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TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

ADJUSTMENT / MODIFICATION FACTORS FOR ALLOWABLE STRESSES

SIZE FACTOR ADJUSTMENT (CF)

1.) When the depth of the rectangular sawn lumber bending member exceeds
300mm, the allowable bending stress(Fb), shall be multiplied by the size factor
CF.

Where :
d = Depth of Beam in millimeters (mm)

2.) For beams of circular cross-section that have a diameter greater than 340 mm,
the allowable bending stress (Fb), shall be multiplied by size factor (CF).

3.) For 300 mm or larger square beams loaded in plane of a diagonal, the allowable
bending stress (Fb), shall be multiplied by the size factor (CF).

NOTE :

For #2 & #3 the size factor may be determined on the basis of an equivalent
conventionally loaded square beam of the same cross-sectional area.

Size factor adjustment are cumulative with form factor adjustment, except for
lumber I-beam and box beams, but are not cumulative with slenderness factor
adjustments. The size factor adjustment shall not apply to the visually graded lumber
50mm to 100mm thick or to machine stress rated lumber.

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TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

FORM FACTOR ADJUSTMENT (NON-PRISMATIC)

The allowable unit stress in bending for non-prismatic members shall not exceed
the value established by multiplying such stress by the form factor Cf determined as
follows:

BEAM SECTION FORM FACTOR (Cf)


Circular 1.180
Square (w/ diagonal and vertical) 1.414

Lumber I-beam and box beam


{ [ ] }

Where:
Cf = form factor
Cg = support factor
p = ratio of depth of compression flange to full depth of beam = t1/d
q = ratio of thickness of web or webs to the full width of beam = t2/b

NOTE :
The form factor adjustment shall be cumulative with the size factor adjustment,
except for Lumber I-beam and Box beam.

SLENDERNESS FACTOR (Cs)

The slenderness factor (Cs), is used to identify the classification of a beam as


to whether it is a short, intermediate or long beam. When the depth of a bending
member exceeds its breadth, lateral support may be required and the slenderness
factor (CS) shall be calculated :

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TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

Where :

Cs = slenderness factor
Le = effective length of beam in mm from table below.
d = depth of beam in mm
b = breadth of beam in mm

Le’ Values
TYPES OF BEAMS VALUES

Single span beam with concentrated load at the center 1.61 Lu

Single span beam with uniformly distributed load 1.92 Lu

Single span beam with equal end moments 1.84 Lu


Cantilever beam with concentrated load at unsupported
1.69 Lu
end
Cantilever beam with uniformly distributed load 1.06 Lu
Cantilever beam with UDL & concentrated load at
1.69 Lu
cantilever end
* Single span or cantilever beam with any other load 1.92 Lu

NOTE :

Lu is the unsupported length of the beam.

The effective length Le in the table above are based on an Lu/d ratios,

If , then use Le = Le’

For other ratio, these effective lengths may be multiplied by a factor equal to
0.85+2.55/(Lu/d) except that these factor shall not apply to a single span or cantilever
beam with any load (Le = 1.92Lu).

That is, ⌊ ⌋

UNSUPPORTED LENGTH (Lu)

When the compression edge of a beam is supported throughout its length to


prevent its lateral displacement, and the ends at points of bearing have lateral support
to prevent rotation, the unsupported length (Lu) may be taken as zero.

When lateral support is provided to prevent rotation at the points of end bearing
but no other lateral support is provided throughout the length of the beam, the

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TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

unsupported length (Lu) is the distance between such points of end bearing, or the
length of the cantilever.

When the beam is provided with the lateral support to prevent rotational and
lateral displacement at intermediate points as well as the ends, unsupported length (Lu)
is the distance between such points of intermediate lateral support.

CLASSIFICATION OF BEAM AND ADJUSTMENT OR MODIFICATION OF THE


ALLOWABLE FLEXURAL STRESS (Fb) BASED ON Cs VALUE TO OBTAIN Fb’.

1.) SHORT BEAM, When CS ≤ 10


If Cs less than or equal to 10, then the beam is a short beam, and the adjusted
allowable bending stress is equal to the allowable bending stress.

