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Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources

through Ecological Actions to Achieve Effective Environmental Function

An Extended Essay

Mr. Ryan Leonardo

Mapúa University

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in

The Contemporary World (GED105)

By:

Kalvin Christian R. Borromeo

Elisha Daniela M. Celemen

Clarisse N. Cortez

Abigail Jairah G. Desquitado

Raemond John L. Espia

April 2019
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

Abstract

This paper seeks to discuss the issues with regards to the current state of the ecological

and environmental systems of the Philippines. As well as to elaborate the programs

conducted by several governmental and non-governmental organizations concerning the

said problems. Resultantly, from the land, to water, to air, our nation encounters

environmental changes in an aberrant manner. Several governmental projects and

protocols are being executed. Most of the programs are concerned with the preservation

of the remaining natural resources, rehabilitation of what was affected by the past natural

disasters, and prevention of further intensification of the problems that we currently

experience. The programs are devised in accordance to the sustainable development

goals (SDGs) set by the United Nations (UN). Sustainable development plays a vital role

in today’s time, being correlated with globalization, the Philippines aims to develop

holistically that will be beneficial in a long period of time.

Introduction

The state of the Philippines’ ecological and environmental system is disconcerting.

As a country belonging to the “Pacific Ring of Fire” defined as a seismically active belt of

earthquake epicenters, volcanoes, and tectonic plate boundaries (brittanica.com), the

country is subjected to a numerous amount of natural disasters such as floods,

earthquakes, volcano eruption and more. Several disaster protocols and alarm systems

are being implemented all though out the occurrence of calamity. The programs are
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

devised in accordance to the sustainable development goals (SDGs) set by the United

Nations (UN). Sustainable development, characterized by the World Commission on

Environment and Development (1987) as a “development which meets the needs of the

present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”,

is an ideal state regards to development that is often associated with the globalization

process. It aims to develop holistically, considering factors such as political, economic,

social, environmental, and ecological. Its goal is to develop or improve the current life

situation by simultaneously sustaining living things and natural resources, that will be

beneficial for the future generations.

Distinct amount of ecological and environmental issues that are currently

happening will be elaborately discussed through the next section of this paper. Moreover,

the programs held by the governmental and non-governmental groups are sorted

according to Land, Water, and Air to specifically and effectively explain each project.

Contemporary Ecological and Environmental Issues of the Philippines

Within the past few years, the Philippines has been suffering from several

ecological and environmental problems that are also experienced globally. From the land,

to water, to air, our nation encounters environmental disasters in an aberrant manner.

Climate change plays a huge role to it, extreme variations within the climate affects the

actions and needs of its citizens. Man-made problems like Deforestation, Pollution,
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

Depletion of Natural Resources and Wildlife, and Illegal mining, gives nothing but a

continuous and increased chance of not surviving environmental disasters.

Climate change

Climate change is major problem of the world. Even in the Philippines, it is painful

enough to see drought and unending rainfall that causes the agriculture to decline at an

increasing rate. People are experiencing extreme heat during summer, devastating

typhoons during rainfall season. Lately, the heat index recorded in Metro Manila by The

Philippine atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration

(PAGASA) reaches 40.8 degrees Celsius at Ninoy International Airport in Pasay city. So

far it is the highest recorded in 2019. But, if we are looking at the perspective of whole

country, the highest heat index recorded was 51.7 degrees Celsius in Dagupan City last

April 10, 2019.

The Philippines was already a path of countless typhoons and particularly

vulnerable to extreme weather. But in recent years, Philippines was struck off by violent

and stronger typhoons recorded in history. One of this is Bagyong Ondoy which devastate

the NCR with exceedingly human-size flood. The supposedly rainfall of one month was

released for just few days. This causes the government and society in panic. No one knew

that the outcome will result an unexpected number of human loss and total damage to

economy and property. Imagine the predicted outcome of many scientist that Tropical

Storm Ketsana (Ondoy) will only disturb the country with a continuous rainfall for one

month will result to calamitous days of hell for the people in the region. Although Tropical

Storm Ondoy was still unmatched with the rainfall it gave, super typhoon Haiyan broke
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

the record of all typhoons with a category 5 strength. The super typhoon Haiyan, one of

the strongest typhoon ever recorded in the planet, made landfall and ravage the

Philippines. The unimaginable death and losses are cannot be explain with words as this

typhoon made its path to history.

