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Você está na página 1de 131

Marijan Dravinski

September 2000

Applied Elasticity (ME 509)

by

M. Dravinski

1

Chapter 1

If we have two sets of right-handed Cartesian coordinate systems {xi } with the

basis {ei } and {x0i } with the basis {ei }, i = 1, ..., 3, with the same origin, the

coordinates of a point P can be expressed in both coordinate systems (Fig.1.1

). Then,

x = x1 e1 + x2 e2 + x3 e3 = xi ei (1.1)

x = x01 e01 + x02 e02 + x03 e03 = x0i e0i (1.2)

u·v = ui vi (1.4)

e1 e2 e3

u×v = u1 u2 u3 (1.5)

v1 v2 v3

= (u2 v3 − u3 v2 )e1 + (u3 v1 − u1 v3 )e2 + (u1 v2 − u2 v1 )e3 (1.6)

where

ei · ej = δ ij (1.7)

ei × ei = 0, i = 1, 2, 3 (1.8)

e2 × e3 = −e3 × e2 = e1 (1.9)

e3 × e1 = −e1 × e3 = e2 (1.10)

e1 × e2 = −e2 × e1 = e1 (1.11)

2

X3

X’3

X’2

X2

X1

X’1

or

x01 = 11 x1 + 12 x2 + 13 x3 (1.13)

with

12 = e01 · e2 = cos ]{x01 , x2 } (1.15)

13 = e01 · e3 = cos ]{x01 , x3 } (1.16)

x02 = 2k xk (1.17)

x03 = 3k xk (1.18)

where

ij = e0i · ej = cos ]{x0i , xj } (1.19)

Or in matrix notation

x0i = ij xj ; i, j = 1, 2, 3 (1.21)

tem {xi } to coordinate system {x0i } with matrix L denoting direction cosine

matrix or linear transformation matrix.

It is evident from Eq. 1.20 that

3

But since the basis {e0i } are orthonormal, i.e.,

i ej = δ ij (1.23)

it follows that

e0T

1 £ ¤

LT L = e0T

2

e01 e02 e03 =I (1.24)

e0T

3

follows from Eq. 1.20 that

x = LT x0 (1.25)

Throughout we shall employ the following index notation conventions:

• Range convention: Every index takes on values 1,2, and 3 unless stated

diﬀerently,

• Summation convention: Repeated (dummy) indices are summed up over

their range, and

• Free index convention: Indices that are not dummy one are called free

indices.

This symbol is defined as following

1 for even permutations of i,j,k

ijk = 0 otherwise (1.26)

−1 for odd permutations of i,j,k

ei × ej = ijk ek (1.27)

(ei × ej ) · ek = ijk (1.28)

u×v = ijk uj vk ei (1.29)

(u × v)i = ijk uj vk (1.30)

Namely,

= ( 123 u2 v3 + 132 )e1 (1.32)

+( 231 u3 v1 + 213 )e2 (1.33)

+( 312 u1 v2 + 321 )e3 (1.34)

= (u2 v3 − u3 v2 )e1 + (u3 v1 − u1 v3 )e2 + (u1 v2 − u2 v1 )e3 (1.35)

4

Example 1 Show that ijk ijk = 6.

Solution 1

ij1 ij1

= i21 i21 + i31 i31

+ i12 i12 + i32 i32

+ i13 i13 + i23 i23

= 321 321 + 231 231

+ 312 312 + 132 132

+ 213 213 + i23 i23 = 6

∂uk

(curlu)i = (∇ × u)i = ijk uk,j = ijk (1.36)

∂xj

or that

∇×u= ijk uk,j ei (1.37)

Let a physical quantity T be defined in a three dimensional Euclidean space,

such that for a given choice of the basis {ei } it is possible to specify T in terms

of an ordered set of 3n numbers denoted by tijk... containing a total of n indices.

Definition 1 If the components of T in the new vector basis {e0i } become t0ijk... ,

where

then T is called a Cartesian tensor of order n.

αT of the same order

Therefore, n=0,1, 2 corresponds to a scalar, vector, and a matrix, respec-

tively.

5

Tensor Properties

1. Two tensors of the same ordered can be added: A + B = tensor of the

same order as A.

2. Operation of addition of tensors is commutative and associative, i.e.,

A + B = B + A; (A + B) + C = A + (B + C).

3. Two tensors are equal if their diﬀerence is the null tensor, i.e., A − B = 0

or aijk... − bijk... = 0.

Tensor Products

Let u and v be two vectors (tensors of order 1) and S and T be two tensors of

order 2. Then we have

s0ij = ik jm skm ; t0ij = ik jm tkm (1.41)

aij = ui vj (1.42)

It follows that

a0ij = u0i vj0 = ik jm uk vm = ik jm akm (1.43)

which implies that A is a tensor of order 2.

Similarly, the numbers defined by

which states that B is a tensor of order 3 with 27 components (33 ). Also, the

set of 34 = 81 numbers defined by

Definition 2 The products in Eqns. 1.42, 1.45 and 1.46 are called outer prod-

ucts of the tensors.

two tensors generates a tensor whose order is the sum of the orders of the

corresponding tensors.

ence of one or more of dummy indices.

6

The following are examples of inner products:

α = ui vi (1.47)

pi = tij uj (1.48)

qik = sij tkj (1.49)

It is easy to show that α, p, and q are tensors of order zero, one , and two,

respectively.

Note: The order of the resulting tensor is always less in the inner products

than in the corresponding outer products.

Apparently

α = aii (1.50)

pi = bijj (1.51)

qik = cijkj (1.52)

where the quantities on the RHS of the last three equations are obtained by

putting two indices equal and then summing over this index. This operation is

called contraction. So, a scalar α is obtained by contracting the second order

tensor A, the vector p is obtained by contracting the third order tensor B, etc.

In general, the contraction of a tensor of order n (>2) results in a tensor of

order n-2.

Symmetry of Tensors

Definition 4 Tensor W with components wij is symmetric if

and it is antisymmetric if

wij = −wji (1.54)

This definition can be extended to tensors of higher order, the symmetry

and antisymmetry being defined with respect to a particular pair of indices

indices jk if

wijkl... = wjikl... (1.55)

dent of coordinate system in which it is represented. For example, for a sym-

metric tensor W of order 2 we have

0 0

wij = ir js wrs = ir js wsr = is jr wrs = jr is wrs = wji (1.56)

it is also symmetric in the coordinate system {x0i }; i = 1, 2, 3.

7

The Quotient Rule

Theorem 1 Let W be an entity in {xi }; i = 1, 2, 3 coordinate system repre-

sented by an ordered nine quantities wij . Suppose for all vectors v the scalars

ui = wij vj (1.57)

u0i = wij

0 0 0

vj = wij js vs = ir ur = ir wrs vs (1.58)

0

(wij js − ir wrs )vs =0 (1.59)

0

wij js − ir wrs =0 (1.60)

By multiplying the last equation by ts we obtain

0

wij ts js = ir ts wrs (1.61)

0

wit = ir ts wrs (1.62)

The proof extends to tensors of higher order. In general we have

Theorem 2 Let the components of a tensor of order m be uijk... and the com-

ponents of a tensor of order n be vrst... . Then if relationship

holds for all uijk... and vrst... , then wijk... re components of a tensor of order

m+n.

Example 3 The set of scalars uijkm is such that for all second order tensors

with components ekm , the scalars σ ij = uijkm ekm are the components of a second

order tensor σ. Then, uijkm are the components of a fourth order tensor.

Solution 3

implies that

(u0ijkm kr ms − il jn uln rs )ers =0 (1.65)

for all ers . Therefore,

u0ijkm kr ms = il jn uln rs (1.66)

8

By multiplying the last result with tr os it follows that

Definition 6 A Cartesian tensor is said to be isotropic if its components are

identical regardless of how the axes of the coordinate system are rotated.

2. Any isotropic tensor of order 2 can be written as αI.

3. The alternating symbol ijk is a component of a 3rd order isotropic tensor

and any 3rd order isotropic tensor can be written as α².

4. If C is an isotropic tensor of order 4, then

cpqrs = αδ pq δ rs + βδ pr δ qs + γδ ps δ qr (1.69)

The first property is self evident. The second property follows from

δ 0ij = ir js δ rs = δ ij (1.70)

0

ijk = ir js kt rst

= i1 j2 k3 + i2 j3 k1 + i3 j1 k2

− i1 j3 k2 − i2 j1 k3 − i3 j2 k1

i1 j1 k1

= det i2 j2 k2 = ijk

i3 j3 k3

Definition 7 If the components wijk... of the tensor W are functions of the

coordinates {xi }, i = 1, 2, 3 of the points in given region, then W is called a

tensor filed or tensor function of position.

9

The main feature of a tensor field is ease of multiple partial derivatives of

the components wijk... . Usually, they are denoted by

∂wijk...

= wijk...,p (1.71)

∂xp

∂ 2 wijk...

= wijk...,pq (1.72)

∂xp ∂xq

ϕ,i (1.73)

represents components of a gradient of a scalar field.

Definition 8 In an open region R, let the components wijk... of tensor W of

order n be continuously diﬀerentiable functions of {xi }, i = 1, 2, 3. Then,

wijk...,p (1.74)

are the components of a tensor field of order n+1 called the tensor gradient of

W.

0

wrst... = ri sj ... ri sj ...wij... (1.75)

it follows that 0

∂wrst... ∂wij... ∂xp

= ri sj ... (1.76)

∂x0q ∂xp ∂x0q

Since

0

xp = qp xq (1.77)

we obtain that 0

∂wrst... ∂wij...

= ri sj ... qp (1.78)

∂x0q ∂xp

Special Cases

• For ϕ a scalar field ϕ,i denotes the components of a 1st order tensor.

Thus gradϕ = ∇ϕ = ϕ,i ei . Similarly ϕ,ij are components of a second

order tensor, and ϕ,ii = ∇2 ϕ.

• For a vector filed f , fi,j denotes components of a 2nd order tensor and

fi,i = ∇ · f =divf . Similarly, (Curlf )i = ijk fk,j or ∇ × f = ijk fk,j ei .

Using tensor notation we can verify many vector identities. For example:

10

1. div(u × v) = v·Curlu − u·Curlv

2. Curl(Ωu) =ΩCurlu − u×gradΩ

3. CurlCurlu =grad(divu)−∇2 u

w = u × v = ²ijk ui vj ek (1.79)

Then

divw = (1.80)

= vj jki ui,k − ui ikj vj,k (1.81)

= vj (Curlu)j − ui (Curlv)i ¤ (1.82)

Then

= kij kmn (un,mj )ei (1.85)

it follows that

2

= (uj,ij vj − ui,jj )ei = ∇(∇ · u) − ∇ u¤ (1.88)

Theorem 3 Let V denote a volume of a region space bounded by a piecewise

smooth surface S and its interior and let ui (x) be the components of a vector

filed in a fixed vector basis {ei } that span the space. Assume that the first partial

derivatives ui,j exist and are continuous in V . Then,

Z Z Z Z

divudV = u · ndS ⇐⇒ ui,i dV = ui ni dS (1.89)

V S V S

Proof. See Kellog, O. D. (1953). Foundations of Potential Theory, Dover,

New York, pp. 37-39.

11

1.2.1 Generalization to Tensors of Any Order

Theorem 4 Let us consider a tensor filed Ajkl... . Let the region V with bound-

ary surface S be within the region of definition of Ajkl... . Assume that every

component of Ajkl... is continuously diﬀerentiable. Then,

Z Z

∂

Ajkl... dV = ni Ajkl... dS (1.90)

V ∂xi S

Z Z

∂A

dV = Ani dS

V ∂xi S

Z Z

∂

Ajkl... dV = ni Ajkl... dS

V ∂xi S

Z Z Z Z

ϕ,i dV = ϕni dS ⇐⇒ ∇ϕdV = ϕndS (1.91)

V S V S

Exercise 2

Z Z Z Z

ui,i = ui ni dS ⇐⇒ ∇·u= u · ndS (1.92)

V S V S

Exercise 3

Z Z Z Z

ijk uk,j dV = ijk uk nj dS ⇐⇒ ∇×u= n × udS (1.93)

V S V S

1.3 Dyadics

Consider a vector v expressed in terms of the basis {ei } or in terms of the basis

{e0i }

v =vi ei = vi0 e0i (1.94)

This direct representation can be extended to the higher order tensors.

1, 2, 3. We form the following expression

a = aij ei ej (1.95)

where the base vectors are juxtaposed in a specific order and the summation

convention applies. Then the last equation defines a dyadic.

12

Since

e0i = ij ej & ei = 0

ji ej (1.96)

Eq. 1.95 implies that

0 0 0 0

a = aij ki ek mj em = (aij ki mj )ek em (1.97)

These expressions are similar to those for v in Eq. 1.94, except that the base

vectors ei and e0i have been replaced by the juxtaposed pairs ei ej and e0i e0j .

Consequently Eq. 1.98 can be interpreted as a direct representation of the

second-order tensor A.

Algebraic operations can be carried out directly with a provided certain rules

of operations on the pair ei ej are followed.

Note that

(em · a) · ek = amk (1.100)

Therefore, the ordering of ei ej in Eq. 1.98 is critical in carrying out

algebraic operations on a and in general it cannot be changed arbitrarily.

• All the notions associated with the second-order tensor A (symmetry,

transpose, orthogonality, eigenvalues, and principal axes) may be used for

dyadics.

• Special dyadics

ui vj ei ej ≡ dyad (1.101)

— The dyadic corresponding to the unit tensor I is

i = δ ij ei ej = e1 e1 + e2 e2 + e3 e3 (1.102)

(a × u) · v = a · (u × v) (1.104)

v·(a × u) = (v·a) × u (1.105)

(u×a) × v = u × (a × v) (1.106)

13

x3

(r,φ,z)

z

O x2

r

φ

x1

following

i · u = δ ij ei ej · uk ek = δ ij ei δ jk uk = ui ei = u¤ (1.108)

Let’s consider cylindrical coordinate system {r, ϕ, z} with unit bases {er , eϕ , ez }

(Fig. 1.2)

The corresponding Cartesian components are given by

∂ ∂ ∂

∇f (r, ϕ, z) = (er + eϕ + ez )f (1.111)

∂r r∂ϕ ∂z

Recall that unit tangent vector along a space curve is given by

∂x

t= (1.112)

∂s

14

where s denotes a parameter along the curve. The position vector x can be

written as

x =x1 e1 + x2 e2 + x3 e3 = r cos ϕe1 + r sin ϕe2 + ze3 (1.113)

then from Eqns. 1.112 and 1.113 it follows that

∂x

er = = cos ϕe1 + sin ϕe2

∂r

∂x

eϕ = = − sin ϕe1 + cos ϕe2 (1.114)

r∂ϕ

∂x

ez = = e3

∂z

Since ei , i = 1, 2, 3 are constant vectors we obtain the following

∂er ∂er ∂er

= 0; = eϕ ; =0

∂r ∂ϕ ∂z

∂eϕ ∂eϕ ∂eϕ

= 0; = −er ; =0 (cy8)

∂r ∂ϕ ∂z

∂ez ∂ez ∂ez

= 0; = eϕ ; =0

∂r ∂ϕ ∂z

Let u be a vector with components (ur , uϕ , uz ) along (er , eϕ , ez ), i.e.

u =ur er + uϕ eϕ + uz ez (1.115)

Then

∂ ∂ ∂

∇u = (er + eϕ + ez )(ur er + uϕ eϕ + uz ez )

∂r r∂ϕ ∂z

∂ur ∂uϕ ∂uz

= er ( er + eϕ + ez )

∂r ∂r ∂r

1 ∂ur ∂uϕ ∂uz

+ eϕ ( er + ur eϕ + eϕ − uϕ er + ez )

r ∂ϕ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ

∂ur ∂uϕ ∂uz

+ez ( er + eϕ + ez ) (1.116)

∂z ∂z ∂z

from which it follows that

∂ur 1 ∂uϕ ∂uz

∇u = er er + (ur + )eϕ eϕ + ez ez

∂r r ∂ϕ ∂z

1 ∂uz ∂uϕ ∂ur ∂uz

+ eϕ ez + ez eϕ + ez er + er ez (1.117)

r ∂ϕ ∂z ∂z ∂r

∂uϕ 1 ∂ur

+ er eϕ + ( − uϕ )eϕ er

∂r r ∂ϕ

Consequently, we have that

∂ur 1 ∂uϕ ∂uz

∇·u= + (ur + )+ (cy10)

∂r r ∂ϕ ∂z

15

x3

(R,φ,θ)

R

θ

O x2

x1

each pair of unit vectors in Eq. 1.117.

Similarly, by noting that eϕ × ez = er , etc. ... it follows that

∂ ∂ ∂

∇ × u =(er + eϕ + ez ) × (ur er + uϕ eϕ + uz ez ) (1.118)

∂r r∂ϕ ∂z

or that

1 ∂uz ∂uϕ ∂ur ∂uz ∂uϕ uϕ 1 ∂ur

∇ × u = er ( − ) + eϕ ( − ) + ez ( + − ) (1.119)

r ∂ϕ ∂z ∂z ∂r ∂r r r ∂ϕ

Solution 4 From

∇2 f = ∇ · ∇f (1.120)

and

u =∇f (1.121)

using Eq. 1.111 we obtain

∂2f 1 ∂f 1 ∂2f ∂2f

∇2 f = + + + (1.122)

∂r2 r ∂r r2 ∂ϕ2 ∂z 2

Let’s consider spherical coordinate system {R, θ, ϕ, } with unit bases {eR , eθ , eϕ }

(Fig. 1.3)

Then corresponding Cartesian coordinates are given by

16

Then the element of an arc of a curve is defined by

ds2 = dR2 + (Rdθ)2 + (R sin θdϕ)2 (1.124)

and

∂ ∂ 1 ∂

∇f (R, θ, ϕ) = (eR + eθ + eϕ )f (1.125)

∂R r∂θ R sin θ ∂ϕ

Therefore we have that

x = sin θ cos ϕe1 + R sin θ sin ϕe2 + R cos θe3 (1.126)

and that

∂x

eR = = sin θ cos ϕe1 + sin θ sin ϕe2 + cos θe3

∂R

1 ∂x

eθ = = cos θ cos ϕe1 + cos θ sin ϕe2 − sin θe3 (1.127)

R ∂θ

1 ∂x

eϕ = = − sin ϕe1 + cos ϕe2

R sin θ ∂ϕ

Therefore,

∂eR ∂eR ∂eR

= 0; = eθ ; = − sin θeϕ

∂R ∂θ ∂ϕ

∂eθ ∂eθ ∂eθ

= 0; = −eR ; = cosθeϕ (1.128)

∂R ∂θ ∂ϕ

∂eϕ ∂eϕ ∂eϕ

= 0; = 0; = − sin θeR − cos θeθ

∂R ∂θ ∂ϕ

Based on these results we have that

∂ ∂ 1 ∂

∇u =(eR + eθ + eϕ )(uR eR + uθ eθ + uϕ eϕ ) (1.129)

∂R r∂θ R sin θ ∂ϕ

which leads to

∂uR ∂uθ ∂uϕ

∇u = eR ( eR + eθ + eϕ )

∂R ∂R ∂R

eθ ∂uR ∂uθ ∂uϕ

( eR + uR eθ + eθ − uθ eR + eϕ )

R ∂θ ∂θ ∂θ

eϕ ∂uR ∂uθ

+ ( eR + uR sin θeϕ + eθ + uθ cos θeϕ

R sin θ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ

∂uϕ

+ eϕ − sin θuϕ eR − cos θuϕ eθ )

∂ϕ

which after some algebra becomes

∂uR 1 ∂uθ 1 ∂uϕ

∇u = eR eR + (uR + )eθ eθ + (sin θuR + cos θuθ + )eϕ eϕ

∂R R ∂θ R sin θ ∂ϕ

1 ∂uϕ 1 ∂uθ 1 ∂uR

+ eθ eϕ + ( − cos θuϕ )eϕ eθ + ( − sin θuϕ )eϕ eR

R ∂θ R sin θ ∂ϕ R sin θ ∂ϕ

∂uϕ ∂uθ 1 ∂uR

+ eR eϕ + eR eθ + ( − uθ )eθ eR (1.130)

∂R ∂R R ∂θ

17

From the last result we obtain that

∂uR 2 1 ∂uθ 1 ∂uϕ

∇·u= + uR + ( + cot θuθ ) + (1.131)

∂R R R ∂θ R sin θ ∂ϕ

Similarly, it follows that

1 ∂uϕ 1 ∂uθ

∇ × u = eR ( + cot θuϕ − )

R ∂θ sin θ ∂ϕ

1 ∂uR ∂uϕ uϕ

+eθ ( − − )

R sin θ ∂ϕ ∂R R

∂uθ uθ 1 ∂uR

+eϕ ( + − ) (1.132)

∂R R R ∂θ

or

e Reθ R sin θeϕ

1 ∂R ∂ ∂

∇×u= ∂R ∂θ ∂ϕ (1.133)

R sin θ

uR Ruθ R sin θuϕ

Solution 5 Using the fact that ∇2 f = ∇ · ∇f and Eqns. 1.125 and 1.131 it

follows that

∂2f 2 ∂f 1 ∂2f ∂f 1 ∂2f

∇2 f = + + ( + cot θ + (1.134)

∂R2 R ∂R R2 ∂θ2 ∂θ sin2 θ ∂ϕ2

sors of Order Two

Definition 10 Let A be a real symmetric tensor of order 2 with components

aij in the vector basis {ei }. Let v be a vector with components vi in {ei }. Then

the eigenvalue problem for A is defined by

det(A−λI) =0 (1.137)

or

a11 − λ a12 a13

det a21 a22 − λ a23 = 0 (1.138)

a31 a23 a33 − λ

18

Equation 1.138, called the characteristic equation, is cubic in λ and it may be

written as

D(λ) = λ3 − IA λ2 + IIA λ − IIIA = 0 (1.139)

where the invariants IA , IIA , and IIIA are defined by

IA = aii

1

IIA = (aii ajj − aij aji ) (1.140)

2

IIIA = det A = ijk a1i a2j a3k

· ¸ · ¸ · ¸

a11 a12 a11 a13 a22 a23

IIIA = det + det + det (1.141)

a21 a22 a31 a33 a32 a33

The roots of the characteristic equation are called the eigenvalues of A and

the corresponding nontrivial solutions v of Av =λv are called the eigenvec-

tors of A. There are three eigenvalues λk , k = 1, 2, 3 of A and corresponding

eigenvectors are denoted by v(k) , i.e.,

Consequently, the length of the eigenvectors is arbitrary. We shall normalize

them to unit vectors.

of A are real.