Fb’ = Fb

2.) INTERMEDIATE BEAM, When CS > 10 and CS ≤ Ck

If Cs is greater than 10 but less than or equal to Ck, then the beam is an
intermediate beam, and the adjusted allowable bending stress is computed as
follows:

[ ]

3.) LONG BEAM, When CS > 10 and CS < 50

If Cs is greater than Ck but less than 50, then the beam is a long beam, and the
adjusted allowable bending stress is computed as follows:

In no case shall Cs exceed 50

Where:

Ck = 0.811 √
E= modulus of elasticity
Fb = allowable unit stress for extreme fiber in bending
Fb’ = adjusted allowable unit stress for extreme fiber in bending

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TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY ADJUSTMENT

The use of average modulus of elasticity values is appropriate for the design of
normal wood structural members and assemblies. In special applications where
deflections are critical to the stability of structures or structural components, and where
exposed to varying temperature and relative humidity under sustained loading
conditions, the average values of the modulus of elasticity E listed in Table 4-3 shall be
reduced to account for variability. Coefficient of variation CV in the modulus of elasticity
E for lumber as follows:

Visually graded sawn lumber, CV = 0.25

Machine stress-rated sawn lumber, CV = 0.11

The average modulus of elasticity E values listed in the Table shall be multiplied by 1 –
CV, or 1 – 1.65 CV to obtain a modulus of elasticity E value exceeded by 84 percent or
95 percent individual pieces, respectively.

ANALYSIS OF BEAMS FOR SHEAR (HORIZONTAL)

Timber design subjected to transverse load might fail in shear parallel to grain, so
the shear strength is to be investigated. Usually, a long horizontal split at beam mid-
depth occurs when a beam fails due to shear. To prevent shear failure, the computed
maximum actual shearing stress should be less than or equal to the modified or
adjusted allowable shearing stress.
The actual shearing stress should be computed by using the following general
equation for any shape of the beam cross-section:

For rectangular cross-section beam, the actual shearing stress may be computed by the
derived formula:

For a beam to be considered as satisfactory in shear the following condition must be


satisfied:

“The actual shearing stress (fV), should not be greater than the modified allowable
shearing stress (FV).”

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TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

MODIFICATION / ADJUSTMENT OF THE ALLOWABLE SHEARING STRESS,


BASED ON THE DURATION OF LOADING

1.) Where a member is fully stressed to the maximum allowable stress, either
continuously or cumulatively, for more than 10 years under the conditions of
maximum design load, the values shall not exceed 90 percent of those in the
tables:

Fv’ = 0.90Fv

2.) When the accumulated duration of the full maximum load during the life of the
member does not exceed the period indicated below, the values may be
increased in the table as follows:

For seven days duration, as for roof


25 %
loads
33 – 1/3% For earthquake
For wind (for connections &
33 – 1/3%
fasteners)
60% For wind (member only)
100% For impact

The foregoing examples are not cumulative. For combined duration of loadings
the resultant structural members shall not be smaller than the required for the longer
duration of loading.

NOTCHES in BEAMS

Often beams are notched at the ends to allow for more clearance to bring the top
of the beam in level with other beams. Likewise, notches at intermediate points may be
necessary to allow passage or space for pipes. Also to accommodate fixing details such
as gutters reduced fascia, and connections with other members it is necessary to create
notches or holes. At these points where notches or holes exist, stress concentrations
are very high. To lessen stress concentrations at notches or holes points, cut with
square re-entrant corners should be avoided. This could be achieved by cutting the
notched to a pre-drilled hole (typically, 8mm diameter).

The NSCP manual specifies that if possible, notching of beam should be


avoided. If it could not be avoided, then if possible the following requirement should be
observed:

1. Notches in sawn lumber bending members shall not exceed one-sixth the depth
of the member and shall not be located at the middle third of the span.
2. Where members are notched at the ends, the notch depth shall not exceed one-
fourth of the beam depth.
3. The tension side of the sawn lumber bending members of 100mm or greater
nominal thickness shall not be notched except at ends of members.

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TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

4. Cantilevered portion of beam less than 100mm in normal thickness shall not be
notched unless the reduced section properties and lumber defects are
considered in the design.
5. Rectangular beams, girders, or joists notched at points of support on the tension
side, shall meet the design requirements of that section in bending and in shear.
The actual shear stress at such point shall not exceed the lesser value of the
adjusted or modified allowable shearing stress calculated by the following
equations:

( ) and ( )

6. Circular cross-section beams, girders, or joists notched at points of support at the


tension side, shall meet the design requirements of that section in bending and in
shear. The actual shear stress at such point shall not exceed the lesser value of
the adjusted or modified allowable shearing stress calculated by the following
equations:

( )( ) and ( )

Where :

An = cross-sectional area at the notched on the member.


