iii
Lesson 1.6: Systems of Nonlinear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
1.6.1: Review of Techniques in Solving Systems of Linear
Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
1.6.2: Solving Systems of Equations Using Substitution . . . . . . . . . 68
1.6.3: Solving Systems of Equations Using Elimination . . . . . . . . . . 71
1.6.4: Applications of Systems of Nonlinear Equations . . . . . . . . . . 75
References 273
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL – SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS (STEM) SPECIALIZED SUBJECT
Subject Description: At the end of the course, the students must be able to apply concepts and solve problems involving conic sections, systems of nonlinear equations,
series and mathematical induction, circular and trigonometric functions, trigonometric identities, and polar coordinate system.
CONTENT PERFORMANCE
CONTENT LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE
STANDARDS STANDARDS
Analytic The learners The learners shall be able The learners...
Geometry demonstrate an to...
understanding STEM_PC11AGIa1
1. illustrate the different types of conic sections: parabola, ellipse,
of...
circle, hyperbola, and degenerate cases.***
model situations 2. define a circle. STEM_PC11AGIa2
2
appropriately and solve 3. determine the standard form of equation of a circle STEM_PC11AGIa3
key concepts of problems accurately using
conic sections and conic sections and systems 4. graph a circle in a rectangular coordinate system STEM_PC11AGIa4
systems of of nonlinear equations 5. define a parabola STEM_PC11AGIa5
nonlinear 6. determine the standard form of equation of a parabola STEM_PC11AGIb1
equations 7. graph a parabola in a rectangular coordinate system STEM_PC11AGIb2
8. define an ellipse STEM_PC11AGIc1
9. determine the standard form of equation of an ellipse STEM_PC11AGIc2
10. graph an ellipse in a rectangular coordinate system STEM_PC11AGIc3
11. define a hyperbola STEM_PC11AGId1
12. determine the standard form of equation of a hyperbola STEM_PC11AGId2
K to 12 Senior High School STEM Specialized Subject – PreCalculus December 2013 Page 1 of 4
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL – SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS (STEM) SPECIALIZED SUBJECT
CONTENT PERFORMANCE
CONTENT LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE
STANDARDS STANDARDS
13. graph a hyperbola in a rectangular coordinate system STEM_PC11AGId3
14. recognize the equation and important characteristics of the
STEM_PC11AGIe1
different types of conic sections
15. solves situational problems involving conic sections STEM_PC11AGIe2
3
induction and the mathematical statements 3. use the sigma notation to represent a series STEM_PC11SMIIh3
Binomial and prove them using 4. illustrate the Principle of Mathematical Induction STEM_PC11SMIIh4
Theorem. mathematical induction 5. apply mathematical induction in proving identities STEM_PC11SMIIhi1
and/or Binomial Theorem. 6. illustrate Pascal’s Triangle in the expansion of 𝑥 + 𝑦 𝑛 for small
STEM_PC11SMIIi2
positive integral values of 𝑛
7. prove the Binomial Theorem STEM_PC11SMIIi3
8. determine any term of 𝑥 + 𝑦 𝑛 , where 𝑛 is a positive integer,
STEM_PC11SMIIj1
without expanding
9. solve problems using mathematical induction and the Binomial
STEM_PC11SMIIj2
Theorem
K to 12 Senior High School STEM Specialized Subject – PreCalculus December 2013 Page 2 of 4
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL – SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS (STEM) SPECIALIZED SUBJECT
CONTENT PERFORMANCE
CONTENT LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE
STANDARDS STANDARDS
Trigonometry key concepts of 1. formulate and solve 1. illustrate the unit circle and the relationship between the linear
circular functions, accurately situational and angular measures of a central angle in a unit circle STEM_PC11TIIa1
trigonometric problems involving 2. convert degree measure to radian measure and vice versa STEM_PC11TIIa2
identities, inverse circular functions
3. illustrate angles in standard position and coterminal angles STEM_PC11TIIa3
trigonometric
functions, and 4. illustrate the different circular functions STEM_PC11TIIb1
the polar
coordinate 5. uses reference angles to find exact values of circular functions STEM_PC11TIIb2
system 6. determine the domain and range of the different circular functions STEM_PC11TIIc1
7. graph the six circular functions (a) amplitude, (b) period, and (c)
STEM_PC11TIIcd1
phase shift
8. solve problems involving circular functions STEM_PC11TIId2
2. apply appropriate 9. determine whether an equation is an identity or a conditional
trigonometric identities in STEM_PC11TIIe1
equation
solving situational 10. derive the fundamental trigonometric identities STEM_PC11TIIe2
problems 11. derive trigonometric identities involving sum and difference of
STEM_PC11TIIe3
angles
4
12. derive the double and halfangle formulas STEM_PC11TIIf1
13. simplify trigonometric expressions STEM_PC11TIIf2
14. prove other trigonometric identities STEM_PC11TIIfg1
15. solve situational problems involving trigonometric identities STEM_PC11TIIg2
3. formulate and solve 16. illustrate the domain and range of the inverse trigonometric
STEM_PC11TIIh1
accurately situational functions.
problems involving 17. evaluate an inverse trigonometric expression. STEM_PC11TIIh2
appropriate trigonometric 18. solve trigonometric equations. STEM_PC11TIIhi1
functions 19. solve situational problems involving inverse trigonometric
STEM_PC11TIIi2
functions and trigonometric equations
4. formulate and solve 20. locate points in polar coordinate system STEM_PC11TIIj1
accurately situational 21. convert the coordinates of a point from rectangular to polar
STEM_PC11TIIj2
problems involving the systems and vice versa
polar coordinate system 22. solve situational problems involving polar coordinate system STEM_PC11TIIj3
K to 12 Senior High School STEM Specialized Subject – PreCalculus December 2013 Page 3 of 4
K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL – SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS (STEM) SPECIALIZED SUBJECT
Sample: STEM_PC11AGIa1
5
Uppercase Domain/Content/ Trigonometry T
Analytic Geometry
Letter/s Component/ Topic

Roman Numeral
*Zero if no specific Quarter First Quarter I
quarter
Lowercase
Letter/s
*Put a hyphen () in
Week Week one a
between letters to
indicate more than a
specific week

illustrate the different types
of conic sections: parabola,
Arabic Number Competency 1
ellipse, circle, hyperbola,
and degenerate cases
K to 12 Senior High School STEM Specialized Subject – PreCalculus December 2013 Page 4 of 4
Unit 1
Analytic Geometry
Stretching from Samar to Leyte with a total length of 2.16 kilometers, the San
Juanico Bridge has served as one of the main thoroughfares of economic and social
development in the country since its completion in 1973. Adding picturesque
e↵ect on the whole architecture, geometric structures are subtly built to serve
other purposes. The archshaped support on the main span of the bridge helps
maximize its strength to withstand mechanical resonance and aeroelastic flutter
brought about by heavy vehicles and passing winds.
Lesson 1.1. Introduction to Conic Sections and Circles
Lesson Outline
(1) Introduction of the four conic sections, along with the degenerate conics
(2) Definition of a circle
(3) Derivation of the standard equation of a circle
(4) Graphing circles
(5) Solving situational problems involving circles
Introduction
We introduce the conic sections, a particular class of curves which sometimes
appear in nature and which have applications in other fields. In this lesson, we
discuss the first of their kind, circles. The other conic sections will be covered in
the next lessons.
We introduce the conic sections (or conics), a particular class of curves which
oftentimes appear in nature and which have applications in other fields. One
of the first shapes we learned, a circle, is a conic. When you throw a ball, the
trajectory it takes is a parabola. The orbit taken by each planet around the sun
is an ellipse. Properties of hyperbolas have been used in the design of certain
telescopes and navigation systems. We will discuss circles in this lesson, leaving
parabolas, ellipses, and hyperbolas for subsequent lessons.
• Circle (Figure 1.1)  when the plane is horizontal
• Ellipse (Figure 1.1)  when the (tilted) plane intersects only one cone to form
a bounded curve
7
• Parabola (Figure 1.2)  when the plane intersects only one cone to form an
unbounded curve
• Hyperbola (Figure 1.3)  when the plane (not necessarily vertical) intersects
both cones to form two unbounded curves (each called a branch of the hyper
bola)
A circle may also be considered a special kind of ellipse (for the special case when
the tilted plane is horizontal). For our purposes, we will distinguish between
these two conics.
See Figure 1.7, with the point C(3, 1) shown. From the figure, the distance
of A( 2, 1) from pC is AC = 5. By the distance formula, the distance of B(6, 5)
from C is BC = (6 3)2 + (5 1)2 = 5. There are other points P such that
P C = 5. The collection of all such points which are 5 units away from C, forms
a circle.
8
Figure 1.7 Figure 1.8
Let C be a given point. The set of all points P having the same
distance from C is called a circle. The point C is called the center of
the circle, and the common distance its radius.
The term radius is both used to refer to a segment from the center C to a
point P on the circle, and the length of this segment.
See Figure 1.8, where a circle is drawn. It has center C(h, k) and radius r > 0.
A point P (x, y) is on the circle if and only if P C = r. For any such point then,
its coordinates should satisfy the following.
PC = r
p
(x h)2 + (y k)2 = r
(x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2
This is the standard equation of the circle with center C(h, k) and radius r. If
the center is the origin, then h = 0 and k = 0. The standard equation is then
x2 + y 2 = r 2 .
Example 1.1.1. In each item, give the
standard equation of the circle satisfy
ing the given conditions.
(1) center at the origin, radius 4
p
(2) center ( 4, 3), radius 7
(3) circle in Figure 1.7
(4) circle A in Figure 1.9
(5) circle B in Figure 1.9
(6) center (5, 6), tangent to the y
axis Figure 1.9
9
(7) center (5, 6), tangent to the xaxis
(8) It has a diameter with endpoints A( 1, 4) and B(4, 2).
Solution. (1) x2 + y 2 = 16
(2) (x + 4)2 + (y 3)2 = 7
(3) The center is (3, 1) and the radius is 5, so the equation is (x 3)2 + (y 1)2 =
25.
(4) By inspection, the center is ( 2, 1) and the radius is 4. The equation is
(x + 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 16.
(5) Similarly by inspection, we have (x 3)2 + (y 2)2 = 9.
(6) The center is 5 units away from the yaxis, so the radius is r = 5 (you can
make a sketch to see why). The equation is (x 5)2 + (y + 6)2 = 25.
(7) Similarly, since the center is 6 units away from the xaxis, the equation is
(x 5)2 + (y + 6)2 = 36.
(8) The center C is the midpoint of A and B: C = 1+4 , 4+2 = 32 , 3 . The
q 2 q 2
2
radius is then r = AC = 1 32 + (4 3)2 = 29
4
. The circle has
3 2 29
equation x 2
+ (y 3)2 = 4
. 2
Seatwork/Homework 1.1.2
Find the standard equation of the circle being described in each item.
p
(1) Center at the origin, radius 11 Answer: x2 + y 2 = 11
(2) Center ( 6, 7), tangent to the yaxis Answer: (x + 6)2 + (y 7)2 = 36
(3) It has a diameter with endpoints A( 3, 2) and B(7, 4).
Answer: (x 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 26
Ax2 + Ay 2 + Cx + Dy + E = 0, A 6= 0,
10
or
x2 + y 2 + Cx + Dy + E = 0,
we can determine the standard form by completing the square in both variables.
Completing the square in an expression like x2 + 14x means determining Teaching Notes
Recall the
the term to be added that will produce a perfect polynomial square. Since the technique of
coefficient of x2 is already 1, we take half the coefficient of x and square it, and completing the
square. This was
we get 49. Indeed, x2 + 14x + 49 = (x + 7)2 is a perfect square. To complete introduced in
the square in, say, 3x2 + 18x, we factor the coefficient of x2 from the expression: Grade 9.
3(x2 + 6x), then add 9 inside. When completing a square in an equation, any
extra term introduced on one side should also be added to the other side.
Example 1.1.2. Identify the center and radius of the circle with the given equa
tion in each item. Sketch its graph, and indicate the center.
(1) x2 + y 2 6x = 7
2 2
(2) x + y 14x + 2y = 14
(3) 16x2 + 16y 2 + 96x 40y = 315
Solution. The first step is to rewrite each equation in standard form by complet
ing the square in x and in y. From the standard equation, we can determine the
center and radius.
(1)
x2 6x + y 2 = 7
x2 6x + 9 + y 2 = 7 + 9
(x 3)2 + y 2 = 16
x2 14x + y 2 + 2y = 14
x2 14x + 49 + y 2 + 2y + 1 = 14 + 49 + 1
(x 7)2 + (y + 1)2 = 36
11
✓ ◆2
2 5
16(x + 3) + 16 y = 484
4
✓ ◆2 ✓ ◆2
2 5 484 121 11
Teaching Notes (x + 3) + y = = =
4 16 4 2
A common mistake
committed by
Center 3, 54 , r = 5.5, Figure 1.12. 2
students is to add 9
and 25
16
only. They
often forget the
multiplier outside
the parenthesis.
Seatwork/Homework 1.1.3
Identify the center and radius of the circle with the given equation in each item.
Sketch its graph, and indicate the center.
(1) x2 + y 2 5x + 4y = 46
5 15
Answer: center 2
, 2 , radius 2
= 7.5, Figure 1.13
(2) 4x2 + 4y 2 + 40x 32y = 5
13
Answer: center ( 5, 4), radius 2
= 6.5, Figure 1.14
12
? Example 1.1.3. A street with two lanes, each 10 ft wide, goes through a
semicircular tunnel with radius 12 ft. How high is the tunnel at the edge of each
lane? Round o↵ to 2 decimal places.
Figure 1.15
Solution. We draw a coordinate system with origin at the middle of the highway,
as shown in Figure 1.15. Because of the given radius, the tunnel’s boundary is
on the circle x2 + y 2 = 122 . Point P is the point on the arc just above the edge
of a lane, so its xcoordinate is 10. Wepneed its ycoordinate. We then solve
102 + y 2 = 122 for y > 0, giving us y = 2 11 ⇡ 6.63 ft. 2
13
of AB is 7+1
2
, 0+4
2
= ( 3, 2), and mAB = 41+70 = 12 , the perpendicular bisector
of AB has equation y 2 = 2(x + 3), or equivalently, y = 2x 4.
Since the midpoint N of BC is 1+7 2
, 4+2
2
= (4, 3), and mBC = 27 41 = 13 ,
the perpendicular bisector of BC has equation y 3 = 3(x 4), or equivalently,
y = 3x 9.
The intersection of the two lines y = 2x 4 and y = 3x 9 is (1, 6) (by
solving a system of linear equations). We can take the radius as the distance of
this point from any of A, B or C (it’s most convenient to use B in this case). We
then get r = 10. The standard equation is thus (x 1)2 + (y + 6)2 = 100. 2
Seatwork/Homework 1.1.4
? 1. A singlelane street 10 ft wide goes through a semicircular tunnel with radius
9 ft. How high is the tunnel at the edge of each lane? Round o↵ to 2 decimal
places. Answer: 7.48 ft
2. An archeologist found the remains of an ancient wheel, which she then placed
on a grid. If an arc of the wheel passes through A( 7, 0), B( 3, 4) and C(7, 0),
locate the center of the wheel, and the standard equation of the circle defining
its boundary. Answer: (0, 3), x2 + (y + 3)2 = 58
Exercises 1.1
1. Identify the center and radius of the circle with the given equation in each
item. Sketch its graph, and indicate the center.
14
(a) (b) (c)
2. Find the standard equation of the circle which satisfies the given conditions. Teaching Notes
To determine the
p equation of a
(a) center at the origin, radius 2 2 Answer: x2 + y 2 = 8 circle, we just need
to determine the
(b) center at (15, 20), radius 9 Answer: (x 15)2 + (y + 20)2 = 81 center and the
radius.
(c) center at (5, 6), through (9, 4) Answer: (x 5)2 + (y 6)2 = 20
Solution. The radius is the distance from the center to (9, 4):
p p
(5 9)2 + (6 4)2 = 20.
15
Solution. We need to determine the radius. This is best done by
sketching the center and line, to see that the center ( 2, 3) is 5 units
away from the nearest point on the line, ( 2, 8) (which is the point of
tangency).
Solution. Two circles are said to be concentric if they have the same
center. The standard equation of the given circle is
(x + 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 10. Thus, the circle we’re looking for has center
( 1, 2) and radius 7.
(x 4)2 + (y 5)2 = 52 .
Its radius is 5, so its area is 25⇡ sq. units. The circle we are looking
for should have area 100⇡ sq. units, so its radius is 10.
16
Solution. (Similar to the previous problem) Let P be the point of
tangency, so line CP is perpendicular to the tangent line. The tangent
line has slope 4, so line CP has slope 14 . Line CP passes through C,
so it has equation y 3 = 14 (x + 4), or y = 14 x + 4. Solving the system
{y = 4x 30, y = 14 x + 4} yields x = 8 and y = 2, the coordinates
p p
of P . The radius is then CP = ( 4 + 8)2 + (3 2)2 = 17.
? 3. A seismological station is located at (0, 3), 3 km away from a straight
shoreline where the xaxis runs through. The epicenter of an earthquake
was determined to be 6 km away from the station.
(a) Find the equation of the curve that contains the possible location of
the epicenter. Answer: x2 + (y + 3)2 = 62
(b) If furthermore, the epicenter was determined to be 2 km away from
the shore, find its possible coordinates (rounded o↵ to two decimal
places). Answer: (±3.32, 2)
Solution. Since the epicenter is 6 units away from (0, 3), it could be any
of the points of a circle with center (0, 3) and radius 6. The equation is
then x2 + (y + 3)2 = 62 . Next, we solve thispequation for x if y = 2, and we
get x2 = 62 (2 + 3)2 = 11, and so x = ± 11 ⇡ ±3.32.
4. A ferris wheel is elevated 1 m above ground. When a car reaches the highest
point on the ferris wheel, its altitude from ground level is 31 m. How far
away from the center, horizontally, is the car when it is at an altitude of
25 m? Answer: 12 m
Solution. The ferris wheel, as shown
below, is drawn 1 unit above the x
axis (ground level), center on the y
axis, and highest point at y = 31.
The diameter is thus 30, and the ra
dius 15. We locate the center at
(0, 16), and write the equation of the
circle as x2 + (y 16)2 = 152 .
If y = 25, we have x2 + (25 16)2 =
152 , so x2 = 152 92 = 144, and
x = ±12. (Clearly, there are two
points on the ferris wheel at an altitude of 25 m.) Thus, the car is 12 m
away horizontally from the center.
? 5. A window is to be constructed as shown, with its upper boundary the arc
of a circle having radius 4 ft and center at the midpoint of base AD. If the
17
vertical side is to be 34 as long as the base, find the dimensions (vertical side
and base) of this window. Round o↵ your final answer to 1 decimal place.
Answer: base 4.44 ft, side 3.33 ft
Solution. We put two lines corresponding to the xaxis and yaxis, as shown,
with the origin coinciding with the midpoint of the window’s base. This
origin is the center of the circle containing the arc. The equation of the circle
is then x2 + y 2 = 16. Let n be length of the base AD, so the side AD has
2 2
length 34 n. Point B then has coordinates n2 , 3n 4
. Therefore, n2 + 3n 4
=
16. Solving this for n > 0 yields n = p1613 . The base is then n ⇡ 4.44 ft and
the side 34 n ⇡ 3.33 ft.
Lesson Outline
(1) Definition of a parabola
(2) Derivation of the standard equation of a parabola
18
(3) Graphing parabolas
(4) Solving situational problems involving parabolas
Introduction
A parabola is one of the conic sections. We have already seen parabolas which
open upward or downward, as graphs of quadratic functions. Here, we will see
parabolas opening to the left or right. Applications of parabolas are presented
at the end.
Consider the point F (0, 2) and the line ` having equation y = 2, as shown in
Figure 1.18. What are the distances of A(4, 2) from F and from `? (The latter
is taken as the distance of A from A` , the point on ` closest to A). How about
the distances of B( 8, 8) from F and from ` (from B` )?
AF = 4 and AA` = 4
p
BF = ( 8 0)2 + (8 2)2 = 10 and BB` = 10
There are other points P such that P F = P P` (where P` is the closest point on
line `). The collection of all such points forms a shape called a parabola.
Let F be a given point, and ` a given line not containing F . The set of
all points P such that its distances from F and from ` are the same, is
called a parabola. The point F is its focus and the line ` its directrix.
19
point on ` closest to P . The point P has to be on the same side of the directrix
as the focus (if P was below, it would be closer to ` than it is from F ).
PF = P P`
p
x2 + (y c)2 = y ( c) = y + c
x2 + y 2 2cy + c2 = y 2 + 2cy + c2
x2 = 4cy
The vertex V is the point midway between the focus and the directrix. This
equation, x2 = 4cy, is then the standard equation of a parabola opening upward
with vertex V (0, 0).
Suppose the focus is F (0, c) and the directrix is y = c. In this case, a
point P on the resulting parabola would be below the directrix (just like the
focus).
p Instead of opening upward, it will open downward. Consequently, P F =
x + (y + c)2 and P P` = c y (you may draw a version of Figure 1.19 for
2
this case). Computations similar to the one done above will lead to the equation
x2 = 4cy.
We collect here the features of the graph of a parabola with standard equation
x = 4cy or x2 = 4cy, where c > 0.
2
20
• This line divides the parabola into two parts which are mirror images
of each other.
Example 1.2.1. Determine the focus and directrix of the parabola with the
given equation. Sketch the graph, and indicate the focus, directrix, vertex, and
axis of symmetry.