Proof. From

aij vj = λvi (1.144)

aij vj vi = λvi vi (1.146)

(λ − λ)vi vi = 0 (1.147)

corresponding to two distinct eigenvalues of A are orthogonal.

19

Proof. Suppose that the two distinct eigenvalues are denoted by λ1 and λ2 .

Then from

(1) (1)

aij vj = λ1 vi (1.148)

(2) (2)

aij vj = λ2 vi (1.149)

it follows that

(1) (2) (1) (2)

λ1 vi vi = aij vi vj (1.150)

(2) (1) (1) (2)

λ2 vi vi = aij vi vj (1.151)

and thus

(1) (2)

(λ1 − λ2 )vi vi =0 (1.152)

(1) (2)

Since λ1 6= λ2 it follows that vi vi = 0.

20

Chapter 2

Strain Tensor

P (a1 , a2 , a3 ). At a later instant of time the body is deformed and the point P

moved to Q(x1 , x2 , x3 ). We are assuming the change of body to be continuous

and the transformation of P to Q to be one-to-one and that it can be specified

as

xi = xi (a1 , a2 , a3 ); i = 1, 2, 3 (2.1)

i.e., coordinates of a point in deformed state can be expressed in terms of coor-

dinate of the point in undeformed state. We also assume that this has a unique

inverse

ai = ai (x1 , x2 , x3 ); i = 1, 2, 3 (2.2)

or that coordinates of a point in undeformed state can be expressed in terms of

coordinates of the same point in deformed configuration.

We are interested in describing the strain of the body fibers, i.e., with stretch-

ing and distortion of the body. If. P P 0 P 00 are three closely spaced points forming

a triangle in the original configuration, and if they change to QQ0 Q00 in deformed

configuration, the change of the area and the angles of the triangle is completely

defined if we know the change in the length of the sides.

Consider now an infinitesimal element connecting P (a1 , a2 , a3 ) with P 0 (a1 +

da1 , a2 + da2 , a3 + da3 ). The square of length ds0 of P P 0 is given in the original

configuration by

ds20 = dai dai (2.3)

Since P moves to Q(x1 , x2 , x3 ) and P 0 to Q0 (x1 + dx1 , x2 + dx2 , x3 + dx3 ) it

follows then that the square of length ds of QQ0 in deformed configuration is

given by

ds2 = dxi dxi (2.4)

Using Eq.2.1 we obtain that

∂xi ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi

ds2 = daj dak = daj dak (2.5)

∂aj ∂ak ∂aj ∂ak

21

Q’’ Q’

P’ u Q(x1,x2,x3)

P(a1,a2,a3)

X3 P’’

O X2

X1

and consequently

∂xi ∂xi ∂xα ∂xβ

ds2 − ds20 = ( − δ jk )daj dak = (δ αβ − δ jk )daj dak (2.6)

∂aj ∂ak ∂aj ∂ak

∂aα ∂aα

ds20 = dxi dxj (2.7)

∂xi ∂xj

we obtain

∂aα ∂aβ

ds2 − ds20 = (δ ij − δ αβ )dxi dxj (2.8)

∂xi ∂xj

Thus we define Green strain tensor

1 ∂xα ∂xβ

Eij = (δ αβ − δ jk ) (2.9)

2 ∂aj ∂ak

1 ∂aα ∂aβ

eij = (δ ij − δ αβ ) (2.10)

2 ∂xi ∂xj

Using quotient rule it follows that Eij and eij are components of second-

order tensors.

22

Remark 1 It should be noted that Green tensor is defined in terms of unde-

formed coordinates ai while Almansi strain tensor is defined in terms of de-

formed coordinates xi .

ui = xi − ai (2.13)

we can obtain diﬀerent forms of the Green and Alamansi strain tensors which

are more commonly used

1 ∂uα ∂uβ

Eij = [δ αβ ( + δ αi )( + δ βj ) − δ ij ]

2 ∂ai ∂aj

1 ∂uα ∂uβ ∂uα ∂uβ

= [δ αβ ( + δ βj + δ αi + δ αi δ βj ) − δ ij ]

2 ∂ai ∂aj ∂ai ∂aj

1 ∂ui ∂uj ∂uα ∂uα

= ( + + ) (2.14)

2 ∂aj ∂ai ∂ai ∂aj

Similarly,

1 ∂ui ∂uj ∂uα ∂uα

eij = ( + − ) (2.15)

2 ∂xj ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi

In unabridged notation (x, y, z) for (x1 , x2 , x3 ), (a, b, c) for (a1 , a2 , a3 ), and

(u, v, w) for (u1 , u2 , u3 ) we have that components of the Green strain tensor

(Lagrangian strain tensor) is given by

∂u 1 ∂u 2 ∂v ∂w 2

Eaa = + [( ) + ( )2 + ( ) ]

∂a 2 ∂a ∂a ∂a

1 ∂u ∂v ∂2u ∂2v ∂2w

Eab = [ + +( + + )]

2 ∂b ∂a ∂a∂b ∂a∂b ∂a∂b

..

. (2.16)

while the components of the Almansi strain tensor ( Eulerian strain tensor) are

given by

∂u 1 ∂u 2 ∂v ∂w 2

exx = − [( ) + ( )2 + ( ) ]

∂x 2 ∂x ∂x ∂x

1 ∂u ∂v ∂2u ∂2v ∂2w

exy = [ + −( + + )]

2 ∂y ∂x ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x∂y

..

. (2.17)

in the body in undeformed configuration when the Lagrangian strain tensor is

evaluated whereas they are considered as functions of x, y, z (the positions points

in deformed configuration) when Eulerian strain tensor is evaluated.

23

If the components of displacement field ui are such that their first derivatives

are so small that the squares and the product of their partial derivatives of ui

are negligible, then eij reduces to Cauchy’s infinitesimal strain tensor

1 ∂ui ∂uj 1

eij = ( + ) = (ui,j + uj,i) (2.18)

2 ∂xj ∂xi 2

∂u ∂v ∂w

exx = ; eyy =

; ezz =

∂x ∂y ∂z

1 ∂u ∂v 1 ∂u ∂w

exy = eyx = ( + ); exz = ezx = ( + )

2 ∂y ∂x 2 ∂z ∂x

1 ∂v ∂w

eyz = ezy = ( + ) (2.19)

2 ∂z ∂y

Remark 3 In the infinitesimal displacement theory, the distinction between the

Lagrangian and Eulerian strain tensor disappears. Namely

1 ∂ui ∂uj 1 ∂ui ∂ak ∂uj ∂ak

eij = ( + )= ( + )

2 ∂xj ∂xi 2 ∂ak ∂xj ∂ak ∂xi

1 ∂ui ∂xk ∂uk ∂uj ∂xk ∂uk

= [ ( − )+ ( − )]

2 ∂ak ∂xj ∂xj ∂ak ∂xi ∂xj

1 ∂ui ∂uk ∂uj ∂uk

= [ (δ kj − )+ (δ ki − )]

2 ∂ak ∂xj ∂ak ∂xj

1 ∂ui ∂uj

= [ + ] = Eij

2 ∂aj ∂ai

Components

2.1.1 Component exx

For that purpose we examine an elastic element of length dx and dy along the

x- and y-axis, respectively. We assume that ∂u∂x > 0. Then, if the element is

extended in the x-direction uniformly along the y-axes we have

ds0 = dx

∂u ∂u

ds = dx + u + dx − u = (1 + )dx

∂x ∂x

which implies that

24

y

u u+uxdx

x

P dx P’

or

ds − ds0 2exx 2

= ds0 = exx

ds0 ds + ds0 2 + ∂u

∂x

Using the assumption of small strain yields then

ds − ds0

exx =

ds0

or that the component exx measures the change of length per unit length of a

fiber parallel to the x-axis. Consequently, the component exx describes extension

(compression) of a material fiber. Similar conclusions follow for the components

eyy and ezz .

To see the geometrical interpretation of this component of the starin tensor,

let us consider again the small rectangle of the material which undergoes the

following deformations

Apparently, before deformation the angle ](OP , OP 0 ) = π/2. After defor-

mation we have that

∂u

tan α =

∂y

∂v

tan β =

∂x

Suppose that tan α > 0 for α increasing in clockwise (CW) direction, while

tan β > 0 for β increasing in CCW direction. For small strains we may take

that tan α ≈ α and tan β ≈ β. Therefore,

1 ∂u ∂v 1

exy = ( + ) = (α + β)

2 ∂y ∂x 2

25

y Q’’

α Q’(u+uydy,v+vydy)

P’ P’’

Q(u+uxdx,

dy β

v+vxdx)

O’(u,v)

x

O dx P

which implies that the strain component exy is equal to one half of the amount

(in radians) the right angle between two fibers is diminished due to deformation.

In engineering, the strain components eij ; i 6= j are called the shearing

strains.

Consider a case ∂v/∂x = ∂u/∂x = 0, i.e. u and v remain unchanged in the

x-direction. Also, we assume that ∂u/∂y > 0. Then the deformed element looks

like

and we have that

1 ∂u

exy =

2 ∂y

Consider a small element dxdy with ∂u/∂y > 0 and ∂v/∂x > 0. Then,

we have that

∂v

tan α ≈ α = >0

∂x

∂u

tan β ≈ β= >0

∂y

where α denotes an angle for which OP rotates about the z-axis and β represents

an angle for which OP 0 rotates about the z-axes. Consequently,

1 ∂v ∂u

ωz = ( − ) ≡ measure of rotation

2 ∂x ∂y

26

y

P’’ Q’’ P’ Q’

dy

x

O dx P

u

Q’(uydy, P’

vydy) dy

β

Q(uxdx,vxdx)

α

x

O P

dx

27

Remark 4 If there is no shear strain then exy = 0 and thus

∂u ∂v

=−

∂y ∂x

π/2).

1

ω = ∇×u (2.20)

2

Definition 11 For infinitesimal displacement field ui (x1 , x2 , x3 ) the antisym-

metric second order tensor Ω, defined by

1

Ωij = (uj,i − ui,j ) (2.21)

2

is called the rotation tensor.

1 1 1

ijk Ωjk = ijk uk,j = (∇ × u)i = ω i (2.22)

2 2 2

or that the rotation tensor is related to the rotation vector. In addition we have

1 1

lmi ω i = ijk lmi Ωjk = [δ jl δ km − δ jm δ kl ]Ωjk = Ωlm

2 2

Therefore,

Ωij = ijk ω k (2.23)

tation Tensor

Theorem 7 Vanishing of the symmetric strain tensor is necessary and suﬃ-

cient condition for a neighborhood of a particle to move like a rigid body.

as a rigid body , then ds = ds0 .Thus

Suﬃcient condition. When eij = 0, then 2eij dxi dxj = 0 and thus ds = ds0 .

28

Theorem 8 When the strain tensor vanishes at point P, the infinitesimal rota-

tion of the RB motion of a neighborhood of P is given in terms of the rotation

vector ω.

P (xi + dxi ). Then, the relative displacement of P 0 with respect to P is given

0

by

∂ui

dui = dxj

∂xj

1 1

= (ui,j + uj,i )dxj + (ui,j − uj,i )dxj

2 2

= eij dxj − Ωij dxj = − ijk ω k dxj

or that

du = ω×dx

The last results indicates that the relative displacement of P 0 with respect to P

is equivalent to an infinitesimal rotation ω about an axis through P in direction

of ω.

The question arises of how to determine the displacements ui , i = 1, 2, 3 when

the components of strain tensor eij are known or how to integrate the diﬀerential

equations

1

eij = (ui,j + uj,i ) (2.24)

2

Apparently, there are three unknowns and six equations. Consequently,

Eqns.2.24 will not have a single solution in general if the functions eij are spec-

ified arbitrarily. Therefore, one may suspect that a solution may exist only if

the functions eij satisfy certain conditions.

Since strain components only involve relative positions of points in the body,

and since RB-motion correspond to zero strain we expect to have the solution

ui to within a RB-motion.

If the stearins are prescribed arbitrarily we may encounter the following

situations

For a single valued continuous solution to exist, the points C and D must

meet perfectly in the strained configuration. In order to achieve that the strain

components must satisfy certain conditions. They are to be satisfied by the

strain components eij and can be obtained by elimination of ui from Eq. 2.24.

29

D C

A B

D C

A B

Figure 2.7: Fibers in a body which may result from arbitrarily prescribed strains.

30

Therefore,

1

eij,kl = (ui,jkl + uj,ikl )

2

1

ekl,ij = (uk,lij + ul,kij )

2

1

eik,jl = (ui,kjl + uk,ijl )

2

1

ejl,ik = (uj,lik + ul,jik )

2

and subsequently

These equations known as the compatibility equations were first derived by St.

Venant (1860).

In general, Eq. 2.25 represents 34 = 81 equations. However, due to symme-

try of the strain tensor there are only six independent equations. In unabridged

notation they are listed as

∂ 2 exx ∂ ∂eyz ∂ezx ∂exy

= (− + + )

∂y∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ 2 eyy ∂ ∂ezx ∂exy ∂eyz

= (− + + )

∂x∂z ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂x

∂ 2 ezz ∂ ∂exy ∂eyz ∂ezx

= (− + + )

∂x∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂y

∂ 2 exy ∂ 2 exx ∂ 2 eyy

2 = + (2.26)

∂x∂y ∂y 2 ∂x2

∂ 2 eyz 2

∂ eyy ∂ 2 ezz

2 = +

∂y∂z ∂z 2 ∂y 2

∂ 2 exzx 2

∂ ezz ∂ 2 exx

2 = +

∂z∂x ∂x2 ∂z 2

In two-dimensional case we have that u = u(x, y); v = v(x, y); w ≡ 0. There-

fore, ezx = ezy = ezz = 0 and ∂()/∂z ≡ 0. In that case the compatibility

equations reduce to a single equation

∂ 2 exy ∂ 2 exx ∂ 2 eyy

2 = + (2.27)

∂x∂y ∂y 2 ∂x2

Example 6 2D Case. Suppose that the strain filed is specified by exx = 3x +

sin y, eyy = x3 , exy = 12 (x cos y + ax2 y). Determine a suitable value for ”a” and

then calculate displacement filed u and v.

31

and consequently a = 3. Now

∂u

exx = = 3x + sin y

∂x

which implies that

3 2

u= x + x sin y + C1 (y)

2

Similarly, from

∂v

eyy = = x3

∂y

we get

v = x3 y + C2 (x)

Consequently, from

1 ∂u ∂v 1

exy = ( + ) = (x cos y + 3x2 y)

2 ∂y ∂x 2

we have that

1 1

(x cos y + 3x2 y + C10 (y) + C20 (x)) = (x cos y + 3x2 y (2.28)

2 2

from which it follows that

C10 (y) = −C20 (x)

for all x and y. Therefore,

and

C1 = −Ay + C

C2 Ax + B

3 2

u(x, y) = x + x sin y − Ay + C

2

v(x, y) = x3 y + Ax + B

32

Chapter 3

Stress Tensor

1, ..., n (see Fig. 3.1)

Suppose we cut the body into two parts B1 and B2 by a plane so that

B = B1 ∪ B2 . In order for separate parts to be in equilibrium has to apply to

parts B1 and B2 the forces F and −F, respectively which are the resultant

of internal forces acting on the plane of the section S. Consider now an

element of area ∆S with corresponding internal force resultant ∆F. Then, the

stress vector or traction is defined by

∆F

Tn ≡ lim (3.1)

∆S→0 ∆S

Since Tn will depend upon the orientation of the surface ∆S (specified by the

unit normal vector n), superscript n is introduced with the traction vector.

Choice of surface S is arbitrary. It is of interest, however, to consider some

special cases in which the surface ∆S = ∆Sk is parallel to one of the co-

ordinate planes. Let the normal to ∆Sk be in the positive direction of the

xk -axis, and let the stress vector acting on ∆Sk be denoted by Tk with compo-

nents T1k , T2k , and T3k along the axes x1 , x2 , and x3 ,respectively. For this special

case the following convention is used

Therefore, for the surface perpendicular to x1 -axis we have stress vector com-

ponents σ 1j , for the surface perpendicular to x2 -axis we have stress vector com-

ponents σ 2j , and for the surface perpendicular to x3 -axis we have stress vector

components σ 3j , j = 1, 2, 3. Graphically, the components of a stress vector can

be depicted as in Fig. 3.3

Thus, σ ii , i = 1, 2, 3 (no summation) are defined as normal stresses, while

σ ij , i 6= j are known as shear stresses.

from the material. Positive shear stress σ ij , i 6= j means the stress vector is in

33

P1

P1 F

1 2

1

S n

x3 Pn

x2

O

x1

the positive direction of xj −axis when the positive direction of the xi −axis point

out of the body.

Let us consider an infinitesimal cube of size dx1 dx2 dx3 subjected to stresses σ ij

and a body force b (see Fig. 3.4) P

Since the box is in equilibrium, then Mx1 = 0, where x1 is an axis parallel

with x1 and going through the centroid of the cube. Thus

dx2 ∂σ 23 dx2

σ23 dx1 dx3 + (σ 23 + dx2 )dx1 dx3 (3.3)

2 ∂x2 2

dx3 ∂σ 32 dx3

−σ 32 dx1 dx2 − (σ 32 + dx3 )dx1 dx2 (3.4)

2 ∂x3 2

must be zero. By taking the limit as ∆V → 0 and dxi → 0 we obtain

1 ∂σ 23 1 ∂σ 32

σ 23 + lim dx2 − σ 32 − lim dx2 = 0

dx2 →0 2 ∂x2 dx2 →0 2 ∂x2

which leads to

σ23 = σ 32

34

D F

D S

Figure 3.2: The resultant internal force on an infinitesimal area.

35

s 33

s 32

s s 23

31

s 13

s 22

s 21

s 12

s 11

x3

x2

x1

36

x3

s Ds

+

33 3

s 32 Ds

+ 32

s 31 Ds

+ 31

s +Ds 23 23

s 23 s 21 r b3

s+D

s r b2 s Ds

2 2

2

r b1 21+ 21

dx3

s 31 x2

s 32

dx1

dx2

x1 s 33

P P

Similarly, Mx2 = 0 provides σ 13 = σ 31 and Mx3 = 0 results in σ 12 = σ 21 .

Therefore, provided there are no internal moments proportional to a volume we

have that

σ ij = σ ji ; ij = 1, 2, 3 (3.5)

or that the stress tensor is symmetric.