Human activities significantly contributed greenhouse gases that causes climate

change. With the Philippines as the center of climate change disaster ground, the risk of

agriculture, infectious disease, food security, El Nino, and severe typhoons, are all at

stake and held no escape with the variables of climate change. Diseases such as dengue

fever, malaria, cholera have increased throughout the years. Climate change impacts on

coastal zones and marine ecosystems caused massive coral bleaching. Scientists

warned the Philippines could experience famine by 2020, as the adverse impact of global

warming takes its toll on natural resources (Ocampo, n.d).

Deforestation

Deforestation is a major issue in the Philippines as it is one of the severely

deforested countries in the tropics. Rainforests and mangroves are being cut off one by

one but most of the people does not notice this kind of incident. The people of the

Philippines are too focused in different issues that they start to ignore the warnings of the

nature. Each year, many forests and croplands are vulnerable to erosion. This

phenomena caused many landslides to induce and doubled the heat given off by sun rays

as it penetrated between the ozone layer. The humanity already giving too much

greenhouse gases and CO2 emissions that greatly contributed to climate change. And

now, the lack of trees and crops made people to desire for heat protection and food
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

security. The decline of Philippine forests is paying a high price for water sheds in the

regions. The loss of water sheds are inclined with loss of water infiltration and cities will

face off constant water shortage.

Deforestation also endangers biodiversity and loss of cultural communities. It is a

tragedy for indigenous people to lose forests since they are resorted to move inwards to

the interior. This issue also arise nowadays because of the circumstances where local

tribes are being forced away from their land as the government/company converts the

forests into commercial area or residential area. Many of indigenous people are victims

of deforestation. Forest loss also means loss of forest products such as rattans, resins,

gums, and a source of livelihood for indigenous people (Walpole, 2017). This is

interconnected with the loss of biodiversity as the habitats are also being diminish. Animal

species relying on their natural habitat will eventually leave their home because of

changes inside made by deforestation. Wildlife is continuously disappearing and the

destruction of ecosystem are threatening various species with extinction.

Air and Waste Pollution

When it comes to managing pollution in a country, Philippines is the worst of all.

Walking down the street, people will experience unusual phenomena that anyone will be

disgusted. Rotten smell welcomes people traveling in nearby cities daily. Last 2018,

Philippines ranked as 3rd in air pollution death around the world. Thick haze can be

noticed outside towering buildings in Manila disguised as a fog. According to WHO, 7

million deaths are related to air pollution. People will wonder what cause this disaster to

affect such a country surrounded by waters and mountain ranges. WHO said, air pollution
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

was mainly caused by inefficient energy resources, transport vehicles, industries, and

coal-fired power plants. Busy streets are abundant in air pollution as vehicles goes by

and release CO2 emissions. These particles mixed up in the air and takes days before it

subsides. People that usually exposed outside will likely be affected by these air

pollutants that damage a body with low immune system.

Philippines ranked 3rd in world’s largest ocean polluter despite of waste

management program acted by NGO’s and volunteers. Cities are lacking pollution

management which results to unending trash in every side of the streets and coastlines.

Statistically speaking, residents of Manila produce the 25% trash inside the country, and

130% more in average compared to residents in other countries. Philippines generate 2.7

million tonnes of plastic waste annually and most of it are single used plastic that came

from major companies that distributes products like biscuits and shampoos. A 2015 report

on plastic pollution by the Ocean Conservancy charity and the McKinsey Centre for

Business and Environment ranked the Philippines as the third-largest source of discarded

plastic that ends up in the ocean, behind two other Asian nations: China and Indonesia

(Vila, 2018) .Breaking free from plastic waste seems absurd but generally, waste pollution

produce more problems in a country than other issues. Waste pollution is the product of

lack of waste management in an area which results to numerous disease outbreak, water

crisis, air pollution, sea waste, etc.