(1) x2 = 12y (2) x2 = 6y
Solution. (1) The vertex is V (0, 0) and the parabola opens upward. From 4c =
12, c = 3. The focus, c = 3 units above the vertex, is F (0, 3). The directrix,
3 units below the vertex, is y = 3. The axis of symmetry is x = 0.
(2) The vertex is V (0, 0) and the parabola opens downward. From 4c = 6, c = 32 .
The focus, c = 32 units below the vertex, is F 0, 32 . The directrix, 32 units
above the vertex, is y = 32 . The axis of symmetry is x = 0.
Example 1.2.2. What is the standard equation of the parabola in Figure 1.18?
21
Seatwork/Homework 1.2.1
1. Give the focus and directrix of the parabola with equation x2 = 10y. Sketch
the graph, and indicate the focus, directrix, vertex, and axis of symmetry.
Answer: focus 0, 52 , directrix y = 52
2. Find the standard equation of the parabola with focus F (0, 3.5) and directrix
y = 3.5. Answer: x2 = 14y
The parabolas we considered so far are “vertical” and have their vertices at the
origin. Some parabolas open instead horizontally (to the left or right), and some
have vertices not at the origin. Their standard equations and properties are given
in the box. The corresponding computations are more involved, but are similar
to the one above, and so are not shown anymore.
In all four cases below, we assume that c > 0. The vertex is V (h, k), and it
lies between the focus F and the directrix `. The focus F is c units away from
the vertex V , and the directrix is c units away from the vertex. Recall that, for
any point on the parabola, its distance from the focus is the same as its distance
from the directrix.
22
(x h)2 = 4c(y k) (y k)2 = 4c(x h)
23
Example 1.2.3. Figure 1.20 shows the graph of parabola, with only its focus
Teaching Notes and vertex indicated. Find its standard equation. What is its directrix and its
In finding the
equation of a
axis of symmetry?
parabola, we just
need to determine
the vertex and the
Solution. The vertex is V (5, 4) and the focus is F (3, 4). From these, we
value of c. deduce the following: h = 5, k = 4, c = 2 (the distance of the focus from the
vertex). Since the parabola opens to the left, we use the template (y k)2 =
4c(x h). Our equation is
Figure 1.20
The standard equation (y + 4)2 = 8(x 5) from the preceding example can
be rewritten as y 2 + 8x + 8y 24 = 0, an equation of the parabola in general
form.
If the equation is given in the general form Ax2 + Cx + Dy + E = 0 (A and C
are nonzero) or By 2 + Cx + Dy + E = 0 (B and C are nonzero), we can determine
the standard form by completing the square in both variables.
Example 1.2.4. Determine the vertex, focus, directrix, and axis of symmetry
of the parabola with the given equation. Sketch the parabola, and include these
points and lines.
24
(1) y 2 5x + 12y = 16
(2) 5x2 + 30x + 24y = 51
Solution. (1) We complete the square on y, and move x to the other side.
y 2 + 12y = 5x 16
y 2 + 12y + 36 = 5x 16 + 36 = 5x + 20
(y + 6)2 = 5(x + 4)
25
From 4c = 24 5
, we get c = 65 = 1.2. The focus is c = 1.2 units below V :
F ( 3, 2.8). The (horizontal) directrix is c = 1.2 units above V : y = 5.2. The
(vertical) axis is through V : x = 3.
Example 1.2.5. A parabola has focus F (7, 9) and directrix y = 3. Find its
standard equation.
Solution. The directrix is horizontal, and the focus is above it. The parabola
then opens upward and its standard equation has the form (x h)2 = 4c(y k).
Since the distance from the focus to the directrix is 2c = 9 3 = 6, then c = 3.
Thus, the vertex is V (7, 6), the point 3 units below F . The standard equation is
then (x 7)2 = 12(y 6). 2
Seatwork/Homework 1.2.2
1. Determine the vertex, focus, directrix, and axis of symmetry of the parabola
with equation x2 6x + 5y = 34. Sketch the graph, and include these points
and lines.
Answer: vertex (3, 5), focus (3, 6.25), directrix y = 3.75, axis x = 3
26
2. A parabola has focus F ( 2, 5) and directrix x = 6. Find the standard
equation of the parabola. Answer: (y + 5)2 = 16(x 2)
Example 1.2.6. A satellite dish has a shape called a paraboloid, where each
crosssection is a parabola. Since radio signals (parallel to the axis) will bounce
o↵ the surface of the dish to the focus, the receiver should be placed at the focus.
How far should the receiver be from the vertex, if the dish is 12 ft across, and 4.5
ft deep at the vertex?
27
Solution. The second figure above shows a crosssection of the satellite dish drawn
on a rectangular coordinate system, with the vertex at the origin. From the
problem, we deduce that (6, 4.5) is a point on the parabola. We need the distance
of the focus from the vertex, i.e., the value of c in x2 = 4cy.
x2 = 4cy
62 = 4c(4.5)
62
c= =2
4 · 4.5
Thus, the receiver should be 2 ft away from the vertex. 2
Example 1.2.7. The cable of a suspension bridge hangs in the shape of a
parabola. The towers supporting the cable are 400 ft apart and 150 ft high.
If the cable, at its lowest, is 30 ft above the bridge at its midpoint, how high is
the cable 50 ft away (horizontally) from either tower?
Solution. Refer to the figure above, where the parabolic cable is drawn with
its vertex on the yaxis 30 ft above the origin. We may write its equation as
(x 0)2 = a(y 30); since we don’t need the focal distance, we use the simpler
variable a in place of 4c. Since the towers are 150 ft high and 400 ft apart, we
deduce from the figure that (200, 150) is a point on the parabola.
x2 = a(y 30)
2002 = a(150 30)
2002 1000
a= =
120 3
y = 0.003(1502 ) + 30 = 97.5.
28
Thus, the cable is 97.5 ft high 50 ft away from either tower. (As expected, we
get the same answer from x = 150.) 2
Seatwork/Homework 1.2.3
? 1. A satellite dish in the shape of a paraboloid is 10 ft across, and 4 ft deep at
its vertex. How far is the receiver from the vertex, if it is placed at the focus?
Round o↵ your answer to 2 decimal places. (Refer to Example 1.2.6.)
Answer: 1.56 ft
Exercises 1.2
1. Determine the vertex, focus, directrix, and axis of symmetry of the parabola
with the given equation. Sketch the graph, and include these points and lines.
(a) x2 = 4y
(b) 3y 2 = 24x
5 2 9
(c) y + 2
= 5 x 2
(d) x2 + 6x + 8y = 7
(e) y 2 12x + 8y = 40
(f) 16x2 + 72x 112y = 221
Answer:
29
(a) (b) (c)
Solution. Since the axis is vertical and P is above the vertex, then the
parabola opens upward and has equation of the form (x + 5)2 = 4c(y + 7).
We plug the coordinates of P : (7 + 5)2 = 4c(11 + 7). We then get c = 2.
Thus, we have (x + 5)2 = 8(y + 7).
(g) vertex ( 5, 7), horizontal axis of symmetry, through the point P (7, 11)
Answer: (y + 7)2 = 27(x + 5)
Solution. Since the axis is horizontal and P is to the right of the vertex,
then the parabola opens to the right and has equation of the form (y +
30
7)2 = 4c(x + 5). We plug the coordinates of P : (11 + 7)2 = 4c(7 + 5).
We then get c = 6.75. Thus, we have (y + 7)2 = 27(x + 5).
3. A satellite dish shaped like a paraboloid, has diameter 2.4 ft and depth 0.9 ft.
If the receiver is placed at the focus, how far should the receiver be from the
vertex? Answer: 0.4 ft
4. If the diameter of the satellite dish from the previous problem is doubled, with
the depth kept the same, how far should the receiver be from the vertex?
Answer: 1.6 ft
? 5. A satellite dish is shaped like a paraboloid, with the receiver placed at the
focus. It is to have a depth of 0.44 m at the vertex, with the receiver placed
0.11 m away from the vertex. What should the diameter of the satellite dish
be? Answer: 0.88 m
? 6. A flashlight is shaped like a paraboloid, so that if its light bulb is placed at
the focus, the light rays from the bulb will then bounce o↵ the surface in a
focused direction that is parallel to the axis. If the paraboloid has a depth of
1.8 in and the diameter on its surface is 6 in, how far should the light source
be placed from the vertex? Answer: 1.25 in
7. The towers supporting the cable of a suspension bridge are 1200 m apart and
170 m above the bridge it supports. Suppose the cable hangs, following the
shape of a parabola, with its lowest point 20 m above the bridge. How high is
the cable 120 m away from a tower? Answer: 116 m
Lesson Outline
(1) Definition of an ellipse
(2) Derivation of the standard equation of an ellipse
31
(3) Graphing ellipses
(4) Solving situational problems involving ellipses
Introduction
An ellipse is one of the conic sections that most students have not encountered
formally before, unlike circles and parabolas. Its shape is a bounded curve which
looks like a flattened circle. The orbits of the planets in our solar system around
the sun happen to be elliptical in shape. Also, just like parabolas, ellipses have
reflective properties that have been used in the construction of certain structures
(shown in some of the practice problems). We will see some properties and
applications of ellipses in this section.
Consider the points F1 ( 3, 0) and F2 (3, 0), as shown in Figure 1.21. What is the
sum of the distances of A(4, 2.4) from F1 and from F2 ? How about the sum of
Teaching Notes the distances of B (and C(0, 4)) from F1 and from F2 ?
You may review
the distance AF1 + AF2 = 7.4 + 2.6 = 10
formula.
BF1 + BF2 = 3.8 + 6.2 = 10
CF1 + CF2 = 5 + 5 = 10
There are other points P such that P F1 + P F2 = 10. The collection of all such
points forms a shape called an ellipse.
Figure 1.21
Figure 1.22
Let F1 and F2 be two distinct points. The set of all points P , whose
distances from F1 and from F2 add up to a certain constant, is called
an ellipse. The points F1 and F2 are called the foci of the ellipse.
32
Given are two points on the xaxis, F1 ( c, 0) and F2 (c, 0), the foci, both c
units away from their center (0, 0). See Figure 1.22. Let P (x, y) be a point on
the ellipse. Let the common sum of the distances be 2a (the coefficient 2 will
make computations simpler). Thus, we have P F1 + P F2 = 2a.
P F1 = 2a P F2
p p
(x + c)2 + y 2 = 2a (x c)2 + y 2
p
x2 + 2cx + c2 + y 2 = 4a2 4a (x c)2 + y 2 + x2 2cx + c2 + y 2
p
a (x c)2 + y 2 = a2 cx
⇥ ⇤
a2 x2 2cx + c2 + y 2 = a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2
(a2 c2 )x2 + a2 y 2 = a4 a2 c2 = a2 (a2 c2 )
p
b 2 x 2 + a2 y 2 = a2 b 2 by letting b = a2 c2 , so a > b
x2 y 2
+ 2 =1
a2 b
p
When we let b = a2 c2 , we assumed a > c. To see why this is true, look at
4P F1 F2 in Figure 1.22. By the Triangle Inequality, P F1 + P F2 > F1 F2 , which
implies 2a > 2c, so a > c.
We collect here the features of the graph of an ellipse with standard equation
x2 y 2 p
+ = 1, where a > b. Let c = a2 b 2 .
a2 b2
• The vertices are points on the ellipse, collinear with the center and foci.
33
• If y = 0, then x = ±a. Each vertex is a units away from the center.
• The segment V1 V2 is called the major axis. Its length is 2a. It divides
the ellipse into two congruent parts.
• The segment through the center, perpendicular to the major axis, is the
minor axis. It meets the ellipse at the covertices. It divides the ellipse
into two congruent parts.
• If x = 0, then y = ±b. Each covertex is b units away from the center.
• The minor axis W1 W2 is 2b units long. Since a > b, the major axis is
longer than the minor axis.
Example 1.3.1. Give the coordinates of the foci, vertices, and covertices of the
ellipse with equation
x2 y 2
+ = 1.
25 9
Sketch the graph, and include these points.
p
Solution. With a2 = 25 and b2 = 9, we have a = 5, b = 3, and c = a2 b2 = 4.
Example 1.3.2. Find the (standard) equation of the ellipse whose foci are
F1 ( 3, 0) and F2 (3, 0), such that for any point on it, the sum of its distances
from the foci is 10. See Figure 1.21.
p
Solution. We have 2a = 10 and c = 3, so a = 5 and b = a2 c2 = 4. The
equation is
x2 y 2
+ = 1. 2
25 16
34
Seatwork/Homework 1.3.1
1. Give the coordinates of the foci, vertices, and covertices of the ellipse with
x2 y2
equation + = 1. Sketch the graph, and include these points.
169 25
Answer: foci: F1 ( 12, 0) and F2 (12, 0), vertices: V1 ( 13, 0) and V2 (13, 0),
covertices: W1 (0, 5) and W2 (0, 5)
2. Find the equation in standard form of the ellipse whose foci are F1 ( 8, 0) and
F2 (8, 0), such that for any point on it, the sum of its distances from the foci
x2 y2
is 20. Answer: + =1
100 36
The ellipses we have considered so far are “horizontal” and have the origin as their
centers. Some ellipses have their foci aligned vertically, and some have centers
not at the origin. Their standard equations and properties are given in the box.
The derivations are more involved, but are similar to the one above, and so are
not shown anymore.
p
In all four cases below, a > b and c = a2 b2 . The foci F1 and F2 are c
units away from the center. The vertices V1 and V2 are a units away from the
center, the major axis has length 2a, the covertices W1 and W2 are b units away
from the center, and the minor axis has length 2b. Recall that, for any point on
the ellipse, the sum of its distances from the foci is 2a.
35
Center Corresponding Graphs
(0, 0)
x2 y 2 x2 y 2
+ 2 =1 + 2 =1
a2 b b2 a
(h, k)
In the standard equation, if the xpart has the bigger denominator, the ellipse
is horizontal. If the ypart has the bigger denominator, the ellipse is vertical.
Example 1.3.3. Give the coordinates of the center, foci, vertices, and covertices
of the ellipse with the given equation. Sketch the graph, and include these points.
36
(x + 3)2 (y 5)2
(1) + =1
24 49
(2) 9x2 + 16y 2 126x + 64y = 71
p
Solution. p(1) From a2 = 49 and b2 = 24, we have a = 7, b = 2 6 ⇡ 4.9, and
c = a2 b2 = 5. The ellipse is vertical.
center: ( 3, 5)
foci: F1 ( 3, 0), F2 ( 3, 10)
vertices: V1 ( 3, 2), V2 ( 3, 12)
p
covertices: W1 ( 3 2 6, 5) ⇡ ( 7.9, 5)
p
W2 ( 3 + 2 6, 5) ⇡ (1.9, 5)
center: (7, 2)
p
foci: F1 (7 2 7, 2) ⇡ (1.7, 2)
p
F2 (7 + 2 7, 2) ⇡ (12.3, 2)
vertices: V1 ( 1, 2), V2 (15, 2)
covertices: W1 (7, 8), W2 (7, 4)
Example 1.3.4. The foci of an ellipse are ( 3, 6) and ( 3, 2). For any point
on the ellipse, the sum of its distances from the foci is 14. Find the standard
equation of the ellipse.
Solution. The midpoint ( 3, 2) of the foci is the center of the ellipse. The
ellipse is vertical (because the foci are vertically
p aligned)pand c = 4. From the
given sum, 2a = 14 so a = 7. Also, b = a2 c2 = 33. The equation is
(x + 3)2 (y + 2)2
+ = 1. 2
33 49
p p
Example 1.3.5. An ellipse has vertices (2 61, 5) and (2 + 61, 5), and
its minor axis is 12 units long. Find its standard equation and its foci.
38
Solution. The midpoint (2, 5)pof the vertices is the center of the ellipse, which is
horizontal. Each vertex is a = 61 units away from the center. From the length of
(x 2)2 (y + 5)2
the minor axis, 2b = 12 so b = 6. The standard equation is + =
p 61 36
1. Each focus is c = a2 b2 = 5 units away from (2, 5), so their coordinates
are ( 3, 5) and (7, 5). 2
Seatwork/Homework 1.3.2
1. Give the coordinates of the center, foci, vertices, and covertices of the ellipse
with equation 41x2 + 16y 2 + 246x 192y + 289 = 0. Sketch the graph, and
include these points.
Answer:
p center C( 3,p6), foci F1 ( 3, 1) and F2 ( 3, 11), vertices V1 ( 3, 6
41) and V2 ( 3, 6 + 41), covertices W1 ( 7, 6) and W2 (1, 6)
2. An ellipse has vertices ( 10, 4) and (6, 4), and covertices ( 2, 9) and
( 2, 1). Find its standard equation and its foci.
(x + 2)2 (y + 4)2 p p
Answer: + = 1, foci ( 2 39, 4) and ( 2 + 39, 4)
64 25
39
1.3.3. Situational Problems Involving Ellipses
40
Solution. In the figure above, the orbit is drawn as a horizontal ellipse with
center at the origin. From the planet’s distances from the star, at its closest
and farthest points, it follows that the major axis is 2a = 420 + 580 = 1000
(million kilometers), so a = 500. If we place the star at the positive xaxis,
then it is c = 500 420 = 80 units away from the center. Therefore, we get
b2 = a2 c2 = 5002 802 = 243600. The equation then is
x2 y2
+ = 1.
250000 243600
The star could have been placed on the negative xaxis, and the answer would
still be the same. 2
Seatwork/Homework 1.3.3
? 1. The arch of a bridge is in the shape of a semiellipse, with its major axis at the
water level. Suppose the arch is 20 ft high in the middle, and 120 ft across its
major axis. How high above the water level is the arch, at a point 20 ft from
the center (horizontally)? Round o↵ to 2 decimal places. Refer to Example
1.3.6. Answer: 18.86 ft
Exercises 1.3
1. Give the coordinates of the center, vertices, covertices, and foci of the ellipse
with the given equation. Sketch the graph, and include these points.
x2 y2
(a) + =1
169 25
41
x2 y2
(b) + =1
144 169
(c) 4x2 + 13y 2 = 52
(x + 7)2 (y 4)2
(d) + =1
16 25
(e) 9x2 + 16y 2 + 72x 96y + 144 = 0
(f) 36x2 + 20y 2 144x + 120y 396 = 0
Answer:
Item Center Vertices Covertices Foci
(a) (0, 0) (±13, 0) (0, ±5) (±12, 0)
(b) (0, 0) (0, ±13) (±12, 0) (0, ±5)
p
(c) (0, 0) (± 13, 0) (0, ±2) (±3, 0)
(d) ( 7, 4) ( 7, 1) ( 11, 4) ( 7, 1)
( 7, 9) ( 3, 4) ( 7, 7)
p
(e) ( 4, 3) ( 8, 3) ( 4, 0) ( 4 ± 7, 3)
(0, 3) ( 4, 6)
p
(f) (2, 3) (2, 9) (2 ± 2 5, 3) (2, 7)
(2, 3) (2, 3) (2, 1)
42
2. Find the standard equation of the ellipse which satisfies the given conditions.
(a) foci ( 7, 6) and ( 1, 6), the sum of the distances of any point from the
(x + 4)2 (y 6)2
foci is 14 Answer: + =1
49 40
(b) center (5, 3), horizontal major axis of length 20, minor axis of length 16
(x 5)2 (y 3)2
Answer: + =1
100 64
(c) major axis of length 22, foci 9 units above and below the center (2, 4)
(x 2)2 (y 4)2
Answer: + =1
40 121
(d) covertices ( 4, 8) and (10, 8), a focus at (3, 12)
(x 3)2 (y 8)2
Answer: + =1
49 65
Solution. The midpoint of the covertices is the center, (3, 8). From this
point, the given focus is c = 4 units away. Since b = 7 (the distance from
the center to a covertex), then a2 = b2 + c2 = 65. The ellipse then has
(x 3)2 (y 8)2
equation + = 1.
49 65
(e) focus ( 6, 2), covertex ( 1, 5), horizontal major axis
(x + 1)2 (y + 2)2
Answer: + =1
74 49
Solution. Make a rough sketch of the points to see that the center is to
the right of the given focus, and below the given covertex. The center is
thus ( 1, 2). It follows that c = 5, b = 7, so a2 = b2 + c2 = 74. The
(x + 1)2 (y + 2)2
ellipse then has equation + = 1.
74 49
3. A semielliptical tunnel has height 9 ft and a width of 30 ft. A truck that is
about to pass through is 12 ft wide and 8.3 ft high. Will this truck be able to
pass through the tunnel? Answer: No
4. A truck that is about to pass through the tunnel from the previous item is 10
ft wide and 8.3 ft high. Will this truck be able to pass through the tunnel?
Answer: Yes
5. An orbit of a satellite around a planet is an ellipse, with the planet at one
focus of this ellipse. The distance of the satellite from this star varies from
300, 000 km to 500, 000 km, attained when the satellite is at each of the two
vertices. Find the equation of this ellipse, if its center is at the origin, and the
vertices are on the xaxis. Assume all units are in 100, 000 km.
x2 y2
Answer: 16
+ 15
=1
43
x2
6. The orbit of a planet around a star is described by the equation 640,000
+
y2
630,000
= 1, where the star is at one focus, and all units are in millions of
kilometers. The planet is closest and farthest from the star, when it is at the
vertices. How far is the planet when it is closest to the sun? How far is the
planet when it is farthest from the sun?
Answer: 700 million km, 900 million km
Solution. The ellipse has center at the origin, and major axis on the xaxis.