For equilibrium

P of an infinitesimal

P box (see Fig. 3.4) we must have that sum of

the forces F = 0. Thus from Fx1 = 0 it follows that

∂σ 11

−σ 11 dx2 dx3 + (σ 11 + dx1 )dx2 dx3

∂x1

∂σ 21

−σ 21 dx1 dx3 + (σ 21 + dx2 )dx1 dx3

∂x2

∂σ 31

−σ 31 dx1 dx2 + (σ 31 + dx3 )dx1 dx2 + ρb1 dx1 dx2 dx3

∂x3

must be zero. By taking the limit lim∆V →0 the last equation implies that

∂σ11 ∂σ 21 ∂σ 31

+ + + ρb1 = 0

∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3

37

x2 n

T

D S n

s 1 s 31

s 21

x1

x3

Figure 3.5: Traction boundary conditions.

P P

Similar equations can be obtained for Fx2 = 0 and Fx2 = 0 which can be

summarized as the equations of equilibrium

or equivalently

divσ + ρb = 0 (3.7)

Consider a segment of an elastic body with surface ∆S subjected to a surface

traction Tn (Fig.3.5). Unit normal on ∆S is n.

Then projection of ∆S on x1 x2 -plane is given by

∆S2 = ∆Sn2

∆S1 = ∆Sn1

38

p0

a S1 x

n S2

y

Figure 3.6: An elastic wedge problem.

P

For equilibrium we must have Fx1 = 0 or

= (σ 11 n1 + σ 12 n2 + σ 13 n3 )∆S + ρb1 ∆V

obtain

T1n = σ 11 n1 + σ 12 n2 + σ 13 n3

Similarly, we have that

T2n = σ 21 n1 + σ 22 n2 + σ 23 n3

T3n = σ 31 n1 + σ 32 n2 + σ 33 n3

or

Tin = σ ij nj (3.8)

The last result represents the Cauchy stress formula which relates external trac-

tions to internal stresses. Since Tn and n are vectors, σ is a tensor of order

2.

Solution 7

−σ 11 sin α + σ12 cos α = 0; x ∈S2

−σ 12 sin α + σ22 cos α = 0; x ∈S2

39

3.4 Plane State of Stress

Definition 13 State of stress in which σ33 = σ 31 = σ 32 ≡ 0 is called plane

state of stress in the plane x1 x2 .

is easily satisfied by single angle θ

cos θ sin θ 0

L = − sin θ cos θ 0

0 0 1

σxx + σ yy σ xx − σ yy

σ0xx = + cos 2θ + σ xy sin 2θ

2 2

σxx + σ yy σ xx − σ yy

σ 0yy = − cos 2θ − σ xy sin 2θ (3.9)

2 2

σ xx − σ yy

σ 0xy = − sin 2θ + σ xy cos 2θ

2

Remark 5 Sum of normal stresses remains unchanged (an invariant) in dif-

ferent coordinate systems, i.e.,

2σ xy

tan 2θ0 = (3.11)

σ xx − σ yy

Since

∂σ 0xx

= 2σ 0xy (3.12)

∂θ

thus σ 0xy = 0 implies extremum in normal stresses. By using

sin 2θ0 = tan 2θ0 (1 + tan2 2θ0 )−1/2 (3.14)

r

σ xx + σ yy σ xx + σ yy 2

σ0xx (θ0 ) = σI = + ( ) + σ 2xy (3.15)

2 2

r

0 σ xx + σyy σ xx + σ yy 2

σ yy (θ0 ) = σ II = − ( ) + σ 2xy (3.16)

2 2

where σ I and σ II are maximum and minimum normal stresses, respectively.

These stresses are known as the principal stresses.

40

Case 2 max σ 0xy . Then

∂σ 0xy

=0

∂θ

which implies that

σ xx − σ yy

tan 2θ∗ = − (3.17)

2σ xy

from which it follows that

r

σ xx + σyy 2

σ 0xy (θ∗ ) = σ 0xy max = ( ) + σ2xy (3.18)

2

Since

1

tan 2θ0 = −

tan 2θ∗

we have that

θ∗ = θ0 ± 45o (3.19)

which states that the directions of the principal stresses are bisected by

directions of maximum shear stresses.

Suppose we remove from a body a closed region V + ∂V . The surface ∂V is

subjected to a distribution of surface tractions Tn (x,t). Each mass element of the

body may be subjected to a body force per unit mass f (x,t). Then the principle

of balance of linear momentum states that: Instantaneous rate of change of the

linear momentum of a body is equal to resultant external force acting on the

body at that time, or

Z Z Z

∂ ∂u

ρ dV = ρf dV + Tn dS (3.20)

∂t V ∂t V ∂V

Note: ρdV = dm is the particle mass. Also, Eq. 3.20 is based on a La-

grangian description, and V and S move with the particle. Since the particle

mass is constant in time we obtain from 3.20 that

Z Z Z

∂2u

ρ 2 dV = ρf dV + Tn dS (3.21)

V ∂t V ∂V

Z Z Z

ρüi dV = ρfi dV + σ ij nj d

V

ZV Z∂V

= ρfi dV + σ ij,j dV

V V

or Z

(σ ij,j + ρfi − ρüi )dV = 0 (3.22)

V

41

Since V may be an arbitrary part of the body, we get that whenever the inte-

grand in Eq. 3.22 is continuous that

σ ij,j + ρfi = ρüi (3.23)

which is Cauchy’s first law of motion.

The principle of balance of angular momentum states: Time rate of change of

angular momentum about O equals to the moment of the forces about O acting

in V. Thus

Z Z Z

∂

x × u,t dV = x × ρf dV + x × Tn dS (3.24)

∂t V V ∂V

Z Z Z

n

ρ klm xl üm dV = ρ klm xl fm dV + klm xl Tm dS (3.25)

V V ∂V

Using the Gauss theorem and equation of motion we obtain for the surface

integral

Z Z Z

n

klm xl Tm dS = klm xl σ mr nr dS = klm (xl σ mr ),r dV

∂V

Z∂V V

V

Z

klm σ ml dV = 0

V

or that

klm σ ml

σ ml = σ lm

the stress tensor is symmetric.

Definition 14 In general state of stress, the stress vector Tn acting on a sur-

face with outer normal n depends on n. We are asking in what direction n

the stress vector becomes normal to the surface on which there are no shearing

stresses (Fig.3.7). Such surface will be called the principal plane, its normal

the principal axis, and its value of normal stress acting on the principal plane a

principal stress.

42

n

T

n

* n

S*

S

Tn = λn

or that

σ ij nj = λni (3.27)

which is an eigenvalue problem. This can be written in the form

(σ ij − λδ ij )nj = 0 (3.28)

det(σ−λI) =0 (3.29)

which is the characteristic equation of the problem. The last result can be

written in the form

λ3 − Iσ λ2 + IIσ λ − IIIσ = 0 (3.30)

where

λ1 = σ 1 ; λ2 = σ 2 ; λ3 = σ 3

Iσ = σ ii

1

IIσ = (σ ii σjj − σ ij σ ij )

2

IIIσ = det σ (3.31)

43

Thus in the coordinate system {ei } the stress tensor σ is real and symmetric.

Then, in the coordinate system {e0i }, where the basis vectors are along the

principal axes (the eigenvectors of Eq. 3.28) {e0i }, the stress tensor becomes

diagonal, i.e.,

σ1 0 0

σ0 = 0 σ2 0 (3.32)

0 0 σ3

In that case the stress tensor invariants become

Iσ = σ1 + σ2 + σ3

IIσ = σ1 σ2 + σ1 σ3 + σ2 σ3

IIIσ = σ1 σ2 σ3 (3.33)

3 5 8

σ = 5 1 0

8 0 2

Determine the principal stresses and the principal directions. Write down the

value of stress invariants.

Iσ = σ ii = 3 + 1 + 2 = 6

1

IIσ = (σ ii σ jj − σ ij σ ij )

2

= σ 11 σ 22 + σ 11 σ 33 + σ 22 σ 33 − σ 212 − σ 213 − σ 223

= 3 · 1 + 3 · 2 + 1 · 2 − 52 − 82 − 02 = −78

IIIσ = det σ = −108

λ3 − Iσ λ2 + IIσ λ − IIIσ = 0

or

λ3 − 6λ2 + −78λ + 108 = 0

which produces

σ1 = 11.8242

σ2 = 1.2848

σ3 = −7.1090

(σ−λ1 I)n(1) = 0

44

Tn

s nt

n

s nn

P

t

which results in

0.7300

n(1) = ± 0.3372

0.5945

Similarly, the last two eigenvectors are calculated to be

−0.480 −0.6818

n(2) = ± −0.8424 ; n(3) = ± 0.4204

0.5368 0.5988

Plane

The normal stress σ nn on the plane P is the projection of the stress vector Tn

in the direction of the unit normal n of plane P (see Fig. 3.8). Thus

σ nn = Tn · n =σ ij nj ni (3.34)

45

200 psi

a 600

100 psi

100 psi

a

x2

200 psi

O x1

or

+2σ 12 n1 n2 + 2σ 13 n1 n3 + 2σ 23 n2 n3 (3.35)

p

σnt = Tn · t = | Tn |2 −σ2nn (3.36)

Example 9 The skewed plate of unit thickness is loaded uniformly along the

sides of the plate as shown by Fig. 3.9. Determine the elements of the stress

tensor and normal stress on a plane making 45o with the x1 and x2 axes.

we have that

σ 12 (A sin 60) − 200(A cos 60) cos 30 = 0

which provides

√

σ 11 = 100 3psi

σ 12 = 100psi

46

In addition we have that

√

σ 22 = 200 sin 60 = 100 3psi

√

100 3 100

√ 0

σ = 100 100 3 0

0 0 0

For the surface on a 45o plane the unit normal is defined by n =( √12 , √12 , 0).

Then,

√

σ nn = σ ij ni nj = σ 11 n21 + σ 22 n22 + 2σ 12 n1 n2 = 100(1 + 3)psi

ical Coordinates

Recall that equations of motion can be written as

Namely,

∂

∇·σ = ei · σ kl ek el = σ kl,i δ ik el = σlk,k el

∂xi

Therefore, equations of motion can be written as

In that case we have

b = (br , bθ , bz )

u = (ur , uθ , uz )

σ rr σ rθ σ rz

σ = σ θr σ θθ σ θz

σ zr σ zθ σ zz

We may write then

σ = σ ij ei ej

= er (σ rr er + σ rθ eθ + σ rz ez )

+eθ (σθr er + σ θθ eθ + σ θz ez )

+ez (σ zr er + σzθ eθ + σ zz ez )

47

or

σ = er tr +eθ tθ +ez tz

where

tr = σ rr er + σ rθ eθ + σ rz ez

tθ = σ θr er + σ θθ eθ + σ θz ez

tz = σ zr er + σ zθ eθ + σ zz ez

Recall that

∂ 1 ∂ ∂

∇ · u = (er + eθ + ez ) · (ur er + uθ eθ + uz ez )

∂r r ∂θ ∂z

∂ur 1 1 ∂uθ ∂uz

= + ur + +

∂r r r ∂θ ∂z

Therefore we can write that

∂ 1 ∂ ∂

∇·σ = (er + eθ + ez ) · (er tr +eθ tθ +ez tz )

∂r r ∂θ ∂z

∂tr 1 1 ∂tθ ∂tz

= + tr + +

∂r r r ∂θ ∂z

which provides

∂σ rr ∂σrθ ∂σrz

∇·σ = er + eθ + ez

∂r ∂r ∂r

1

+ (σ rr er + σrθ eθ + σ rz ez )

r

1 ∂σ rθ ∂σθθ ∂σ θz

+ ( er + σ rθ eθ + eθ − σ θθ er + ez )

r ∂θ ∂θ ∂θ

∂σ zr ∂σ zθ ∂σ zz

+ er + eθ + ez (3.39)

∂z ∂z ∂z

Based on Eqns. 3.38 and 3.39 we obtain the equations of motion in cylindrical

coordinates to be

∂σ rr 1 ∂σrθ ∂σ zr 1

+ + + (σ rr − σ θθ ) + ρbr = ρür

∂r r ∂θ ∂z r

∂σ rθ 1 ∂σ θθ ∂σ θz 2

+ + + σ rθ + ρbθ = ρüθ (3.40)

∂r r ∂θ ∂z r

∂σ rz 1 ∂σ θz ∂σ zz 1

+ + + σ rz + ρbz = ρüz

∂r r ∂θ ∂z r

Similar procedure can be used in the spherical coordinate system.

Example 10 Invariants of the stress tensor. Let σ be a stress tensor in {xi }, i =

1, 2, 3

4 1 2

σ = 1 6 0

2 0 8

Find the invariants Iσ , IIσ , IIIσ .

48

Solution 10 The invariants are given by

Iσ = σ ii = 4 + 6 + 8 = 12

1

IIσ = (σ kk σ ll − σkl σ lk )

2 · ¸ · ¸ · ¸

σ 11 σ 12 σ 11 σ 13 σ 22 σ23

= det + det + det

σ 21 σ 22 σ 31 σ 32 σ 31 σ33

= σ 11 σ 22 + σ 11 σ 33 + σ 22 σ 33 − σ 212 − σ 213 − σ223 = 99

IIIσ = det σ = 160 (3.41)

Now let us rotate x1 x2 axes about x3 − axis for 45o counterclockwise. Then the

transformation matrix L becomes

√ √

2 2

0

2√ √2

L = − 2 2

0

2 2

0 0 1

and thus in the new coordinate system the stress tensor assumes the values

√

6 1 √2

σ 0 = LσLT = √1 4

√ − 2

2 − 2 8

Iσ0 = σ 0ii = 18

1 0 0

IIσ0 = (σ σ − σ 0kl σ 0lk ) = 99

2 kk ll

IIIσ0 = det σ 0 = 160

Thus the invariants remain the same in the two coordinate systems.

Experiments show that yielding and plastic deformation of many metals are

essentially independent of applied mean stress σ m defined by

1

σm = (σ 11 + σ22 + σ 33 )

3

1

= (σ 1 + σ 2 + σ3 ) (3.42)

3

Most plasticity theories postulate that the plastic behavior of materials is related

primarily to that part of the stress tensor which is independent of σ m . Therefore,

the stress tensor can be written as

σ = σm + σd (3.43)

49

where

σm = diag[σm , σ m , σ m ] = [δ αβ σm ] (3.44)

1

3 (2σ 11 − σ 22 − σ 33 ) σ 12 σ 13

σd = σ 21

1

(2σ 22 − σ 11 − σ 33 ) σ 23 (3.45)

3

1

σ 31 σ 32 3 (2σ 33 − σ 11 − σ 22 )

where σ m is the mean stress tensor while σ d is the deviator stress tensor. The

latter ”measures” deviation from the state of stress from a spherically symmetric

state (i.e., from the state of stress that exist in an ideal, frictionless fluid).

If the coordinate axes {xi }, i = 1, 2, 3, are the principal one, then σ 11 =

σ 1 , σ22 = σ2 , σ 33 = σ3 ,and σ ij = 0, for i 6= j. The invariants of σ m and σ d are

given by

Iσd = 0

1

IIσd = − [(σ 1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ3 )2 + (σ 1 − σ 3 )2 ]

6

1

IIIσd = (2σ 1 − σ 2 − σ 3 )(2σ 2 − σ 3 − σ 1 )(2σ 3 − σ 1 − σ2 ) (3.46)

27

The eigenvalues of the deviator tensor σ d are (the principal stresses of σ d ) are

1

S1 = σ1 − σm = [(σ1 − σ 3 ) + (σ 1 − σ2 )]

3

1

S2 = σ2 − σm = [(σ2 − σ 3 ) + (σ 2 − σ1 )]

3

1

S3 = σ3 − σm = [(σ3 − σ 1 ) + (σ 3 − σ2 )] (3.47)

3

Since S1 + S2 + S3 = 0, only two principal stresses of σ d are independent.

Cauchy generalized Hooke’s law σ xx = Eexx into a statement that the compo-

nents of stress are linearly related to the components of strain. Thus in tensor

notation

σ ij = Cijkl ekl (3.48)

where Cijkl is a fourth order tensor of elastic constants of the material. For

isotropic materials C should be an isotropic tensor of order 4 or

Cijkl = λδ ij δ kl + µδ ik δ jl + νδ il δ jk (3.49)

Therefore,

σ ij = λekk δ ij + µeij + νeji

50

Since stress tensor is symmetric we must have µ = ν and consequently

σ ij = λekk δ ij + 2µeij (3.50)

The inverse relation is easily follows to be

µ ¶

1 λ

eij = σ ij − σkk δ ij (3.51)

2µ 3λ + 2µ

Since E = 2µ(1 + ν) and µ = λ(1 − 2ν)/2ν, we can write

1+ν ν

eij = σ ij − σkk δ ij (3.52)

E E

In unabridged notation the last result becomes

1

exx = [σ xx − ν(σ yy + σ zz )]

E

1

eyy = [σ yy − ν(σ xx + σ zz )]

E

1

exx = [σ zz − ν(σ xx + σ yy )]

E

1 1 1

exy = σ xy ; exz = σ xz ; eyz = σ yz (3.53)

2µ 2µ 2µ

Frequently, Hooke’s law is expressed as

ν

σ ij = 2µ( ekk δ ij + eij ) (3.54)

1 − 2ν

Remark 6 Stresses are not unbounded as ν → 1/2 (an incompressible mater-

ial).

Generalized Hooke’s law σij = Cijkl ekl implies the following symmetry prop-

erties of tensor C due to symmetry of σ and e

Cijkl = Cjikl = Cijlk (3.55)

In general, tensor C has 81 components. However due to symmetry conditions

expressed by Eq. 3.55, only 36 of these components are independent. This is

also clear from the fact that σ ij = Cijkl ekl is a set of six linear homogeneous

equations relating the six independent components of σ to six independent

components of e.

We next assume that there exits a strain energy function W (C) from which

the stress tensor can be derived through

∂W

σ ij = (3.56)

∂eij

For small strains, W may be expressed in the power series

1

W = W0 + bij eij + Cijkl eij ekl + · · · (3.57)

2

51

where W0 , bij , ... are constants. Since the strain energy of the material has been

assumed to be zero in the undeformed state, W0 must be zero. Furthermore,

since e is symmetric we have that

1 1

W = bij eij + Cijkl eij ekl + ... = bji eij + Cijkl eij ekl + ...

2 2

1 1

= bij eij + Cjikl eij ekl + ... = bij eij + Cijlk eij ekl + ...

2 2

1

= bij eij + Cklij eij ekl + .... (3.58)

2

Therefore we conclude that

bij = bji

Cijkl = Cjikl = Cijlk = Cklij (3.59)

Noting that

∂(Cijkl eij ekl )

= 2Cmnkl ekl (3.60)

∂emn

we have that

∂W

σ ij = = bij + Cijkl ekl + ... (3.61)

∂eij

From Eq.(3.61) we conclude that the linear terms in the stress-strain relations

arise from the quadratic terms (in strains) of W. If the material is stress free in

the undeformed state, then bij = 0. It follows then that the linear constitutive

equation or the generalized Hooke’s law for an elastic solid is

1

W = Cijkl eij ekl (3.63)

2

Remark 7 The existence of the strain energy function introduces an additional

symmetry condition

Cijkl = Cklij (3.64)

which reduces the number of independent constants of the tensor C from 36

to 21. Assuming the isotropic materials, the number of independent constants

reduces to two (λ, µ =Lamé constants).

symmetry about a point). There are some weaker symmetries naturally oc-

curring (e.g., wood, crystals) or constructed (e.g., fiber-reinforced composites)

materials. For these materials the stress strain law must be form-invariant un-

der certain transformations. Solids that do not have point symmetry are called

anisotropic.

52

3.12 Anisotropic Materials

Let’s introduce the notation

σ 11 = σ 1 ; σ 22 = σ 2 ; σ 33 = σ 3 ; σ 23 = σ 4 ; σ 31 = σ 5 ; σ 12 = σ 6

e11 = e1 ; e22 = e2 ; e33 = σe; 2e23 = e4 ; 2e31 = e5 ; 2e12 = e6 (3.65)

Then the generalized Hooke’s law becomes

σ ij = cij ej ; i, j = 1, 2, 3, ..., 6 (3.66)

Obviously, the element cij are related to Cijkl and [cij ] is a 6-by-6 matrix. Since

Cijkl = Cklij, the so called stiﬀness matrix [cij ] is symmetric, i.e.,

cij = cji (3.67)

Therefore, there are 21 independent material constants.

