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May 30, 2019

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1.) When the depth of the rectangular sawn lumber bending member exceeds

300mm, the allowable bending stress(Fb), shall be multiplied by the size factor

CF.

Where :

d = Depth of Beam in millimeters (mm)

2.) For beams of circular cross-section that have a diameter greater than 340 mm,

the allowable bending stress (Fb), shall be multiplied by size factor (CF).

3.) For 300 mm or larger square beams loaded in plane of a diagonal, the allowable

bending stress (Fb), shall be multiplied by the size factor (CF).

NOTE :

For #2 & #3 the size factor may be determined on the basis of an equivalent

conventionally loaded square beam of the same cross-sectional area.

Size factor adjustment are cumulative with form factor adjustment, except for

lumber I-beam and box beams, but are not cumulative with slenderness factor

adjustments. The size factor adjustment shall not apply to the visually graded lumber

50mm to 100mm thick or to machine stress rated lumber.

TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

The allowable unit stress in bending for non-prismatic members shall not exceed

the value established by multiplying such stress by the form factor Cf determined as

follows:

Circular 1.180

Square (w/ diagonal and vertical) 1.414

{ [ ] }

Where:

Cf = form factor

Cg = support factor

p = ratio of depth of compression flange to full depth of beam = t1/d

q = ratio of thickness of web or webs to the full width of beam = t2/b

NOTE :

The form factor adjustment shall be cumulative with the size factor adjustment,

except for Lumber I-beam and Box beam.

to whether it is a short, intermediate or long beam. When the depth of a bending

member exceeds its breadth, lateral support may be required and the slenderness

factor (CS) shall be calculated :

TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

Where :

Cs = slenderness factor

Le = effective length of beam in mm from table below.

d = depth of beam in mm

b = breadth of beam in mm

Le’ Values

TYPES OF BEAMS VALUES

Cantilever beam with concentrated load at unsupported

1.69 Lu

end

Cantilever beam with uniformly distributed load 1.06 Lu

Cantilever beam with UDL & concentrated load at

1.69 Lu

cantilever end

* Single span or cantilever beam with any other load 1.92 Lu

NOTE :

The effective length Le in the table above are based on an Lu/d ratios,

For other ratio, these effective lengths may be multiplied by a factor equal to

0.85+2.55/(Lu/d) except that these factor shall not apply to a single span or cantilever

beam with any load (Le = 1.92Lu).

That is, ⌊ ⌋

prevent its lateral displacement, and the ends at points of bearing have lateral support

to prevent rotation, the unsupported length (Lu) may be taken as zero.

When lateral support is provided to prevent rotation at the points of end bearing

but no other lateral support is provided throughout the length of the beam, the

TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

unsupported length (Lu) is the distance between such points of end bearing, or the

length of the cantilever.

When the beam is provided with the lateral support to prevent rotational and

lateral displacement at intermediate points as well as the ends, unsupported length (Lu)

is the distance between such points of intermediate lateral support.

ALLOWABLE FLEXURAL STRESS (Fb) BASED ON Cs VALUE TO OBTAIN Fb’.

If Cs less than or equal to 10, then the beam is a short beam, and the adjusted

allowable bending stress is equal to the allowable bending stress.

Fb’ = Fb

If Cs is greater than 10 but less than or equal to Ck, then the beam is an

intermediate beam, and the adjusted allowable bending stress is computed as

follows:

[ ]

If Cs is greater than Ck but less than 50, then the beam is a long beam, and the

adjusted allowable bending stress is computed as follows:

Where:

Ck = 0.811 √

E= modulus of elasticity

Fb = allowable unit stress for extreme fiber in bending

Fb’ = adjusted allowable unit stress for extreme fiber in bending

TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

The use of average modulus of elasticity values is appropriate for the design of

normal wood structural members and assemblies. In special applications where

deflections are critical to the stability of structures or structural components, and where

exposed to varying temperature and relative humidity under sustained loading

conditions, the average values of the modulus of elasticity E listed in Table 4-3 shall be

reduced to account for variability. Coefficient of variation CV in the modulus of elasticity

E for lumber as follows:

The average modulus of elasticity E values listed in the Table shall be multiplied by 1 –

CV, or 1 – 1.65 CV to obtain a modulus of elasticity E value exceeded by 84 percent or

95 percent individual pieces, respectively.

Timber design subjected to transverse load might fail in shear parallel to grain, so

the shear strength is to be investigated. Usually, a long horizontal split at beam mid-

depth occurs when a beam fails due to shear. To prevent shear failure, the computed

maximum actual shearing stress should be less than or equal to the modified or

adjusted allowable shearing stress.

The actual shearing stress should be computed by using the following general

equation for any shape of the beam cross-section:

For rectangular cross-section beam, the actual shearing stress may be computed by the

derived formula:

satisfied:

“The actual shearing stress (fV), should not be greater than the modified allowable

shearing stress (FV).”

TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

BASED ON THE DURATION OF LOADING

1.) Where a member is fully stressed to the maximum allowable stress, either

continuously or cumulatively, for more than 10 years under the conditions of

maximum design load, the values shall not exceed 90 percent of those in the

tables:

Fv’ = 0.90Fv

2.) When the accumulated duration of the full maximum load during the life of the

member does not exceed the period indicated below, the values may be

increased in the table as follows:

25 %

loads

33 – 1/3% For earthquake

For wind (for connections &

33 – 1/3%

fasteners)

60% For wind (member only)

100% For impact

The foregoing examples are not cumulative. For combined duration of loadings

the resultant structural members shall not be smaller than the required for the longer

duration of loading.