Depletion of Natural Resources and Extinction of Wildlife

Natural resources in the Philippines can be still considered as abundant but as the

population increase, consumption of energy and residential area construction will greatly
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

increase. Depletion of natural resources includes forest depletion, energy depletion,

mineral depletion, and biodiversity loss. It also affects the wildlife when the destruction of

habitat endangers the balance of ecosystem that results to extinction of several species.

The massive loss of marine environment and illegal fishing will also endangers marine

species. Worst possible outcome, residents near coastlines that depends on fish market

will likely be extinguished in no time. Forest degradation, wildlife trafficking, illegal logging,

conversion of agriculture lands, and massive mining of mineral resources are still a

challenge for the country. The poor investment of the government to these issues will

greatly damage the economy and biodiversity.

Illegal Mining

Last 2016, Gina Lopez lead the closure of 23 mining companies in different region

of the country. Irresponsible mining companies are scattered among the regions that are

abundant with nickel and gold minerals. As one of the largest distributor of nickel in the

world, Philippines hold more opportunities for the economy to rise. But with the sudden

emerge of illegal mining and small scale mining in the Philippines, natural resources are

endangered. Enormous tree cutting operations are being done illegally. Small scale

miners are dispersed near mines that is abandoned or ready for rehabilitation. With these,

many unexpected landslide and soil erosion tragically kills many people. Illegal mining is

a controversial issue for Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) as

many watershed are also being damage and destroyed. Proclaimed watersheds in the

area can be damage by mining if chemicals are leaked and landslide or soil erosions
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

happened. These chemicals in mineral ore extraction also cause diseases among miners

as they work in illegal mining tunnels.

Ongoing Environmental Programs

The Philippines is conducting several programs in respond to the environmental

issues that we are experiencing currently. Government and Non-Government

Organizations work hand-in-hand to achieve a sustainable development within our

ecological and environmental states. Most of the programs are concerned with the

preservation of the remaining natural resources, rehabilitation of what was affected by the

past natural disasters, and prevention of further intensification of the problems that we

currently experience. We divided this section into three main categories, Land, Water,

and Air, to elaborately explain the programs currently being executed.

Land

According to data presented by the DENR (Department of Environment and

Natural Resources), the overall land area of the Philippines is about 30 million hectares,

where there is classified as forestlands, 47% as alienable and disposable lands, and the

remaining 3% as unclassified forestlands. A total of 15.8 million hectares were classified

into forest lands, and 14.2 million hectares are alienable and disposable lands. Out of the

14.2 million hectares alienable and disposable lands, 93% or 13 million hectares are

classified as agricultural lands. Based on our research, there are five critical and priority

land issues in the Philippines and these are Unclear and Inconsistent Land Policy,
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

Inefficient Land Administration Infrastructure, Highly Politicized Tax System, Inefficient

Reform Program, and Inefficient Housing Development Programs.

Unclear Land Policy

There are three categories of land in the Philippines which is the protected areas,

alienable and disposable land, and privately-owned land. Of the total Philippine land area

of 30 million hectares, 15.88 million are forest lands or protected areas and 14.12 million

are alienable and disposable lands, which are mostly (64.8 percent) titled and privately

owned. These figures, in any case, don't reflect genuine land use because of the unclear

delineation of forest lands. Forest lands have been characterized as terrains with an

incline of more prominent than 18 degrees.

Inefficient Land Administration Infrastructure

The land administration infrastructure in the Philippines, including the land

information system, is poor and inadequate. Data about landownership, area, limits,

genuine land uses, and land esteems can't be given methodically by numerous nearby

governments. One outcome is deceitful land titling that causes landownership clashes

and takes a very long time to determine.

Highly Land Administration Tax System

Due to the cost of holding idle, unimproved land in the country is insignificant, there

are open doors for land theory and convergence of landownership. An appropriate land

charge framework might be required for proficient land markets. In spite of the fact that
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

the property tax framework is all around structured, land tax assessment isn't utilized

successfully to produce income or to energize dynamic land markets. The authority to

force land charges lies with nearby government units, who share out revenue as indicated

by a fixed formula. Provinces can impose taxes up to 1 percent plus a special education

surcharge of 1 percent of the assessed value. Local government can also impose an idle

land tax of up to 5 percent of the value of the land. In addition, capital gains taxes are

also paid from sale of lands.