With this new notation we have that

1 1

W = cij ei ej = σ i ei

2 2

∂W

σi = (3.68)

∂ei

In expanded from the strain energy function becomes

1

W = c11 e21 + c12 e1 e2 + c13 e1 e3 + c14 e1 e4 + c15 e1 e5 + c16 e1 e6

2

1

+ c22 e22 + c23 e2 e3 + c24 e2 e4 + c25 e2 e5 + c26 e2 e6

2

1

+ c33 e23 + c34 e3 e4 + c35 e3 e5 + c36 e3 e6

2

1

+ c44 e24 + c45 e4 e5 + c46 e4 e6

2

1

+ c55 e25 + c56 e5 e6 (3.69)

2

Most solids exhibit symmetry properties with respect to certain rotations

of the body or reflection about one or more planes. These properties further

reduce the number of elastic constants. Obviously, the elastic constants cij , in

general, depend upon the reference frame, since the stress components σ i and the

strain components ei vary with diﬀerent coordinate systems. For certain solids

the elastic constants cij may remain invariant under a given transformation of

coordinates. It is this invariance property that determines the elastic symmetry

of the solid.

Say the plane of symmetry is the x1 x2 −plane. Then cij must be invariant under

the transformation

x01 = x1 ; x02 = x2 ; x03 = −x3 (3.70)

53

which defines the transformation matrix

1 0 0

L = 0 1 0 (3.71)

0 0 −1

and the strain tensor

e11 e12 −e13

e0 = LeLT = • e22 −e23 (3.72)

• • e33

where • denote the symmetric part of the matrix. It follows than from Eq.

(3.72) that

e023 = −e23 ; e031 = −e31

with all the other components unchanged. Thus

The strain energy function W 0 is obtained from the right hand side of Eq.

3.69 by changing the signs of e4 and e5 . Since the material is symmetric about

the x1 x2 −plane, we must have that

W0 = W (3.74)

quently, for an elastic material with x1 x2 −plane of symmetry, the generalized

Hooke’s law σ i = cij ej can be written as

σ1 c11 c12 c13 0 0 c16 e1

σ 2 c12 c22 c23 0 0 c26

e2

σ 3 c13 c23 c33 0 0 c e

36 3

σ4 = 0 0 0 c c 0 e (3.76)

44 45 4

σ5 0 0 0 c45 c55 0 e5

σ6 c16 c26 c36 0 0 c66 e6

Definition 15 If a material has three mutually orthogonal planes of symmetry,

it is called orthotropic.

Wood is an example of such material. Say that the planes of symmetry are

the coordinate planes. Then, the symmetry about the x1 x2 −plane implies that

(see Eq. 3.75)

54

Similarly, the symmetry about the x1 x3 −plane requires that

Comparison of Eqns. 3.75 and 3.77 shows that Eq. 3.77 requires only four addi-

tional constants to vanish. Thus the number of independent constants reduces

to 9 (=13-4). Finally for material with symmetry about the x1 x3 −plane implies

that

e04 = −e4 ; e06 = −e6

and thus

c14 = c16 = c24 = c26 = c34 = c36 = c45 = c56 = 0 (3.78)

which bring no new conditions. Therefore, if x1 x2 − and x2 x3 −planes are planes

of symmetry, then x1 x3 −plane is also a plane of symmetry. The Hooke’s law

for orthotropic material is then

σ1 c11 c12 c13 0 0 0 e1

σ 2 c12 c22 c23 0 0 0

e2

σ 3 c13 c23 c33 0 0 0 e3

σ4 = 0 0 0 c44 0 0 (3.79)

e4

σ5 0 0 0 0 c55 0 e5

σ6 0 0 0 0 0 c66 e6

σ 6 = 0, which means that the principal directions of stress coincide with the

principal directions of strain. This is not so for monoclinic materials (see Eq.

3.76) where e4 = e5 = e6 = 0, implies that σ 6 = c16 e1 + c26 e2 + c36 e3 which

may not vanish.

If an orthotropic solid exhibits symmetry with respect to arbitrary rotations

about one of the axes (such as the x3 -axis), then it is called transversely

isotropic. Say that the system {x0i } is obtained from the system {xi } by a

rotation about the x3 -axis for an angle θ. Then x0 = Lx, where

cos θ sin θ 0

L = − sin θ cos θ 0

0 0 1

55

we can calculate that

e022 = e11 sin2 θ + e22 cos2 θ − 2e12 sin θ cos θ

e033 = e33

e023 = e23 cos θ − e31 sin θ

e031 = e23 sin θ + e31 cos θ

e012 = −(e11 − e22 ) sin θ cos θ + e12 (cos2 θ − sin2 θ)

or

e02 = e1 sin2 θ + e2 cos2 θ − e6 sin θ cos θ

e03 = e3

e04 = e4 cos θ − e5 sin θ

e05 = e4 sin θ + e5 cos θ

e06 = −2(e1 − e2 ) sin θ cos θ + e6 (cos2 θ − sin2 θ) (3.80)

The strain energy function W 0 is obtained by replacing e0i with ei in Eq. 3.69. If

the solid is symmetric about an arbitrary rotation about the x3 −axis we must

have W 0 = W for an arbitrary θ. By equating the coeﬃcient of e21 we get

1

c66 =

(c11 − c12 ) (3.83)

2

By equating the coeﬃcients of e1 e3 and e24 in W 0 = W it follows that

= c13 (e1 cos2 θ + e2 sin2 θ + e6 sin θ cos θ)e3

+c23 (e1 sin2 θ + e2 cos2 θ − e6 sin θ cos θ)e3

and therefore

1 1 1

c44 = c44 cos2 θ + c55 sin2 θ

2 2 2

56

which implies that

c13 = c23 (3.84)

c44 = c55 (3.85)

Thus for transversely isotropic material we need only 9-4=5 independent

elastic constants. The Hooke’s law becomes

σ1 c11 c12 c13 0 0 0 e1

σ2 c12 c11 c23 0 0 0 e2

σ3

= c13 c23 c33 0 0 0 e3

σ4 0 0 0 c44 0 0 e4

σ5 0 0 0 0 c44 0 e5

σ6 0 0 0 0 0 c66 e6

1

c66 = (c11 − c12 ) (3.86)

2

Here, the elastic constants cij are independent of the orientation of the co-

ordinate axes. We start with the stress-strain relationship for an orthotropic

material. The symmetry with respect to rotation about the x3 −axis implies

that

1

c11 = c22 ; c66 = (c11 − c22 )

2

c13 = c23 ; c44 = c55 (3.87)

Similarly, the symmetry with respect to rotation about the x1 −axis requires

that

1

c22 = c33 ; c44 = (c22 − c33 )

2

c12 = c13 ; c55 = c66 (3.88)

By combining Eqns. 3.87 and 3.88 results in

c11 = c22 = c33

c12 = c13 = c23 = λ

1

c44 = c55 = c66 = (c11 − c12 ) = µ

2

which gives

c11 = c22 = c33 = λ + 2µ (3.89)

Therefore, Hooke’s law for an isotropic solid is given by

σ1 λ + 2µ λ λ 0 0 0 e1

σ2 λ λ + 2µ λ 0 0 0 e2

σ3 λ λ λ + 2µ 0 0 0 e3

σ4 = 0 0 0 µ 0 0 e4 (3.90)

σ5 0 0 0 0 µ 0 e5

σ6 0 0 0 0 0 µ e6

57

Based on this result we have

σ1 = λ(e1 + e1 + e1 ) + 2µe1

σ2 = λ(e1 + e1 + e1 ) + 2µe2

σ3 = λ(e1 + e1 + e1 ) + 2µe3

σ4 = µe4

σ5 = µe5

σ6 = µe6

or

σ ij = λekk δ ij + 2µeij (3.91)

This result can be written as

Cijkl = λδ ij δ kl + µ(δ ik δ jl + δ il δ jk ) (3.93)

1 1

W = σij eij = λ(ekk )2 + µeij eij

2 2

1

= λ(ekk )2 + µ(e21 + e22 + e23 + 2e223 + 2e213 + 2e212 ) (3.94)

2

ical Coordinates

Recall that the elements of strain tensor are defined by

1

eij = (ui,j + uj,i )

2

Then, the strain dyadic is given by

1

e = eij ei ej = (uj,i ei ej + ui,j ei ej ) (3.95)

2

Since

∂

uj,i ei ej = ei (uj ej ) = ∇u

∂xi

∂ T

ui,j ei ej = (ui,j ej ei )T = [ej (ui ei )]T = (∇u) (3.96)

∂xj

we have that

1 T

e=

(∇u+(∇u) ) (3.97)

2

This equation can be used to obtain the strain-displacement relations in various

curvilinear coordinate systems.

58

3.13.1 Cylindrical Coordinates (r, θ, z)

The displacement vector is then written as

u =ur er + uϕ eϕ + uz ez

err erθ erz

eθr eθθ eθz (3.98)

ezr ezθ ezz

By recalling that

∂ ∂ ∂

∇u = (er + eϕ + ez )(ur er + uϕ eϕ + uz ez )

∂r r∂ϕ ∂z

we have

∂ur 1 ∂uϕ ∂uz

∇u = er er + (ur + )eϕ eϕ + ez ez

∂r r ∂ϕ ∂z

1 ∂uz ∂uϕ ∂ur ∂uz

+ eϕ ez + ez eϕ + ez er + er ez (3.99)

r ∂ϕ ∂z ∂z ∂r

∂uϕ 1 ∂ur

+ er eϕ + ( − uϕ )eϕ er

∂r r ∂ϕ

By noting, for example, that eθz = eθ · e · ez , Eqns. 3.97 and 3.99 lead to the

following results

∂ur 1 ∂uθ ∂uz

err = ; eθθ = ( + ur ); ezz =

∂r r ∂θ ∂z

1 ∂uθ 1 ∂uz

eθz = ezθ = ( + )

2 ∂z r ∂θ

1 ∂ur ∂uz

ezr = erz = ( + )

2 ∂z ∂r

1 ∂ur ∂uθ uθ

erθ = eθr = ( + − ) (3.100)

2 r∂θ ∂r r

Now the displacement vector is given by

uR eR + uθ eθ + uϕ eϕ

eRR eRθ eRϕ

eθR eθθ eθϕ (3.101)

eϕR eϕθ eϕϕ

59

Since

∂uR 1 ∂uθ 1 ∂uϕ

∇u = eR eR + (uR + )eθ eθ + (sin θuR + cos θuθ + )eϕ eϕ

∂R R ∂θ R sin θ ∂ϕ

1 ∂uϕ 1 ∂uθ 1 ∂uR

+ eθ eϕ + ( − cos θuϕ )eϕ eθ + ( − sin θuϕ )eϕ eR

R ∂θ R sin θ ∂ϕ R sin θ ∂ϕ

∂uϕ ∂uθ 1 ∂uR

+ eR eϕ + eR eθ + ( − uθ )eθ eR (3.102)

∂R ∂R R ∂θ

and by using Eq. 3.97 we get

∂uR 1 ∂uθ 1 ∂uϕ

eRR = ; eθθ = ( + uR ); eϕϕ = [ + sin θuR + cos θuθ ]

∂R R ∂θ R sin θ ∂ϕ

1 1 ∂uθ ∂uϕ

eθϕ = eϕθ = ( + − cot θuϕ )

2R sin θ ∂ϕ ∂θ

1 1 ∂uR ∂uϕ uϕ

eϕR = eRϕ = ( + − )

2 R sin θ ∂ϕ ∂R R

1 1 ∂uR ∂uθ uθ

eRθ = eθR = ( + − ) (3.103)

2 R ∂θ ∂R R

This procedure can be extended to other curvilinear coordinate systems.

Spherical Coordinates

In dyadic notation, we can write generalized Hokke’s law for isotropic materials

as

σ = λdI + 2µe (3.104)

where σ, I, and e are stress, unit, and strain dyadics, respectively and

d = ekk = ∇ · u (3.105)

T

σ = λdI + µ(∇u+(∇u) ) (3.106)

or

σ ij ei ej = λdδ ij ei ej + 2µeij ei ej (3.107)

60

Then by comparing the coeﬃcients of the like terms ei ej of Eq. 3.107produces

in cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z)

∂ur

σ rr = λd + 2µerr = λd + 2µ

∂r

2µ ∂uθ

σ θθ = λd + 2µezz = λd + ( + ur )

r ∂θ

∂uz

σ zz = λd + 2µezz = λd +

∂z

∂ur ∂uz

σ zr = σ rz = 2µezr = µ( + )

∂z ∂r

∂uθ 1 ∂uz

σ θz = σ zθ = 2µeθz = µ( + )

∂z r ∂θ

1 ∂ur ∂uθ uθ

σ rθ = σ θr = 2µerθ = µ( + − ) (3.108)

r ∂θ ∂r r

where

∂ur ur 1 ∂uθ ∂uz

d=∇·u= + + + (3.109)

∂r r r ∂θ ∂z

Similar approach in spherical coordinate system results in

∂uR

σRR = λd + 2µeRR = λd + 2µ

∂R

2µ ∂uθ

σ θθ = λd + 2µeθθ = λd + ( + uR )

R ∂θ

2µ ∂uϕ

σ ϕϕ = λd + 2µeϕϕ = λd + ( + sin θuR cos θuθ )

R sin θ ∂ϕ

µ 1 ∂uθ ∂uϕ

σ θϕ = 2µeθϕ = ( + − cot θuϕ )

R sin θ ∂ϕ ∂θ

1 ∂uR ∂uϕ uϕ

σ ϕR = 2µeϕR = µ( + − )

R sin θ ∂ϕ ∂R R

1 ∂uR ∂uθ uθ

σ Rθ = 2µeRθ = µ( + − ) (3.110)

R ∂θ ∂R R

where

∂uR 2uR 1 ∂uθ 1 ∂uϕ

d=∇·u= + ( + cot θuθ ) + (3.111)

∂R R R ∂θ R sin θ ∂ϕ

3.15 Dilatation d

Let us consider the physical interpretation of d = ekk . For that purpose let’s

consider a cube of size 1 × 2 × 3 before deformation. Let e11 , e22 , and e33 be

the principal strains, i.e., eij = 0 for i 6= j. Then, after the deformation we have

that

1 → 1+ 1 e11

2 → 2+ 2 e22

3 → 3+ 3 e33

61

Remark 8 The fibers of the cube will remain perpendicular to each other.

V0 = 1 2 3

V = (1 + e11 )(1 + e22 )(1 + e33 )V0

and by neglecting the higher order terms (infinitesimal strain theory) we obtain

the relative change of volume to be

V − V0

= ekk = d (3.112)

V0

Thus the dilatation represents the relative change of volume of the material

during the deformation.

62

Chapter 4

of Linear Elasticity

where Bu and Bσ denote the portions of the boundary where displacement or

stress field is being prescribed, respectively.

σ ij,j + fi = 0; x ∈V (4.1)

where f denotes body force per unit volume. Constitutive equations are given

by

σ ij = Cijkl ekl (4.2)

where the tensor of elastic properties satisfies the following symmetry relations

1

eij = (ui,j + uj,i ) (4.4)

2

while the compatibility conditions are prescribed by

σ ij nj = Tin (B); x ∈Bσ (4.7)

4.1 to 4.7 define the displacement boundary value problem.

63

T n

Bs

/V=B Bu

to 4.7 define the stress boundary value problem,

ary B, Eqns. 4.1 to 4.7 define the mixed boundary value problem.

ditions must be enforced. For a perfect bond both displacement and traction

fields must be continuous across the interface, i.e.,

(1) (2)

ui = ui ; x ∈C (4.8)

n(1) n(2)

Ti = Ti ; x ∈C (4.9)

Cijkl = λδ ij δ kl + µ(δ ik δ jl + δ il δ jk )

2

σ kk = (3λ + 2µ)ekk = 3(λ + µ)ekk

3

64

or

s = 3κd (4.11)

where

s = σ kk

d = ekk

2

κ = λ+ µ (4.12)

3

with κ being the bulk modulus.

Remark 10 The inverse form of the constitutive equation 4.10 is given by

1+ν ν

eij = σ ij − sδ ij (4.13)

E E

In cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z) the equations of equilibrium are

∂σ rr 1 ∂σ rθ ∂σ zr 1

+ + + (σ rr − σ θθ ) + ρbr = 0

∂r r ∂θ ∂z r

∂σ rθ 1 ∂σ θθ ∂σ θz 2

+ + + σ rθ + ρbθ = 0 (4.14)

∂r r ∂θ ∂z r

∂σ rz 1 ∂σ θz ∂σ zz 1

+ + + σ rz + ρbz = 0

∂r r ∂θ ∂z r

The stress-strain relationships are

σrr = λd + 2µerr ; σθθ = λd + 2µezz ; σ zz = λd + 2µezz

σzr = σ rz = 2µezr ; σ θz = σ zθ = 2µeθz ; σ rθ = σθr = 2µerθ (4.15)

where d = ∇ · u = err + eθθ + ezz .

The strain displacement equations are given by Eq. 3.100.

In spherical coordinates (R, θ, ϕ) the equations of equilibrium are given by

∂σ RR 1 ∂σθR 1 ∂σ ϕR 1

+ + + (2σ RR − σ θθ − σ ϕϕ + σ θR cot θ) + fR = 0

∂R R ∂θ R sin θ ∂ϕ R

∂σ Rθ 1 ∂σ θθ 1 ∂σ ϕθ 1

+ + + [(σ θθ − σ ϕϕ ) cot θ + 3σ rθ ] + fθ (4.16)

= 0

∂R R ∂θ R sin θ ∂ϕ R

∂σ Rϕ 1 ∂σ θϕ 1 ∂σ ϕϕ 1

+ + + (2σ θϕ cot θ + 3σ Rϕ ) + fϕ = 0

∂R R ∂θ R sin θ ∂ϕ R

The stress-strain and strain-displacement relations are given by Eq. 3.110.

Equations of equilibrium are given by Eq. 4.1. Then by using constitutive

equations for an isotropic solid (Eq. 4.10) together with definition of strain the

equilibrium equations become

(λ + µ)uj,ji + µui,jj + fi = 0 (4.17)

65

or

(λ + µ)∇(∇ · u)+µ∇2 u + f = 0 (4.18)

These equations are known as Navier’s equations. In cylindrical and spherical

coordinates we can utilize the expressions for ∇f, ∇ · u, and ∇2 f in order to

obtain Navier’s equations for these curvilinear coordinates.

Theorem 9 Let the tractions be prescribed over a part Bσ of the boundary

B = ∂V and displacements be prescribed over the remaining part of Bu (note

Bσ ∪ Bu = B). Then the solution of elastostatic problem is unique.σ rθ = σθr =

2µerθ

Proof. Assume that two solutions u(1) and u(2) are possible. Then we have

that

(1) (2)

σ ij,j + fi = 0; σij,j + fi = 0

where

(1)(2) (1)(2)

σ ij = Cijkl uk,m

The boundary conditions are given by

(1) (2)

ui = ui = ui (B) ; x ∈Bu

(1) (2)

σ ij nj = σ ij nj = ti (B); x ∈Bσ

Let us define

(1) (2)

ui ≡ ui − ui

σ ij = Cijkm uk,m

σ ij,j = 0; x ∈V

ui = 0; x ∈Bu

σij nj = 0; x ∈Bσ

Z Z Z

2 W dV = σ ij eij dV = σ ij ui,j dV

V

ZV V

Z

= (σ ij ui ),j dV − σ ij,j ui dV

V V

Z Z

= σ ij ui nj dB − σ ij,j ui dV = 0

B V

66

R

Since W is nonnegative, the fact that V W dV = 0, implies that W = 0 in

V. Since W is positive definite quadratic form in strain components, it cannot

be zero unless all the strain components are zero. Thus eij = 0 implies that

(1) (2)

ui ≡ ui − ui represents a rigid body motion. Since ui = 0 on Bu we must

(1) (2)

have that ui = 0 everywhere in the body and thus we have that ui = ui .

Remark 11 This proof applies to the linear case only.

Theorem 10 (Clapeyron’s) If a solid is in equilibrium under the action of a

given system of body and surface forces, then the strain energy of deformation

is equal to one-half the static work that would be done by the external forces.

Proof. From the uniqueness proof we have that

Z Z Z

2 W dV = σ ij eij dV = σ ij ui,j dV

V V V

Z Z

= (σ ij ui ),j dV − σij,j ui dV

ZV ZV

= σ ij ui nj dB + fi ui dV

ZB Z V

= Tin ui dB + fi ui dV

B V

Z Z

= Tn · udB + f · udV

B V

Theorem 11 (Betti-Rayleigh Reciprocity (BRR) Theorem)If an elastic body is

subject to two systems of body and surface forces, then the work done by the first

system of forces acting through the displacements of the second system is equal

to work done by the second system of forces acting through the displacements of

the first system.