Since a2 = 640, 000, then a = 800, so p the verticespare V1 ( 800, 0) and
2
V2 (800, 00). Since b = 630, 000, then c = a2 b2 = 10, 000 = 100. Sup
pose the star is at the focus at the right of the origin (this choice is arbitrary,
since we could have chosen instead the focus on the left). Its location is then
F (100, 0). The closest distance is then V2 F = 700 (million kilometers) and
the farthest distance is V1 F = 900 (million kilometers).
Solution. We could put a coordinate system with the floor of the room on
the xaxis, and the center of the room at the origin, as shown in the figures.
The major axis has length 34, and the height of the room is half of the minor
x2 y2
axis. The ellipse that contains the ceiling then has equation 17 2 + 82 = 1. The
p p
distance of a focus from the center is c = a2 b2 = 172 82 = 15. Thus,
the two people should stand 15 m away from the center.
44
Solution. As in the previous problem, put a coordinate system with the floor
of the room on the xaxis, and the center of the room at the origin. The major
axis has length 30, and half the minor axis is 9. The ellipse that contains the
x2 y2
ceiling then has equation 15 2 + 92 = 1. The distance of a focus from the center
p p
is c = a2 b2 = 152 92 = 12. If we put x = 12 in the equation of the
2 2
ellipse, we get 12
152
+ y92 = 1. Solving for y > 0 yields y = 27
5
= 5.4. The height
of the ceiling above each focus is 5.4 m.
Lesson Outline
(1) Definition of a hyperbola
(2) Derivation of the standard equation of a hyperbola
(3) Graphing hyperbolas
(4) Solving situational problems involving hyperbolas
Introduction
A hyperbola is one of the conic sections that most students have not encoun
tered formally before, unlike circles and parabolas. Its graph consists of two
unbounded branches which extend in opposite directions. It is a misconception
that each branch is a parabola. This is not true, as parabolas and hyperbolas
have very di↵erent features. An application of hyperbolas in basic location and
navigation schemes are presented in an example and some exercises.
Consider the points F1 ( 5, 0) and F2 (5, 0) as shown in Figure 1.23. What is the
absolute value of the di↵erence of the distances of A(3.75, 3) from F1 and from
45
F2 ? How about the absolute value of the di↵erence of the distances of B 5, 16
3
from F1 and from F2 ?
Let F1 and F2 be two distinct points. The set of all points P , whose
distances from F1 and from F2 di↵er by a certain constant, is called a
hyperbola. The points F1 and F2 are called the foci of the hyperbola.
In Figure 1.24, given are two points on the xaxis, F1 ( c, 0) and F2 (c, 0), the
foci, both c units away from their midpoint (0, 0). This midpoint is the center
of the hyperbola. Let P (x, y) be a point on the hyperbola, and let the absolute
value of the di↵erence of the distances of P from F1 and F2 , be 2a (the coefficient
2 will make computations simpler). Thus, P F1 P F2  = 2a, and so
p p
(x + c)2 + y 2 (x c)2 + y 2 = 2a.
46
that P is not on the xaxis, so 4P F1 F2 is formed. From the triangle inequality,
F1 F2 + P F2 > P F1 . Thus, 2c > P F1 P F2 = 2a, so c > a.
Now we present a derivation. For now, assume P is closer to F2 so P F1 > P F2 ,
and P F1 P F2 = 2a. Teaching Notes
If it is assumed
that P is closer to
P F1 = 2a + P F2 F1 , then the same
p p equation will be
(x + c)2 + y 2 = 2a + (x c)2 + y 2 obtained because
⇣p ⌘2 ⇣ p ⌘2 of symmetry.
(x + c)2 + y 2 = 2a + (x c)2 + y 2
p
cx a2 = a (x c)2 + y 2
⇣ p ⌘2
(cx a2 )2 = a (x c)2 + y 2
(c2 a2 )x2 a2 y 2 = a2 (c2 a2 )
p
b 2 x 2 a2 y 2 = a2 b 2 by letting b = c2 a2 > 0
x2 y 2
=1
a2 b2
We collect here the features of the graph of a hyperbola with standard equa
tion
x2 y 2
= 1.
a2 b2
p
Let c = a2 + b2 .
47
• For any point on the hyperbola, the absolute value of the di↵erence of
its distances from the foci is 2a.
• The vertices are points on the hyperbola, collinear with the center and
foci.
• If y = 0, then x = ±a. Each vertex is a units away from the center.
• The segment V1 V2 is called the transverse axis. Its length is 2a.
• The asymptotes of the hyperbola are two lines passing through the cen
ter which serve as a guide in graphing the hyperbola: each branch of
the hyperbola gets closer and closer to the asymptotes, in the direction
towards which the branch extends. (We need the concept of limits from
calculus to explain this.)
• An aid in determining the equations of the asymptotes: in the standard
2 2
equation, replace 1 by 0, and in the resulting equation xa2 yb2 = 0, solve
for y.
• To help us sketch the asymptotes, we point out that the asymptotes
`1 and `2 are the extended diagonals of the auxiliary rectangle drawn
in Figure 1.26. This rectangle has sides 2a and 2b with its diagonals
intersecting at the center C. Two sides are congruent and parallel to
the transverse axis V1 V2 . The other two sides are congruent and parallel
to the conjugate axis, the segment shown which is perpendicular to the
transverse axis at the center, and has length 2b.
Example 1.4.1. Determine the foci, vertices, and asymptotes of the hyperbola
with equation
x2 y 2
= 1.
9 7
Sketch the graph, and include these points and lines, the transverse and conjugate
axes, and the auxiliary rectangle.
2 2
Solution. With
p a = 9 and p b = 7, we have
a = 3, b = 7, and c = a2 + b2 = 4.
foci: F1 ( 4, 0) and F2 (4, 0)
vertices: V1 ( 3, 0) and V2 (3, 0)
p p
asymptotes: y = 37 x and y = 37 x
The graph is shown at the right. The conju
p
gate axis drawn has its endpoints b = 7 ⇡
2.7 units above and below the center. 2
48
Example 1.4.2. Find the (standard) equation of the hyperbola whose foci are
F1 ( 5, 0) and F2 (5, 0), such that for any point on it, the absolute value of the
di↵erence of its distances from the foci is 6. See Figure 1.23.
p
Solution. We have 2a = 6 and c = 5, so a = 3 and b = c2 a2 = 4. The
x2 y 2
hyperbola then has equation = 1. 2
9 16
Seatwork/Homework 1.4.1
1. Determine foci, vertices, and asymptotes of the hyperbola with equation
x2 y2
= 1.
16 20
Sketch the graph, and include these points and lines, along with the auxiliary
rectangle.
Answer: foci
p
F1 ( 6, 0) and
p
F2 (6, 0), vertices V1 ( 4, 0) and V2 (4, 0), asymp
5 5
totes y = 2 x and y = 2 x
p
2. Find the pequation in standard form of the hyperbola whose foci are F1 ( 4 2, 0)
and F2 (4 2, 0), such that for any point on it, the absolute value of the di↵er
ence of its distances from the foci is 8. Answer:
x2 y2
=1
16 16
The hyperbolas we considered so far are “horizontal” and have the origin as their
centers. Some hyperbolas have their foci aligned vertically, and some have centers
49
not at the origin. Their standard equations and properties are given in the box.
The derivations are more involved, but are similar to the one above, and so are
not shown anymore.
(0, 0)
x2 y2 y2 x2
=1 =1
a2 b2 a2 b2
(h, k)
p
In all four cases above, we let c = a2 + b2 . The foci F1 and F2 are c units
away from the center C. The vertices V1 and V2 are a units away from the center.
The transverse axis V1 V2 has length 2a. The conjugate axis has length 2b and is
50
perpendicular to the transverse axis. The transverse and conjugate axes bisect
each other at their intersection point, C. Each branch of a hyperbola gets closer
and closer to the asymptotes, in the direction towards which the branch extends.
The equations of the asymptotes can be determined by replacing 1 in the standard
equation by 0. The asymptotes can be drawn as the extended diagonals of the
auxiliary rectangle determined by the transverse and conjugate axes. Recall that,
for any point on the hyperbola, the absolute value of the di↵erence of its distances
from the foci is 2a.
In the standard equation, aside from being positive, there are no other re
strictions on a and b. In fact, a and b can even be equal. The orientation of the
hyperbola is determined by the variable appearing in the first term (the positive
term): the corresponding axis is where the two branches will open. For example,
if the variable in the first term is x, the hyperbola is “horizontal”: the transverse
axis is horizontal, and the branches open to the left and right in the direction of
the xaxis.
Example 1.4.3. Give the coordinates of the center, foci, vertices, and asymp
totes of the hyperbola with the given equation. Sketch the graph, and include
these points and lines, the transverse and conjugate axes, and the auxiliary rect
angle.
(y + 2)2 (x 7)2
(1) =1
25 9
(2) 4x2 5y 2 + 32x + 30y = 1
2 2
Solution.
p (1) From
p a = 25 and b = 9, we have a = 5, b = 3, and c =
a2 + b2 = 34 ⇡ 5.8. The hyperbola is vertical. To determine the asymp
2 (x 7)2
totes, we write (y+2)
25 9
= 0, which is equivalent to y + 2 = ± 53 (x 7).
We can then solve this for y.
center: C(7, 2)
p p
foci: F1 (7, 2 34) ⇡ (7, 7.8) and F2 (7, 2 + 34) ⇡ (7, 3.8)
vertices: V1 (7, 7) and V2 (7, 3)
asymptotes: y = 53 x 41
3
and y = 5
3
x + 29
3
The conjugate axis drawn has its endpoints b = 3 units to the left and right
of the center.
51
(2) We first change the given equation to standard form.
center: C( 4, 3)
foci: F1 ( 7, 3) and F2 ( 1, 3)
p p
vertices: V1 ( 4 5, 3) ⇡ ( 6.2, 3) and V2 ( 4 + 5, 3) ⇡ ( 1.8, 3)
asymptotes: y = p2 x + p8 + 3 and y = p2 x p8 +3
5 5 5 5
The conjugate axis drawn has its endpoints b = 2 units above and below
the center.
52
Example 1.4.4. The foci of a hyperbola are ( 5, 3) and (9, 3). For any point
on the hyperbola, the absolute value of the di↵erence of its of its distances from
the foci is 10. Find the standard equation of the hyperbola.
Solution. The midpoint (2, 3) of the foci is the center of the hyperbola. Each
focus is c = 7 units away from the center. From the given di↵erence, 2a = 10 so
a = 5. Also, b2 = c2 a2 = 24. The hyperbola is horizontal (because the foci are
horizontally aligned), so the equation is
(x 2)2 (y + 3)2
= 1. 2
25 24
Example 1.4.5. p A hyperbola has vertices ( 4, 5) and ( 4, 9), and one of its
foci is ( 4, 2 65). Find its standard equation.
(y 2)2 (x + 4)2
= 1. 2
49 16
53
Seatwork/Homework 1.4.2
1. Give the coordinates of the center, foci, vertices, and asymptotes of the hy
perbola with equation 9x2 4y 2 90x 32y = 305. Sketch the graph, and
include these points and lines, along with the auxiliary rectangle.
p p
Answer: center C(5, 4), foci F1 (5, 4 2 13) and F2 (5, 4+2 13), vertices
V1 (5, 10) and V2 (5, 2), asymptotes y = 32 x + 72 and y = 32 x 232
2. A hyperbola has vertices (1, 9) and (13, 9), and one of its foci is ( 2, 9). Find
(x 7)2 (y 9)2
its standard equation. Answer: =1
36 45
Solution. Using the given speed of sound, we deduce that the sound traveled
340(2) = 680 m farther in reaching F2 than in reaching F1 . This is then the
di↵erence of the distances of the explosion from the two stations. Thus, the
explosion is on a hyperbola with foci are F1 and F2 , on the branch closer to F1 .
54
We have c = 600 and 2a = 680, so a = 340 and b2 = c2 a2 = 244400.
The explosion could therefore be anywhere on the left branch of the hyperbola
x2 y2
115600 244400
= 1. 2
Seatwork/Homework 1.4.3
? 1. Two stations, located at M ( 1.5, 0) and N (1.5, 0) (units are in km), simulta
neously send sound signals to a ship, with the signal traveling at the speed of
0.33 km/s. If the signal from N was received by the ship four seconds before
the signal it received from M , find the equation of the curve containing the
x2 y2
possible location of the ship. Answer: 0.4356 1.8144
= 1 (right branch)
Exercises 1.4
1. Give the coordinates of the center, foci, vertices, and the asymptotes of the
hyperbola with the given equation. Sketch the graph, and include these points
and lines.
x2 y2
(a) =1
36 64
y2 x2
(b) =1
25 16
(c) (x 1)2 y 2 = 4
(y + 2)2 (x + 3)2
(d) =1
15 10
(e) 3x2 2y 2 42x 16y = 67
(f) 25x2 39y 2 + 150x + 390y = 225
55
Answer:
Item Asymptotes
(a) y = ± 43 x
(b) y = ± 54 x
(c) y=x 1, y =
x+1
q q
(d) y = ± 32 x ± 3 32 2
q q
(e) y = ± 2 x ⌥ 7 32 4
3
56
(d) (e) (f)
2. Find the standard equation of the hyperbola which satisfies the given condi
tions.
(a) foci ( 4, 3) and ( 4, 13), the absolute value of the di↵erence of the
distances of any point from the foci is 14
(y 5)2 (x + 4)2
Answer: =1
49 15
(b) vertices ( 2, 8) and (8, 8), a focus (12, 8)
(x 3)2 (y 8)2
Answer: =1
25 56
(c) center ( 6, 9), a vertex ( 6, 15), conjugate axis of length 12
(y 9)2 (x + 6)2
Answer: =1
25 36
(d) asymptotes y = 43 x + 13 and y = 43 x + 41 3
, a vertex ( 1, 7)
(x 5)2 (y 7)2
Answer: =1
36 64
Solution. The asymptotes intersect at (5, 7). This is the center. The
distance of the given vertex from the center is a = 6. This vertex and
center are aligned horizontally, so the hyperbola has equation of the form
(x h)2 (y k)2
a2 b2
= 1. The asymptotes consequently have the form y k =
± a (x h), and thus, have slopes ± ab . From the given asymptotes, ab = 43 .
b
(x 5)2 (y 7)2
= 1.
36 64
(e) asymptotes y = 13 x + 5
3
and y = 1
3
x + 73 , a focus (1, 12)
(y 2)2 (x 1)2
Answer: =1
10 90
Solution. The asymptotes intersect at (1, 2). This is the center. The
distance of the given focus from the center is c = 10. This focus and
57
center are aligned vertically, so the hyperbola has equation of the form
(y k)2 (x h)2
a2 b2
= 1. The asymptotes consequently have the form y k =
± b (x h), and thus, have slopes ± ab . From the given asymptotes, ab = 13 ,
a
so b = 3a.
c2 = 100 = a2 + b2 = a2 + (3a)2 = 10a2
Thus, a2 = 10, and b2 = 9a2 = 90. The standard equation is
(y 2)2 (x 1)2
= 1.
10 90
3. Two control towers are located at points Q( 500, 0) and R(500, 0), on a
straight shore where the xaxis runs through (all distances are in meters).
At the same moment, both towers sent a radio signal to a ship out at sea, each
traveling at 300 m/µs. The ship received the signal from Q 3 µs (microseconds)
before the message from R.
(a) Find the equation of the curve containing the possible location of the
x2 y2
ship. Answer: = 1 (left branch)
202500 47500
(b) Find the coordinates (rounded o↵ to two decimal places) of the ship if it
is 200 m from the shore (y = 200). Answer: ( 610.76, 200)
Solution. Since the time delay between the two signals is 3 µs, then the di↵er
ence between the distances traveled by the two signals is 300 · 3 = 900 m. The
ship is then on a hyperbola, consisting of points whose distances from Q and R
(the foci) di↵er by 2a = 900. With a = 450 and c = 500 (the distance of each
focus from the center, the origin), we have b2 = c2 a2 = 5002 4502 = 47500.
x2 y2
Since a2 = 202500, the hyperbola then has equation 202500 47500
= 1. Since
the signal from Q was received first, the ship is closer to Q than R, so the
ship is on the left branch of this hyperbola. Using y = 200, we then solve
x2 2002
202500 47500
= 1 for x < 0 (left branch), and we get x ⇡ 610.76.
58
Lesson 1.5. More Problems on Conic Sections
Lesson Outline
(1) Conic sections with associated equations in general form
(2) Problems involving characteristics of various conic sections
(3) Solving situational problems involving conic sections
Introduction
Inspecting the equation can lead us to the right conic section for its graph,
and set us on the right step towards analyzing it. We will also look at problems
that use the properties of the di↵erent conic sections, allowing us to synthesize
what has been covered so far.
59
Let us recall the general form of the equations of the other conic sections. We
may write the equations of conic sections we discussed in the general form
Ax2 + By 2 + Cx + Dy + E = 0.
Ax2 + Ay 2 + Cx + Dy + E = 0
(3) Ellipse: both x2 and y 2 appear, and their coefficients A and B have the same
sign and are unequal
Examples: 2x2 + 5y 2 + 8x 10y 7 = 0 (horizontal major axis)
4x2 + y 2 16x 6y + 21 = 0 (vertical major axis)
If A = B, we will classify the conic as a circle, instead of an ellipse.
Degenerate cases: a point, and the empty set
(4) Hyperbola: both x2 and y 2 appear, and their coefficients A and B have dif
ferent signs
Examples: 5x2 3y 2 20x 18y 22 = 0 (horizontal transverse axis)
4x2 + y 2 + 24x + 4y 36 = 0 (vertical transverse axis)
Degenerate case: two intersecting lines
The following examples will show the possible degenerate conic (a point, two
intersecting lines, or the empty set) as the graph of an equation following a similar
pattern as the nondegenerate cases.
(x 2)2 (y + 1)2
(1) 4x2 + 9y 2 16x + 18y + 25 = 0 =) + =0
32 22
=) one point: (2, 1)
(x 2)2 (y + 1)2
(2) 4x2 + 9y 2 16x + 18y + 61 = 0 =) + = 1
32 22
=) empty set
60
(x 2)2 (y + 1)2
(3) 4x2 9y 2 16x 18y + 7 = 0 =) =0
32 22
2
=) two lines: y + 1 = ± (x 2)
3
Seatwork/Homework 1.5.1
The graphs of the following equations are (nondegenerate) conic sections. Identify
the conic section.
(1) 5x2 3y 2 + 10x 12y = 22 Answer: hyperbola
(2) 2y 2 5x 12y = 17 Answer: parabola
(3) 3x2 + 3y 2 + 42x 12y = 154 Answer: circle
2
(4) 3x + 6x + 4y = 18 Answer: parabola
2 2
(5) 7x + 3y 14x + 12y = 14 Answer: ellipse
(6) 4x2 + 3y 2 + 24x 12y = 36 Answer: hyperbola
The following examples require us to use the properties of di↵erent conic sections
at the same time.
Example 1.5.1. A circle has center at the focus of the parabola y 2 + 16x + 4y =
44, and is tangent to the directrix of this parabola. Find its standard equation.
Solution. The standard equation of the parabola is (y + 2)2 = 16(x 3). Its
vertex is V (3, 2). Since 4c = 16 or c = 4, its focus is F ( 1, 2) and its directrix
is x = 7. The circle has center at ( 1, 2) and radius 8, which is the distance
from F to the directrix. Thus, the equation of the circle is
(x + 1)2 + (y + 2)2 = 64. 2
Example 1.5.2. The vertices and foci of 5x2 4y 2 + 50x + 16y + 29 = 0 are,
respectively, the foci and vertices of an ellipse. Find the standard equation of
this ellipse.
61
Solution. We first write the equation of the hyperbola in standard form:
(x + 5)2 (y 2)2
= 1.
16 20
For this hyperbola, using the notations ah , bh , and ch to refer to a, b, and p
c of
the standard
p equation of the hyperbola, respectively, we have ah = 4, bh = 2 5,
2 2
ch = ah + bh = 6, so we have the following points:
center: ( 5, 2)
vertices: ( 9, 2) and ( 1, 2)
foci: ( 11, 2) and (1, 2).
It means that, for the ellipse, we have these points:
center: ( 5, 2)
vertices: ( 11, 2) and (1, 2)
foci: ( 9, 2) and ( 1, 2).
p p
In this case, ce = 4 and ae = 6, so that be = a2e c2e = 20. The standard
equation of the ellipse is
(x + 5)2 (y 2)2
+ = 1. 2
36 20
Seatwork/Homework 1.5.2
1. Find the standard equation of all circles having center at a focus of 21x2
4y 2 + 84x 24y = 36 and passing through the farther vertex.
Answer: (x + 7)2 + (y + 3)2 = 49, (x 3)2 + (y + 3)2 = 49
2. Find the standard equation of the hyperbola one branch of which has focus and
vertex that are the same as those of x2 6x + 8y = 23, and whose conjugate
axis is on the directrix of the same parabola.
(y 6)2 (x 3)2
Answer: =1
4 12
Exercises 1.5
1. The graphs of the following equations are nondegenerate conic sections. Iden
tify the conic section.
62
(e) 2x2 + 24x 5y = 57 Answer: parabola
2. The graphs of the following equations are degenerate conic sections. What are
the specific graphs?
3. An ellipse has equation 25x2 + 16y 2 + 150x 32y = 159. Find the standard
equations of all parabolas whose vertex is a focus of this ellipse and whose
focus is a vertex of this ellipse.
Answer: (x + 3)2 = 8(y + 2), (x + 3)2 = 32(y + 2), (x + 3)2 = 32(y 4),
and (x + 3)2 = 8(y 4)
(x + 3)2 (y 1)2
+ = 1.
