wd  wn 1   2
s  2 wn s  wn
2
( ae  at  be  bt )
2
wd
( s  a)( s  b) ab
sa e  at cos wt
sz 1 ( s  a ) 2  w2
[( z  a )e  at  ( z  b)e  bt ]
( s  a)( s  b) ba
sz ( z  a) 2  w2  at  w 
1 e at ebt ect ( s  a ) 2  w2 e sin( wt   )   tan 1  
  w2  z a
( s  a)( s  b)( s  c) (b  a)(c  a) (c  b)( a  b) (a  c)(b  c)
1 u (t ) or 1
s
sz ( z  a)e at ( z  b)ebt ( z  c)e ct u (t  T )
  1 Ts
( s  a)( s  b)( s  c) (b  a)(c  a) (c  b)( a  b) (a  c)(b  c) e
s
w sin wt 1 u (t )  u (t  T )
(1  e Ts )
s  w2
2
s
F(s) f(t) t > 0
1 1
(1  e  at )
s(s  a) a
1 1  be at a( z  b)ebt 
1   
s ( s  a )( s  b) ab  b  a b  a 
sz 1  b( z  a)e at a( z  b)ebt 
 z   
s ( s  a )( s  b) ab  ba b  a 
1 1
(1  cos wt )
s ( s  w2 )
2
w2
sz z z 2  w2
s ( s 2  w2 ) 2
 4
cos( wt   )   tan 1 ( w / z )
w w
1 1 1  wn t
 e sin( wd t   )
s(s  2 wn s  wn )
2 2 2
wn wn wd
wd  wn 1   2   cos 1 
1 1
(1  e  at  ate at )
s(s  a)2 a 2

sz
s(s  a)2
1
a 2
 
z  ze  at  a(a  z )te at

1 t
s2
1 1
(at  1  e  at )
s (s  a)
2
a 2

Page 1.1
Response of an underdamped second order system 1. Fractional overshoot

y wn
2
wn
2    
 2  FO  exp  
x s  2 wn s  wn 2
( s  p1 )( s  p2 )  1   2 

where 2. Decay ratio

 = damping factor   2 


DR  exp    FO2
n = natural frequency  1   
2

pi = system pole 3. Envelope of Response


= n [ -  j  1- 2 ]
 EoR  E  EoR
Transient Response to a step change in x of A units
where
Ae  wn t
e  wn t
y sin( wd t   ) EoR 
1 2 1 2
 y y
where E  
 y  y0 
d = n 1-2
yt = y at time t
  
  arctan   Rise time
 1   2   
tr 
wd
Page 1.2
Frequency Response
Step response of a second order system
1. Amplitude Ratio
d2y dy
 2 wn  wn y  Kwn
2 2
2
wn dt 2
dt
AR 
[ wn  w2 ]2  [2 wn w]2
2 2
y Kwn
 2
r s  2 wn s  wn
2

2. Phase Shift
  damping factor
  2 wwn  wn  natural frequency
  arctan  2 2 
 wn  w  
poles s  wn     2  1 
3. Resonant Frequency

1
wr  wn 1  2 2 ,  
2

4. Resonant Peak

1
Mr 
2 1   2