Proof. Let us consider two equilibrium states: u(1) due to body forces

f and tractions t(1) and u(2) due to f (2) and t(2) . Then the work Ω done by

(1)

the forces f (1) and tractions t(1) if they acted through the displacement u(2) is

Z Z

(1) (2) (1) (2)

Ω = fi ui dV + ti ui dB

V B

Z Z

(1) (2) (1) (2)

= fi ui dV + σij nj ui dB

ZV ZB

(1) (2) (1) (2)

= fi ui dV + (σij ui ),j dV

ZV V

Z

(1) (1) (2) (1) (2)

= (f + σ ij,j )ui dV + σ ij ui,j dV

V V

Z

(1) (2)

= σ ij ui,j dV (4.19)

V

67

Thus Z Z

1 (1) (2) (2) (1) (2)

Ω= σ ij (ui,j + uj,i )dV = Cijkl ekl eij dV (4.20)

2 V V

(1) (2) (1)

Since Cijkl = Cklij , then the integrand Cijkl ekl eij is symmetric in ekl and

(2)

eij . Thus we have that

Z Z

(2) (1) (2) (1)

Ω = Cijkl ekl eij dV = σ ij ui,j dV

V V

Z Z

(2) (1) (2) (1)

= fi ui dV + ti ui dB (4.21)

V B

Z Z Z Z

(1) (2) (1) (2) (2) (1) (2) (1)

fi ui dV + ti ui dB = fi ui dV + ti ui dB (4.22)

V B V B

or equivalently Z Z

(1) (2) (2) (1)

σ ij ui,j dV = σij ui,j dV (4.23)

V V

which completes the proof.

ume for an elastic body subjected to a body force and surface tractions.

(1)

Solution 11 Let ui = Axi be the solution of a problem of an isotropic solid

(1)

of arbitrary volume with no body forces subjected to the traction ti = 3κAni ,

where κ = λ + 2µ/3 ≡bulk modulus. Then it follows that

(1)

eij = Aδ ij ⇒ σ ij = 3κAδ ij

Let ui , eij , fi and ti denote a second possible state of the body. Then by putting

(1)

fi = 0 and using the Betty-Rayleigh reciprocity theorem we obtain

Z Z Z

(1) (2) (2) (1) (2) (1)

σij eij dV = fi ui dV + ti ui dB

V V B

By substituting eij = eij , fi = fi and ti

= ti we get

Z Z Z

3κeii dV = fi xi dV + ti xi dB

V V B

R

But V

eii dV = ∆V ≡ increase in volume due to deformation, thus

Z Z

1

∆V = { fi xi dV + ti xi dS}

3κ V S

which represents increase in volume of an elastic body due to the body force fi

and the surface traction ti .

68

4.3 Exact Solutions for Some Problems

For some problems in elastostatics, Navier’s equations can be integrated directly.

The integration constants can be found by using the boundary conditions.

Example 12 Consider a cylindrical tube of inner and outer radii a and b, re-

spectively subjected to internal pressure p and the external pressure q. Solve for

the unknown displacement field in the tube.

Solution 12 Assume that there is no displacement in the z − direction, i.e.

uz ≡ 0. Due to symmetry we have

ur = u(r); uθ = uz = 0

The boundary conditions are then given by

σ rr (r = a) = −p; σrr (r = b) = −q

Recall that the equations of equilibrium are given by (no body forces)

(λ + µ)∇(∇ · u) + µ∇2 u = 0

Furthermore, in cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z) we have that

∂ ∂ ∂

∇f = (er + eθ + ez )f

∂r r∂θ ∂z

∂ur ur 1 ∂uθ ∂uz 1

∇·u = + + = u,r + u

∂r r r ∂θ ∂z r

u

∇(∇ · u) = er (u,r + ),r

r

We still need the term ∇2 u in cylindrical coordinates. In general we have that

∂ ∂ ∂

∇2 u = ∇ · ∇u = (er + eθ + ez ) · (∇u)

∂r r∂θ ∂z

However

∂ur 1 ∂uϕ ∂uz

∇u = er er + (ur + )eϕ eϕ + ez ez

∂r r ∂ϕ ∂z

1 ∂uz ∂uϕ ∂ur ∂uz

+ eϕ ez + ez eϕ + ez er + er ez

r ∂ϕ ∂z ∂z ∂r

∂uϕ 1 ∂ur

+ er eϕ + ( − uϕ )eϕ er

∂r r ∂ϕ

therefore,

∂ 1

∇u = ur,rr er er + [ (ur + uθ,θ )],r eθ eθ + uz,zr ez ez

∂r r

1

+( uz,θ ),r eθ ez + uθ,zr ez eθ + ur,zr ez er + uz,rr er ez

r

1

+uθ,rr er eθ + [ (ur,θ − uθ )],r eθ er

r

69

Consequently

∂

er · (∇u) =ur,rr er + uz,rr ez + uθ eθ

∂r

∂ ∂ ∂

where we have used the fact that ∂r er = ∂r eθ = ∂r ez = 0. Similarly we get

∂

ez · (∇u) = uz,zz ez + uθ,zz eθ + ur,zz er

∂z

1 ∂ 1 ur 2 1

eθ · (∇u) = ( ur,r − 2 − 2 uθθ + 2 ur,θθ )er

r ∂θ r r r r

2 1 1 1

+( 2 ur,θ + uθ,r − 2 uθ + 2 uθ,θθ )eθ

r r r r

1 1

+( 2 uz,θθ + uz,r )ez

r r

By collecting the last three results we obtain

1 ur 2 1

∇2 u = (ur,rr + ur,r − 2 − 2 uθ,θ + 2 ur,θθ + ur,zz )er

r r r r

1 1 1 2

( 2 uθ,θθ + uθ,r − 2 uθ + 2 ur,θ + uθ,rr + uθ,zz )eθ

r r r r

1 1

+(uz,zz + uz,r + 2 uz,θθ + uz,rr )ez

r r

For axisymmetric case u =ur er = u(r)er , and ∂/∂θ = ∂/∂z ≡ 0 and we get

1 ur 1

∇2 u = (ur,rr + ur,r − 2 )er = (u,r + u),r er

r r r

Therefore, the equation of equilibrium for the cylinder problem becomes

d du 1

(λ + 2µ) ( + u) = 0

dr dr r

which can be solved for displacement

B

u = Ar +

r

Corresponding stress field follows from the equation σ rr = λd + 2µerr , where

du u

d = ∇·u= + = 2A

dr r

du B

err = =A− 2

dr r

Thus

B

σ rr = 2(λ + µ)A − 2µ

r2

70

Similarly

B

σ θθ = λd + 2µeθθ = 2(λ + µ)A + 2µ

r2

u B

eθθ = =A+ 2

r r

σ zz = λd = ν(σrr + σ θθ )

σ rr + σ θθ

σ rr + σ θθ = 2(λ + µ)d ⇒ d =

2(λ + µ)

Then the boundary conditions imply

B

σ rr (a) = −p ⇒ 2(λ + µ)A − 2µ = −p

a2

B

σrr (b) = −q ⇒ 2(λ + µ)A − 2µ 2 = −q

b

which can be solved for

pa2 − qb2 a2 b2 (p − q)

A= 2 2

;B =

2(λ + µ)(b − a ) 2µ(b2 − a2 )

Thus the displacement and stress fields are given by

B

u = Ar +

r

pa2 − qb2 a2 b2 (p − q)

σ rr = −

b2 − a2 (b2 − a2 )r2

pa2 − qb2 a2 b2 (p − q)

σθθ = +

b2 − a2 (b2 − a2 )r2

pa2 − qb2

σ zz = 2ν 2

b − a2

If there is no external pressure (q = 0) we have

pa2 b2

σ rr = (1 − ) ⇒ compression

b2 − a2 r2

pa2 b2

σ θθ = (1 + ) ⇒ tension

b2 − a2 r2

The maximum (minimum) stresses are then

a2 + b2

σmax = σ θθ (r = a) = p >p

b2 − a2

2a2 p

σmin = σ θθ (r = b) = 2 < σ min

b − a2

For thin cylinders d = b − a << 1 and a, b and r are nearly equal. Thus we have

pa2 b2 pa2 b2 pa

σθθ = (1 + ) = (1 + )≈

b2 − a2 r2 d(b + a) r2 d

71

1

which implies that σ θθ ∝ d. For thick pipes on the other hand we have that

b >> a which implies that

pa2 − qb2 q

A = 2 2

≈−

2(λ + µ)(b − a ) 2(λ + µ)

a2 b2 (p − q) a2 (p − q)

B = ≈

2µ(b2 − a2 ) 2µ

and thus

q p − q a2

u = − r+

2(λ + µ) 2µ r

2

a

σ rr = −q − (p − q) 2

r

a2

σ θθ = −q + (p − q) 2

r

For p = 0 we get that σ θθ (r = a) = −2q, i.e. twice the stress without the hole.

Finally, for r >> a we have that

qr

u = −

2(λ + µ)

σ rr = σθθ = −q

gitudinal deformation).

equation becomes

d du 1

(λ + 2µ) ( + u) + ρω 2 r = 0

dr dr r

Let

ρω 2

C≡

λ + 2µ

then the equation of equilibrium becomes

d du 1

( + u) = −Cr

dr dr r

which can be solved for

B r3

u = Ar + −C

r 8

72

For a bounded solution at r = 0 we choose B = 0. Thus

r3

u = Ar − C

8

du u 1

d = ∇·u= + = 2A − Cr2

dr r 2

du C

σ rr = λd + 2µerr = λd + 2µ = 2(λ + µ)A − (2λ + 3µ)r2

dr 4

u C

σ θθ = λd + 2µeθθ = λd + 2µ = 2(λ + µ)A − (2λ + µ)r2

r 4

C 2

σ zz = λd = 2λA − λr

2

Now the boundary condition at the surface of the shaft is given by

C

σ rr (r = a) = 0 ⇒ 2(λ + µ)A − (2λ + 3µ)a2 = 0 ⇒

4

2λ + 3µ

A = Ca2

8(λ + µ)

Consequently, the displacement and the stress fields are given by

Cr 2λ + 3µ 2

u = ( a − r2 )

8 λ+µ

C

σrr = (2λ + 3µ)(a2 − r2 )

4

C 2λ + 3λ 2

σ θθ = (2λ + µ)( a − r2 )

4 2λ + µ

λC 2λ + 3λ 2

σ zz = ( a − r2 )

2 2λ + µ

The the displacement and stress fields on the surface of the shaft are

Ca3

u(r = a) = (λ + 2µ)

8(λ + µ)

Ca2 µ

σ θθ (r = a) =

2

2 λµ

σ zz (r = a) = a

4(λ + µ)

Maximum stress at r = 0 is then

1 2

σrr (0) = σ θθ (0) = Ca (2λ + 3µ)

4

clusion loaded as shown in Fig. 4.3. Determine the unknown displacement and

stress fields in the plate and the inclusion.

73

s 0

r

q

s 0 s

l,m 2 2 a 0

l,m 1 1

s 0

74

Solution 14 Due to axisymmetry u =u(r)er and the solution of the Navier’s

equation becomes

Bi

u(i) = Ai r + ; i = 1, 2

r

so that the stress field is given by

(i)

2µi Bi

σ rr = 2(λi + µi )Ai −

r2

(i) 2µi Bi

σ θθ = 2(λi + µi )Ai +

r2

(i) (i) (i)

σ zz = ν i (σ rr + σ θθ ) = 4ν i (λi + µi )Ai

(1)

r = 0 requires that B = 0. In addition as r → ∞, we must have that σ rr → σ 0

or that

σ0

2(λ1 + µ1 )A1 = σ 0 ⇒ A1 =

2(λ1 + µ1 )

Continuity of displacement and traction fields at r = a then is expressed as

t(1) (2) (1) (2)

r (a) = tr (a) ⇔ σ rr (a) = σ rr (a)

which gives

B1

A1 a + = A2 a

a

2µ1

2(λ1 + µ1 )A1 − B1 = 2(λ2 + µ2 )A2

a2

The last two equations can be solved for the unknowns

σ0 (λ1 + 2µ1 )

A2 =

(λ1 + µ1 )(µ1 + λ2 + µ2 )

λ1 + µ1 − λ2 − µ2

B1 = σ 0 a2

(λ1 + µ1 )(µ1 + λ2 + µ2 )

Therefore, we can evaluate both displacement and stress fields throughout the

medium. In particular, the interface stresses between the plate and the inclusion

are calculated to be

σ (1) (2)

rr (a) = σ rr (a) = 2(λ2 + µ2 )A2

(1) 2µ B1

σ θθ (a) = 2(λ1 + µ1 )A1 + 12

a

(i)

σzz = 4ν i (λi + µi )Ai ; i = 1, 2

75

Example 15 Consider a spherical shell a ≤ R ≤ b subjected to internal pres-

sure p and external pressure q. Thus the boundary conditions are specified by

σ RR (R = a) = −p

σ RR (R = b) = −q

body forces)

(λ + µ)∇(∇ • u) + µ∇2 u = 0

we have for spherical coordinates with point symmetry that

du 2u d du 2u

∇•u= + ⇒ ∇(∇ • u) = eR ( + )

dR R dR dR R

We still need the ∇2 u−term. Thus we consider

µ ¶

∂ ∂ 1 ∂

∇2 u =∇ • ∇u = eR + eθ + eφ • (∇u)

∂R R∂θ R sin θ ∂φ

But

u u

∇u =u,R eR eR + eθ eθ + eφ eφ

R R

and thus

∂ d du

eR • (∇u) = eR

∂R dR dR

∂ 1 du u

eθ • (∇u) = ( − )eR

R∂θ R dR R2

1 ∂ 1 du u

eφ • (∇u) = ( − )eR

R sin θ ∂φ R dR R2

Consequently we obtain

d2 u 1 du u

∇2 u = [ 2

+ 2( − 2 )]

dR R dR R

d du u

= ( +2 )

dR dR R

Therefore, the Navier’s equations reduce to

d du u

( +2 )=0

dR dR R

Consequently, it follows that the displacement field is given by

B

u = AR +

R2

76

and the corresponding stress filed is

du

σ RR = λd + 2µeRR = λ∇ • u + 2µ

dR

du u du

= λ( + 2 ) + 2µ

dR R dR

B

= (3λ + 2µ)A − 4µ 3

R

du u u

σθθ = λd + 2µeθθ = λ( + 2 ) + 2µ

dR R R

B

= (3λ + 2µ)A + 2µ 3 (4.24)

R

du u u

σ φφ = λd + 2µeφφ = λ( + 2 ) + 2µ (4.25)

dR R R

B

= (3λ + 2µ)A + 2µ 3 (4.26)

R

Then from the boundary conditions we have that

B

(3λ + 2µ)A − 4µ = −p

a3

B

(3λ + 2µ)A − 4µ 3 = −q

b

from which it follows that

pa3 − qb3

A =

(3λ + 2µ)(b3 − a3 )

(p − q)a3 b3

B =

4µ(b3 − a3 )

Corresponding displacement and stress fields are then

pa3 − qb3 (p − q)a3 b3 1

u = 3 3

R+

(3λ + 2µ)(b − a ) 4µ(b3 − a3 ) R2

pa3 − qb3 (p − q)a3 b3 1

σ RR = −

(b3 − a3 ) (b3 − a3 ) R3

pa3 − qb3 (p − q)a3 b3 1

σθθ = σφφ = 3 +

(b − a3 ) 2(b3 − a3 ) R3

If q = 0 we obtain

pa3 4µ b3

u = 3 3

( R + 2)

4µ(b − a ) 3λ + 2µ R

3 3

pa b

σ RR = − 3 ( − 1) ≤ 0

b − a3 R3

pa3 b3

σθθ = σφφ = 3 (1 + )>0

b − a3 2R3

77

The maximum stresses at R = a are

pa3 b3

σ RR−Max = σ φφ−Max = (1 + )

b3 − a3 2a3

For a thin shell, d = b − a << a it follows that

pa3 b3 pa

σ θθ = σ φφ = 2 2

(1 + 3

)≈

(a + ab + b )d 2R 2d

For a very thick sphere, b >> a, we have that

qR (p − q)a3

u = − +

3λ + 2µ 4µR2

3

a

σRR ≈ −q − (p − q) 3

R

a3

σ θθ = σ φφ ≈ −q + (p − q) 3

2R

Consequently at R = a we have that

1

σRR = −p; σ θθ = σ φφ = (p − 3q)

2

Thus for a thick sphere and no internal pressure (p = 0) we have that

3

σθθ = − q

2

demonstrating that there is a stress concentration taking place at the cavity.

4.4.1 1-D Models

Definition 19 If the body force and the components of the stress tensor depend

upon one spatial variable, say x1 , we talk about 1-D models.

Equation of equilibrium then becomes

σ i1,1 + fi = 0 (4.27)

and we distinguish three cases:

1. Longitudinal Strain

u1 = u1 (x1 ); u2 = u3 = 0 (4.28)

Then the strain and stress tensors are given by

u1,1 0 0

e = 0 0 0

0 0 0

(λ + 2µ)u1,1 0 0

σ = 0 λu1,1 0 (4.29)

0 0 λu1,1

78

Equation of equilibrium is given by

(λ + 2µ)u1,11 + fi = 0 (4.30)

2. Longitudinal Stress

σ 11 = σ 11 (x1 ); σ ij = 0; i, j 6= 1 (4.31)

Thus the stress tensor is defined by

σ 11 0 0

σ= 0 0 0 (4.32)

0 0 0

Since

σ 22 = λekk + 2µe22 = 0

σ 33 = λekk + 2µe33 = 0

it is easy to show that

e22 = e33 (4.33)

The from the condition σ 22 = 0 it follows that

λ

e22 = e33 = − e11 = νe11 (4.34)

2 (λ + µ)

where ν denotes the Poisson’s ratio. Finally, the stress filed is described

by

3λ + 2µ

σ 11 = µ e11 = Ee11 (4.35)

λ+µ

where E denotes Young’s modulus.

3. Shear, defined in terms of displacement field which is in the plane perpen-

dicular to the x1 −axis

u =u2 (x1 )e2 + u3 (x1 )e3 (4.36)

Then the strain and stress tensors are given by

1 1

0 2 u2,1 2 u3,1

e = 2 u2,1

1

0 0

1

u3,1 0 0

2

0 µu2,1 µu3,1

= µu2,1 0 0 (4.37)

µu3,1 0 0

The Navier’s equation reduce to two uncoupled equations

λu2,11 + f2 = 0

λu3,11 + f3 = 0 (4.38)

79

4.4.2 Two-dimensional Problems

Definition 20 The body forces and stresses are independent of one spatial co-

ordinate, say x3 .

∂

Therefore, ∂x3 ≡ 0 and the Navier’s equations reduces to

σ3β,β + f3 = 0 (4.39)

σ αβ,β + fα = 0; α, β = 1, 2 (4.40)

or

σ11,1 + σ 12,2 + f1 = 0 (4.42)

σ21,1 + σ 22,2 + f2 = 0 (4.43)

It can be seen that Eqn. 4.41 is decoupled from the Eqns. 4.42 and 4.43.

Definition 21 In this model the displacement field is assumed to be of the form

u3 = u3 (x1 , x2 ); ui = 0; i = 1, 2 (4.44)

loaded uniformly with tractions in the x−direction. Then the corresponding

strain and stress tensors are

1

0 0 2 u3,1

e = 0 0 1

2 u3,2

(4.45)

1 1

u3,1 u

2 3,2 0

2

0 0 µu3,1

σ = 0 0 µu3,2 (4.46)

µu3,1 µu3,2 0

σ 3α,α + f3 = 0 (4.47)

or

µ∇2 u3 (x1 , x2 ) + f3 = 0 (4.48)

Now the boundary conditions follow from the Cauchy’s law in the following

form

∂u3

T3n = µ(∇u3 ) • n =µ (4.49)

∂n

where n denotes an outward unit normal on the boundary surface S.

Example 16 State the boundary conditions for antiplane strain model depicted

by Fig. ??.

80

s 0

r

q

s 0 s

l,m 2 2 a 0

l,m 1 1

s 0

Solution 15 For diﬀerent surfaces the boundary conditions are stated as fol-

lows:

∂w

| x |> a; 0 ≤ y ≤ h; ⇒ µ= T0

∂x

∂w

x = −a, − ≤ y ≤ h; ⇒ µ = −T0

∂x

∂w

y = h; | x |≤ a; ⇒ µ = T0

∂y

Definition 22 Plane state of stress parallel to xy−plane has σ zz = σ zx =

σ zy ≡ 0.