Inefficient Reform Program

According to the statement of Reyes, C. (2002) the land reform program in the

country seems to have been successful in promoting social equity through the transfer of

lands to landless or tiller farmers. Studies show that distributional reform has had a

positive impact on yield, specifically of rice. Llanto and Estanislao (1993), added that the

downside is that agrarian reform has constrained the rural land markets and has placed

restrictions on the trading of agricultural lands.

Inefficient Housing Development Programs

An Urban Land Reform and Housing Program through the Urban Land Reform Act

of 1978 (Presidential Decree 1517) has attempted to provide opportunities for informal

settlers to own lands that they have occupied to prevent unreasonable increases in the

price of urban lands. However, the practice of identifying urban land reform sites was

discontinued in 1989 because of opposition from landowners and the regressive effect of

the law on land markets. Problems of multiple ownership, land valuation, refusal of
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

landowners to sell property, or refusal of some informal settlers to pay for the property,

have hampered urban land reform efforts.

Water

As the world's second largest archipelago with over 7,100 islands, Filipinos depend

on the sea for livelihood, food, tourism, economy, and ultimately, our lives. Environmental

conservation shouldn't be limited to NGO workers and researchers it should be

accessible, relatable, and part of our lifestyles. There are organization programs and

projects that help preserve and rehabilitate the Philippine seas.

Save Philippine Seas (SPS) aims to narrow the gap between scientists and the

general public, the old and young, and the passionate and indifferent by mobilizing

seatizen-led initiatives that are empowering Filipinos towards collective action and

behavior change.

SPS began as an online platform in May 2011 as a response to a large-scale illegal

wildlife trade case dubbed in the media as the “rape of the Philippine Seas.” What was

meant to be a temporary campaign evolved into a movement: in August 2012, they

embarked on their first community-based initiative in Malapascua Island, Cebu, called the

Shark Shelter Project, and in 2013, SPS became a registered non-stock, non-profit

organization. Engaging with governments, businesses, schools, NGOs, and individuals.

They focus on educating people on the value of protecting our marine resources, to take

action for conservation and restoration.

Programs and Projects of SPS:


Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

Shark Shelter Project

The Shark Shelter Project is as community-based, multi-stakeholder initiative

based in Malapascua Island, Cebu to protect the thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus) and

other coastal and marine resources. Monad Shoal, a coastal seamount 8.6 kilometers

away from Malapascua Island, is the only dive site in the world so far where thresher

sharks can be seen almost daily due to their relationship with cleaner wrasses.

A-B-Seas

Aims to teach the basics of marine ecosystems and biodiversity, connect people

to nature, increase pro-environmental behavior, and teach leadership and transferable

skills to pursue an advocacy.

Save Sharks Network Philippines (SSNP)

Is a coalition of organizations and institutions in the Philippines’ scientific, NGO,

and tourism communities working on shark and ray research and conservation. It was co-

founded in 2014 by SPS, Marine Wildlife Watch of the Philippines, and Greenpeace

Philippines.

Marine Conservation Philippines (MCP) is a non-profit NGO working to preserve

fragile marine habitats like coral reefs and mangrove forests and improve quality of life

for marginalized fisherfolk in the central Philippines. MCP is a volunteer based

organization where Filipino and international volunteers can join a large professional team

of marine biologists, scientists, teachers and dive instructors, and help tackle the myriad

problems and issues facing the Oceans today. Participation in the program involves
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

extensive scuba diving activities. Participants need not be qualified divers prior to starting

they can learn as part of the program.

Programs and Projects:

Asia Pacific Coral Reef Symposium (APCRS)

In June 2018, MCP’s conservation team set off to Cebu to present at the Asia

Pacific Coral Reef Symposium, a symposium that occurs every four years and brings

together coral reef scientists from around the world. The topics presented by MCP were

based on recent research: first, using technical diver based monitoring methods to assess

mesophytic reefs; and second, assessing the accuracy of the data MCP collects, and how

data collected using similar techniques can be made more accurate.