16 25
Its center is ( 3, 1). Since a = 5 and b = 4, we get c = 3, so the vertices are
P ( 3, 4) and S( 3, 6), while its foci are Q( 3, 2) and R( 3, 4). We then
get four parabolas satisfying the conditions of the problem. The focal distance
indicated below is the distance from the vertex to the focus.
4. Find the standard equation of the hyperbola whose conjugate axis is on the
directrix of the parabola y 2 + 12x + 6y = 39, having the focus of the parabola
as one of its foci, and the vertex of the parabola as one of its vertices.
(x 7)2 (y + 3)2
Answer: =1
9 27
63
x = 7, its conjugate axis, and a vertex at (4, 3). Its center is then C(7, 3).
The conjugate axis is vertical so the hyperbola is horizontal, with constants
ah = CV = 3 and ch = CF = 6, so b2h = c2h a2h = 27. The standard equation
of the required hyperbola is
(x 7)2 (y + 3)2
= 1.
9 27
5. Find the standard equation of the parabola opening to the left whose axis
contains the major axis of the ellipse x2 + 4y 2 10x 24y + 45 = 0, whose
focus is the center of the ellipse, and which passes through the covertices of
this ellipse. Answer: (y 3)2 = 4(x 6)
6. Find the standard equation of the ellipse whose major and minor axes are the
transverse and conjugate axes (not necessarily in that order) of the hyperbola
(x 2)2 (y + 3)2
4x2 9y 2 16x 54y = 29. Answer: + =1
9 4
Solution. The standard equation of the hyperbola is
(y + 3)2 (x 2)2
= 1,
4 9
with center (2, 3), and constants ah = 2 and bh = 3. Since its conjugate axis
(which is horizontal and has length 2bh = 6) is longer than its transverse axis
(length 2ah = 4), the ellipse is horizontal. Its major axis has length 2ae = 6
and its minor axis has length 2be = 4, so ae = 3 and be = 2. The ellipse shares
the same center as the hyperbola. Thus, the standard equation of the required
ellipse is
(x 2)2 (y + 3)2
+ = 1.
9 4
7. If m 6= 3, 2, find the value(s) of m so that the graph of
(2m 4)x2 + (m + 3)y 2 = (m + 3)(2m 4)
is
64
(a) a circle,
(b) a horizontal ellipse,
(c) a vertical ellipse,
(d) a hyperbola (is it horizontal or vertical?), or
(e) the empty set.
Answer: (a) m = 7, (b) 2 < m < 7, (c) m > 7, (d) 3 < m < 2 (horizontal),
(e) m < 3
x2 y2
+ = 1.
m + 3 2m 4
(a) The graph is a circle if m + 3 = 2m 4 > 0 (positive, so the graph is not
a point or the empty set). This happens if m = 7.
(b) We require 0 < 2m 4 < m + 3. Thus, 2 < m < 7.
(c) We require 0 < m + 3 < 2m 4. Thus, m > 7.
(d) We need m + 3 and 2m 4 to have di↵erent signs. We consider two cases.
i. If m + 3 < 0 < 2m 4, then m < 3 AND m > 2, which cannot
happen.
ii. If 2m 4 < 0 < m + 3, then 3 < m < 2. In this case, the equation
x2 y2
can be written, with positive denominators, as = 1.
m + 3 4 2m
The hyperbola is horizontal.
(e) The remaining case is when m < 3. In this case, m + 3 < 0 and
2m 4 < 0. This makes x2 /(m + 3) + y 2 /(2m 4) negative, never equal
to 1. The graph is then the empty set.
65
Lesson 1.6. Systems of Nonlinear Equations
Lesson Outline
(1) Review systems of linear equations
(2) Solving a system involving one linear and one quadratic equation
(3) Solving a system involving two quadratic equations
(4) Applications of systems of nonlinear equations
Introduction
After recalling the techniques used in solving systems of linear equations in
Grade 8, we extend these methods to solving a system of equations to systems
in which the equations are not necessarily linear. In this lesson, the equations
are restricted to linear and quadratic types, although it is possible to adapt the
methodology so systems with other types of equations. We focus on quadratic
equations for two reasons: to include a graphical representation of the solution
and to ensure that either a solution is obtained or it is determined that there is
Teaching Notes no solution. The latter is possible because of the quadratic formula.
Recall that the
task of solving a
system of
equations is 1.6.1. Review of Techniques in Solving Systems of Linear
equivalent to Equations
finding points of
intersection.
Teaching Notes Recall the methods we used to solve systems of linear equations. There were
Systems of linear
equations and
three methods used: substitution, elimination, and graphical.
solving them were
introduced and Example 1.6.1. Use the substitution method to solve the system, and sketch
studied in Grade 8 the graphs in one Cartesian plane showing the point of intersection.
at the last part of 8
Quarter I.
< 4x + y = 6
: 5x + 3y = 4
Solution. Isolate the variable y in the first equation, and then substitute into the
second equation.
66
4x + y = 6
=) y = 6 4x
5x + 3y = 4
5x + 3(6 4x) = 4
7x + 18 = 4
x=2
y = 6 4(2) = 2
Example 1.6.2. Use the elimination method to solve the system, and sketch the
graphs in one Cartesian plane showing the point of intersection.
8
< 2x + 7 = 3y
: 4x + 7y = 12
Solution. We eliminate first the variable x. Rewrite the first equation wherein
only the constant term is on the righthand side of the equation, then multiply
it by 2, and then add the resulting equation to the second equation.
2x 3y = 7
( 2)(2x 3y) = ( 2)( 7)
4x + 6y = 14
4x + 6y = 14
4x + 7y = 12
13y = 26
y=2
1
x=
2
Seatwork/Homework 1.6.1
Use either substitution or elimination method to solve the system, and sketch the
graphs in one Cartesian plane showing the point of intersection.
8
< x 3y = 5
1.
: 2x + 5y = 1
67
Answer: (2, 1)
8
< 5x + 3y = 4
2.
: 3x + 5y = 9
1 3
Answer: ,
2 2
We begin our extension with a system involving one linear equation and one
quadratic equation. In this case, it is always possible to use substitution by
solving the linear equation for one of the variables.
Example 1.6.3. Solve the following system, and sketch the graphs in one Carte
sian plane. 8
< x y+2=0
: y 1 = x2
68
Solution. We solve for y in terms of x in the first equation, and substitute this
expression to the second equation.
x y+2=0 =) y =x+2
y 1 = x2
p p p
(x + 2) 1 = x2 1+ 5 1+ 5 5+ 5
x= =) y = +2=
x2 x 1 = 0 2p 2p 2p
p 1 5 1 5 5 5
1± 5 x= =) y = +2=
x= 2 2 2
2
p p ! p p !
1+ 5 5+ 5 1 5 5 5
Solutions: , and ,
2 2 2 2
Seatwork/Homework 1.6.2
Solve each system, and sketch the graphs in one Cartesian plane showing the
point(s) of intersection.
8
< x2 + y 2 = 16
1.
: x y=4
69
this expression into the first equation.
x2 + y 2 = 16 =) (y + 4)2 + y 2 = 16
y 2 + 8y + 16 + y 2 = 16
2y 2 + 8y = 0
y = 0 or y = 4
Teaching Notes
We substitute each
value of y (0 and
y = 0 =) x = 4 and y= 4 =) x = 0
4) to the second
equation x y = 4 Solutions: (4, 0) and (0, 4)
(or x = y + 4).
8
< y = x2
2.
: x = y2
Solution. Since the equations represent parabolas, we can use either of them
to isolate one variable. This is in fact the form in which both equations are
given. Substituting y = x2 into x = y 2 , we get
x = y 2 =) x = (x2 )2
x4 x=0
x(x3 1) = 0
x = 0 or x = 1
70
x = 0 =) y = 0 and x = 1 =) y = 1
Solutions: (0, 0) and (1, 1)
71
The graphs of the equations in the preceding example with the points of
intersection are shown below.
Solution 2. By completing the square, we can change the first equation into stan
dard form:
y 2 4x 6y = 11 =) 4(x + 5) = (y 3)2 .
8
< 4(x + 5) = (y 3)2
: 4(3 x) = (y 3)2
4(x + 5) = 4(3 x) =) x = 1.
72
Solution. Expanding both equations, we obtain
8
< x2 + y 2 6x 10y + 24 = 0
: x2 + y 2 + 2y 24 = 0.
y 2 6y + 8 = 0
y = 2 or y = 4
p The graphs of both equations are circles. One has center (3, 5) and radius
10, while the other has center (0, 1) and radius 5. The graphs with the points
of intersection are show below.
73
Seatwork/Homework 1.6.3
Solve the system, and graph the curves in one Cartesian plane showing the
point(s) of intersection.
8
< x2 + y 2 = 25
1. 2 2
: x +y =1
18 32
Answer: (3, 4), ( 3, 4), (3, 4), and ( 3, 4)
8
< x2 + 2y 12 = 0
2.
: x2 + y 2 = 36
p p
Answer: (0, 6), 2 5, 4 , and 2 5, 4
74
8
< (x 1)2 + (y 3)2 = 10
3.
: x2 + (y 1)2 = 5
Solution. Let w represent the width and h the height of the screen. Then, by
Pythagorean Theorem, we have the system
8
< w2 + h2 = 402 =) w2 + h2 = 1600
: w = 16 =) h = 9w
h 9 16
75
✓ ◆2
2 2 2 9w
w + h = 1600 =) w + = 1600
16
337w2
= 1600
256
r
409 600
w= ⇡ 34.86
337
19x 19(34.86)
h= ⇡ = 19.61
16 16
Therefore, a 40inch TV with aspect ratio 16 : 9 is about 35.86 inches wide and
19.61 inches high. 2
Seatwork/Homework 1.6.4
Exercises 1.6
1. Solve the system, and graph the curves.
8
< y = 2x + 4
(a)
: y = 2x2
Answer: ( 1, 2) and (2, 8)
76
8
< x2 + y 2 = 25
(b)
: 2x 3y = 6
63 16
Answer: (3, 4) and 13
, 13
8
< x2 + y 2 = 12
(c)
: x2 y 2 = 4
p p p p
Answer: 2 2, 2 , 2 2, 2 , 2 2, 2 , and 2 2, 2
77
8
< x2 4y 2 = 200
(d)
: x + 2y = 100
Answer: 51, 49
2
8
< 1 (x + 1)2 (y + 2)2 = 1
4
(e)
: (y + 2)2 = 1 (x 1)
4
⇣ p ⌘ ⇣ p ⌘
5 5
Answer: (1, 2), 4, 2 + 2
, and 4, 2 2
78
? 2. A laptop has screen size 13 inches with aspect ratio 5 : 4. Find the length and
the width of the screen. Answer: 10.15 in ⇥ 8.12 in
? 3. What are the dimensions of a rectangle whose perimeter is 50 cm and diagonal
18 cm? Answer: 14.9 cm ⇥ 10.1 cm
2
4. The graph of 2xy y +5x+20 = 0 is a rotated hyperbola. Find the intersection
of this hyperbola with the graph of 3x + 2y = 3. (The graph is not required.)
71 25
Answer: ( 1, 3), 21
, 7
5. For what values of a will the system
8
< x2 + y 2 + 2x 1=0
: x y+a=0
79
Unit 2
Mathematical Induction
Lesson Outline
(1) Sequences and series
(2) Di↵erent types of sequences and series (Fibonacci sequence, arithmetic and
geometric sequence and series, and harmonic series)
(3) Di↵erence between sequence and series
Introduction
Pose the following problem to the class:
Get students to suggest strategies they can use to solve this problem. Lead
or encourage them to try out smaller number of steps and find a pattern. Work
with the class to complete the following table (on the board):
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Number of Steps Number of Ways
in the Stairs to Climb the Stairs
1 1
Teaching Notes
2 2
This is equivalent
to the number of 3 3
ways to express a
number (number of 4 5
steps in the stairs)
as a sum of 1’s and
2’s. For example, 5 8
we can write 3 as a
.. ..
sum of 1’s and 2’s . .
in three ways:
2 + 1, 1 + 2, and
1 + 1 + 1. In 2 + 1,
it means Jason The students should be able to recognize the Fibonacci sequence. Ask the
leaps 2 steps first,
then 1 step to students to recall what Fibonacci sequences are and where they had encountered
finish the this sequence before.
threestep stairs.
In this lesson, we will review the definitions and di↵erent types of sequences
and series.
Lesson Proper
Recall the following definitions:
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Example 2.1.1. Determine the first five terms of each defined sequence, and
give their associated series.
(1) {2 n} (3) {( 1)n }
(2) {1 + 2n + 3n2 } (4) {1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n}
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A geometric sequence is a sequence in which each term after the first
is obtained by multiplying the preceding term by a constant (called
the common ratio).
If the nth term of a geometric sequence is an and the common ratio is r, then
an = a1 r n 1 .
Seatwork/Homework
1. Write SEQ if the given item is a sequence, and write SER if it is a series.
84
(b) 2, 4, 9, 16, 25, . . . Answer: O
1 1 1
(c) 4
, , , 1 ,...
16 64 256
Answer: G
1 2 3 4
(d) 3
, , , ,...
9 27 81
Answer: O
1 1 1 1 1
(e) 5
, , , , ,...
9 13 17 21
Answer: A
(f) 4, 6, 10, 16, 26, . . . Answer: F
p p p p
(g) 3, 4, 5, 6, . . . Answer: O
(h) 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, 0.0001, . . . Answer: G
3. Determine the first five terms of each defined sequence, and give their associ
ated series.
(a) {1 + n n2 }
Answer: a1 = 1, a2 = 1, a3 = 5, a4 = 11, a5 = 19
Associated series: 1 1 5 11 19 = 35
(b) {1 ( 1)n+1 }
Answer: a1 = 0, a2 = 2, a3 = 0, a4 = 2, a5 = 0
Associated series: 0 + 2 + 0 + 2 + 0 = 4
(c) a1 = 3 and an = 2an 1 + 3 for n 2
Answer: a1 = 3, a2 = 9, a3 = 21, a4 = 45, a5 = 93
Associated series: 1 1 5 11 19 = 35
(d) {1 · 2 · 3 · · · n}
Answer: a1 = 1, a2 = 1 · 2 = 2, a3 = 1 · 2 · 3 = 6, a4 = 24, a5 = 120
Associated series: 1 + 2 + 6 + 24 + 120 = 153
4. Identify the series (and write NAGIG if it is not arithmetic, geometric, and
infinite geometric series), and determine the sum (and write NO SUM if it
cannot be summed up).
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Lesson 2.2. Sigma Notation
Lesson Outline
(1) Definition of and writing in sigma notation
(2) Evaluate sums written in sigma notation
(3) Properties of sigma notation
(4) Calculating sums using the properties of sigma notation
Introduction
The sigma notation is a shorthand for writing sums. In this lesson, we will
see the power of this notation in computing sums of numbers as well as algebraic
expressions.
Mathematicians use the sigma notation to denote a sum. The uppercase Greek
letter ⌃ (sigma) is used to indicate a “sum.” The notation consists of several
components or parts.
f (m) + f (m + 1) + f (m + 2) + · · · + f (n)
86
4 n
X
X
(1) (2i + 3) (3) ai
i=2 i=1
5
X X6 p
i n
(2) 2 (4)
i=0 n=1
n+1
(2) 1 + 2 3 + 4 5 + · · · 25
= ( 1)1 1 + ( 1)2 2 + ( 1)3 3 + ( 1)4 4
+ ( 1)5 5 + · · · + ( 1)25 25
25
X
= ( 1)j j
j=1
(3) a2 + a4 + a6 + a8 + · · · + a20
= a2(1) + a2(2) + a2(3) + a2(4) + · · · + a2(10)
10
X
= a2i
i=1
87
X 1 7
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(4) 1 + + + + + + + = 2
2 4 8 16 32 64 128 k=0 2k
The sigma notation of a sum expression is not necessarily unique. For ex
ample, the last item in the preceding example can also be expressed in sigma
notation as follows:
X 8
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1+ + + + + + + = .
2 4 8 16 32 64 128 k=1 2 1 k
However, this last sigma notation is equivalent to the one given in the example.
Seatwork/Homework 2.2.1
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2.2.2. Properties of Sigma Notation
in terms of n.
The sum can be evaluated in di↵erent ways. A simple, though informal,
approach is pictorial.
Teaching Notes
This illustration
can be done with
manipulatives, and
n
X allow the students
n(n + 1) to guess.
i = 1 + 2 + 3 + ··· + n =
i=1
2
Another way is to use the formula for an arithmetic series with a1 = 1 and
an = n:
n(a1 + an ) n(n + 1)
S= = .
2 2
We now derive some useful summation facts. They are based on the axioms
of arithmetic addition and multiplication.
n
X n
X
cf (i) = c f (i), c any real number.
i=m i=m
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= c[f (m) + f (m + 1) + · · · + f (n)]
Xn
=c f (i) 2
i=m
n
X n
X n
X
[f (i) + g(i)] = f (i) + g(i)
i=m i=m i=m
Proof.
n
X
[f (i) + g(i)]
i=m
= [f (m) + g(m)] + · · · + [f (n) + g(n)]
= [f (m) + · · · + f (n)] + [g(m) + · · · + g(n)]
Xn X n
= f (i) + g(i) 2
i=m i=m
n
X
c = c(n m + 1)
i=m
Proof.
n
X
c = c + c + c{z+ · · · + }c
i=m n m+1 terms
= c(n m + 1) 2
A special case of the above result which you might encounter more often is
the following:
Xn
c = cn.
i=1
Telescoping Sum
n
X
[f (i + 1) f (i)] = f (n + 1) f (m)
i=m
90
Proof.
n
X ⇥ ⇤
f (i + 1) f (i)
i=m
= [f (m + 1) f (m)] + [f (m + 2) f (m + 1)]
+ [f (m + 3) f (m + 2)] + · · · + [f (n + 1) f (n)]
Note that the terms, f (m + 1), f (m + 2), . . . , f (n), all cancel out. Hence, we have
n
X
[f (i + 1) f (i)] = f (n + 1) f (m). 2
i=m
30
X
Example 2.2.3. Evaluate: (4i 5).
i=1
Solution.
30
X 30
X 30
X
(4i 5) = 4i 5
i=1 i=1 i=1
X30 X30
=4 i 5
i=1 i=1
(30)(31)
=4 5(30)
2
= 1710 2
Solution.
1 1 1 1
+ + + ··· +
1·2 2·3 3·4 99 · 100
X 99
1
=
i=1
i(i + 1)
99
X i+1 i
=
i=1
i(i + 1)
X99
i+1 i
=
i=1
i(i + 1) i(i + 1)
91
99 ✓
X ◆
1 1
=
i=1
i i+1
X99 ✓ ◆
1 1
=
i=1
i+1 i
1
Using f (i) = and the telescopingsum property, we get
i
X99 ✓ ◆
1 1 1 99
= = . 2
i=1
i(i + 1) 100 1 100
n
X
Example 2.2.5. Derive a formula for i2 using a telescoping sum with terms
i=1
f (i) = i3 .
On the other hand, using expansion and the other properties of summation,
we have
n
X n
⇥ ⇤ X
i3 (i 1)3 = (i3 i3 + 3i2 3i + 1)
i=1 i=1
Xn n
X n
X
2
=3 i 3 i+ 1
i=1 i=1 i=1
n
X n(n + 1)
=3 i2 3· + n.
i=1
2
n
X 3n(n + 1)
3 i2 + n = n3
i=1
2
n
X
6 i2 3n(n + 1) + 2n = 2n3
i=1
n
X
6 i2 = 2n3 2n + 3n(n + 1)
i=1
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= 2n(n2 1) + 3n(n + 1)
= 2n(n 1)(n + 1) + 3n(n + 1)
= n(n + 1)[2(n 1) + 3]
= n(n + 1)(2n + 1).
Finally, after dividing both sides of the equation by 6, we obtain the desired
formula n
X n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
i2 = . 2
i=1
6
Seatwork/Homework 2.2.2
Exercises 2.2
93
6
X p
3
p
3
p
3
p
3
p
3
p
3
(b) 2i Answer: 0 + 2+ 4+ 6+2+ 10 + 12
i=0
3
X
i
(c) 3 Answer: 9 + 3 + 1 + 1/3 + 1/9 + 1/27
i= 2
30
X 30
X 30
X 3g(i) f (i) + 7
4. If f (i) = 70 and g(i) = 50, what is the value of ?
i=1 i=1 i=1
2
Answer: 145
100
X 200
X
5. If s = i, express i in terms of s. Answer: 2s + 100000
i=1 i=1
Xn n
X
6. If s = ai , does it follow that a2i = s2 ?
i=1 i=1
2
X n
X
Answer: No. If s = ai = a1 + a2 , then a2i = a21 + a22 , while s2 =
i=1 i=1
a21 + 2a1 a2 + a22 .
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n
X
7. Derive a formula for i3 by using a telescoping sum with terms f (i) = i4 .
i=1
n2 (n + 1)2
Answer:
4
Lesson Outline
(1) State the principle of mathematical induction
(2) Prove summation identities using mathematical induction
(3) Prove divisibility statements using mathematical induction
(4) Prove inequalities using mathematical induction
Introduction
We have derived and used formulas for the terms of arithmetic and geometric
sequences and series. These formulas and many other theorems involving positive
integers can be proven with the use of a technique called mathematical induction.
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The Principle of Mathematical Induction is often compared to climbing an
infinite staircase. First, you need to be able to climb up to the first step. Second,
if you are on any step (n = k), you must be able to climb up to the next step
(n = k + 1). If you can do these two things, then you will be able to climb up
the infinite staircase.