Physically that corresponds to a thin plate in the xy−plane loaded with

traction vectors in the same plane.

The strain field follows from

1

eij = [(1 + ν)σ ij − νσkk δ ij ]

E

81

to be

1

exx = (σ xx − νσ yy )

E

1

eyy = (σ yy − νσ xx )

E

ν

ezz = − (σxx + σ yy )

E

exz = eyz = 0 (4.50)

From

ν

σ ij = 2µ[ ekk δ ij + eij ] (4.51)

1 − 2ν

we obtain first that σzz = 0 implies that

ν

ezz = − (exx + eyy ) (4.52)

1−ν

Based on this result the corresponding stress field is calculated to be

2µ E

σ xx = (exx + νeyy ) = (exx + νeyy )

1−ν 1 − ν2

E

σ yy = (eyy + νexx )

1 − ν2

E

σ xy = 2µexy = exy (4.53)

1+ν

where we have used the fact that E = 2µ(1 + ν).

Note:

E

σ xx + σ yy = (exx + eyy )

1−ν

∂u ∂v

exx + eyy = + (4.54)

∂x ∂y

Equation of equilibrium becomes

∂σ xx ∂σ xy

+ + fx = 0

∂x ∂y

∂σ xy ∂σ yy

+ + fy = 0 (4.55)

∂x ∂y

Substitution for stresses in terms of strains and then using eij = (ui,j +uj,i )/2

leads to the equations of equilibrium for PSS to be

∂2u ∂2u 1 + ν ∂ ∂u ∂v

µ( + 2)+µ ( + ) + fx = 0

∂x2 ∂y 1 − ν ∂x ∂x ∂y

∂2v ∂2v 1 + ν ∂ ∂u ∂v

µ( 2 + 2 ) + µ ( + ) + fy = 0 (4.56)

∂x ∂y 1 − ν ∂y ∂x ∂y

82

or

1+ν

µ∇2 u + µ ∇∇ • u + f = 0 (4.57)

1−ν

· ¸

u

u =

v

Definition 23 We say that the model is of the plane strain type if

the z-axis subjected to tractions which are uniform along the cylinder’s axis.

First, based on the prescribed from of the displacement field we obtain that

ezz = 0 implies that

σ zz = ν(σ xx + σ yy ) (4.59)

Using that result the stresses (4.51) are calculated to be

ν ∂u ∂v ∂u

σ xx = 2µ[ ( + )+ ]

1 − 2ν ∂x ∂y ∂x

ν ∂u ∂v ∂v

σ yy = 2µ[ ( + )+ ]

1 − 2ν ∂x ∂y ∂y

∂u ∂v

σxy = µ( + ) (4.60)

∂y ∂x

The Navier’s equations for plane strain model become

1

µ∇2 u + µ ∇∇ • u + f = 0 (4.61)

1 − 2ν

· ¸

u

u =

v

By comparing Eqns. 4.61 and 4.57 it is evident that the only diﬀerence

1+ν 1

between the two is in the factors 1−ν and 1−2ν . Therefore, if ν in Eq. 3.35 is

replaced by ν/ (1 + ν), then Eqns. 4.61 and 4.57 will be identical. This suggests

that any solution of plane strain equation of equilibrium may be solved as a

plane stress problem by replacing the true value of ν by the ”apparent value”

ν/(1 + ν). Conversely, any plane stress problem may be solved as a plane strain

problem by replacing true ν by an apparent ν/(1 − ν).

83

4.4.3 Solution of 2D Elastostatic Problems in Terms of

Stresses

Equations of equilibrium

∂σ xx ∂σ xy

+ + fx = 0 (4.62)

∂x ∂y

∂σ xy ∂σ yy

+ + fy = 0 (4.63)

∂x ∂y

consist of two equations with three unknowns. Thus we need to use the com-

patibility equation

∂ 2 exx ∂ 2 eyy ∂ 2 exy

2

+ 2

=2 (4.64)

∂y ∂x ∂x∂y

By replacing the components of strain tensor in terms of stresses we obtain for

a plane strain model

1

exx = [(1 − ν 2 )σ xx − ν(1 + ν)σ yy ]

E

1

eyy = [(1 − ν 2 )σ yy − ν(1 + ν)σ xx ]

E

1+ν

exy = σ xy (4.65)

E

and consequently the compatibility equation becomes

∂2 ∂2 ∂ 2 σ xy

[(1 − ν)σ xx − νσ yy ] + [(1 − ν)σ yy − νσ xx ] = 2 (4.66)

∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂x∂y

By adding Eqns. 4.62 and 4.63 we obtain

∂ 2 σxx ∂ 2 σ yy ∂fx ∂fy ∂ 2 σ xy

2

+ 2

+ + = −2 (4.67)

∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x∂y

Finally, by adding Eqns. 4.66 and 4.67 we obtain the compatibility equation for

a plane strain problem to be

1 ∂fx ∂fy

∇2 (σ xx + σ yy ) = − ( + ) (4.68)

1 − ν ∂x ∂y

∂2 ∂2

∇2 = 2

+ 2

∂x ∂y

Therefore a plane strain problem in terms of stresses is defined by partial

diﬀerential equations

∂σ xx ∂σ xy

+ + fx = 0

∂x ∂y

∂σ xy ∂σ yy

+ + fy = 0

∂x ∂y

1 ∂fx ∂fy

∇2 (σ xx + σ yy ) = − ( + ) (4.69)

1 − ν ∂x ∂y

x ∈ D

84

where D denote the interior of the body domain. The following boundary

conditions must be satisfied

Tx = σ xx nx + σ xy ny

Ty = σ yx nx + σ yy ny (4.70)

x ∈ ∂D

Note for plane stress problem the compatibility equation becomes

∂fx ∂fy

∇2 (σ xx + σ yy ) = −(1 + ν)( + ) (4.71)

∂x ∂y

85

Chapter 5

Plane Elasticity in

Cylindrical Coordinates

Let displacement filed in polar coordinates (r, θ) for plane strain model be given

by

ur = ur (r, θ); uθ = uθ (r, θ); uz = 0 (5.1)

The corresponding strain and stress fields are given then (see Set #6)

1 1

err = ur,r ; eθθ = (uθ,θ + ur ); eeθ = (ur,θ + ruθ,r − uθ ); (5.2)

r 2r

erz = eθz = ezz = 0

2µ

σrr = λd + 2µur,r ; σθθ = λd + (uθ,θ + ur ); σ zz = λd;

r

ur 1

d = ur,r + + uθ,θ (5.3)

r r

1 uθ

σrz = σ θz = 0; σ rθ = µ( ur,θ + uθ,r − )

r r

Equations of equilibrium are then specified by (see Set#6)

1 1

σ rr,r + σ rθ,θ + (σrr − σ θθ¯)fr = 0

r r

1 2

σ rθ,r + σ θθ,θ + σ rθ + fθ = 0 (5.4)

r r

86

The strain-stress equations are given by

1 1+ν

err = (σ rr − λd) = [(1 − ν)σ rr − νσ θθ ]

2µ E

1 1+ν

eθθ = (σ θθ − λd) = [(1 − ν)σ θθ − νσrr ] (5.5)

2µ E

1+ν

erθ = σ rθ

E

Remark 12 Recall in Cartesian coordinates we have that

σ 22 = λ(e11 + e22 ) + 2µe22

σ r + σ 22 = 2(λ + µ)(e11 + e22 ) = 2(λ + µ)d

σrr = λd + 2µerr

σ θθ = λd + 2µeθθ

σ rr + σ θθ = 2(λ + µ)(err + eθθ ) = 2(λ + µ)d

Therefore

σ 11 + σ 22 = σ rr + σ θθ (5.6)

1

∇2 (σ11 + σ 22 ) + ∇ • f =0

1−ν

which in polar coordinates becomes

∂2 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 1 ∂fr fr 1 ∂fθ

( 2

+ + 2 2 )(σ rr + σ θθ ) + ( + + )=0 (5.7)

∂r r ∂r r ∂θ 1 − ν ∂r r r ∂θ

In this case the model is defined by

σ rz = σθz = σ zz ≡ 0

∂σ rr ∂σ θθ ∂σ rθ

= = ≡0

∂z ∂z ∂z

d = err + eθθ + ezz

σ rr = λd + 2µerr

σ θθ = λd + 2µeθθ (5.8)

σ zz = λd + 2µezz ≡ 0

87

Vanishing of σ zz results in

λ 2µ

ezz = − (err + eθθ ) ⇒ d = (err + eθθ ) (5.9)

λ + 2µ λ + 2µ

Also

σ rr + σ θθ

σ rr + σ θθ = 2λd + 2µ(err + eθθ ) ⇒ d = (5.10)

3λ + 2µ

Thus the strain-stress equations become

1 1

err = (σ rr − λd) = (σrr − νσ θθ )

2µ E

1

eθθ = (σ θθ − νσ rr ) (5.11)

E

1+ν

erθ = σ rθ

E

Recall in Cartesian coordinates the compatibility equation for plane stress model

is given by

∇2 (σ 11 + σ 22 ) + (1 + ν)∇ • f =0

and

σ 11 = λd + 2µe11 ; σ 22 = λd + 2µe22 ;

λ 2µ

e33 = − (e11 + e22 ); d = (e11 + e22 )

λ + 2µ λ + 2µ

so that

σ 11 + σ 22 = 2λd + 2µ(e11 + e22 ) = (3λ + 2µ)d

In polar coordinates σ zz = 0 implies that

λ 2µ

ezz = − (err + eθθ ) ⇒ d = (err + eθθ )

λ + 2µ λ + 2µ

d = err + eθθ + ezz

σ 11 + σ 22 = σ rr + σ θθ (5.12)

and the compatibility equation becomes

∂2 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 ∂fr fr 1 ∂fθ

( 2

+ + 2 2 )(σ rr + σ θθ ) + (1 + ν)( + + )=0 (5.13)

∂r r ∂r r ∂θ ∂r r r ∂θ

88

5.3 Stress Function in Cartesian Coordinates

Assume that the body forces can be derived from a potential V so that

(σ xx − V ),x + σ xy,y = 0

σ xy,x + (σ yy − V ),y = 0 (5.15)

σxx − V = φ,yy

σ yy − V = φ,xx (5.16)

σ xy = −φ,xy

φ,xyy − φ,xyy = 0

−φ,xxy + φ,xxy = 0

are trivially satisfied. The function φ is known as the Airy’s stress function.

Since the equilibrium equations are automatically satisfied by the stress func-

tion, we are left to check the compatibility equation (PSS)

By substituting into the last equation for the stress function, the compatibility

equation reduces to

∇4 φ(x, y) = −(1 − ν)∇2 V (5.17)

where

∇4 φ = φ,xxxx + 2φ,xxyy + φ,yyyy (5.18)

For plane strain (PS) model the compatibility equation in terms of the stress

function becomes

1 − 2ν 2

∇4 φ(x, y) = − ∇ V (5.19)

1−ν

In the case of zero body forces, the compatibility equations (for both PSS

and PS) reduce to a single biharmonic equation

∇4 φ(x, y) = 0 (5.20)

89

5.3.1 Solution of a Biharmonic Equation

Let’s consider a biharmonic equation

z = x + iy

z = x − iy (5.22)

it follows that

∂2 ∂2 ∂2

∇2 = + = 4 (5.23)

∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z∂z

4

∂

∇4 = ∇2 ∇2 = 16 2 2 (5.24)

∂z ∂z

Therefore, the biharmonic equation reduces to

∂ 4 φ(z, z)

=0 (5.25)

∂z 2 ∂z 2

Multiple integration of this equation results in

function G(z) of G(z)

G(z) = u(x, −y) + i(x, −y)

G(z) = u(x, y) − iv(x, y) (5.27)

φ − φ = 2 Im φ = 0

or

z([F (z) − H(z) + z[(H(z) − F (z)] + G(z) − J(z) + J(z) − G(z) = 0 (5.28)

90

Let us express the analytic functions F and G as

1

F (z) = [ψ (x, y) + iψ 2 (x, y)]

2 1

1

G(z) = ψ (x, y) + iψ 4 (x, y) (5.31)

2 3

then the stress function reduces to

where

ψ1 = 2 Re F (z)

ψ2 = 2 Im F (z) (5.33)

ψ3 = 2 Re G(z)

Now for an analytic function f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) the real and imaginary

parts must satisfy Cauchy-Riemann equations

This implies that u and v must be harmonic functions in the region of analyticity

of f (z), i.e.,

∇2 u(x, y) = 0 & ∇2 v(x, y) = 0 (5.35)

Therefore we must have that

∇2 ψ i = 0, i = 1, 2, 3 (5.36)

and Eq. 5.32 represents the most general solution of the biharmonic equation.

solving the biharmonic equation which is illustrated in the following two exam-

ples.

a3 3 b3 2 c3 d3

φ= x + x y + xy 2 + y 3 (5.37)

6 2 2 6

This stress function automatically satisfies the biharmonic equation ∇4 φ = 0

and the stresses are calculated to be

The constants a3,..., b3 can be chosen arbitrarily. However, stress function of the

form a polynomial of order four

a4 4 b4 3 c4 d4 e4

φ= x + x y + x2 y 2 + xy 3 + y 4 (5.39)

12 6 2 6 12

91

in order to satisfy the biharmonic equation ∇4 φ = 0 the coeﬃcients must satisfy

the following

a4 + 2c4 + e4 = 0 (5.40)

Since ∇4 φ = 0 is a linear partial diﬀerential equation the principle of super-

position can be used in order to solve certain problems exactly.

Plane Strain Case. For this model the strains can be calculated (see Set #8)

according to

1

exx = [σ xx − ν(σ xx + σ yy )]

2µ

Thus we have that

2µu,x = φ,yy − ν∇2 φ (5.41)

Similarly

1

eyy = [σyy − ν (σ xx + σ yy )]

2µ

leads to

2µv,y = φ,xx − ∇2 φ (5.42)

Let us assume that we can find function ψ such that

∇2 φ ≡ ψ ,xy (5.43)

Since ¡ ¢

∇2 ∇2 φ = ∇2 ψ ,xy = 0 (5.44)

we obtain that ψ must be a harmonic function, i.e.,

∇2 ψ = 0 (5.45)

φ,yy = −φ,xx ψ ,xy (5.47)

By substituting Eq. 5.46 into Eq. 5.41 and Eq. 5.47 into Eq. 5.42 we obtain

the following equations

2µv,y = −φ,yy + (1 − ν)ψ ,xy (5.49)

Integration of the last two equation provides the following relationships between

the displacements and the stress function

2µv = −φ,y + (1 − ν)ψ ,x (5.51)

92

L b

x O 2h

where

∇2 φ = ψ ,xy & ∇2 ψ = 0 (5.52)

For plane stress (PSS) model corresponding equations are derived to be

−1

2µv = −φ,y + (1 + ν) ψ ,x (5.54)

Example 17 Bending of a cantiliver beam loaded at its end section (Fig. ??.

d4 3

φ = −b2 xy + xy

6

Then the stresses are calculated to be

σxx = φ,yy = d4 xy

d4 2

σ xy = −φ,xy = b2 − y

2

σ yy = φ,xx = 0

d4 2

σ yy = 0 & σ xy = 0 ⇒ b2 = h

2

Solution 17 The force balance at the loaded end x = 0 can be stated as

Z h Z h

d4

P = (−σ xy )bdy = −b (b2 − y 2 )dy

−h −h 2

d4

= −b(b2 2h − 2h3 )

2∗3

93

which leads to the result

3P

d4 −

2bh3

Consequently the stress filed can be determined to be

3P xy 3P

σ xx = − ; σyy = 0; σ xy = − (h2 − y 2 )

2bh3 4bh3

Using the moment of inertia I of the cross section I = 2bh3 /3 it follows then

that

P xy P

σ xx = − ; σ yy = 0; σ xy = − (h2 − y 2 ) (5.55)

I 2I

These results denote the exact solution provided the sharing forces at the end are

distributed according to the same parabolic law as the shearing stress σ xy in Eq.

5.55 and if the intensity of the normal forces at the built-in end is proportional

to y. If the forces at the ends are distributed in another way, the solution is not

exact. However, this solution is found to be acceptable for cross sections away

from the ends. As for the displacement field we have that

2µu = −φ,x + αψ ,y

2µv = −φ,y + αψ ,x

∇2 ψ= 0 & ∇2 φ = ψ ,xy

½

1 − ν; P S

α =

(1 + ν)−1 ; P SS

In order to find the function ψ we proceed as follows. Equation

d4 3

∇2 φ = ∇2 (−b2 xy + xy ) = d4 xy = ψ ,xy

6

implies that

d4 2 2

x y + f (x) + g(y)

ψ=

4

Since ∇2 ψ = 0 there follows that

d4 2

f 00 (x) + g 00 (y) + (x + y 2 ) = 0 ⇒

2

d4 d4

f 00 (x) + x2 = −g 00 (y) − y 2 = const = a0

2 2

So

d4 2 2 a0 2 d4

ψ= x y + (x − y 2 ) − (x4 + y 4 ) + a1 x + b1 y + c1

4 2 24

Based on this result we can evaluate

d4 d4

φ,x = −b2 y + y 3 ; φ,y = −b2 x + xy 2

6 2

d4 2 d4 3

ψ ,x = xy + a0 x − x + a1

2 6

d4 2 d4 3

ψ ,y = x y − a0 y − y + b1

2 6

94

so that the displacement filed can be evaluated to be

2µu = −φ,x + αψ ,y

d4 d4 d4

= b2 y + y 3 + α( x2 y − a0 y − y 3 + b1 )

6 2 6

2µv = −φ,y + αψ ,x

d4 d4 d4

= b2 x + xy 2 + α( xy 2 + a0 x − x3 + a1 ) (5.56)

2 2 6

or

αd4 2 (1 + α)d4 3

2µu = x y− y − (a0 α − b2 )y + b1 α

2 6

(1 − α)d4 2 αd4 3

2µv = − xy − x + (a0 α + b2 )x + a1 α

2 6

These solutions cannot satisfy the required boundary conditions at x =

u = v = 0; x = ; −h < y < h

imate ”engineering” boundary conditions at x =

u = v = 0; v,x = 0; x = ; y = 0

Thus

u( , 0) = b1 α = 0 ⇒ b1 = 0

αd4 2 αd4 2

v,x ( , 0) = − + (a0 α + b2 ) = 0 ⇒ a0 α + b2 =

2 2

αd4 3 αd4 3 d4 3

v( , 0) = − + + a1 α = 0 ⇒ a1 = − (5.57)

6 2 3

Therefore the displacement filed is calculated to be (for PSS α = (1 + ν)−1 )

αd4 3

2µv(x, 0) = − x + (a0 α + b2 )x + a1 α

6

or

P

v(x, 0) = (x3 − 3 2 x + 2 l3 )

6EI

The strength of material solution is given by

P 3

v(0, 0) =

3EI

It should be emphasized that our solution is an approximate one since it does not

satisfy all the boundary conditions. The results become more and more accurate

as the distance from the ends increases.

95

5.4 Airy Stress Function in Polar Coordinates

Recall for plane strain model in polar coordinates we have the strain-displacement

equations of the form

err = ur,r

1

eθθ = (uθ,θ + ur )

r

1

erθ = (ur,θ + ruθ,r − uθ )

2r

erz = eθz = ezz = 0 (5.58)

Corresponding equilibrium equations are

1 1

σ rr,r + σ rθ,θ + (σ rr − σ θθ ) + fr = 0

r r

1 2

σ rθ,r + σ θθ,θ + σ rθ + fθ = 0 (5.59)

r r

Stress-strain equations are specified by

1+ν

err = [(1 − ν)σ rr − νσ θθ ]

E

1+ν

eθθ = [(1 − ν)σ θθ − νσ rr ] (5.60)

E

or

2µerr = (1 − ν)σ rr − νσ θθ = −σθθ + (1 − ν)(σrr + σ θθ )

2µeθθ = (1 − ν)σ θθ − νσrr = −σrr + (1 − ν)(σ rr + σ θθ ) (5.61)

Equilibrium equations for zero body force can be written as

(rσ rr ),r + σ rθ,θ − σ θθ = 0

(r2 σ rθ ),r + rσ θθ,θ = 0 (5.62)

In order to introduce the stress function in polar coordinates we define first the

transformation from Cartesian to polar coordinates

x = r cos θ; y = r sin θ

y

r2 = x2 + y 2 ; θ = tan−1

x

sin θ cos θ

r,x = cos θ; r,y = sin θ; θ,x = − ; θ,y = (5.63)

r r

Therefore, we have that

cos θ

φ,y = φ,r r,y + φ,θ θ,y = φ,r sin θ + φ,θ (5.64)

r

1 1 1

φ,yy = ( φ,r + φ ) cos2 θ + φ,rr sin2 θ + ( φ,θ ),r sin 2θ (5.65)

r r2 ,θθ r

1 1 2 2 1

φ,xx = ( φ,r + φ ) sin θ + φ,rr cos θ − ( φ,θ ),r sin 2θ (5.66)

r r2 ,θθ r

96

s s s

s

q yy

q r

xy

s

y s s rq

xy

xx

y

r s

s rr

s rq

rr s q r s q

q q

x

O x

conditions for the first element yield

1 1

σ rr = φ + φ

r ,r r2 ,θθ

σ θθ = φ,rr

1

σ rθ = −( φ,θ ),r (5.69)

r

which expresses stresses in terms of the stress function in polar coordinates.

