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# 10/24/2009

## Two-Lane Highway Exam 2

Capacity and  Wednesday 10/28/2009
No class Monday 10/24/2009
LOS Analysis

##  Open-Book Open notes Exam

 6 Problems
 Traffic Stream Models
CE322 Transportation Engineering
 Queuing theory
Ahmed Abdel-Rahim, Ph.D., P.E.
 LOS (Freeway, Multi-Lane Highway, and

Two-Lane Highways)
 Class website (Class notes, HWs, Suggested
Problems)

## Two-lane Highway Characteristics LOS Considerations

 One travel lane in each direction, and  Unlike the procedures for freeways and
typically undivided multilane highways, both directions must be
 Used for lower traffic volume situations considered in the level of service analysis,
 Generally have free-flow speeds ranging even if only interested in one direction
between 45 and 65 mi/hr  Traffic in the opposing direction influences the
 Have wide-ranging design standards passing opportunities for vehicles in the direction
 May have occasional traffic signals or even of interest
stop-control  Terrain can have a more significant effect due
 In order to pass a vehicle, the opposing lane to restrictions on passing-sight distance
must be used (except for where passing lanes
are provided)

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## Service Measure(s) Classifications

 The service measure or measures is dictated
 Class I: two-lane highways on which motorists expect
by the functional classification of the two-lane to travel at high speeds (e.g., inter-city routes,
highway segment. primary arterials connecting major traffic generators,
daily commuter routes, and primary links in state or
There are two classes defined for two-lane national highway networks) and,
highways by the HCM.
 Class II: two-lane highways on which motorists do
not necessarily expect to travel at high speeds (e.g.,
scenic or recreational routes or pass through rugged
terrain). These routes also generally serve shorter
trip lengths than Class I routes.

## Level of Service LOS Determination Procedure

Table 6.21
 Class I LOS Criteria
1. Establish Base Conditions and
Capacity
Percent Time-Spent- Average Travel Speed (ATS)
LOS
Following (PTSF) mi/h km/h
A  35 > 55 > 90
B
C
 50
 65
> 50
> 45
> 80
> 70
2. Estimate or Measure Free-Flow Speed
D
E
 80
> 80
> 40
 40
> 60
 60 3. Calculate Analysis Flow Rate
 Class II LOS Criteria Table 6.22 4. Calculate Service Measure(s) and
LOS
Percent Time-Spent-Following
(PTSF)
Determine LOS
A  40
B  55
C  70
D  85
E > 85

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## Base Conditions Capacity

 Minimum lane widths of 12 ft  Capacity for both directions combined
 Minimum shoulder widths of 6 ft is 3200 pc/h
 0% no-passing zones
 Traffic stream consisting of passenger cars only  Capacity for a single direction is 1700
 No direct access points along the roadway pc/h
 No impediments to through traffic due to traffic
control or turning vehicles
 Level terrain, with grades no greater than 2%
 A 50/50 directional split of traffic

## Measuring Free-Flow Speed Estimating Free-Flow Speed

 Free-flow speed is the mean speed of all vehicles
measured under flow rates up to 200 pc/h (2-way).
 If speeds are measured under a flow rate > 200,
use following adjustment equation: FFS = BFFS – fLS – fA Eq. 6.10

Vf Where:
FFS  S FM  0.00776 Eq. 6.9 FFS = free-flow speed (mi/h),
f HV BFFS = estimated free-flow speed for base conditions,
fLS = adjustment for lane and shoulder width from Table 6.16 (mi/h), and
fA = adjustment for access-point frequency from Table 6.15 (mi/h).
Where:
FFS = estimated free-flow speed in mi/h,
SFM = mean speed of traffic measured in the field in mi/h,
Vf = observed flow rate, in veh/h, for the period when field data were obtained, and
fHV = heavy-vehicle adjustment factor as determined by Eq. 6.5.

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## Lane Width and

Shoulder Width Access Frequency

Table 6.15
Table 6.16

## Calculate Analysis Flow Rate Grade Adjustment

1. Adjust for PHF  The grade adjustment factor accounts for the
2. Adjust for grade effect of terrain on the traffic flow.
3. Adjust for vehicle mix
Table 6.17
V
vp  Eq. 6.11
PHF  f G  f HV Range of Average travel speed Percent time-spent-
Two-Way Flow (ATS) following (PTSF)
Where: Rates (pc/h) Terrain Type Terrain Type
Level Rolling Level Rolling
vp = 15-min passenger-car equivalent flow rate (pc/h),
0-600 1.00 0.71 1.00 0.77
V = hourly volume (veh/h),
> 600-1200 1.00 0.93 1.00 0.94
PHF = peak-hour factor, > 1200 1.00 0.99 1.00 1.00
fG = grade adjustment factor, and
fHV = heavy-vehicle adjustment factor.

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## PCEs for Extended General PCEs for Extended General

Terrain Segments Terrain Segments
 PCE values can be used for general Table 6.18
terrain segments, just as for freeways
and multilane highways.
Range of Average travel speed Percent time-spent-
 However, PCE values are different, and Vehicle Two-Way (ATS) following (PTSF)
Type Flow Rates Terrain Type Terrain Type
only given for level and rolling terrain (pc/h) Level Rolling Level Rolling

## classifications. Specific grade PCE Trucks and

Buses, ET
0-600
> 600-1200
1.7
1.2
2.5
1.9
1.1
1.1
1.8
1.5
values must be used for mountainous > 1200
0-600
1.1
1.0
1.5
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
terrain. RVs, ER > 600-1200 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0
> 1200 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0

## Notes Calculate Service Measure(s)

 PCE values for specific grades not covered in  If the highway is Class I, both ATS and
this book. Refer to the HCM.
PTSF must be calculated. If the
Tables 6.17 and 6.18 are in terms of pc/h.
highway is Class II, only PTSF needs to

However, until Eq. 6.11 is applied, flow rate is
in units of veh/h. This can result in the need be calculated.
to use an iterative approach to arrive at the
correct adjustment factors and final analysis
flow rate. See Example 6.6.
 fHV and PHF calculated with same equations
as for freeways and multilane highways.

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## Adjustment for effect of

Average Travel Speed no-passing zones

## ATS  FFS  0.00776 v p  f np Eq. 6.12

Where:
ATS = estimated average travel speed in mi/h, for both directions Table
of travel combined, 6.19
FFS = free-flow speed in mi/h, as measured in the field and
possibly adjusted by Eq. 6.9 or estimated from Eq. 6.10,
vp = analysis flow rate in pc/h, as calculated from Eq. 6.11, and
fnp = adjustment factor for the percentage of no-passing zones,
which is determined from Table 6.19.

## Combined Adjustment for effect of Directional

Percent Time-Spent-Following Distribution and no-passing zones

## PTSF  BPTSF  f d / np Eq. 6.13

Where:
PTSF = percent time-spent-following for both directions of travel combined,
BPTSF = base percent time-spent-following for both directions of travel
combined, and
fd/np = adjustment factor for the combined effect of the directional distribution of Table
traffic and the percentage of no-passing zones (from Table 6.20). 6.20

 Eq. 6.14

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## Determine LOS Practice Problems

 Use Table 6.21 for Class I  6.13
 Use Table 6.22 for Class II  6.21