Part 1 Part 2
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There are many mathematical results that can be proven using mathematical
induction. In this lesson, we will focus on three main categories: summation
identities, divisibility statements, and inequalities.
We now consider some examples on the use of mathematical induction in
proving summation identities.
Example 2.3.1. Using mathematical induction, prove that
n(n + 1)
1 + 2 + 3 + ··· + n =
2
for all positive integers n.
Solution. We need to establish the two conditions stated in the Principle of Math
ematical Induction.
97
Example 2.3.2. Use mathematical induction to prove the formula for the sum
of a geometric series with n terms:
a1 (1 rn )
Sn = , r 6= 1.
1 r
Solution. Let an be the nth term of a geometric series. From Lesson 2.1, we know
Teaching Notes that an = a1 rn 1 .
The fact that
an = a1 rn 1 can
also be proven by Part 1. Prove that the formula is true for n = 1.
mathematical
induction. Here, a1 (1 r1 )
however, we simply = a1 = S 1
recall a formula in 1 r
Lesson 2.1 because
our focus in this The formula is true for n = 1.
example is the
proof of the sum. a1 (1 rk )
Part 2. Assume that the formula is true for n = k 1: Sk = . We
1 r
want to prove that it is also true for n = k + 1; that is,
a1 (1 rk+1 )
Sk+1 = .
1 r
We know that
Sk+1 = a1 + a2 + · · · + ak +ak+1
 {z }
Sk
= Sk + ak+1
a1 1 r k
= + a1 rk
1 r
a1 1 rk + a1 rk (1 r)
=
1 r
a1 1 rk + rk rk+1
=
1 r
a1 1 rk+1
=
1 r
By the Principle of Mathematical Induction, we have proven that
a1 (1 rn )
Sn =
1 r
for all positive integers n. 2
Example 2.3.3. Using mathematical induction, prove that
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
1 2 + 2 2 + 3 2 + · · · + n2 =
6
for all positive integers n.
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Solution. We again establish the two conditions stated in the Principle of Math
ematical Induction.
Part 1
1(1 + 1)(2 · 1 + 1) 1·2·3
= = 1 = 12
6 6
The formula is true for n = 1.
Part 2
k(k + 1)(2k + 1)
Assume: 12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + k 2 = .
6
Prove: 12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + k 2 + (k + 1)2
(k + 1)(k + 2) [2(k + 1) + 1]
=
6
(k + 1)(k + 2)(2k + 3)
= .
6
12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + k 2 + (k + 1)2
k(k + 1)(2k + 1)
= + (k + 1)2
6
k(k + 1)(2k + 1) + 6(k + 1)2
=
6
(k + 1) [k(2k + 1) + 6(k + 1)]
=
6
(k + 1) (2k 2 + 7k + 6)
=
6
(k + 1)(k + 2)(2k + 3)
=
6
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
12 + 2 2 + 3 2 + · · · + n2 =
6
for all positive integers n. 2
Seatwork/Homework 2.3.1
n(n + 1)(2n + 7)
1 · 3 + 2 · 4 + 3 · 5 + · · · + n(n + 2) = .
6
99
Answer:
Part 1
1(1 + 1)[2(1) + 7] 2·9
= =3=1·3
6 6
The formula is true for n = 1.
Part 2
k(k + 1)(2k + 7)
Assume: 1 · 3 + 2 · 4 + 3 · 5 + · · · + k(k + 2) =
6
To show: 1 · 3 + 2 · 4 + · · · + k(k + 2) + (k + 1)(k + 3)
(k + 1)(k + 2) [2(k + 1) + 7]
=
6
(k + 1)(k + 2)(2k + 9)
=
6
1 · 3 + 2 · 4 + · · · + k(k + 2) + (k + 1)(k + 3)
k(k + 1)(2k + 7)
= + (k + 1)(k + 3)
6
(k + 1)
= [k(2k + 7) + 6(k + 3)]
6
(k + 1) ⇥ 2 ⇤
= 2k + 13k + 18
6
(k + 1)(k + 2)(2k + 9)
=
6
Therefore, by the Principle of Math Induction, the formula is true for all positive
Teaching Notes integers n.
Recall the
definition of
divisibility: an
integer n is 2.3.2. Proving Divisibility Statements
divisible by an
integer k if n = kr
for some integer r. We now prove some divisibility statements using mathematical induction.
Example 2.3.4. Use mathematical induction to prove that, for every positive
integer n, 7n 1 is divisible by 6.
Solution. Similar to what we did in the previous session, we establish the two
conditions stated in the Principle of Mathematical Induction.
Part 1
71 1=6=6·1
71 1 is divisible by 6.
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Part 2
Assume: 7k 1 is divisible by 6.
k+1
To show: 7 1 is divisible by 6.
k+1
7 1 = 7 · 7k 1 = 6 · 7k + 7k 1 = 6 · 7k + (7k 1)
By definition of divisibility, 6 · 7k is divisible by 6. Also, by the hypothesis
(assumption), 7k 1 is divisible by 6. Hence, their sum (which is equal to
k+1
7 1) is also divisible by 6.
Therefore, by the Principle of Math Induction, 7n 1 is divisible by 6 for all
positive integers n. 2
Example 2.3.5. Use mathematical induction to prove that, for every nonnega
tive integer n, n3 n + 3 is divisible by 3.
Part 1 Note that claim of the statement is that it is true for every nonnegative
integer n. This means that Part 1 should prove that the statement is true for
n = 0.
03 0 + 3 = 3 = 3(1)
03 0 + 3 is divisible by 3.
(k + 1)3 (k + 1) + 3 = k 3 + 3k 2 + 2k + 3
= (k 3 k + 3) + 3k 2 + 3k
= 3a + 3k 2 + 3k
= 3(a + k 2 + k)
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Therefore, by the Principle of Math Induction, n3 n + 3 is divisible by 3 for
all positive integers n. 2
Seatwork/Homework 2.3.1
Use mathematical induction to prove each divisibility statement for all nonnega
tive integers n.
(1) 72n 3 · 5n + 2 is divisible by 12.
Answer:
Part 1
72(0) 3 · 50 + 2 = 1 3(1) + 2 = 0 = 12(0)
72(0) 3 · 50 + 2 is divisible by 12
Part 2
Assume: 72k 3 · 5k + 2 is divisible by 12
To show: 72(k+1) 3 · 5(k+1) + 2 is divisible by 12
72(k+1) 3 · 5(k+1) + 2
= 72 72k 3 · 5 · 5k + 2
= 49 · 72k 15 · 5k + 2
= 72k + 48 · 72k 3 · 5k 12 · 5k + 2
= 72k 3 · 5k + 2 + 48 · 72k 12 · 5k
= 72k 3 · 5k + 2 + 12 4 · 72k 5k
Part 1
03 + 3 · 02 + 2(0) = 0 = 3(0)
Thus, 03 + 3 · 02 + 2(0) is divisible by 3.
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Part 2
Assume: k 3 + 3k 2 + 2k is divisible by 3.
=) k 3 + 3k 2 + 2k = 3a, a integer
Example 2.3.6. Use mathematical induction to prove that 2n > 2n for every
integer n 3.
Solution. Just like the previous example, we establish the two conditions in the
Principle of Mathematical Induction.
Part 1
23 = 8 > 6 = 2(3)
This confirms that 23 > 2(3).
Part 2
Assume: 2k > 2k, where k is an integer with k 3
To show: 2k+1 > 2(k + 1) = 2k + 2
We compare the components of the assumption and the inequality we need to
prove. On the lefthand side, the expression is doubled. On the righthand side,
the expression is increased by 2. We choose which operation we want to apply to
both sides of the assumed inequality.
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Alternative 1. We double both sides.
Since 2k > 2k, by the multiplication property of inequality, we have 2 · 2k >
2 · 2k.
2k+1 > 2(2k) = 2k + 2k > 2k + 2 if k 3.
Hence, 2k+1 > 2(k + 1).
Example 2.3.7. Use mathematical induction to prove that 3n < (n + 2)! for
every positive integer n. Can you refine or improve the result?
Part 1
31 = 3 < 6 = 3! = (1 + 2)! =) 31 < (1 + 2)!
Thus, the desired inequality is true for n = 1.
Part 2
Assume: 3k < (k + 2)!
To show: 3k+1 < (k + 3)!
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Given that 3k < (k + 2)!, we multiply both sides of the inequality by 3 and
obtain
3 3k < 3 [(k + 2)!] .
and so
3k+1 < (k + 3)!.
Seatwork/Homework 2.3.3
Answer:
Part 1
2(4) + 3 = 11 < 16 = 24
Thus, 2(4) + 3 <= 24 .
Part 2
Assume: 2k + 3 < 2k , k 4
To show: 2(k + 1) + 3 < 2k+1
2(k + 1) + 3 = 2k + 5 = (2k + 3) + 2
< 2k + 2 < 2k + 2k = 2k+1
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Exercises 2.3
n [2a1 + (n 1)d]
(5) a1 + (a1 + d) + (a1 + 2d) + · · · + [a1 + (n 1)d] =
2
(6) 1 (1!) + 2 (2!) + · · · + n (n!) = (n + 1)! 1
k+1
X k
X
Hint: i · i! = i · i! + (k + 1)(k + 1)! = (k + 1)! 1 + (k + 1)(k + 1)! =
i=1 i=1
(k + 1)!(1 + k + 1) 1 = (k + 2)! 1
(7) 7n 4n is divisible by 3
Hint: 7k+1 4k+1 = 7 · 7k 4 · 4k = (3 + 4)7k 4 · 4k = 3 · 7k + (7k 4k )
(8) 10n + 3 · 4n+2 + 5 is divisible by 9
Hint: 10k+1 +3·4k+3 +5 = 10·10k +3·4·4k+2 +5 = (9+1)10k +(9+3)4k+2 +5 =
9(10k + 4k+2 ) + 10k + 3 · 4k+2 + 5
(9) 11n+2 + 122n+1 is divisible by 133
Hint: 11k+3 +122k+3 = 11·11k+2 +122 ·122k+1 = 11·11k+2 +(133+11)122k+1 =
11(11k+2 + 122k+1 ) + 133 · 122k+1
(10) xn y n is divisible by x y for any positive integer n
k+1 k+1 k
Hint: x y =x·x y · xk + y · xk y · y k = (x y)xk + y(xk yk )
(11) xn + y n is divisible by x + y for any odd positive integer n
Hint: xk+2 + y k+2 = x2 xk + y 2 y k = x2 xk + x2 y k x2 y k + y 2 y k = x2 (xk + y k )
y k (x y)(x + y)
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(12) If 0 < a < 1, then 0 < an < 1 for any positive integer n
Hint: 0 < ak < 1 =) 0 · a < ak · a < 1 · a =) 0 < ak+1 < a < 1
(13) (1 + a)n > 1 + na for a > 1, a 6= 0 and n an integer greater than 1
k+1
Hint: (1 + a) > (1 + ka)(1 + a) = 1 + (k + 1)a + ka2 > 1 + (k + 1)a
(14) 2n > n2 for every integer n > 4
Hint: 2k+1 = 2 · 2k > 2k 2 = k 2 + k 2 > k 2 + 2k + 1 = (k + 1)2 . The last
inequality follows from (k 1)2 > 2 for k > 4, which implies that k 2 > 2k + 1.
For k > 4, (k 1)2 > 2
(15) 2n < n! for every integer n > 3
Hint: 2k+1 = 2 · 2k = 2k! < (k + 1)k! = (k + 1)!
Lesson Outline
(1) Expand (x + y)n for small values of n using Pascal’s Triangle
(2) Review the definition of and formula for combination Teaching Notes
The concept of
(3) State and prove the Binomial Theorem combination was
introduced in
(4) Compute all or specified terms of a binomial expansion Grade 10. In
particular, the
(5) Prove some combination identities using the Binomial Theorem concept was
discussed with
competency codes
Introduction from M10SPIIIc1
to M10SPIIIde1.
In this lesson, we study two ways to expand (a + b)n , where n is a positive
integer. The first, which uses Pascal’s Triangle, is applicable if n is not too big,
107
and if we want to determine all the terms in the expansion. The second method
gives a general formula for the expansion of (a + b)n for any positive integer n.
This formula is useful especially when n is large because it avoids the process of
going through all the coefficients for lower values of n obtained through Pascal’s
Teaching Notes Triangle. Moreover, if only a specific term is required, it can be computed directly
Calculations with
big numbers are
using a simple formula. Lastly, the theorem can be used to derive and prove some
required in many useful and interesting results about sums of combinations.
of the examples
and exercises in
this section. The
use of scientific 2.4.1. Pascal’s Triangle and the Concept of Combination
calculators is
desirable.
Teaching Notes Consider the following powers of a + b:
You may ask the
students to expand
these powers using (a + b)1 = a + b
long multiplication.
(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2
(a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2 b + 3ab2 + b3
(a + b)4 = a4 + 4a3 b + 6a2 b2 + 4ab3 + b4
(a + b)5 = a5 + 5a4 b + 10a3 b2 + 10a2 b3 + 5ab4 + b5
(a + b)6 = a6 + 6a5 b + 15a4 b2 + 20a3 b3 + 15a2 b4 + 6ab5 + b6
(3) The second and second to the last number of each row correspond to the
row number.
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(5) The number of entries in a row is one more than the row number (or one
more than the number of entries in the preceding row).
(6) Every middle number after first row is the sum of the two numbers above
it.
It is the last statement which is useful in constructing the succeeding rows of the
triangle.
Example 2.4.1. Use Pascal’s Triangle to expand the expression (2x 3y)5 .
Solution. We use the coefficients in the fifth row of the Pascal’s Triangle.
Solution. We start with the sixth row (or any row of the Pascal’s Triangle that
we remember).
n=6: 1 6 15 20 15 6 1
n=7: 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1
n=8: 1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1
Therefore, we get
109
(1) C(n, 0) = C(n, n) = 1,
These properties can explain some of the observations we made on the num
bers in the Pascal’s Triangle. Recall also the general formula for the number of
combinations of n objects taken k at a time:
✓ ◆
n n!
C(n, k) = = ,
k k!(n k)!
Solution. ✓ ◆
5 5! 5!
= = = 10
3 (5 3)!3! 2!3!
✓ ◆
8 8! 10!
= = = 56 2
5 (8 5)!5! 3!5!
You may observe that the value of 53 and the fourth coefficient in the fifth
row of Pascal’s Triangle are the same. In the same manner, 85 is equal to the
sixth coefficient in the expansion of (a + b)8 (see Example 2.4.2). These observed
equalities are not coincidental, and they are, in fact, the essence embodied in the
Binomial Theorem, as you will see in the succeeding sessions.
Seatwork/Homework 2.4.1
2. Compute.
✓ ◆
5
(a) Answer: 10
2
110
✓ ◆
9
(b) Answer: 36
7
✓ ◆
12
(c) Answer: 66
10
✓ ◆
20
(d) Answer: 15504
5
✓ ◆
n n(n 1)
3. Prove: = .
2 2
Answer: ✓ ◆
n n! n(n 1)(n 2)! n(n 1)
= = =
2 (n 2)!2! (n 2)!2! 2
As the power n gets larger, the more laborious it would be to use Pascal’s Triangle
(and impractical to use long multiplication) to expand (a + b)n . For example,
using Pascal’s Triangle, we need to compute row by row up to the thirtieth row
to know the coefficients of (a + b)30 . It is, therefore, delightful to know that it is
possible to compute the terms of a binomial expansion of degree n without going
through the expansion of all the powers less than n.
We now explain how the concept of combination is used in the expansion of
(a + b)n .
(a + b)n = (a + b)(a + b)(a + b) · · · (a + b)
 {z }
n factors
When the distributive law is applied, the expansion of (a + b)n consists of
terms of the form am bi , where 0 m, i n. This term is obtained by choosing
a for m of the factors and b for the rest of the factors. Hence, m + i = n, or
m = n i. This means that the number of times the term an i bi will appear
in the expansion of (a + b)n equals the number of ways of choosing (n i) or i
factors from the n factors, which is exactly C(n, i). Therefore, we have
n ✓ ◆
X
n n
(a + b) = an i b i .
i=0
i
111
That is, each term in the expansion is obtained by choosing either a or b in each
factor. The term a3 is obtained when a is chosen each time, while a2 b is obtained
when a is selected 2 times, or equivalently, b is selected exactly once.
We will give another proof of this result using mathematical induction. But
first, we need to prove a result about combinations.
Pascal’s Identity
If n and k are positive integers with k n, then
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
n+1 n n
= + .
k k k 1
Teaching Notes Proof. The result follows from the combination formula.
The formula can
also be proved ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
using the fact that n n n! n!
n
k
is the number + = +
of ways to choose k k k 1 k!(n k)! (k 1)!(n k + 1)!
from n distinct
objects. Suppose a
n!(n k + 1) + n!(k)
=
is one of the n k!(n k + 1)!
objects. Then, in
selecting k objects, n!(n k + 1 + k)
either a is selected =
or not. If a is k!(n + 1 k)!
included in the k n!(n + 1)
objects, then there =
are k n 1 ways to k!(n + 1 k)!
complete the
selection of the k (n + 1)!
objects; if a is not
=
k!(n + 1 k)!
included, then ✓ ◆
there are n k
ways. n+1
= 2
k
112
Part 1
1 ✓ ◆
X ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
1 1 i i 1 1 0 1 0 1
a b = ab + a b =a+b
i=0
i 0 1
Hence, the formula is true for n = 1.
113
k+1 ✓
X ◆
k+1
= ak+1 i bi
i=0
i
Solution.
6 ✓ ◆
X
6 6
(x + y) = x6 k y k
k=0
k
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
6 6 0 6 5 1 6 4 2
= xy + xy + xy
0 1 2
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
6 3 3 6 2 4 6 1 5
+ xy + xy + xy
3 4 5
✓ ◆
6 0 6
+ xy
6
= x6 + 6x5 y + 15x4 y 2 + 20x3 y 3
+ 15x2 y 2 + 6xy 5 + y 6 2
Since the expansion of (a + b)n begins with k = 0 and ends with k = n, the
expansion has n + 1 terms. The first term in the expansion is n0 an = an , the
second term is n1 an 1 b = nan=1 b, the second to the last term is nn 1 abn 1 =
nabn 1 , and the last term is nn bn = bn .
The kth term of the expansion is k n 1 an k+1 bk 1 . If n is even, there is a
middle term, which is the n2 + 1 th term. If n is odd, there are two middle
terms, the n+1
2
th and n+12
+ 1 th terms.
The general term is often represented by nk an k bk . Notice that, in any term,
the sum of the exponents of a and b is n. The combination nk is the coefficient
of the term involving bk . This allows us to compute any particular term without
needing to expand (a + b)n and without listing all the other terms.
114
p 20
Example 2.4.5. Find the fifth term in the expansion of 2x y . Teaching Notes
To find a specific
term in the
Solution. The fifth term in the expansion of a fifth power corresponds to k = 4. expansion of
(a + b)n , it is
✓ ◆ important to find
20 p 4
(2x)20 4 ( y) = 4845 65536x16 y 2 the value of k.
4
= 317521920x16 y 2 2
⇣x ⌘6
Example 2.4.6. Find the middle term in the expansion of + 3y .
2
Solution. Since there are seven terms in the expansion, the middle term is the
fourth term (k = 3), which is
✓ ◆⇣ ⌘ ✓ 3◆
6 x 3 3 x 3 135x3 y 3
(3y) = 20 27y = . 2
3 2 8 2
Example 2.4.7. Find the term involving x (with exponent 1) in the expansion
✓ ◆8
2 2y
of x .
x
Seatwork/Homework 2.4.3
5
1. Use the Binomial Theorem to expand (2a b2 ) .
Answer:
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
2 5 5 5 5
2a b = (2a) + (2a)4 b2
0 1
115
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
5 3 2 2 5 3
+ (2a) b + (2a)2 b2
2 3
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
5 2 4 5 5
+ (2a) b + b2
4 5
5 4 2 3 4
= 32a 80a b + 80a b 40a2 b6
+ 10ab8 b10
✓
◆11
2 1/3
2. Find the two middle terms in the expansion of x + .
y
Answer: There are 12 terms in the expansion, so the two middle terms are the
6th (corresponding to k = 5) and the 7th (corresponding to k = 6) terms.
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆5 ✓ ◆
11 11 5 2 32 14784x2
x1/3 = 462x 2
=
5 y y5 y5
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆6 ✓ ◆
11 11 6 2 64 29568x5/3
x1/3 = 462x 5/3
=
6 y y6 y6
✓ ◆10
x3 3
3. Find the constant term in the expansion of + 2 .
2 x
Answer: The general term is
✓ ◆ ✓ 3 ◆10 k ✓ ◆k ✓ ◆ ✓ 30 3k ◆ ✓ k ◆
10 x 3 10 x 3
=
k 2 x2 k 2 10 k x2k
✓ ◆ k
10 3
= x30 5k
k 210 k
116
Solution.
8 ✓ ◆
X
8 8 8
(0.8) = (1 0.2) = (1)8 k ( 0.2)k
k=0
k
X8 ✓ ◆
8
= ( 0.2)k
k=0
k
2 ✓ ◆
X ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
8 k 8 8 8
(1) ( 0.2) = + ( 0.2) + ( 0.2)2
k=0
k 0 1 2
=1 1.6 + 1.12 = 0.52
The calculator value is 0.16777216, so the error is 0.35222784.