It is easy to verify that stresses calculated from Eqns. 5.69 identically satisfy

equations of equilibrium Eq. 5.62.

Now the compatibility equation in cylindrical coordinates is given by

∇2 (σ xx + σ yy ) = ∇2 (σ rr + σ θθ ) = 0

or

∂2 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 ∂2 1 ∂ 1 ∂2

∇4 φ = ( 2

+ + 2 2 )( 2 + + 2 2) = 0 (5.70)

∂r r ∂r r ∂θ ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ

Also,

∇2 φ = φ,xx + φ,yy = σ xx + σ yy = σ rr + σ θθ (5.71)

From strain-stress equations 5.60 it follows that

97

or

2µur,r = −φ,rr + (1 − ν)∇2 φ; (P S) (5.72)

Now let’s introduce an auxiliary function ψ such that

1

2µ (ur + uθ,θ ) = −σ rr + (1 − ν)(σ rr + σ θθ )

r

1 1

= −( φ,r + 2 φ,θθ ) + 1 − ν)∇2 φ

r r

From the last result it follows then that

1

2µuθ,θ = −φ,r − φ,θθ + (1 − ν)r∇2 φ + φ,r − (1 − ν)rψ ,θ

r

1

= − φ,θθ + (1 − ν)r[∇2 φ − ψ ,θ ]

r

1

= − φ,θθ + (1 − ν)r2 ψ ,rθ

r

which after integration provides

1

2µuθ = − φ,θ + (1 − ν)r2 ψ ,r ; (P S) (5.75)

r

Therefore, Eqns. 5.74 and 5.75 relate stress function φ and auxiliary function

ψ to displacement field in polar coordinates. In order to examine further the

properties of the auxiliary function ψ we recall that

1 σ rθ 1 1

erθ = (ur,θ + ruθ,r − uθ ) = = − ( φ,θ ),r

2r 2µ 2µ r

Therefore

1

2µ(ur,θ + ruθ,r − uθ ) = −2r( φ,θ ),r

r

or

1 1

−φrθ + (1 − ν)rψ ,θθ + r( φ − φ + 2(1 − ν)rψ ,r + (1 − ν)r2 ψ ,rr )

r2 ,θ r ,rθ

1 2

+ φ,θ − (1 − ν)r2 ψ ,r = φ − 2φ,rθ

r r ,θ

98

or

1 1

(1 − ν)r3 (ψ ,rr + ψ ,r + 2 ψ ,θθ ) = 0

r r

Thus we have that the auxiliary function ψ must satisfy

∇2 ψ = 0 (5.76)

equations relating the displacement field to stress function φ and the auxiliary

function ψ according to

1

2µur = −φ,r + rψ (5.77)

1 + ν ,θ

1 1 2

2µuθ = − φ,θ + r ψ ,r (5.78)

r 1+ν

Let’s consider a special case of stress function of the form

∂2 1 ∂ 1 ∂2

∇2 φ = ( 2

+ + 2 2 )gn (r) cos nθ

∂r r ∂r r ∂θ

d2 gn 1 dgn n2

= ( 2 + − 2 gn ) cos nθ = Gn (r) cos nθ (5.80)

dr r dr r

and thus

d2 1 d n2 2

∇4 φ = ( + − ) gn (r) cos nθ

dr2 r dr r2

2 2

d 1 d n

= ( 2+ − 2 )Gn (r) cos nθ (5.81)

dr r dr r

Thus biharmonic equation ∇4 φ = 0 becomes

d2 1 d n2 d2 1 d n2

( + − )( + − )gn (r) = 0 (5.82)

dr2 r dr r2 dr2 r dr r2

Case n=0

In this case Eqn. 5.82 becomes

d2 1 d d2 1 d

( + )( + )g0 (r) = 0 (5.83)

dr2 r dr dr2 r dr

Let

d2 1 d

G0 (r) = ( + )g0 (5.84)

dr2 r dr

99

Then Eqn. 5.83 becomes

dG

r2 G000 + rG00 = 0; G0 = (5.85)

dr

Now introduction of new variable t via

dt 1

r = et ⇒ = (5.86)

dr r

results in

dG 1 dG

=

dr r dt

d2 G d dG 1 d 1 dG 1 dG 1 d2 G

= ( )= ( )=− 2 + 2 2

dr2 dr dr r dt r dt r dt r dt

Consequently Eqn. 5.85 becomes

d2 G0

=0 (5.87)

dt2

which can be solved for

G0 (t) = A + Bt (5.88)

Now from Eqn. 5.84 it follows that

d2 1 d 1 d2 d 1 d2 g0

( 2

+ )g0 = 2 (r2 2 + r )g0 = 2 2 = A + Bt (5.89)

dr r dr r dr dr r dt

Integrating the last result twice produces

1 B

g0 (t) = (A − B)e2t + te2t + Ct + D (5.90)

4 4

or

g0 (r) = a0 r2 + b0 r2 ln r + c0 + d0 ln r = φ(r, θ); n = 0 (5.91)

Case n=1

In this case Eqn. 5.82 becomes

d2 1 d 1

( + − )2 g1 = 0 (5.92)

dr2 r dr r2

Let

d2 1 d 1

( + − )g1 (r) = G1 (r) (5.93)

dr2 r dr r2

then Eqn. (5.92) implies

d2 G1

− G1 = 0 (5.95)

dt2

100

which solution is given by

d2 1 d 1 1 2 d2 d

( 2

+ − 2 )g1 = 2

(r 2

+ r − 1)g1

dr r dr r r dr dr

1 d2 g1

= ( − g1 ) = Aet + Be−t

r2 dt2

or

d2 g1

− g1 = Ae3t + Bet (5.96)

dt2

The homogeneous and particular solutions of the last equation are given by

g1p = a1 e3t + c1 tet (5.98)

or

g1 (r) = a1 r3 + b1 r + c1 r ln r + d1 r−1 (5.99)

Case n>1

In this case Eqn. 5.82 becomes

d2 1 d n2

( 2

+ − 2 )2 gn (r) = 0 (5.100)

dr r dr r

As before, let

d2 1 d n2

Gn (r) = ( + − )gn (r) (5.101)

dr2 r dr r2

Then Eqn. 5.100 implies

1 n2

G00n + G0n − 2 Gn = 0 (5.102)

r r

Introducing a change of variable according to Eqn. 5.86 the last equation be-

comes

d2 Gn

− n2 Gn = 0 (5.103)

dt2

which can be solved to give

101

Consequently

d2 1 d n2 1 2 d2 d

( + − )gn (r) = (r + r − n2 )gn

dr2 r dr r2 r 2 dr 2 dr

1 d2 2

= ( − n )gn = Gn

r2 dt2

which implies that

d2

( − n2 )gn (t) = Ae(n+2)t + Be(−n+2)t (5.105)

dt2

Homogeneous and particular solutions of the last equation are given by

gnp = an e(n+2)t + cn e(−n+2)t (5.107)

or

gn (r) = an rn+2 + bn rn + cn r−n+2 + dn r−n ; n > 1 (5.108)

Based on the stress function just derived we proceed with evaluation of corre-

sponding stress and displacement fields. For that purpose we utilize the follow-

ing equations

1 1

σ rr = φ + φ

r ,r r2 ,θθ

σ θθ = φ,rr

1

σ rθ = −( φ,θ ),r

r

1

2µuθ = − φ,θ + αr2 ψ ,r

r

(1 − ν); P S

α =

(1 + ν)−1 ; P SS

∇2 φ = (rψ ,θ ),r

∇2 ψ = 0

Case n=0

102

φ = a0 r2 + b0 r2 ln r + c0 + d0 ln r

1 1 d0

σ rr = φ + φ = 2a0 + b0 (1 + 2 ln r) + 2 (5.109)

r ,r r2 ,θθ r

d0

σθθ = φ,rr = 2a0 + b0 (3 + 2 ln r) − 2 (5.110)

r

σ rθ = 0 (5.111)

For displacement field we have

2µur = −φ,r + αrψ ,θ (5.112)

Now since

∇2 φ = (σrr + σ θθ ) = (rψ ,θ ),r ⇒

4a0 + 4b0 (1 + ln r) = (rψ ,θ ),r

we get that

c + 4a0 r + 4b0 r ln r = rψ ,θ (5.113)

Using the last results in Eqn. 5.112 results in

d0

2µur = −(2a0 r + 2b0 r ln r + b0 r + ) + α(4a0 r + 4b0 r ln r + c)

r

or

d0

2µur = 2(2α − 1)a0 r + b0 r + 2(2α − 1)b0 r ln r − + 2µu0r (5.114)

r

Now from Eqn. 5.113 we get that

c c

ψ ,θ = 4a0 + 4b0 ln r + ⇒ ψ = 4a0 θ + 4b0 θ ln r + θ + D

r r

and thus

r2 ψ ,r = 4b0 θr (5.115)

Based on this result we get the tangential component of displacement

1

2µuθ = − σ ,θ + αr2 ψ ,r + 2µu0θ

r

or

2µuθ = 4αb0 rθ + 2µu0θ (5.116)

Case n=1

c1 2d1

σ rr = (2a1 r + − 3 ) cos θ (5.118)

r r

c1 2d1

σ θθ = (6a1 r + + 3 ) cos θ (5.119)

r r

c1 2d1

σrθ = (2a1 r + − 3 ) sin θ (5.120)

r r

103

Since

2c1

∇2 φ = σ rr + σ θθ = (8a1 r + ) cos θ = (rψ ,θ ),r ⇒

r

rψ ,θ = (4a1 r2 + 2c1 ln r) cos θ + c

d1

= −[(3 − 4α)a1 r2 + b1 + (1 − 2α)c1 ln r + c1 − ] cos θ

r2

+2µu0r (5.121)

2c1 c

ψ ,θ = (4a1 r + ln r) cos θ + ⇒

r r

2c1 c

ψ = (4a1 r + ln r) sin θ + θ + D ⇒

r r

r2 ψ ,r = (4a1 r2 − 2c1 ln r + 2c1 ) sin θ − cθ

d1

2µuθ = [(1 + 4α)a1 r2 + b1 + 2αc1 + (1 − 2α)c1 ln r + ] sin θ

r2

+2µu0θ (5.122)

Case n>1

In this case the stress function is given by

+(n − 1)(n − 2)cn r−n + n(n + 1)dn r−n−2 ] cos nθ

σ θθ = −[(n + 2)(n + 1)an rn + n(n − 1)nbn rn−2 (5.124)

+(n − 2)(n − 1)cn r−n + n(n + 1)dn r−n−2 ] cos nθ

σ rθ = n[an (n + 1)rn + bn (n − 1)rn−2 + cn (1 − n)r−n (5.125)

−(n + 1)dn r−n−2 ] sin θ (5.126)

Since

∇2 φ = σ rr + σ θθ = (rψ ,θ ),r

we have that

rψ ,θ = (4an rn+1 + 4cn r−n+1 ) cos nθ

104

Therefore, Eqn. 5.74 produces

−ndn r−n−1 ] cos nθ + 2µu0r (5.127)

r2 ψ ,r = 4(an rn+1 − cn r−n−1 ) sin nθ

+ndn r−n−1 ] sin nθ + 2µu0θ (5.128)

Plane Strain Model and n=0

α = 1−ν

2µur = 2(1 − 2ν)a0 r − b0 r + 2(1 − 2ν)b0 r ln r − d0 r−1

+2µu0r

or

1+ν

ur = [2(1 − 2ν)a0 r − b0 r + 2(1 − 2ν)b0 r ln r − d0 r−1 ] + u0r

E

4(1 − ν 2 )

uθ = b0 rθ + u0θ

E

α = (1 + ν)−1

1

ur = [2(1 − ν)a0 r − (1 − ν)b0 r + 2(1 − ν)b0 r ln r

E

−(1 + ν)d0 r−1 ] + u0r

4b0 rθ

uθ = + u0θ

E

Example 18 Consider a semicircular arch of inner and outer radii being a and

b, respectively loaded as shown by Fig. 5.3

105

2P

r

P q P

Q d Q

M M

Figure 5.3: A semicircular arch problem.

Solution 18 The boundary conditions along the curved surfaces of the arch are

specified by

σ rr = σ rθ = 0; r = a, b; 0 < θ < π (5.129)

while along the end section θ = 0, π we must have

Z b

σ θθ dr = −P ; θ = 0, π

a

Z b

σrθ dr = −Q; θ = 0, π

a

Z b

σ θθ rdr = −M − P d (5.130)

a

f (r) = a0 r2 + b0 r2 ln r + c0 + d0 ln r

g(r) = a1 r3 + b1 r + c1 r ln r + d1 r−1 (5.132)

106

The stress filed follows from Eqns. 5.109 to 5.111 and 5.118 to 5.120 to be

(A cos θ + B sin θ)

σ θθ = 2a0 + b0 (3 + 2 ln r) − d0 r−2 + (6a1 r + c1 r−1 + 2d1 r−3 )

(A cos θ + B sin θ)

σrθ = (2a1 r + c1 r−1 − 2d1 r−3 )(A sin θ − B cos θ) (5.133)

2a0 + b0 (1 + 2 ln a) + d0 a−2 = 0

2a0 + b0 (1 + 2 ln b) + d0 b−2 = 0

2a1 a + c1 a−1 − 2d1 a−3 = 0

2a1 b + c1 b−1 − 2d1 b−3 = 0 (5.134)

A[3a1 r2 + c1 ln r − d1 r−2 ]ba = −P

[a0 r2 + b0 r2 (1 + ln r) − d0 ln r]ba = −(M + P d) (5.135)

M0 2

a0 = − [b − a2 + 2(b2 ln b − a2 ln a)]

N2

2M0 2

b0 = (b − a2 )

N2

4M0 2 2 b

d0 = a b ln

N2 a

b

M0 = −(M + P d); N2 = (b2 − a2 )2 − 4a2 b2 (ln )2

a

A = P ; B = −Q

a2 b2 b

d1 = − ; N1 = a2 − b2 + (a2 + b2 ) ln

2N1 a

1 a2 + b2

a1 = ; c1 = −

2N1 N1

107

P

O

y

r

q

4M0 a2 b2 b r r

σ rr = − (− 2 ln − b2 ln + a2 ln )

N2 r a b a

P cos θ − Q sin θ a2 b2 a2 + b2

+ (r + 3 − )

N1 r r

4M0 a2 b2 b r r

σθθ = − ( ln − b2 ln + a2 ln + a2 − b2 )

N2 r2 a b a

P cos θ − Q sin θ a2 b2 a2 + b2

+ (3r − 3 − )

N1 r r

P sin θ − Q cos θ a2 b2 a2 + b2

σ rθ = (r + 3 − ) (5.136)

N1 r r

If M = Q = 0 we get

P cos θ a2 + b2 a2 b2

σ rr = (r − + 3 )

N1 r r

2 2

P cos θ a +b a2 b2

σ θθ = (3r − − 3 )

N1 r r

P sin θ a2 + b2 a2 b2

σ rθ = (r − + 3 ) (5.137)

N1 r r

Problem 1 Normal Line Load on a Half-Space

Let’s consider the problem depicted by Fig.(5.4).

We try now to solve this problem by choosing the following stress function

P

φ=− rθ sin θ (5.138)

π

108

O e

y

C -s rr

x

Figure 5.5: Local stress field on a small semicircle at the origin.

1 1 2P

σ rr = φ + φ =− cos θ

r ,r r2 ,θθ πr

σ θθ = φ,rr = 0

1

σ rθ = −( φ,θ ),r = 0 (5.139)

r

It should be noted that the surface of the half-space is stress free (excluding

the origin). For that reason it is necessery to examine the situation under the

load more carefuly. Suppose we cut-out an infinitesimal semicircle of material

at the origin as shown by Fig(5.5).

Due to the original loading, the resultant force acting on the cylinder C must

be in the x-direction and of magnitude P. Then

Z π/2 Z π/2

2P

−σ rr r cos θdθ = cos2 θdθ = P (5.140)

−π/2 π −π/2

(1 + ν)

err = ur,r = [(1 − ν)σ rr − νσθθ ]

E

1 (1 + ν)

eθθ = (uθ,θ + ur ) = [(1 − ν)σ θθ − νσrr ]

r E

1 1 uθ σ rθ

erθ = ( ur,θ + uθ,r − ) =

2 r r 2µ

109

we get

2(1 − ν 2 )P

ur,r = − cos θ (5.141)

πEr

1 2ν(1 + ν)P

(uθ,θ + ur ) = cos θ (5.142)

r πEr

1 1 uθ

( ur,θ + uθ,r − ) = 0 (5.143)

2 r r

The from Eqn.(5.141) we have that

2(1 − ν 2 )P

ur = − ln r cos θ + g 0 (θ) (5.144)

πE

and then from Eqn.(5.142) follows

uθ = sin θ + ln r sin θ − g(θ) + f (r) (5.145)

πE πE

for an arbitrary functions f and g. By substituting (5.144) and (5.145) into

(5.143) we obtain

g 00 (θ) + g (θ) + sin θ = −rf 0 (r) + f (r) = const = 0 (5.146)

πE

where primes denote diﬀerentiation. The last equation can be solved for

(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν)P

g = θ cos θ + a ∗ cos θ + b ∗ sin θ (5.147)

πE

f = d∗r (5.148)

Since Eqn.(5.148) represents the rigid-body motion (RBM) we may assume

d = 0. Consequently, the displacement fields can be calculated from Eqns.(5.144)

and (5.145)

ur = − ln r cos θ − θ sin θ + u0r (5.149)

πE πE

2ν(1 + ν) 2(1 − ν 2 )P

uθ = P sin θ + ln r sin θ

πE πE

(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν)P

+ (sin θ − θ cos θ) + u0θ (5.150)

πE

where the superscript 0 denotes the RBM.

In order to determine the RBM’s we assume: i) all the points on the x-axis

do not have any lateral displacement, and ii) one point at distance d from the

origin along the x-axis is fixed. Thus

2(1 − ν 2 )P

ur |θ=0,r=d = 0 ⇒ u0r = ln d cos θ

πE

110

which imples

(1 + ν) d

ur = P [2(1 − ν) cos θ ln − (1 − 2ν)θ sin θ] (5.151)

πE r

(1 + ν) d

uθ = P [sin θ22(1 − ν) sin θ ln − (1 − 2ν)θ cos θ] (5.152)

πE r

where we have used for convenience u0θ = −2(1 − ν) ln d sin θ. We should note

that uθ (θ = 0) = 0.

At the half-space surface (θ = ±π/2) we have thus

(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν)P

ur = −

2E

(1 + ν)P d

uθ = ± [1 − 2(1 + ν) ln ] (5.153)

πE r

which imples that the material is displacemed toward the origin.

We should note that the solution is not valid at the point of the load appli-

cation. Also, there is a log-singularity at infinity.

For a PSS model, the stress and displacement fileds can be obtained by

replacing ν with ν/(1+ν), while keeping µ = E/{2(1+ν)} unchanged. Therefore

we have that the displacement field is given by

P d

ur =

[2 cos θ ln − (1 − ν)θ sin θ]

πE r

P d

uθ = [(1 + ν) sin θ − 2 sin θ ln − (1 − ν)θ cos θ] (5.154)

πE r

Problem 2 Stress in a wedge subjected to a line loade at the vertex.

Consider an infinite elastic wedge subjected to a load P per unit length at

the vertex along the axis of the wedge (Fig.(5.6)).

Lets’s try the stress function

φ = crθ sin θ (5.155)

which implies the following stress field (PS)

1 1 2c

σ rr =

φ + φ = cos θ

r ,r r2 ,θθ r

σ θθ = φ,rr = 0

1

σrθ = −( φ,θ ),r = 0

r

2νc

σ zz = ν(σ rr + σ θθ ) = cos θ (5.156)

r

Let’s consider the equilibrium of the OAB portion of the wedge.