A = total cross-sectional area of the beam
dn = actual depth of the beam at the notch.
d = total depth of beam.

7. For bending members other than rectangular or circular cross-section and


notched at point of support on the tension side, the actual shear stress parallel to
grain shall be calculated in accordance with conventional engineering
mechanics.

8. Beams, girders, or joists notched at point of support on the compression side


shall meet the design requirements for the net section in bending and in shear.
The shear (V) at such point shall not exceed the value computed by the equation
:

[ ]

Where :
d = total depth of beam
d’ = actual depth of beam at notch
e = distance notch extends inside the inner edge of support.

The shear for the notch on the compression side shall be further limited to the
value determined for a beam of depth d’ if “e” exceeds d’.

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TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

ANALYSIS OF BEAMS FOR BEARING

The ends of a beam may bear directly on a supporting member, which


could be another wood member, a masonry wall, or steel hanger, girder, or
bearing plate. Also, when another member above the beam transfers its load on
the beam, the bearing stress is produced.

A bearing failure is not a collapse; it is merely a crushing of fibers and


generally not a serious problem or failure. To prevent this crushing, the reaction
(R) divided by the bearing area must not exceed the modified allowable
compressive stress perpendicular to grain, Fc , in equation form,

Fc

Where :
Ab= bearing area = b x Lb
b = width of beam
Lb = Bearing length along the grain of the wood
FC = modified allowable bearing stress

 To solve for requirement bearing length


 If deformation is critical, the fC may be by the following equation,

0.73 or 0.90

 For bearing of less than 150 mm in length and not nearer than 75 mm to
The end of a member.

NOTE :
Minimum bearing length, lb = 75mm to 100 mm

 For bearing at angle to grain, use the HONKINSON’S Formula, for inclined
area

In other books, Hankinson’s Formula written as,

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TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

Where:
Fn-n = allowable stress acting perpendicular to inclined surface(in MPa)
FC’= p = allowable stress in compression parallel to the grain adjustment
for duration of load (in MPa)
Ɵ = is the angle between the load direction and direction of the grain.

For loads with duration of more than 10 years under the condition of maximum
design value, the modified stress should not be more than 90percent of those in the
table. That is P’=0.90 P

ANALYSIS of BEAMS for DEFLECTION

Beams are constructed from materials from materials that deform slightly when
subjected to stress due to the applied loads or a change in temperature. As a result of
this deformation, points on the beam undergo certain movements called deflections.
Deflection is the vertical displacement of a point on a beam induced by the bending
moment effect of transverse loads.
Stiffness of the beam is the factor that controls the amount of its deflection.
Adequate stiffness aside from having a sufficient strength should be provided on a
beam so that it will bot deflect or sag too much. Excessive deflections can lead to
cracking/damage of brittle finishes (e.g. plastered ceiling), ponding of water, broken
windows, unsightly sagging, undesirable vibration under dynamic loading, or just bad
appearance. Human comfort aside from the architectural and structural damage is also
being considered why these deflections of structural members are being controlled.
Some Structural Codes based on experience and good practice recommended
that deflections of beams should be limited to 0.003 x span when fully loaded or it
should be less than or equal to 14 mm in the case of domestic floor joists. Sometimes it
is generally taken as 1/360 of the beam span.

Table 104-1 of the NSCP manual specifies the MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE


DEFLECTION FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

Type of Member Member with Member with


Live Load only LL and DL
(LL) [ LL+K(DL) ]

Roof Member supporting L / 360 L / 240


Plaster
Floor member

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TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

The VALUE of K from the above table should be as follows:

a) For Unseasoned WOOD, K = 1.0

b) For Seasoned WOOD, K = 0.5 (Seasoned lumber is a lumber


having a moisture content of less than 16 percent at time of installation
and used under dry conditions of use such as in covered structures.

ACTUAL DEFLECTION REQUIREMENTS

Actual deflection of beams should be computed based on the following factors:


1. Type of load that it supports (Live load, Dead load, etc.)
2. Duration of the load (Short term load and long term load)
3. Moisture content of the lumber (Seasoned and Unseasoned)
4. When deflection is critical to the stability of the structures or structural
components.
5. When the member is exposed to varying temperature and relative humidity under
sustained loading conditions.

FOR SHORT TERM DEFLECTIONS,

 Seasoned and unseasoned lumber

FOR LONG TERM DEFLECTIONS,

 Seasoned lumber

 Unseasoned lumber

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