Combating Ocean Plastics

Over the last 5-10 years, there has been growing public and political awareness of

the issue and increasing concern regarding the impacts of marine debris, specifically

marine plastics. Images of seabirds and whales with stomachs full of marine debris are

regularly reported across mainstream and social media with the G7 Leaders declaration

2015 identifying it as a major global problem alongside other key environmental issues of

our time. This program targets cleaning and preventing waste from surfacing the sea,

volunteers come out to participate in this programs.

Coral Cay Conservation Philippines is an award winning NGO that specializes in

the organization of community based coral reef and tropical forest expeditions. They were

established in 1986 and are a division of the Lifesigns Group.

Project Aims:
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

Coral Cay Conservation has been operating in the Philippines since 1995 and

moved to their current location in Southern Leyte in 2002. Since then we have been

working closely with the Provincial Government of Southern Leyte (PGSL) to survey and

monitor the coastal resources of Sogod Bay. Following our holistic, three tiered structure

of scientific assessment, education and capacity building we aim to support a lasting

legacy of conservation throughout the province. Our survey effort is currently focused on

establishing and assessing Marine Protected Areas (MPA). Surveys are conducted both

inside and outside MPAs in order to assess their biological state and help inform future

management decisions. The community education programs led by our dedicated

education staff spread the message of marine conservation to schools and universities

throughout Southern Leyte. In conjunction with training programs and scholarships for

local stakeholders these initiatives aim to ignite a passion for the marine world and provide

the region with trained individuals ready to continue the existing conservation effort.

People and the Sea

The mission of People and the Sea is to promote community driven marine

conservation. Any efforts to establish a sustainable relationship with the marine

environment must begin with making the people that depend on it the most a central part

of the process. The links between social welfare and mobility, basic food security, health,

education and the welfare of the marine environment are hard to deny. Meaningful,

compelling conservation of coastal resources must come hand-in-hand with the

engagement, and subsequent empowerment, of the local communities. Stakeholders at

all levels must be motivated to understand the benefits that a healthy marine environment
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

can bring them, and local ambassadors should be fostered who can convey the essential

message, that through working together, the sea is able to provide for the needs of all of

the community both now, and for future generations.

The work the have undertaken on Malapascua, and in the wider Municipality of

Daanbantayan keeps this concept at its core. We have developed a wide variety of

projects on Malapascua that we would like to explain in more detail to you. All of these

are on-going, and while some demand more resources than others, any of them could

form part of their expedition with them.

Air

Air pollution in the Philippines, especially Manila, is very alarming. According to

www.numbeo.com, air pollution in the Philippines is high at 66.71, and its air quality is

low at 33.29. In fact, as reported by World Health Organization (WHO), Philippines has

the third highest death rates due to air pollution, next to China and Mongolia.

Although the obvious reasons we can point out as air pollutants in our country are

the belching of smoke from vehicles and industrial buildings, there are more reasons for

it. First are agricultural activities. The use of insecticides, pesticides, and fertilizers are

common in agricultural activities, and ammonia is a very common by-product. As

ammonia enters the air as gas from the heavily fertilized fields and livestock waste, it

blows in over cities and towns mixing with the emissions of nitrogen and sulphur oxides

from the traffic and industry. Second, the exhaust from factories and industries makes a

negative environmental impact. Manufacturing industries release large amounts of

carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, chemicals, and organic compounds into the air thus
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

lowering our air quality. It deteriorates the quality of air people breath. Also, even if these

chemicals evaporate, they can react with other pollutants, thus creating a toxic fog that

can last for days or even weeks. Third is the mining operations. During the mining

operations, like drilling, blasting, collection, and transportation, dust and chemicals are

released in the air causing massive air pollution. Even the use of explosives emits carbon

monoxide which is harmful chemical. These can cause respiratory, cardiovascular, and

cerebral illnesses. Fourth major cause of air pollution is the burning of fossil fuels. The

sulphur oxide from combustion of fossil fuels and the pollution emitting from vehicles are

major contributors.