4 ✓ ◆
X ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
8 k 8 8 8
(2) ( 0.2) = + ( 0.2) + ( 0.2)2
k=0
k 0 1 2
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
8 3 8
+ ( 0.2) + ( 0.2)4
3 4
= 0.52 0.448 + 0.112 = 0.184
The error is 0.01622784, which is an improvement on the previous estimate.
2
Example 2.4.9. Use the Binomial Theorem to prove that, for any positive in
teger n,
Xn ✓ ◆
n
= 2n .
k=0
k
117
✓◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
100 100 100 2 100
0= + ( 1) + ( 1) + ( 1)3
0 1 2 3
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
100 99 100
+ ··· + ( 1) + ( 1)100
99 100
Therefore, after transposing the negative terms to other side of the equation, we
obtain
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
100 100 100 100
+ + + ··· +
0 2 4 100
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
100 100 100 100
= + + + ··· + 2
1 3 5 99
Seatwork/Homework 2.4.4
? 1. Approximate (1.9)10 using the first three terms in the expansion of
(2 0.1)10 , and find its error compared to the calculator value.
Answer:
2 ✓ ◆
X
10 10 10
(1.9) = (2 0.1) ⇡ 210 k ( 0.1)k
k=0
k
10
=2 10 · 29 · 0.1 + 45 · 28 · 0.12
= 627.2
n ✓ ◆
X n ✓ ◆
X
n n k k n
n
Answer: 4 = (1 + 3) = n
1 3 = 3k
k=0
k k=0
k
118
Exercises 2.4
1. Use the Binomial Theorem to expand each expression.
119
4. Use the Binomial Theorem to prove that
n ✓ ◆
X n
2 k = 3n .
k=0
k
120
Unit 3
Trigonometry
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AUnderground River.jpg
By Giovanni G. Navata (Own work)
[CC BYSA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bysa/3.0)],
via Wikimedia Commons
Named as one of the New Seven Wonders of Nature in 2012, the Puerto
Princesa Subterranean River National Park is worldfamous for its limestone
karst mountain landscape with an underground river. The Park was also listed
as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999. The underground river stretches about
8.2 km long, making it one of the world’s longest rivers of its kind.
121
Lesson 3.1. Angles in a Unit Circle
Lesson Outline
(1) Linear and angular measure of arcs
(2) Conversion of degree to radian, and vice versa
(3) Arc length and area of the sector
(4) Angle in standard position and coterminal angles
Introduction
There are many problems involving angles in several fields like engineering,
medical imaging, electronics, astronomy, geography and many more. Survey
ors, pilots, landscapers, designers, soldiers, and people in many other professions
heavily use angles and trigonometry to accomplish a variety of practical tasks.
In this lesson, we will deal with the basics of angle measures together with arc
length and sectors.
Teaching Notes An angle is formed by rotating a ray about its endpoint. In the figure shown
Angles in
trigonometry di↵er
below, the initial side of \AOB is OA, while its terminal side is OB. An angle
from angles in is said to be positive if the ray rotates in a counterclockwise direction, and the
Euclidean
geometry in the
angle is negative if it rotates in a clockwise direction.
sense of motion.
An angle in
geometry is defined
as a union of rays
(that is, static)
and has measure
between 0 and
180 . An angle in
trigonometry is a
rotation of a ray,
and, therefore, has
no limit. It has
positive and
negative directions
and measures.
122
An angle is in standard position if it is drawn in the xyplane with its vertex
at the origin and its initial side on the positive xaxis. The angles ↵, , and ✓ in
the following figure are angles in standard position.
and
Recall that the unit circle is the circle with center at the origin and radius 1
unit.
123
A central angle of the unit circle that intercepts an arc of the circle
with length 1 unit is said to have a measure of one radian, written 1
rad. See Figure 3.1.
Figure 3.1
124
! ! ! !
Solution. (1) 135 : OC; 135 : OD; 90 : OE; and 405 : OB
⇡ ! ! !
(2) radian measure: 4
rad: OB; 3⇡ 4
rad: OD; 3⇡
2
rad: OE; and ⇡
2
rad:
!
OE 2
Since a unit circle has circumference 2⇡, a central angle that measures 360
has measure equivalent to 2⇡ radians. Thus, we obtain the following conversion
rules.
Converting degree to radian,
and vice versa
⇡
1. To convert a degree measure to radian, multiply it by 180
.
180
2. To convert a radian measure to degree, multiply it by ⇡
.
Figure 3.2 shows some special angles in standard position with the indicated
terminal sides. The degree and radian measures are also given.
Figure 3.2
Solution. ⇣ ⇡ ⌘ 5⇡ 5⇡
75 = =) 75 = rad
180 12 12
⇣ ⇡ ⌘ 4⇡ 4⇡
240 = =) 240 = rad 2
180 3 3
125
⇡ 11⇡
Example 3.1.3. Express 8
rad and 6
rad in degrees.
Solution. ✓ ◆
⇡ 180 ⇡
= 22.5 =) rad = 22.5
8 ⇡ 8
✓ ◆
11⇡ 180 11⇡
= 330 =) rad = 330 2
6 ⇡ 6
Seatwork/Homework 3.1.1
Two angles in standard position that have a common terminal side are called
coterminal angles. Observe that the degree measures of coterminal angles di↵er
by multiples of 360 .
Two angles are coterminal if and only if their degree measures di↵er
by 360k, where k 2 Z.
Similarly, two angles are coterminal if and only if their radian mea
sures di↵er by 2⇡k, where k 2 Z.
As a quick illustration, to find one coterminal angle with an angle that mea
sures 410 , just subtract 360 , resulting in 50 . See Figure 3.3.
126
Figure 3.3
Example 3.1.4. Find the angle coterminal with 380 that has measure
Solution. A negative angle moves in a clockwise direction, and the angle 380
lies in Quadrant IV.
Seatwork/Homework 3.1.2
1. Find the angle between 0 and 360 (if in degrees) or between 0 rad and 2⇡ rad
(if in radians) that is coterminal with the given angle.
(a) 736 Answer: 16
(b) 28 480 6500 Answer: 331 100 5500
(c) 13⇡
2
rad Answer: ⇡2 rad
? (d) 10 rad Answer: 3.72 rad
2. Find the angle between 360 and 0 (if in degrees) or between 2⇡ rad and
0 rad (if in radians) that is coterminal with the given angle.
(a) 142 Answer: 218
(b) 400 10 2300 Answer: 40 10 2300
(c) ⇡6 rad Answer: 11⇡
6
rad
? (d) 20 rad Answer: 1.15 rad
127
3.1.3. Arc Length and Area of a Sector
In a circle, a central angle whose radian measure is ✓ subtends an arc that is the
✓
Teaching Notes fraction 2⇡ of the circumference of the circle. Thus, in a circle of radius r (see
Review how arcs
were measured in
Figure 3.4), the length s of an arc that subtends the angle ✓ is
Grade 10. What
unit of measure ✓ ✓
was used? For two s= ⇥ circumference of circle = (2⇡r) = r✓.
circles with 2⇡ 2⇡
di↵erent radii, do
equal central
angles intercept
arcs of the same
measure?
Conclude that
previous notion of
arc measure is not
the same as length.
Arcs are now
measured in terms
of length and
measure changes
with the radius of
the circle.
Figure 3.4
s = r✓.
Example 3.1.5. Find the length of an arc of a circle with radius 10 m that
subtends a central angle of 30 .
Solution. Since the given central angle is in degrees, we have to convert it into
radian measure. Then apply the formula for an arc length.
⇣ ⇡ ⌘ ⇡
30 = rad
180 6
⇣ ⇡ ⌘ 5⇡
s = 10 = m 2
6 3
Example 3.1.6. A central angle ✓ in a circle of radius 4 m is subtended by an
arc of length 6 m. Find the measure of ✓ in radians.
Solution.
s 6 3
✓= = = rad 2
r 4 2
128
A sector of a circle is the portion of the interior of a circle bounded by the
initial and terminal sides of a central angle and its intercepted arc. It is like a
“slice of pizza.” Note that an angle with measure 2⇡ radians will define a sector
that corresponds to the whole “pizza.” Therefore, if a central angle of a sector
✓
has measure ✓ radians, then the sector makes up the fraction 2⇡ of a complete
circle. See Figure 3.5. Since the area of a complete circle with radius r is ⇡r2 , we
have
✓ 1
Area of a sector = (⇡r2 ) = ✓r2 .
2⇡ 2
Figure 3.5
Example 3.1.7. Find the area of a sector of a circle with central angle 60 if
the radius of the circle is 3 m.
Solution. First, we have to convert 60 into radians. Then apply the formula for
computing the area of a sector.
⇣ ⇡ ⌘ ⇡
60 = rad
180 3
1 ⇡ 3⇡ 2
A = (32 ) = m 2
2 3 2
Example 3.1.8. A sprinkler on a golf course fairway is set to spray water over
a distance of 70 feet and rotates through an angle of 120 . Find the area of the
fairway watered by the sprinkler.
129
Solution. ⇣ ⇡ ⌘ 2⇡
120 = rad
180 3
1 2⇡ 4900⇡
A = (702 ) = ⇡ 5131 ft2 2
2 3 3
Seatwork/Homework 3.1.3
1. In a circle of radius 7 feet, find the length of the arc that subtends a central
angle of 5 radians. Answer: 35 ft
2. A central angle ✓ in a circle of radius 20 m is subtended by an arc of length
15⇡ m. Find the measure of ✓ in degrees. Answer: 135
3. Find the area of a sector of a circle with central angle that measures 75 if the
radius of the circle is 6 m. Answer: 7.5 m2
Exercises 3.1
130
⇡
(c) 15 Answer:12
rad
(d) 105 Answer: 7⇡
12
rad
53⇡
(e) 265 Answer: 36 rad
(f) 120 Answer: 2⇡ 3
rad
7⇡
(g) 315 Answer: 4
rad
4. Find the angle between 0 and 360 (if in degrees) or between 0 rad and 2⇡ rad
(if in radians) that is coterminal with the given angle.
5. Find the angle between 360 and 0 (if in degrees) or between 2⇡ rad and
0 rad (if in radians) that is coterminal with the given angle.
131
(e) 728 150 4300 Answer: 8 150 4300
29⇡ 7⇡
(f) 6
rad Answer: 6
rad
3⇡ 3⇡
(g) 2
rad Answer: 2
rad
? (h) 16 rad Answer: ⇡ 2.850 rad
? (i) 20 rad Answer: ⇡ 1.150 rad
6. Find the length of an arc of a circle with radius 21 m that subtends a central
angle of 15 . Answer: 7⇡
4
m
7. A central angle ✓ in a circle of radius 9 m is subtended by an arc of length 12
m. Find the measure of ✓ in radians. Answer: 43 rad
⇡
8. Find the radius of a circle in which a central angle of 6
rad determines a sector
of area 64 m2 . Answer: 16 m
9. If the radius of a circle is doubled, how is the length of the arc intercepted by
a fixed central angle changed? Answer: The length is doubled.
10. Radian measure simplifies many formulas, such as the formula for arc length,
s = r✓. Give the corresponding formula when ✓ is measured in degrees instead
of radians. Answer: s = ⇡r✓
180
? 11. As shown below, find the radius of the pulley if a rotation of 51.6 raises the
weight by 11.4 cm. Answer: 12.7 cm
? 12. How many inches will the weight rise if the pulley whose radius is 9.27 inches
is rotated through an angle of 71 500 ? Answer: 11.6 in
? 13. Continuing with the previous item, through what angle (to the nearest minute)
must the pulley be rotated to raise the weight 6 in? Answer: 37 50
? 14. Given a circle of radius 3 in, find the measure (in radians) of the central angle
of a sector of area 16 in2 . Answer: 3.6 rad
132
? 15. An automatic lawn sprinkler sprays up to a distance of 20 feet while rotating
30 . What is the area of the sector the sprinkler covers? Answer: 104.72 ft2
? 16. A jeepney has a windshield wiper on the driver’s side that has total arm and
blade 10 inches long and rotates back and forth through an angle of 95 . The
shaded region in the figure is the portion of the windshield cleaned by the
7inch wiper blade. What is the area of the region cleaned? Answer: 75.4 in2
17. If the radius of a circle is doubled and the central angle of a sector is unchanged,
how is the area of the sector changed? Answer: The area is quadrupled.
18. Give the corresponding formula for the area of a sector when the angle is
2✓
measured in degrees. Answer: A = ⇡r
360
? 19. A frequent problem in surveying city lots and rural lands adjacent to curves
of highways and railways is that of finding the area when one or more of the
boundary lines is the arc of a circle. Approximate the total area of the lot
shown in the figure. Answer: 1909.0 m2
133
20. Two gears of radii 2.5 cm and 4.8 cm are adjusted so that the smaller gear
drives the larger one, as shown. If the smaller gear rotates counterclockwise
through 225 , through how many degrees will the larger gear rotate?
Answer: 117
Lesson Outline
(1) Circular functions
(2) Reference angles
Introduction
Teaching Notes We define the six trigonometric function in such a way that the domain of
The teacher can
give a review of
each function is the set of angles in standard position. The angles are measured
trigonometric either in degrees or radians. In this lesson, we will modify these trigonometric
ratios as discussed
in Grade 9.
functions so that the domain will be real numbers rather than set of angles.
134
3.2.1. Circular Functions on Real Numbers
Recall that the sine and cosine functions (and four others: tangent, cosecant,
secant, and cotangent) of angles measuring between 0 and 90 were defined in
the last quarter of Grade 9 as ratios of sides of a right triangle. It can be verified
that these definitions are special cases of the following definition.
Example 3.2.1. Find the values of cos 135 , tan 135 , sin( 60 ), and sec( 60 ).
(a) (b)
Figure 3.6
From properties of 45 45 and 30 60 right triangles (with hypotenuse 1 Teaching Notes
A 45 45 right
unit), we obtain the lengths of the legs as in Figure 3.6(b). Thus, the coordinates triangle is isosceles.
of A and B are Moreover, the
p p ! p ! opposite side of the
30 angle in a
2 2 1 3 30 60 right
A= , and B = , .
2 2 2 2 triangle is half the
length of its
hypotenuse.
135
Therefore, we get
p
2
cos 135 = , tan 135 = 1,
2
p
3
sin( 60 ) = , and sec( 60 ) = 2. 2
2
From the last example, we may then also say that
⇣⇡ ⌘ p2 ⇣ ⇡ ⌘ p
3
cos rad = , sin rad = ,
4 2 3 2
and so on.
From the above definitions, we define the same six functions on real numbers.
These functions are called trigonometric functions.
Solution. Let P 3⇡ 2
be the point on the unit circle and on the terminal side of
the angle in the standard position with measure 3⇡2
rad. Then P 3⇡ 2
= (0, 1),
and so
3⇡ 3⇡
sin = 1, cos = 0,
2 2
but tan 3⇡
2
is undefined. 2
136
3
Example 3.2.3. Suppose s is a real number such that sin s = 4
and cos s > 0.
Find cos s.
Solution. We may consider s as the angle with measure s rad. Let P (s) = (x, y)
be the point on the unit circle and on the terminal side of angle s.
Since P (s) is on the unit circle, we know that x2 + y 2 = 1. Since sin s = y =
3
4
,we get
✓ ◆2 p
2 2 3 7 7
x =1 y =1 = =) x=± .
4 16 4
p
7
Since cos s = x > 0, we have cos s = 4
. 2
137
Let ✓ be an angle in standard
p position, Q(x, y) any point on the ter
minal side of ✓, and r = x2 + y 2 > 0. Then
y r
sin ✓ = csc ✓ = , y 6= 0
r y
x r
cos ✓ = sec ✓ = , x 6= 0
r x
y x
tan ✓ = , x 6= 0 cot ✓ = , y 6= 0
x y
We then have a second solution for Example 3.2.3 as follows. With sin s = 34
and sin s = yr , we may choose y = 3 and r = 4 (which is always positive). In
this case, we can solve for x, which is positive since cos s = x4 is given to be
positive.
p
p p 7
4 = x2 + ( 3)2 =) x = 7 =) cos s =
4
Seatwork/Homework 3.2.1
3
, cot 30 = 3
3⇡
(b) ✓ = 4
p
2
p
2
p
Answer: sin 3⇡ = , cos 3⇡
= , tan 3⇡
= 1, csc 3⇡
= 2, sec 3⇡ =
p 3⇡
4 2 4 2 4 4 4
2, cot 4 = 1
(c) ✓ = 150
p p
Answer: sin( 150 ) =p 12 , cos( 150 ) = 23 , tan( 150 ) = 33 , csc( 150 ) =
p
2, sec( 150 ) = 2 3 3 , cot( 150 ) = 3
(d) ✓ = 4⇡ 3
4⇡
p
3 4⇡ 1 4⇡
p
Answer:
p
sin( 3
) = 2
, cos( 3
) =
p 2
, tan( 3
) = 3, csc( 4⇡3
)=
2 3 4⇡ 4⇡ 3
3
, sec( 3 ) = 2, cot( 3 ) = 3
2. Given a value of one circular function and sign of another function (or the
quadrant where the angle lies), find the value of the indicated function.
p
(a) sin ✓ = 12 , ✓ in QI; cos ✓ Answer: 23
(b) cos ✓ = 35 , ✓ in QIV; csc ✓ Answer: 54
p
3 3 10
(c) sin ✓ = 7
, sec ✓ < 0; tan ✓ Answer: 20
p
2 85
(d) cot ✓ = 9
, cos ✓ > 0; csc ✓ Answer: 9
138
3.2.2. Reference Angle
We observe that if ✓1 and ✓2 are coterminal angles, the values of the six circular
or trigonometric functions at ✓1 agree with the values at ✓2 . Therefore, in finding
the value of a circular function at a number ✓, we can always reduce ✓ to a number
between 0 and 2⇡. For example, sin 14⇡ 3
= sin 14⇡3
4⇡ = sin 2⇡3
. Also, observe
2⇡ ⇡
from Figure 3.7 that sin 3 = sin 3 .
Figure 3.7
Figure 3.8
139
The signs of the coordinates of P (✓) depends on the quadrant or axis where
it terminates. It is important to know the sign of each circular function in each
quadrant. See Figure 3.9. It is not necessary to memorize the table, since the
sign of each function for each quadrant is easily determined from its definition.
We note that the signs of cosecant, secant, and cotangent are the same as sine,
cosine, and tangent, respectively.
Figure 3.9
Using the fact that the unit circle is symmetric with respect to the xaxis, the
yaxis, and the origin, we can identify the coordinates of all the points using the
coordinates of corresponding points in the Quadrant I, as shown in Figure 3.10
for the special angles.
Figure 3.10
140
Example 3.2.4. Use reference angle and appropriate sign to find the exact value
of each expression.
(1) sin 11⇡
6
and cos 11⇡
6
(3) sin 150
7⇡
(2) cos 6
(4) tan 8⇡
3
Seatwork/Homework 3.2.2
Use reference angle and appropriate sign to find the exact value of each expression.
1
(1) sin 510 Answer: 2
Exercises 3.2
141
(e) sin 7⇡
6
Answer: 1
2
(f) cos 5⇡
3
Answer: 1
2
(g) tan 3⇡
4
Answer: 1
(h) sec 2⇡
3
Answer: 2
(i) csc 11⇡
6
Answer: 2
p
(j) cot 35⇡
6
Answer: 3
4⇡ 1
(k) cos 3
Answer: 2
p
3
(l) tan 17⇡
3
Answer: 3
p
2
(m) cos 7⇡
4
Answer: 2
p
(n) sec 19⇡
4
Answer: 2
p
4⇡ 3
(o) sin 3
Answer: 2
p
2 3
(p) sec 23⇡
6
Answer: 3
p
2 3
(q) csc 13⇡
3
Answer: 3
p
3
(r) tan 5⇡
6
Answer: 3
3. Compute P (✓), and find the exact values of the six circular functions.
19⇡
(a) ✓ = 6 ⇣ p ⌘ p p
3 1 3 3
Answer: P (✓) = 2
, 2
, sin 19⇡
6
= 1
2
, cos 19⇡
6
= 2
, tan 19⇡
6
= 3
,
p
2 3
p
csc 19⇡
6
= 2, sec 19⇡
6
= 3
, cot 19⇡
6
= 3
142
32⇡
(b) ✓ = 3 ⇣ p ⌘ p p
1 3 3
Answer: P (✓) = ,
2 2
, sin 32⇡
3
= 2
, cos 32⇡
3
= 1
2
, tan 32⇡
3
= 3,
p p
2 3 3
csc 32⇡
3
= 3
, sec 32⇡
3
= 2, cot 32⇡
3
= 3
4. Given the value of a particular circular function and an information about the
angle ✓, find the values of the other circular functions.
1 3⇡
(a) cos ✓ = 2
and 2
< ✓ < 2⇡
p
3
p p
2 3
p
3
Answer: sec ✓ = 2, sin ✓ = 2
, tan ✓ = 3, csc ✓ = 3
, cot ✓ = 3
8
(b) sin ✓ = 17 and 0 < ✓ < ⇡2
Answer: csc ✓ = 17
8
, cos ✓ = 15
17
, tan ✓ = 8
15
, sec ✓ = 17
15
, cot ✓ = 15
8
p
2 13 3⇡
(c) cos ✓ = 13
and 2
< ✓ < 2⇡
p p p
13 3 13 3 13
Answer: sec ✓ = 2
, sin ✓ = 13
, tan ✓ = 2
, csc ✓ = 3
, cot ✓ =
2
3
Lesson Outline
(1) Domain and range of circular functions
(2) Graphs of circular functions
(3) Amplitude, period, and phase shift
Introduction
There are many things that occur periodically. Phenomena like rotation of
the planets and comets, high and low tides, and yearly change of the seasons
143
follow a definite pattern. In this lesson, we will graph the six circular functions
and we will see that they are periodic in nature.