NOTCHES in BEAMS

Often beams are notched at the ends to allow for more clearance to bring the top

of the beam in level with other beams. Likewise, notches at intermediate points may be

necessary to allow passage or space for pipes. Also to accommodate fixing details such

as gutters reduced fascia, and connections with other members it is necessary to create

notches or holes. At these points where notches or holes exist, stress concentrations

are very high. To lessen stress concentrations at notches or holes points, cut with

square re-entrant corners should be avoided. This could be achieved by cutting the

notched to a pre-drilled hole (typically, 8mm diameter).

avoided. If it could not be avoided, then if possible the following requirement should be

observed:

1. Notches in sawn lumber bending members shall not exceed one-sixth the depth

of the member and shall not be located at the middle third of the span.

2. Where members are notched at the ends, the notch depth shall not exceed one-

fourth of the beam depth.

3. The tension side of the sawn lumber bending members of 100mm or greater

nominal thickness shall not be notched except at ends of members.

TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

4. Cantilevered portion of beam less than 100mm in normal thickness shall not be

notched unless the reduced section properties and lumber defects are

considered in the design.

5. Rectangular beams, girders, or joists notched at points of support on the tension

side, shall meet the design requirements of that section in bending and in shear.

The actual shear stress at such point shall not exceed the lesser value of the

adjusted or modified allowable shearing stress calculated by the following

equations:

( ) and ( )

tension side, shall meet the design requirements of that section in bending and in

shear. The actual shear stress at such point shall not exceed the lesser value of

the adjusted or modified allowable shearing stress calculated by the following

equations:

( )( ) and ( )

Where :

A = total cross-sectional area of the beam

dn = actual depth of the beam at the notch.

d = total depth of beam.

notched at point of support on the tension side, the actual shear stress parallel to

grain shall be calculated in accordance with conventional engineering

mechanics.

shall meet the design requirements for the net section in bending and in shear.

The shear (V) at such point shall not exceed the value computed by the equation

:

[ ]

Where :

d = total depth of beam

d’ = actual depth of beam at notch

e = distance notch extends inside the inner edge of support.

The shear for the notch on the compression side shall be further limited to the

value determined for a beam of depth d’ if “e” exceeds d’.

TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

could be another wood member, a masonry wall, or steel hanger, girder, or

bearing plate. Also, when another member above the beam transfers its load on

the beam, the bearing stress is produced.

generally not a serious problem or failure. To prevent this crushing, the reaction

(R) divided by the bearing area must not exceed the modified allowable

compressive stress perpendicular to grain, Fc , in equation form,

Fc

Where :

Ab= bearing area = b x Lb

b = width of beam

Lb = Bearing length along the grain of the wood

FC = modified allowable bearing stress

If deformation is critical, the fC may be by the following equation,

0.73 or 0.90

For bearing of less than 150 mm in length and not nearer than 75 mm to

The end of a member.

NOTE :

Minimum bearing length, lb = 75mm to 100 mm

For bearing at angle to grain, use the HONKINSON’S Formula, for inclined

area

TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

Where:

Fn-n = allowable stress acting perpendicular to inclined surface(in MPa)

FC’= p = allowable stress in compression parallel to the grain adjustment

for duration of load (in MPa)

Ɵ = is the angle between the load direction and direction of the grain.

For loads with duration of more than 10 years under the condition of maximum

design value, the modified stress should not be more than 90percent of those in the

table. That is P’=0.90 P

Beams are constructed from materials from materials that deform slightly when

subjected to stress due to the applied loads or a change in temperature. As a result of

this deformation, points on the beam undergo certain movements called deflections.

Deflection is the vertical displacement of a point on a beam induced by the bending

moment effect of transverse loads.

Stiffness of the beam is the factor that controls the amount of its deflection.

Adequate stiffness aside from having a sufficient strength should be provided on a

beam so that it will bot deflect or sag too much. Excessive deflections can lead to

cracking/damage of brittle finishes (e.g. plastered ceiling), ponding of water, broken

windows, unsightly sagging, undesirable vibration under dynamic loading, or just bad

appearance. Human comfort aside from the architectural and structural damage is also

being considered why these deflections of structural members are being controlled.

Some Structural Codes based on experience and good practice recommended

that deflections of beams should be limited to 0.003 x span when fully loaded or it

should be less than or equal to 14 mm in the case of domestic floor joists. Sometimes it

is generally taken as 1/360 of the beam span.

DEFLECTION FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

Live Load only LL and DL

(LL) [ LL+K(DL) ]

Plaster

Floor member

TIMBER DESIGN [DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BEAMS]

having a moisture content of less than 16 percent at time of installation

and used under dry conditions of use such as in covered structures.

1. Type of load that it supports (Live load, Dead load, etc.)

2. Duration of the load (Short term load and long term load)

3. Moisture content of the lumber (Seasoned and Unseasoned)

4. When deflection is critical to the stability of the structures or structural

components.

5. When the member is exposed to varying temperature and relative humidity under

sustained loading conditions.

Seasoned lumber

Unseasoned lumber

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