Due to all of these, our government and world organizations are taking steps into

cleaning and preserving our environment. The Philippine government implemented

Republic Act No. 8749 or the “Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999”. This law is a

“comprehensive air quality management policy and program which aims to achieve and

maintain healthy air for all Filipinos.” It shall protect and promote the global environment

to attain sustainable development in the country. Under R.A. 8749, motor vehicles will

have emission standards upon their renewal of registration, and smoke belching vehicles

and polluting industries will have penalties between one thousand to five thousand pesos.

There will also be phasing out of leaded gasoline to have clean fuels and low toxic

chemical content.

Upon recommendation of the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), the

country will be divided into different air sheds. These are to be designated based on

weather, climate, typology, and meteorology which face similar development problems.
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

Another law regarding toxic substances is the Republic Act 6969 or “Toxic

Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990.” R.A. 6969

regulates and restricts the handling, importation, manufacture, storage, etc., of toxic

wastes and substances that present risks to health and the environment.

There is also Republic Act No. 3931 or known as the “Act Creating the National

Water and Air Pollution Control Commission.” It is a law regarding the creation of a

commission in the government who will basically manage and reduce the causes of

pollution in the Philippines. They will conduct experiments, investigations, and research

to discover economical and practical methods of preventing water and air pollution.

The country also implements Solid Waste Management Program to improve the

quality of our environment, particularly our air, water, and solid waste problems. Its priority

is for the closure of dumpsites and establishments of Material Recovery Facilities (MRF).

In this way, wastes will be separated and will be disposed in a right way without harming

the environment. The Mother Earth Foundation, an environmental organization in the

Philippines, promotes the same kind of management as the Solid Waste Management

Program by campaigning zero-waste advocacy to local authorities and promote proper

waste management.

Another program in the Philippines is the Philippine Greenhouse Gas Accounting

and Reporting Program (PhilGARP). Under Greenhouse Gas Protocol, it “aims to help

business in the Philippines prepare GHG inventories, identify GHG reduction

opportunities, and participate in programs and projects to reduce GHG emissions.”

Even if we have laws and programs to reduce air pollution, we still need to act on

some preventive measures. We can practice the 3R’s – reduce, reuse, and recycle our
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

waste materials to reduce energy usage, pollution, and greenhouse emissions. We can

have a dust collection system in our homes, commercial, or industrial shops to improve

breathable air quality. Also, we can use scrubbers, an air pollution control device to

remove some particulates or gases from industrial exhaust streams, and have a sewage

treatment in our living and commercial areas. Lastly, we can use bikes and electrically

powered vehicles for transportation to reduce burning of fuels and toxic chemicals.

Air pollution can still be reduced in our country only if the government is firm on

laws against illegal acts that contribute to the deterioration of our environment, even

though we have few programs and laws regarding this.

Conclusion

To sum it up, this paper discussed several ecological and environmental issues

that are relevant for the time being. Particularly, the issue of climate change, defined as

having extreme variations within the climate that affects the actions and needs of its

citizens. Furthermore, the cons of man-made problems such as deforestation, pollution,

depletion of natural resources and wildlife, and illegal mining, wherein generally, gives

nothing but a continuous and increased chance of not surviving environmental disasters.

The programs held by some governmental and non-governmental organizations

are also elaborately explained. The specific and current laws and projects with concern

to the protection and sustainability of the land, water, and air were also aforementioned.

Ideally, the citizens of the country should participate in these projects and abide by the
Sustainable Development in the Philippines: Preserving Diversity and Resources through Ecological Actions to
Achieve Effective Environmental Function

laws and codes that are being implemented. It is also highly encouraged to organized

and conduct their own projects, working with the best of what they have and can procure.

In conclusion, the Philippines, as it encounters severe problems concerning its

ecological and environmental systems, is still a country with a remarkable amount of

natural resources. The nation, with the help of other countries, are working hand-in-hand

in growing and maintaining a healthy environment for every living being residing the

country. Sustainable development, being the prime reason for these projects, is the vision

of every organization involved, and also should be the goal of each and every individual

citizen of the country. Through their own little ways and woke minds, significant changes

and improvements will be noticeable as long as everyone will practice it wholeheartedly

for the sake of the country’s center of livelihood, its natural resources.

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