Recall that, for a real number x, sin x = sin ✓ for an angle ✓ with measure x
radians, and that sin ✓ is the second coordinate of the point P (✓) on the unit
circle. Since each x corresponds to an angle ✓, we can conclude that
(1) sin x is defined for any real number x or the domain of the sine function is
R, and
(2) the range of sine is the set of all real numbers between 1 and 1 (inclusive).
From the definition, it also follows that sin(x+2⇡) = sin x for any real number
x. This means that the values of the sine function repeat every 2⇡ units. In this
case, we say that the sine function is a periodic function with period 2⇡.
Table 3.11 below shows the values of y = sin x, where x is the equivalent radian
measure of the special angles and their multiples from 0 to 2⇡. As commented
above, these values determine the behavior of the function on R.
⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ 2⇡ 3⇡ 5⇡
x 0 6 4 3 2 3 4 6
⇡
p p p p
1 2 3 3 2 1
y 0 2 2 2
1 2 2 2
0
0 0.5 0.71 0.87 1 0.87 0.71 0.5 0
7⇡ 5⇡ 4⇡ 3⇡ 5⇡ 7⇡ 11⇡
x 6 4 3 2 3 4 6
2⇡
p p p p
1 2 3 3 2 1
y 2 2 2
1 2 2 2
0
0.5 0.71 0.87 1 0.87 0.71 0.5 0
Table 3.11
From the table, we can observe that as x increases from 0 to ⇡2 , sin x also
increases from 0 to 1. Similarly, as x increases from 3⇡
2
to 2⇡, sin x also increases
from 1 to 0. On the other hand, notice that as x increases from ⇡2 to ⇡, sin x
decreases from 1 to 0. Similarly, as x increases from ⇡ to 3⇡
2
, sin x decreases from
0 to 1.
To sketch the graph of y = sin x, we plot the points presented in Table 3.11,
and join them with a smooth curve. See Figure 3.12. Since the graph repeats
every 2⇡ units, Figure 3.13 shows periodic graph over a longer interval.
144
Teaching Notes
It is a good
exercise to
construct the
Figure 3.12 graph of the sine
function using the
height of P (✓).
Put the unit circle
sidebyside with
the coordinate
plane for the
graph, and trace
the height for each
value of x onto the
graph of y = sin x.
Figure 3.13
We can make observations about the cosine function that are similar to the
sine function.
Figure 3.14
From the graphs of y = sin x and y = cos x in Figures 3.13 and 3.14, re
spectively, we observe that sin( x) = sin x and cos( x) = cos x for any real
number x. In other words, the graphs of y = cos( x) and y = cos x are the same,
while the graph of y = sin( x) is the same as that of y = sin x.
In general, if a function f satisfies the property that f ( x) = f (x) for all x
in its domain, we say that such function is even. On the other hand, we say that
a function f is odd if f ( x) = f (x) for all x in its domain. For example, the
functions x2 and cos x are even, while the functions x3 3x and sin x are odd.
145
3.3.2. Graphs of y = a sin bx and y = a cos bx
Using a table of values from 0 to 2⇡, we can sketch the graph of y = 3 sin x, and
compare it to the graph of y = sin x. See Figure 3.15 wherein the solid curve
belongs to y = 3 sin x, while the dashed curve to y = sin x. For instance, if x = ⇡2 ,
then y = 1 when y = sin x, and y = 3 when y = 3 sin x. The period, xintercepts,
and domains are the same for both graphs, while they di↵er in the range. The
range of y = 3 sin x is [ 3, 3].
Figure 3.15
In general, the graphs of y = a sin x and y = a cos x with a > 0 have the same
shape as the graphs of y = sin x and y = cos x, respectively. If a < 0, there is
Teaching Notes a reflection across the xaxis. The range of both y = a sin x and y = a cos x is
Review or teach
the reflection
[ a, a].
across the xaxis
when the sign of
the function is
In the graphs of y = a sin x and y = a cos x, the number a is called
changed. its amplitude. It dictates the height of the curve. When a < 1,
the graphs are shrunk vertically, and when a > 1, the graphs are
stretched vertically.
⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ 2⇡ 3⇡ 5⇡
x 0 6 4 3 2 3 4 6
⇡
p p p p
3 3 3 3
y 0 2
1 2
0 2
1 2
0
0 0.87 1 0.87 0 0.87 1 0.87 0
7⇡ 5⇡ 4⇡ 3⇡ 5⇡ 7⇡ 11⇡
x 6 4 3 2 3 4 6
2⇡
p p p p
3 3 3 3
y 2
1 2
0 2
1 2
0
0.87 1 0.87 0 0.87 1 0.87 0
Table 3.16
146
Figure 3.17
Figure 3.17 shows the graphs of y = sin 2x (solid curve) and y = sin x (dashed
curve) over the interval [0, 2⇡]. Notice that, for sin 2x to generate periodic values
similar to [0, 2⇡] for y = sin x, we just need values of x from 0 to ⇡. We then
expect the values of sin 2x to repeat every ⇡ units thereafter. The period of
y = sin 2x is ⇡.
2⇡
If b 6= 0, then both y = sin bx and y = cos bx have period given by .
b
If 0 < b < 1, the graphs are stretched horizontally, and if b > 1, the
graphs are shrunk horizontally.
(1) Determine the amplitude a, and find the period 2⇡b
. To draw one cycle
of the graph (that is, one complete graph for one period), we just need to
complete the graph from 0 to 2⇡
b
.
(2) Divide the interval into four equal parts, and get five division points: x1 = 0,
x2 , x3 , x4 , and x5 = 2⇡
b
, where x3 is the midpoint between x1 and x5 (that
1
is, 2 (x1 + x5 ) = x3 ), x2 is the midpoint between x1 and x3 , and x4 is the
midpoint between x3 and x5 .
(3) Evaluate the function at each of the five xvalues identified in Step 2. The
points will correspond to the highest point, lowest point, and xintercepts
of the graph.
(4) Plot the points found in Step 3, and join them with a smooth curve similar
to the graph of the basic sine curve.
(5) Extend the graph to the right and to the left, as needed.
147
2⇡
Solution. (1) The period is 4
= ⇡2 , and the amplitude is 2.
(2) Dividing the interval [0, ⇡2 ] into 4 equal parts, we get the following x
coordinates: 0, ⇡8 , ⇡4 , 3⇡
8
, and ⇡2 .
(3) When x = 0, ⇡4 , and ⇡2 , we get y = 0. On the other hand, when x = ⇡8 , we
have y = 2 (the amplitude), and y = 2 when x = 3⇡ 8
.
(4) Draw a smooth curve by connecting the points. There is no need to proceed
to Step 5 because the problem only asks for one cycle.
2⇡
Solution. (1) The amplitude is  3 = 3, and the period is 1 = 4⇡.
2
(2) We divide the interval [0, 4⇡] into four equal parts, and we get the following
xvalues: 0, ⇡, 2⇡, 3⇡, and 4⇡.
(3) We have y = 0 when x = ⇡ and 3⇡, y = 3 when x = 0 and 4⇡, and y = 3
when x = 2⇡.
(4) We trace the points in Step 3 by a smooth curve.
(5) We extend the pattern in Step 4 to the left and to the right.
148
Solution. Since the sine function is odd, the graph of y = 12 sin 2x
3
is the same
as that of y = 12 sin 2x
3
.
2⇡
(1) The amplitude is 12 , and the period is 2 = 3⇡.
3
(2) Dividing the interval [0, 3⇡] into four equal parts, we get the xcoordinates
of the five important points:
0 + 3⇡ 3⇡ 0 + 3⇡
2 3⇡ 3⇡
2
+ 3⇡ 9⇡
= , = , = .
2 2 2 4 2 4
3⇡ 1 3⇡ 1
(3) We get y = 0 when x = 0, 2
, and 3⇡, y = 2
when 4
, and y = 2
when
9⇡
4
.
(5) We extend the pattern in Step 4 by one more period to the right.
Seatwork/Homework 3.3.2
x
(2) Sketch the graph of two cycles of y = 2 cos 2
.
Answer:
149
(3) Sketch the graph of y = 2 cos 4x.
Answer:
x
(4) Sketch the graph of one cycle of y = 3 sin 3
.
Answer:
⇡
We first compare the graphs of y = sin x and y = sin x 3
using a table of
Teaching Notes values and the 5step procedure discussed earlier.
Review or teach
the horizontal As x runs from ⇡3 to 7⇡ 3
, the value of the expression x ⇡3 runs from 0 to 2⇡. So
translation rule: if
x is replaced by
for one cycle of the graph of y = sin x ⇡3 , we then expect to have the graph of
x h in the y = sin x starting from x = ⇡3 . This is confirmed by the values in Table 3.18. We
equation, the
graph is translated then apply a similar procedure to complete one cycle of the graph; that is, divide
h units to the the interval [ ⇡3 , 7⇡
3
] into four equal parts, and then determine the key values of
right if h > 0 and
to the left if h < 0. x in sketching the graphs as discussed earlier. The onecycle graph of y = sin x
(dashed curve) and the corresponding onecycle graph of y = sin x ⇡3 (solid
curve) are shown in Figure 3.19.
⇡ 5⇡ 4⇡ 11⇡ 7⇡
x 3 6 3 6 3
⇡ ⇡ 3⇡
x 3
0 2
⇡ 2
2⇡
⇡
sin x 3
0 1 0 1 0
Table 3.18
150
Figure 3.19
The graphs of
have the same shape as y = a sin bx and y = a cos bx, respectively, but
shifted c units to the right when c > 0 and shifted c units to the left
if c < 0. The number c is called the phase shift of the sine or cosine
graph.
Example 3.3.4. In the same Cartesian plane, sketch one cycle of the graphs of
y = 3 sin x and y = 3 sin x + ⇡4 .
Solution. We have sketched the graph of y = 3 sin x earlier at the start of the
lesson. We consider y = 3 sin x + ⇡4 . We expect that it has the same shape as
that of y = 3 sin x, but shifted some units.
Here, we have a = 3, b = 1, and c = ⇡4 . From these constants, we get
the amplitude, the period, and the phase shift, and these are 3, 2⇡, and ⇡4 ,
respectively.
⇡ ⇡ 7⇡
One cycle starts at x = 4
and ends at x = 4
+ 2⇡ = 4
. We now compute
the important values of x.
⇡ 7⇡ ⇡ 3⇡ 3⇡ 7⇡
4
+ 4 3⇡ 4
+ 4 ⇡ 4
+ 4 5⇡
= , = , =
2 4 2 4 2 4
⇡ ⇡ 3⇡ 5⇡ 7⇡
x 4 4 4 4 4
⇡
y = 3 sin x + 4
0 3 0 3 0
151
Teaching Notes While the e↵ect of c in y = a sin b(x c) and y = a cos b(x c) is
Review or teach
the vertical
a horizontal shift of their graphs from the corresponding graphs of
translation rule: if y = a sin bx and y = a cos bx, the e↵ect of d in the equations y =
the equation
y = f (x) is
a sin b(x c) + d and y = a cos b(x c) + d is a vertical shift. That is,
changed to the graph of y = a sin b(x c) + d has the same amplitude, period, and
y = f (x) + k, the
graph is translated
phase shift as that of y = a sin b(x c), but shifted d units upward
k units upward if when d > 0 and d units downward when d < 0.
k > 0 and
downward if k < 0.
Example 3.3.5. Sketch the graph of
⇣ ⇡⌘
y= 2 cos 2 x 3.
6
Solution. Here, a = 2, b = 2, c = ⇡6 , and d = 3. We first sketch one cycle of
the graph of y = 2 cos 2 x ⇡6 , and then extend this graph to the left and to
the right, and then move the resulting graph 3 units downward.
⇡
The graph of y = 2 cos 2 x 6
has amplitude 2, period ⇡, and phase shift
⇡
6
.
⇡
Start of one cycle: 6
⇡ 7⇡
End of the cycle: 6
+⇡ = 6
⇡
6
+ 7⇡
6 2⇡ ⇡
6
+ 2⇡
3 5⇡ 2⇡
3
+ 7⇡
6 11⇡
= , = , =
2 3 2 12 2 12
⇡ 5⇡ 2⇡ 11⇡ 7⇡
x 6 12 3 12 6
⇡
y= 2 cos 2 x 6
2 0 2 0 2
⇡
y= 2 cos 2 x 6
3 5 3 1 3 5
152
Before we end this sublesson, we make the following observation, which will
be used in the discussion on simple harmonic motion (SubLesson 3.3.6).
y = a sin b(x c) + d,
y= a sin[b(x c) + ⇡ + 2⇡k] + d,
⇡
y = a cos[b(x c) 2
+ 2⇡k] + d,
and
⇡
y= a cos[b(x c) + 2
+ 2⇡k] + d,
where k is any integer, are all the same.
Similar observations are true for cosine.
Seatwork/Homework 3.3.3
(1) In the same Cartesian plane, sketch one cycle of the graphs of y = 3 cos x
and y = 3 cos x + ⇡3 1.
Answer:
153
1
(2) In the same Cartesian plane, sketch one cycle of the graphs of y = 4
sin 2x
and y = 2 14 sin 2 x ⇡4 .
Answer:
⇡
(3) Sketch the graph of y = 2 sin 2
x 2.
Answer:
154
First, we observe that the domain of the cosecant function is
Table 3.20 shows the key numbers (that is, numbers where y = sin x crosses the
xaxis, attain its maximum and minimum values) and some neighboring points,
where “und” stands for “undefined,” while Figure 3.21 shows one cycle of the
graphs of y = sin x (dashed curve) and y = csc x (solid curve). Notice the
asymptotes of the graph y = csc x.
⇡ ⇡ 5⇡ 7⇡ 3⇡ 11⇡
x 0 6 2 6
⇡ 6 2 6
2⇡
1 1 1 1
y = sin x 0 2
1 2
0 2
1 2
0
y = csc x und 2 1 2 und 2 1 2 und
Table 3.20
Figure 3.21
We could also sketch the graph of csc x directly from the graph of y = sin x
by observing the following facts:
Refer to Figure 3.22 for the graphs of y = sin x (dashed curve) and y = csc x
(solid curve) over a larger interval.
155
Figure 3.22
Like the sine and cosecant functions, the cosine and secant functions are also
reciprocals of each other. Therefore, y = sec x has domain
k⇡
{x 2 R : cos x 6= 0} = {x 2 R : x 6= , k odd integer}.
2
Similarly, the graph of y = sec x can be obtained from the graph of y = cos x.
These graphs are shown in Figure 3.23.
Figure 3.23
Solution. First, we sketch the graph of y = 2 sin x2 , and use the technique dis
cussed above to sketch the graph of y = 2 csc x2 .
156
The vertical asymptotes of y = 2 csc x2 are the xintercepts of y = 2 sin x2 :
x = 0, ±2⇡, ±4⇡, . . .. After setting up the asymptotes, we now sketch the graph
of y = 2 csc x2 as shown below.
Solution. Sketch the graph of y = cos 2x (note that it has period ⇡), then sketch
the graph of y = sec 2x (as illustrated above), and then move the resulting
graph 2 units upward to obtain the graph of y = 2 sec 2x.
157
Seatwork/Homework 3.3.4
⇥ ⇡ ⇡
⇤
(2) Sketch the graph of y = 2 csc 4x 1 on the interval ,
2 2
.
Answer:
158
3.3.5. Graphs of Tangent and Cotangent Functions
sin x
We know that tan x = cos x
, where cos x 6= 0. From this definition of the tangent
function, it follows that its domain is the same as that of the secant function,
which is
k⇡
{x 2 R : cos x 6= 0} = {x 2 R : x 6= , k odd integer}.
2
We note that tan x = 0 when sin x = 0 (that is, when x = k⇡, k any integer), and
that the graph of y = tan x has asymptotes x = k⇡2
, k odd integer. Furthermore,
by recalling the signs of tangent from Quadrant I to Quadrant IV and its values,
we observe that the tangent function is periodic with period ⇡.
To sketch the graph of y = tan x, it will be enough to know its onecycle
⇡ ⇡
graph on the open interval , . See Table 3.24 and Figure 3.25.
2 2 Teaching Notes
There is also a way
of sketching the
⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ graph of y = tan x
x 2 3 4 6
0 based on the
p p
3 tangent segment to
y = tan x und 3 1 3
0 the unit circle,
similar to the
⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ construction
x 6 4 3 2 described in
p
3
p sketching the
y = tan x 3
1 3 und graph of y = sin x.
But we do not go
Table 3.24 anymore into the
details of this
approach.
Figure 3.25
cos x
In the same manner, the domain of y = cot x = sin x
is
and its period is also ⇡. The graph of y = cot x is shown in Figure 3.26.
159
Figure 3.26
(1) Determine the period ⇡b . Then we draw one cycle of the graph on ⇡ ⇡
,
2b 2b
for y = a tan bx, and on 0, ⇡b for y = a cot bx.
(2) Determine the two adjacent vertical asymptotes. For y = a tan bx, these
⇡
vertical asymptotes are given by x = ± 2b . For y = a cot bx, the vertical
asymptotes are given by x = 0 and x = ⇡b .
(3) Divide the interval formed by the vertical asymptotes in Step 2 into four
equal parts, and get three division points exclusively between the asymp
totes.
(4) Evaluate the function at each of these xvalues identified in Step 3. The
points will correspond to the signs and xintercept of the graph.
(5) Plot the points found in Step 3, and join them with a smooth curve ap
proaching to the vertical asymptotes. Extend the graph to the right and to
the left, as needed.
Solution. The period of the function is ⇡2 , and the adjacent asymptotes are x =
± ⇡4 , ± 3⇡
4
, . . .. Dividing the interval ⇡ ⇡
,
4 4
into four equal parts, the key xvalues
⇡ ⇡
are 8 , 0, and 8 .
⇡ ⇡
x 8
0 8
y = 12 tan 2x 1
2
0 1
2
160
Example 3.3.9. Sketch the graph of y = 2 cot x3 on the interval (0, 3⇡).
Solution. The period of the function is 3⇡, and the adjacent asymptotes are x = 0
and x = 3⇡. We now divide the interval (0, 3⇡) into four equal parts, and the
key xvalues are 3⇡
4
, 3⇡
2
, and 9⇡
4
.
3⇡ 3⇡ 9⇡
x 4 2 4
y = 2 cot x3 2 0 2
161
Seatwork/Homework 3.3.5
162
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By liz west (Sundial)
[CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)],
via Wikimedia Commons
163
t = 6.1 sec t = 9 sec
Periodic motions are usually modeled by either sine or cosine function, and are
called simple harmonic motions. Unimpeded movements of objects like oscilla
tion, vibration, rotation, and motion due to water waves are reallife occurrences
that behave in simple harmonic motion.
y = a sin b(t c) + d
or
y = a cos b(t c) + d.
In both equations, we have the following information:
164
highest location for the first time. Find the equation of the motion.
Solution. We are given that the weight is located at its lowest position at t = 0;
that is, y = 5 when t = 0. Therefore, the equation is y = 5 cos bt.
Because it took the weight 8 seconds from the lowest point to its immediate
highest point, half the period is 8 seconds.
1 2⇡ ⇡ ⇡t
· = 8 =) b = =) y = 5 cos 2
2 b 8 8
? Example 3.3.11. Suppose you ride a Ferris wheel. The lowest point of the
wheel is 3 meters o↵ the ground, and its diameter is 20 m. After it started, the
Ferris wheel revolves at a constant speed, and it takes 32 seconds to bring you
back again to the riding point. After riding for 150 seconds, find your approximate
height above the ground.
Solution. We ignore first the fixed value of 3 m o↵ the ground, and assume that
the central position passes through the center of the wheel and is parallel to the
ground.
Let t be the time (in seconds) elapsed that you have been riding the Ferris
wheel, and y is he directed distance of your location with respect to the assumed
central position at time t. Because y = 10 when t = 0, the appropriate model
is y = 10 cos bt for t 0.
Given that the Ferris wheel takes 32 seconds to move from the lowest point
to the next, the period is 32.
2⇡ ⇡ ⇡t
= 32 =) b = =) y= 10 cos
b 16 16
When t = 150, we get y = 10 cos 150⇡
16
⇡ 3.83.
Bringing back the original condition given in the problem that the riding point
is 3 m o↵ the ground, after riding for 150 seconds, you are approximately located
3.83 + 13 = 16.83 m o↵ the ground. 2
165
Example 3.3.12. A signal buoy in Laguna Bay bobs up and down with the
height h of its transmitter (in feet) above sea level modeled by h(t) = a sin bt + d
at time t (in seconds). During a small squall, its height varies from 1 ft to 9 ft
above sea level, and it takes 3.5 seconds from one 9ft height to the next. Find
the values of the constants a, b, and d.
• The minimum and maximum values of h(t) are 1 ft and 9 ft, respectively.
Thus, the amplitude is a = 12 (M m) = 12 (9 1) = 4.
• Because it takes 3.5 seconds from one 9ft height to the next, the period is
3.5. Thus, we have 2⇡b
= 3.5, which gives b = 4⇡
7
.
• Because the lowest point is 1 ft above the sea level and the amplitude is 4,
it follows that d = 5. 2
Solution.
M m 10.1 2.0
a= = = 4.05
2 2
2⇡ ⇡
= 332 =) b =
b 166
d = a + m = 4.05 + 2.0 = 6.05
For the (ordinary) sine function to start at the highest point at t = 0, the least
possible horizontal movement to the right (positive value) is 3⇡
2
units.