Z α

σ rr r cos θdθ + P = 0 (5.157)

−α

Z α

σ rr r sin θdθ = 0 (5.158)

−α

111

y

B

s rr

r

P q x

O C

2a

A

Figure 5.6: The wedge problem.

By substittuting the value of σrr in the last two equations we get from

Eqn.(5.157)

P

c=−

2α + sin 2α

and thus

2P cos θ

σrr = − ; σ θθ = σ rθ = 0 (5.159)

r(2α + sin 2α)

Note that

2P

σ rr (θ = π/2) = − cos θ

πr

which is the same result as for the half-space problem.

Problem 3 Wedge with a line load perpendicular to the x-axis.

Let’s consider the second wedge problem depicted by Fig.(5.141).

In this case we try

φ = drθ cos θ (5.160)

which provides

2d

σ rr = − sin θ (5.161)

r

σθθ = σrθ = 0 (5.162)

Balance of forces on the portion of the wedge can be stated as

Z α

Q

σrr r sin θdθ + Q = 0 ⇒ d =

−α 2α − sin 2α

112

y

s rr

Q r

q x

O C

2a

and thus

2Q

σ rr = − sin θ (5.163)

r(2α − sin 2α)

σ θθ = σ rθ = 0 (5.164)

Consider an elastic wedge as shown by Fig.(5.8).

We recall that the stress and displacement fields can be evaluated in terms

of the Stress function φ and the auxiliary function ψ, where

Let’s try

φ = rβ+1 F (θ) & ψ = rm G(θ) (5.166)

where β and m are unknown constants while F and G are unknown functions.

By substituting Eqn.(5.166) into (5.165) we get

∂2 1 ∂ 1 ∂2

( 2

+ + 2 2 )2 rβ+1 F (θ) = 0

∂r r ∂r r ∂θ

or

d2 2

[(β − 1)2 + ] F (θ) = 0

dθ2

113

y

r

O q x

2q o

G00 + m2 G = 0 (5.168)

1)θ

G(θ) = a1 cos mθ + a2 sin mθ (5.171)

β−1=m (5.173)

114

Then from Eqns.(5.170) ,(5.171) and (5.172) it follows that

4b3 4b4

a1 = − ; a2 = (5.174)

β−1 β−1

Based on these results functions φ and ψ become

φ = rβ+1 [b1 sin(β + 1)θ + b2 cos(β + 1)θ + b3 sin(β − 1)θ + b4 cos(β (5.175)

− 1)θ

4

ψ = [−b3 cos(β − 1)θ + b4 sin(β − 1)θ]rβ−1 (5.176)

β−1

Now displacement filed can be evaluates according to

2µur = −φ,r + αrψ ,θ

1

2µuθ = − φ,θ + αr2 ψ ,r

r

which provides

2µur = {−(β + 1)[b1 sin(β + 1)θ + b2 cos(β + 1)θ] (5.177)

+(4α − β − 1)[b3 sin(β − 1)θ + b4 cos(β − 1)θ]}rβ

2µuθ = {−(β + 1)[b1 cos(β + 1)θ − b2 sin(β + 1)θ] (5.178)

−(4α + β − 1)[b3 cos(β − 1)θ − b4 sin(β − 1)θ]}rβ

Now the stress field can be calculated using Eqns.(5.156) and (5.175)

σrr = −{β(β + 1)[b1 sin(β + 1)θ + b2 cos(β + 1)θ]

+β(β − 3)[b3 sin(β − 1)θ + b4 cos(β − 1)θ]}rβ−1 (5.179)

σ θθ = β(β + 1)[b1 sin(β + 1)θ + b2 cos(β + 1)θ]

+b3 sin(β − 1)θ + b4 cos(β − 1)θ]rβ−1 (5.180)

σ rθ = −β{(β + 1)[b1 cos(β + 1)θ − b2 sin(β + 1)θ]

+(β − 1)[b3 cos(β − 1)θ − b4 sin(β − 1)θ]}rβ−1 (5.181)

Since the both wedge faces are stress free we have that

σ θθ = σ rθ = 0; θ = ±θ0 (5.182)

Using Eqns.(5.180)-(5.182) we obtain

b1 sin(β + 1)θ0 + b2 cos(β + 1)θ0 + b3 sin(β − 1)θ0 + b4 cos(β − 1)θ0 = 0

−b1 sin(β + 1)θ0 + b2 cos(β + 1)θ0 − b3 sin(β − 1)θ0 + b4 cos(β − 1)θ0 = 0

(β + 1)[b1 cos(β + 1)θ0 − b2 sin(β + 1)θ0 ] + (β − 1)[b3 cos(β − 1)θ0 − b4 sin(β − 1)θ0 ] = 0

(β + 1)[b1 cos(β + 1)θ0 + b2 sin(β + 1)θ0 ] + (β − 1)[b3 cos(β − 1)θ0 + b4 sin(β − 1)θ0 ] = 0

or

b1 sin(β + 1)θ0 + b3 sin(β − 1)θ0 = 0 (5.183)

b1 (β + 1) cos(β + 1)θ0 + b3 (β − 1) cos(β − 1)θ0 = 0 (5.184)

b2 cos(β + 1)θ0 + b4 cos(β − 1)θ0 = 0 (5.185)

b2 (β + 1) sin(β + 1)θ0 + b4 (β − 1) sin(β − 1)θ0 = 0 (5.186)

115

uq uq

y ur y ur

O q x q x

O

-q -q

symmetric antisymmetric

ur ur

uq

uq

we must have

(β − 1) sin(β11)θ0 cos(β + 1)θ0 − (β + 1) cos(β − 1)θ0 sin(β + 1)θ0 = 0

or

sin 2θ0 β + β sin 2θ0 = 0 (5.188)

Therefore, for a wedge with both faces free, β must satisfy Eqn.(5.187) and

it produces antisymmetric displacements (see the b1 − and b3 −components of

displacements in Eqns.(5.177) and (5.178)). In order to produce symmetric

displacements (b2 − and b4 −terms) β must satisfy Eqn.(5.188).The symmetric

and antisymmetric diplacements for the wedge are shown by Fig.(5.9).

The solutions for β are in general complex numbers. For the displacement

field to be finite everywhere we need to have (see Eqns.(5.177) and (5.178))

Re β > 0 (5.189)

For the faces of the wedge being clamped, the boundary conditions are

ur = uθ = 0; θ = ±θ0 (5.190)

116

Stress−free Wedge

2.5

symmetric θ =0.9 π

0

1.5

0.5

−0.5

−1

−1.5

antisymmetric

−2

−2.5

−2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

β

b1 (β + 1) cos(β + 1)θ0 + b3 (4α + β − 1) cos(β − 1)θ0 = 0 (5.192)

b2 (β + 1) cos(β + 1)θ0 − b4 (4α − β − 1) cos(β − 1)θ0 = 0 (5.193)

b2 (β + 1) sin(β + 1)θ0 + b4 (4α + β − 1) sin(β − 1)θ0 = 0 (5.194)

Thus for a nontrivial solution for the two systems (5.191),(5.192) and (5.193),(5.194)

we have

(4α − 1) sin 2θ0 β − β sin 2θ0 = 0 (5.196)

respectively.

It is apparent from Eqns.(5.179)-(5.181) that the stresses are proportional

to rβ−1 . Thus, the stresses are finite at the corner for Re β ≥ 1 and unbounded

for Re β < 1.

Let’s evaluate the Eqns.(5.187) and (5.188). We choose the angle θ0 = 0.9π

and π/3. The results are displayed by Figs.(5.10) and (5.11).

117

Stress−free Wedge

3

θ =π /3

0

2

antisymmetric

1

−1

−2

symmetric

−3

−2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

β

118

y

r

x

O a

Figure 5.12:

It can be shown that for 0 < θ0 < π/2 the stresses are finite at the corner

(e.g., Fig.(5.11)). For π/2 < θ0 < π, the stresses are unbounded at the corner

(e.g., Fig.(5.10)). For the details see Williams[?].

5.199Therefore, in the far field we must have

σxx = σ 0 ; σ yy = σ xy = 0 (5.197)

Thef from the equilibrium of the elements depicted by Fig.(??) we have that

σ θθ = σ xx sin2 θ + σ yy cos2 θ − σ xy sin 2θ (5.198)

σrθ = (σyy − σ xx ) sin θ cos θ + σ xy cos 2θ

σ0

σ rr = (1 + cos 2θ)

2

σ0

σ θθ = (1 − cos 2θ) (5.199)

2

σ0

σ rθ = − sin 2θ

2

Let’s try the stress function of the form

119

Then from the general results in polar coordinates we have that

f (r) = A ln r + Br2 ln r + Cr2 + D (5.201)

g(r) = αr2 + βr4 + γr−2 + δ (5.202)

Since the stresses must be finite when r → ∞, we get B = β = 0.

From general results for stresses in polar corrdinates (with n = 0 and n = 2)

by taking into account that the stresses should remain bounded in the far filed,

we have that

A 6γ 4δ

σ rr = + 2C − (2α + 4 + 2 ) cos 2θ

r2 r r

A 6γ

σ rr = − 2 + 2C + (2α + 4 ) cos 2θ (5.203)

r r

6γ 2δ

σ rθ = (2α − 4 − 2 ) sin 2θ

r r

Now the boundary conditions at the hole are given by

σ rr = 0; σrθ = 0; r=a (5.204)

which become

A 6γ 4δ

+ 2C − (2α + 4 + 2 ) cos 2θ = 0

a2 a a

6γ 2δ

(2α − 4 − 2 ) sin 2θ = 0

a a

Since at infinity the fields repesented by Eqns.(5.199) and (5.203) must be

the same we have that

σ0

2C − 2α cos 2θ = (1 + cos 2θ)

2

σ0

2C + 2α cos 2θ = (1 − cos 2θ)

2

σ0

2α sin 2θ = − sin 2θ

2

and thus

σ0 σ0

C= ; α=−

4 4

so that the boundary conditions at the hole imply

σ0 2

A = −2Ca2 = − a

2

6γ 4δ

2α + 4

+ 2 = 0

a a

6γ 2δ

2α − 4 − 2 = 0

a a

Consequently, we obtain

σ0 σ0 2 σ0 4

A = − a2 ; δ= a ; γ=− a

2 2 4

120

and the stress filed becomes

σ0 a2 3a4 4a2

σ rr = [(1 − 2 ) + (1 + 4 − 2 ) cos 2θ]

2 r r r

σ0 a2 3a4

σ θθ = [(1 + 2 ) − (1 + 4 ) cos 2θ] (5.205)

2 r r

σ0 3a4 2a2

σ rθ = − (1 − 4 + 2 ) sin 2θ]

2 r r

The maximum stress is then given by

121

Chapter 6

Torsion

The paper by Saint-Venant (1853) to the French Academy contains not only the

author’s theory of torsion but it also gives an account of all that was known at

that time in the theory of elasticity.

Let’s consider an elastic cylinder with an axis z, and with the ends at z = 0

and z = L (Fig.(6.1)).

The shaft is subjected at its ends to a ditributed shearing stresses whose

resultant moment is a torque T. Let’s define the rotation angle about the z−axis

as θ. Then recall that

dθ T

= (6.1)

dz Jµ

where J is the polar moment of inertia and µ is the shear modulus.

Let’s define the cross section od the shaft perpedicular to the z−axis as

shown by Fig.(6.2).

For components of displacement field ui , Saint-Venant assumed that as the

shaft twistas the plane ross-sections are worped but the projections on the

xy−plane rotate as a rigid body, i.e.,

ur = 0

uθ = αrz (6.2)

uz = αφ(x, y)

Since

ur = ux cos θ + uy sin θ

uθ = −ux sin θ + uy cos θ

we have that

ux = ur cos θ − uθ sin θ (6.3)

uy = ur sin θ + uθ cos θ (6.4)

122

y

x

T

zy

r zx

R x

O

/R=C

n

Figure 6.2: Cross-section of the cylinder subjected to torsional loading.

123

Then from Eqns.(6.2)-(6.4) we have

u = −αyz

v = αxz (6.5)

w = αφ(x, y)

The equaions of equilibrium σ ij,j = 0 become

σ yx,x + σ yy,y + σ yz,z = 0 (6.6)

σ zx,x + σ zy,y + σ zz,z = 0

σ xx nx + σ xy ny = 0

σ yx nx + σyy ny = 0 (6.7)

σ zx nx + σ zy ny = 0

σzz = 0 (6.8)

Z

σ zx dxdy = 0 (6.9)

ZR

σ zy dxdy = 0 (6.10)

R

Z

(xσzy − yσ zx )dxdy = T (6.11)

R

where T is the torque applied at the ends. Equations (6.9)-(6.11) state that the

stress field σ zx and σ zy are equipollent to a torque T.

Now Eqns.(6.2) imply that the following stresses are zero

σ xy = σ xx = σ yy = σ zz = 0 (6.12)

∂φ

σ xz = αµ( − y) (6.13)

∂x

∂φ

σyz = αµ( + x) (6.14)

∂y

∂2φ ∂2φ

+ 2 = 0; (x, y) ∈ R (6.15)

∂x2 ∂y

124

Boundary conditions (6.7) become

∂φ

= ynx − xny ; on C (6.16)

∂n

The boundary conditions (6.9)-(6.11) now imply

Z Z

σ zx dxdy = αµ(φ,x − y)dxdy

R R

Z n

£ ¤ £ ¤ o

= αµ x(φ,x − y) ,x + x(φ,y + x) ,y dxdy

ZR

© ª

= αµ x(φ,x − y)nx + x(φ,y + x)ny dx

Zc · ¸

∂φ

= αµ x − ynx + xny ds = 0

C ∂n

due to Eqn.(6.16). Similarly, it follows that

Z

σ zy dxdy = 0

R

so it follows that the end conditions (6.9) and (6.10) are automatically staified.

The end condition (6.11) becomes

T = αµJ (6.17)

where Z

J= (x2 + y 2 + xφ,y − yφ,x )dxdy

R

the polar moment of inertia when the cross-section is circular. The same symbol

is retained for noncircular cross-section.

Therefore, the problem of torsion reduces to solving the following boundary

value problem

∇2 φ(x, y) = 0; (x, y) ∈ R (6.18)

∂φ

= ynx − xny ; (x, y) ∈ C (6.19)

∂n

The ends sections of the shaft are free to warp, and if stresses prescribed on

the end sections are exactly the same as those given by the solution, then the

exact solution is obtained, and the solution is unique. If the strerss distribution

acting on the end sections, while equipollent to the tprque T, does not agree

exactly with those given by Eqns.(6.13) and (6.14), then only an approximate

solution is obtained.

According to the principle proposed by Saint-Venant, the rror in the approx-

imation is signiﬃcant only in the neighborhood of the end sections.

According to the Divergence Theorem, we have that

Z Z

∂φ

∇2 φdxdy = ds = 0 (6.20)

R C ∂n

Therefore, condition for existence of the a solution φ is that the integral of

∂φ/∂n calculated over the entire boundary C must vanish.

125

6.2 Prandtl Theory

In this approach we take the stress components as the principal unknowns. If

we assume that σ xz and σ yz are nonzero, then the only equilibroum equation

to be cosidered is

σ zx,x + σ zy,y = 0 (6.21)

Prandtl proposed to use a stress function ψ(x, y) so that

σ xz = ψ ,y ; σ yz = −ψ ,x (6.22)

boundary condtions on C and the end conditions are specified by Eqns.(6.7)-

(6.11). The compatibility conditons are given by

1+ν ν

eij = σ ij − σkk δ ij

E E

the compatibility conditions become

ν

σ ij,lk + σ kl,ij − σ ik,jl − σ jl,ik = (Θ,kl δ ij + Θ,ij δ kl − Θ,jl δ ik − Θ(6.24)

,ik δ jl

1+ν

Θ = σ kk

in the last equation and by taking into account that σ ij,j = 0 (no body forces)

the compatibilty equations reduce to

1 ν

σij,kk + Θ,ij − Θ,kk δ ij = 0

1+ν 1+ν

Since σ kk = 0, we get that compatibilty equations become

∇2 σ xz = 0

∇2 σ yz = 0

∂ψ ∂ 2

∇2 ( ) = 0⇒ ∇ ψ=0

∂y ∂y

∂ψ ∂ 2

∇2 ( ) = 0⇒ ∇ ψ=0

∂x ∂x

or

∇2 ψ(x, y) = const in R (6.25)

On the boundary C we have that boundary conditions

σ zx nx + σ zy ny = 0

126

become

∂ψ dy ∂ψ dx dψ

+ = =0

∂y ds ∂x ds ds

or

ψ(x, y) = const on C

For a simply connected regions without loss of generality we can set

ψ(x, y) = 0 on C (6.26)

satisfied by the starting assumptions. As for the other conditions we have

Z Z Z

∂ψ

σ zx dxdy = dxdy = ψny ds = 0

R R ∂y C

Z Z Z

∂ψ

σ zy dxdy = − dxdy = − ψnx ds = 0

R R ∂x C

and

Z

T = (xσ zy − yσzx )dxdy

R

Z Z

= − (xψ ,x + yψ y )dxdy = − [(xψ),x + (yψ),y − 2ψ]dxdy

ZR Z R

= − (xψnx + yψny )ds + 2 ψdxdy

C R

which implies Z

T =2 ψdxdy

R

Therefore, in Prandtl’s formulation the torsion of a shaft can be posed as

following boundary-value problem

ψ = 0; f or (x, y) ∈ C (6.28)

Z

2 ψdxdy = T (6.29)

R

through boundary conditions on displacements. Namely, from

σ zy = µ(w,y + v,z ) = µ(w,y + αx)

we have that

σ xz,y − σ yz,x = −2αµ

127

or

∇2 ψ(x, y) = −2αµ (6.30)

where we have used Eqns.(6.22). By comparing Eqns.(6.30) and (6.27) we see

that the unknwn constant is equal to -2αµ.

Therefore, Prandtl’s torsion problem becomes

ψ = 0; f or (x, y) ∈ C (6.32)

Z

2 ψdxdy = T (6.33)

R

σ xz = ψ ,y ; σ yz = −ψ ,x (6.34)

x2 y 2

C: + 2 =1 (6.35)

a2 b

Let’s try the Prandtl’s stress function of the form

x2 y 2

ψ = A( + 2 − 1) (6.36)

a2 b

Then, using Eqn.(6.31) we obtain

a2 b2

A=− αµ

a2 + b2

and therefore

a2 b2 x2 y 2

ψ=− αµ( + 2 − 1) (6.37)

a2 + b2 a2 b

Now Eqn.(6.33) becomes

Z

2a2 b2 x2 y 2

T =− αµ ( + 2 − 1)dxdy (6.38)

a2 + b2 R a2 b

Z

x2 y 2

I = ( 2 + 2 − 1)dxdy

R a b

Z a Z √ 2 2 b 1−x /a

x2 y2

= 2 dx ( + − 1)dy

−a 0 a2 b2

Z a

4b x2 3/2 abπ

= − (1 − 2

) dx = −

3 −a a 2

128

Based on the last result qn.(6.38) states that

πa3 b3

T = αµ (6.39)

a2 + b2

The stress field is calculated to be

2T y

σ zx = ψ ,y = − (6.40)

πab3

2T x

σ zy = −ψ ,x = (6.41)

πa3 b

The resultant stress can be calculated according to

2T 1 x2 1 1

= [ 2 − 2 ( 2 − 2 )]1/2

πab b a b a

The maximum resulting stress is then

2T

τ max = ; at x = 0; y = ±b

πab2

Saint-Venant Approach

Since the stresses σ zx = ψ ,y and σ zy = −ψ ,x are known, we have that

σ yz = µ(αφ,y + αx) = −ψ ,x (6.43)

1 b2 − a2

φ,x = y + ψ ,y = 2 y

αµ a + b2

and thus

b2 − a2

φ= xy + f (y) (6.44)

a2 + b2

Using Eqns.(6.43) we have that

1 b2 − a2

φ,y = −x − ψ ,x = 2 x

αµ a + b2

f 0 (y) = const = 0

a2 − b2

φ=− xy (6.45)

a2 + b2

129

y

+ -

x

- +

Figure 6.3: w=const lines for an elliptical shaft under torsional loading.

a2 − b2

w = αφ = − αxy (6.46)

a2 + b2

Therefore, the curves w = const are represented by a family of hyperbolas as

shown by Fig.(6.3).

It is evident from Eqn.(6.46) that for a corcular shaft (a = b) there is no

worping of the cross-sections z = const, i.e., w = 0.

130

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