3⇡ 3⇡ 3⇡
bc = =) c= = ⇡ = 249 2
2 2b 2 · 166
? Example 3.3.14. The path of a fastmoving particle traces a circle with equa
tion
(x + 7)2 + (y 5)2 = 36.
It starts at point ( 1, 5), moves clockwise, and passes the point ( 7, 11) for the
first time after traveling 6 microseconds. Where is the particle after traveling 15
microseconds?
166
Solution. As described above, we may choose sine or cosine function. Here, we
choose the sine function to describe both x and y in terms of time t in microsec
onds; that is, we let
where we appropriately choose the positive values for a, b, e, and f , and the least
nonnegative values for c and g.
The given circle has radius 6 and center ( 7, 5). Defining the central position
of the values of x as the line x = 7 and that of the values of y as the line y = 5,
we get a = e = 6, d = 7, and h = 5.
From the point ( 1, 5) to the point ( 7, 11) (moving clockwise), the particle
has traveled threefourths of the complete cycle; that is, threefourths of the
period must be 2.
3 2⇡ 3 2⇡ ⇡
· = · =6 =) b=f =
4 b 4 f 4
As the particle starts at ( 1, 5) and moves clockwise, the values of x start Teaching Notes
Here, we need an
at its highest value (x = 1) and move downward toward its central position equation with the
(x = 7) and continue to its lowest value (x = 13). Therefore, the graph of same graph as
y = a sin(bt+ ⇡2 )+d
a sin bt + d has to move 3⇡
2b
= 6 units to the right, and so we get c = 6. that will fit in the
equation
As to the value of g, we observe the values of y start at its central position y = a sin b(t c)+d,
where c is the least
(y = 5) and go downward to its lowest value (y = 1). Similar to the argument nonnegative
used in determining c, the graph of y = e sin f t + h has to move ⇡b = 4 units to possible number.
Recall the
the right, implying that g = 4. observation made
on page 153.
Hence, We have the following equations of x and y in terms of t:
and p
y = 6 sin ⇡4 (15 4) + 5 = 5 + 3 2 ⇡ 9.24.
That is, after traveling for 15 microseconds, the particle is located near the point
( 2.76, 9.24). 2
Seatwork/Homework 3.3.6
167
position, and then released. After 14 seconds, the weight reaches again to its
highest position. Find the equation of the motion, and locate the weight with
respect to the resting position after 20 seconds since it was released.
Answer: y = 6 cos ⇡7 t or y = 6 sin pi7 (t + 72 ), location of the weight after 20
seconds: about 5.4 cm below the resting position
2. Suppose the lowest point of a Ferris wheel is 1.5 meters o↵ the ground, and its
radius is 15 m. It makes one complete revolution every 30 seconds. Starting at
the lowest point, find a cosine function that gives the height above the ground
of a riding child in terms of the time t in seconds.
⇡ 15
Answer: y = 15 cos 15 t 2
+ 16.5
Exercises 3.3
1. Sketch two cycles of the graph (starting from x = 0) of the given function.
Indicate the amplitude, period, phase shift, domain, and range for each func
tion.
(a) y = 4 sin x
Answer: amplitude = 4, period = 2⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = R,
range = [ 4, 4]
(b) y = 3 cos x
Answer: amplitude = 3, period = 2⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = R,
range = [ 3, 3]
(c) y = cos x4
Answer: amplitude = 1, period = 8⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = R,
range = [ 1, 1]
(d) y = sin 2x
Answer: amplitude = 1, period = ⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = R,
range = [ 1, 1]
168
(e) y = 2 + sin 4x
Answer: amplitude = 1, period = ⇡
2
, phase shift = 0, domain = R,
range = [1, 3]
(f) y = 1 + cos x
Answer: amplitude = 1, period = 2⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = R,
range = [ 2, 0]
(g) y = 12 sin 3x
Answer: amplitude = 1
2
, period = 2⇡
3
, phase shift = 0, domain = R,
range = [ 12 , 12 ]
(h) y = 3 sin( x)
Answer: amplitude = 3, period = 2⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = R,
range = [ 3, 3]
(i) y = 3 2 cos x2
Answer: amplitude = 2, period = 4⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = R,
range = [1, 5]
(j) y = sin x ⇡4
Answer: amplitude = 1, period = 2⇡, phase shift = ⇡
4
, domain = R,
range = [ 1, 1]
169
(k) y = 2 cos x + ⇡3
Answer: amplitude = 2, period = 2⇡, phase shift = ⇡
3
, domain = R,
range = [ 2, 2]
(l) y = 3 sin(x 4⇡)
Answer: amplitude = 3, period = 2⇡, phase shift = 4⇡, domain = R,
range = [ 3, 3]
(m) y = 2 23 cos x ⇡2
Answer: amplitude = 2
3
, period = 2⇡, phase shift = ⇡
2
, domain = R,
range = [ 43 , 83 ]
(n) y = 4 cos x ⇡3 + 2
Answer: amplitude = 4, period = 2⇡, phase shift = ⇡
3
, domain = R,
range = [ 2, 6]
2. Sketch the graph of the following functions.
(a) y =  sin x
Answer:
170
(b) y = 4 cos x + 2
Answer:
3. Sketch the graph of each function over two periods, starting from x = 0.
Indicate the period, phase shift, domain, and range of each function.
(a) y = csc( x)
Answer: period = 2⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = {xx 6= k⇡, k 2 Z},
range = ( 1, 1] [ [1, 1)
(b) y = cot( x)
Answer: period = ⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = {xx 6= k⇡, k 2 Z},
range = R
(c) y = tan x
Answer: period = ⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = {xx 6= (2k + 1) ⇡2 , k 2
Z}, range = R
171
(d) y = sec x
Answer: period = 2⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = {xx 6= (2k + 1) ⇡2 , k 2
Z}, range = ( 1, 1] [ [1, 1)
(e) y = sec 3x
Answer: period = 2⇡
3
, phase shift = 0, domain = {xx 6= (2k + 1) ⇡6 , k 2
Z}, range = ( 1, 1] [ [1, 1)
(f) y = 3 csc x
Answer: period = 2⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = {xx 6= k⇡, k 2 Z},
range = ( 1, 3] [ [3, 1)
(g) y = 4 sec 2x
3
Answer: period = 3⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = {xx 6= (2k + 1) 3⇡
4
, k2
Z}, range = ( 1, 4] [ [4, 1)
(h) y = tan(x + ⇡)
172
Answer: period = ⇡, phase shift = ⇡, domain = {xx 6= (2k + 1) ⇡2 , k 2
Z}, range = R
(i) y = tan x ⇡2
Answer: period = ⇡, phase shift = ⇡
2
, domain = {xx 6= k⇡, k 2 Z},
range = R
(j) y = cot x + ⇡4
Answer: period = ⇡, phase shift = ⇡4 , domain = {xx 6= (2k 1) ⇡4 , k even integer},
range = R
(k) y = 2 3 csc x
Answer: period = 2⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = {xx 6= k⇡, k 2 Z},
range = ( 1, 1] [ [5, 1)
(l) y = 4 + sec 3x
Answer: period = 2⇡
3
, phase shift = 0, domain = {xx 6= (2k + 1) ⇡6 , k 2
Z}, range = ( 1, 3] [ [6, 1)
(m) y = 2 sec x ⇡3
Answer: period = 2⇡, phase shift = ⇡3 , domain = {xx 6= (2k + 1) 3⇡
4
, k2
Z}, range = ( 1, 2] [ [2, 1)
(n) y = 2 3 sec 2x
3
Answer: period = 3⇡, phase shift = 0, domain = {xx 6= (2k + 1) 3⇡
4
, k2
Z}, range = ( 1, 2] [ [5, 1)
173
(o) y = 3 csc x 3⇡2
3⇡
Answer: period = 2⇡, phase shift = 2
, domain = {xx 6= (2k + 1) ⇡2 , k 2
Z}, range = ( 1, 3] [ [3, 1)
4. Assuming that there is no vertical shift, find a function that describes a simple
harmonic motion with the following properties.
174
(c) cosine function; lowest point 9 cm below the equilibrium at time t = 0;
period = 5 sec Answer: y = 9 cos 2⇡
5
(t 52 )
Hint. The height h(t) (in cm) of the ball at time t (in seconds) is given by
h(t) = 30 sin ⇡3 (t 32 ) + 12.
8. For what values of k do y = cot x and y = cot(x k⇡) have the same graph?
Answer: any integer
9. For what values of k do y = sec x and y = sec(x k⇡) have the same graph?
Answer: any even integer
175
10. Find the least positive value of c such that the graph of y = 2 sin 2(x + c)
coincide with that of y = 2 cos 2x. Answer: ⇡4
11. Find the largest positive value of c such that the graph of y = 2 cos 3(x c)
coincide with that of y = 2 cos 3(x 2). Answer: 2 + ⇡3
12. For what values of a do the graphs of y = a cos b(x c) and y = 2 sec ⇡6 (x 6)
never intersect for any values of b and c? Answer: 2 < a < 2
Lesson Outline
(1) Domain of an equation
(2) Identity and conditional equation
(3) Fundamental trigonometric identities
(4) Proving trigonometric identities
Introduction
In previous lessons, we have defined trigonometric functions using the unit
circle and also investigated the graphs of the six trigonometric functions. This
lesson builds on the understanding of the di↵erent trigonometric functions by
discovery, deriving, and working with trigonometric identities.
176
What are the real values of the variable x that make the expressions defined in
the set of real numbers?
In the first expression, every real value of x when substituted to the expression
makes it defined in the set of real numbers; that is, the value of the expression is
real when x is real.
In the second expression, not every real value of x makes
p the expression defined
in R. For example, when x = 0, the expression becomes 1, which is not a real
number.
p
x2 1 2 R () x2 1 0 () x 1 or x 1
p
Here, for x2 1 to be defined in R, x must be in ( 1, 1] [ [1, 1).
In the third expression, the values of x that make the denominator zero make
the entire expression undefined.
x2 3x 4 = (x 4)(x + 1) = 0 () x = 4 or x = 1
x
Hence, the expression is real when x 6= 4 and x 6= 1.
x2 3x 4
p
In the fourth expression, because the expression x 1 is in the denominator,
x must be greater than 1. Although the value of the entire expression is 0 when
x = 0, we do not include 0 as allowed value of x because part of the expression
is not real when x = 0.
In the expressions above, the allowed values of the variable x constitute the
domain of the expression.
The domain of an expression (or equation) is the set of all real values of
the variable for which every term (or part) of the expression (equation)
is defined in R.
In the expressions above, the domains of the first, second, third, and fourth
expressions are R, ( 1, 1] [ [1, 1), R \ { 1, 4}, and (1, 1), respectively.
Example 3.4.1. Determine the domain of the expression/equation.
p
x2 1 x+1
(a) 3
x + 2x2 8x 1 x
(b) tan ✓ sin ✓ cos 2✓
p 2
(c) x2 1 + x2 = p
3
x2 1
cos2 z
(d) z = 4 sin z 1
1 + sin z
177
Solution. (a) x3 + 2x2 8x = x(x + 4)(x 2) = 0 () x = 0, x =
4, or x = 2
p
x + 1 2 R () x+1 0 () x 1
1 x=0 () x=1
Domain = [ 1, 1) \ { 4, 0, 1, 2}
= [ 1, 0) [ (0, 1) [ (1, 2) [ (2, 1)
sin ✓
(b) tan ✓ sin ✓ cos 2✓ = cos ✓
sin ✓ cos 2✓
k⇡
cos ✓ = 0 () ✓= 2
, k odd integer
Domain = R \ { k⇡
2
 k odd integer}
p
(c) The expression 1+x2 is always positive,
p and so 1 + x2 is defined in R. On
the other hand, the expression x2 1 is also defined in R, but it cannot
3
Seatwork/Homework 3.4.1
Find the domain of the expression/equation.
x x+1 2
(1) Answer: R \ { 1, 1}
x+1 x2
+ 2x + 1 x 2 1
1 1
(2) 2 sec2 ✓ = + Answer: R \ (2k + 1) ⇡2 k 2 Z
1 sin ✓ 1 + sin ✓
2
(3) 2 tan x = 2 cot x + 1 Answer: R \ k⇡ 2
k 2 Z
1
(4) p tan x = sin x Answer: R \ { 1, 1} [ (2k + 1) ⇡2 k 2 Z
1 x 2
Group A Group B
(A1) x2 1=0 (B1) x2 1 = (x 1)(x + 1)
(A2) (x + 7)2 = x2 + 49 (B2) (x + 7)2 = x2 + 14x + 49
x2 4 x2 4
(A3) = 2x 1 (B3) =x+2
x 2 x 2
178
In each equation in Group A, some values of the variable that are in the
domain of the equation do not satisfy the equation (that is, do not make the
equation true). On the other hand, in each equation in Group B, every element
in the domain of the equation satisfies the given equation. The equations in
Group A are called conditional equations, while those in Group B are called
identities.
Seatwork/Homework 3.4.2
Identify whether the given equation is an identity or a conditional equation. For
each conditional equation, provide a value of the variable in the domain that does
not satisfy the equation.
x2 1
(1) 1 + x + = Answer: identity
1 x 1 x
179
cos2 ✓ sin2 ✓
(2) = cos ✓ sin ✓ Answer: identity
cos ✓ + sin ✓
⇡
(3) tan ✓ = cot ✓ Answer: conditional equation, ✓ = 2
(4) cos2 x = 2 cos x + 3 Answer: conditional equation, x = 0
Recall that if P (x, y) is the terminal point on the unit circle corresponding to ✓,
then we have
1 y
sin ✓ = y csc ✓ = tan ✓ =
y x
1 x
cos ✓ = x sec ✓ = cot ✓ = .
x y
From the definitions, the following reciprocal and quotient identities immedi
ately follow. Note that these identities hold if ✓ is taken either as a real number
or as an angle.
Reciprocal Identities
1 1 1
csc ✓ = sec ✓ = cot ✓ =
sin ✓ cos ✓ tan ✓
Quotient Identities
sin ✓ cos ✓
tan ✓ = cot ✓ =
cos ✓ sin ✓
sin2 ✓ + cos2 ✓ = 1.
180
By dividing both sides of this identity by cos2 ✓ and sin2 ✓, respectively, we obtain Teaching Notes
The assumption in
the division is that
tan2 ✓ + 1 = sec2 ✓ and 1 + cot2 ✓ = csc2 ✓. the divisor is
nonzero.
Pythagorean Identities
sin2 ✓ + cos2 ✓ = 1
tan2 ✓ + 1 = sec2 ✓ 1 + cot2 ✓ = csc2 ✓
In addition to the eight identities presented above, we also have the following
identities.
EvenOdd Identities
The first two of the negative identities can be obtained from the graphs of
the sine and cosine functions, respectively. (Please review the discussion on page
145.) The third identity can be derived as follows: Teaching Notes
The corresponding
reciprocal
sin( ✓) sin ✓ functions follow
tan( ✓) = = = tan ✓. the same
cos( ✓) cos ✓ EvenOdd
Identities:
csc( ✓) = csc ✓
The reciprocal, quotient, Pythagorean, and evenodd identities constitute sec( ✓) = sec ✓
what we call the fundamental trigonometric identities. cot( ✓) = cot ✓.
181
Solution. Using the identity sin2 ✓ + cos2 ✓ = 1 with cos ✓ > 0, we have
s ✓ ◆2 p
p 3 7
2
cos ✓ = 1 sin ✓ = 1 = . 2
4 4
Example 3.4.6. If sec ✓ = 52 and tan ✓ < 0, use the identities to find the values
of the remaining trigonometric functions of ✓.
1 2
cos ✓ = =
sec ✓ 5
s ✓ ◆2 p
p 2 21
sin ✓ = 1 cos2 ✓= 1 =
5 5
p
1 5 21
csc ✓ = =
sin ✓ 21
p
21
p
sin ✓ 5 21
tan ✓ = = 2 =
cos ✓ 5
2
p
1 2 21
cot ✓ = = 2
tan ✓ 21
Seatwork/Homework 3.4.3
1. Use the identities presented in this lesson to simplify each trigonometric ex
pression.
1 + tan x
(a) Answer: tan x
1 + cot x
1 + tan x 1 + tan x
Solution. = = tan x
1 + cot x 1 + tan1 x
sin ✓ 1 + cos ✓
(b) + Answer: 2 csc ✓
1 + cos ✓ sin ✓
sin ✓ 1 + cos ✓ sin2 ✓ (1 + cos ✓)(1 + cos ✓)
Solution. + = +
1 + cos ✓ sin ✓ sin ✓(1 + cos ✓) sin ✓(1 + cos ✓)
2
sin ✓ + (1 + 2 cos ✓ + cos2 ✓)
=
sin ✓(1 + cos ✓)
2 + 2 cos ✓ 2
= = = 2 csc ✓
sin ✓(1 + cos ✓) sin ✓
182
tan y + cot y
(c) Answer: 1
sec y csc y
sin y sin2 y+cos2 y
tan y + cot y cos y
+ cos y
sin y cos y sin y
Solution. = 1 = = sin2 y + cos2 y = 1
sec y csc y · 1
cos y sin y
1
cos y sin y
cos2 ✓
(d) 1 Answer: sin ✓
1 + sin ✓
cos2 ✓ 1 + sin ✓ cos2 ✓
Solution. 1 =
1 + sin ✓ 1 + sin ✓
2
sin ✓ + sin ✓ sin ✓(1 + sin ✓)
= = = sin ✓
1 + sin ✓ 1 + sin ✓
2. Given some initial values, use the identities to find the values of the remaining
trigonometric functions of ✓.
2
(a) sin ✓ = 5
and sec ✓ > 0
p p p
Answer: p✓ in QI; cscp✓ = 52 , cos ✓ = 1 sin2 ✓ = 21
5
, sec ✓ = 5 21
21
,
tan ✓ = 2 2121 , cot ✓ = 221
8
(b) sec ✓ = 3
and tan ✓ > 0
p p
7
Answer:
p
✓ in QIII;
p
cos ✓ =p 83 , sin ✓ = 1 cos2 ✓ = 4
, csc ✓ =
4 7
7
, tan ✓ = 2 3 7 , cot ✓ = 3147
(c) tan ✓ = 2 and csc ✓ < 0
p p
5
p
5
Answer: ✓pin QIII; cot ✓ = 12 , sec ✓ = 5, cos ✓ = 5
, csc ✓ = 4
,
sin ✓ = 4 5 5
3
(d) csc ✓ = 2
and sec ✓ < 0
p p p
in QII; sin ✓ =p 23 , cos ✓ =
Answer: ✓ p 1 sin2 ✓ = 3
5
, sec ✓ = 3 5
5
,
tan ✓ = 2 5 5 , cot ✓ = 25
183
Start on the expression on one side of the proposed identity (preferably the
complicated side), use and apply some of the fundamental trigonometric identities
and algebraic manipulations, and arrive at the expression on the other side of the
proposed identity.
Expression Explanation
csc ✓ cot ✓ Start on one side.
1 cos ✓
= Apply some reciprocal and
sin ✓ sin ✓
quotient identities.
1
cos ✓
= Add the quotients.
sin ✓
1 cos ✓ 1 + cos ✓
= · Multiply the numerator
sin ✓ 1 + cos ✓
and denominator by
1 + cos ✓.
1 cos2 ✓
= Multiply.
(sin ✓)(1 + cos ✓)
sin2 ✓
= Apply a Pythagorean
(sin ✓)(1 + cos ✓)
identity.
sin ✓
= Reduce to lowest terms.
1 + cos ✓
Upon arriving at the expression of the other side, the identity has been estab
lished. There is no unique technique to prove all identities, but familiarity with
the di↵erent techniques may help.
Solution.
1
sec x cos x = cos x
cos x
1 cos2 x sin2 x sin x
= = = sin x · = sin x tan x 2
cos x cos x cos x
1 + sin ✓ 1 sin ✓
Example 3.4.8. Prove: = 4 sin ✓ sec2 ✓
1 sin ✓ 1 + sin ✓
Solution.
1 + sin ✓ 1 sin ✓ (1 + sin ✓)2 (1 sin ✓)2
=
1 sin ✓ 1 + sin ✓ (1 sin ✓)(1 + sin ✓)
1 + 2 sin ✓ + sin2 ✓ 1 + 2 sin ✓ sin2 ✓
=
1 sin2 ✓
184
4 sin ✓
=
cos2 ✓
= 4 sin ✓ sec2 ✓ 2
Seatwork/Homework 3.4.4
Prove each identity.
185
Exercises 3.4
1 1 1 1
Solution. 2
+ 2
= +
1 + tan x 1 + cot x sec x csc2 x
2
= cos2 x + sin2 x = 1
cos2 x
(c) 1 Answer: sin x
1 + sin x
cos2 x 1 sin2 x
Solution. 1 =1
1 + sin x 1 + sin x
(1 sin x)(1 + sin x)
=1
1 + sin x
=1 1 sin x = sin x
sin ✓
(d) Answer: 1
cos ✓ tan ✓
sin ✓ 1
Solution. = tan ✓ · =1
cos ✓ tan ✓ tan ✓
3. Given some initial information, use the identities to find the values of the
trigonometric functions of ✓.
5
(a) csc ✓ = 3
and tan ✓ > 0
p
Answer: ✓ in QI; sin ✓ = 35 , cos ✓ = 1 sin2 ✓ = 45 , sec ✓ = 54 , tan ✓ = 34 ,
cot ✓ = 43
12
(b) tan ✓ = 5
and cos ✓ < 0
5
p 13 5
Answer: ✓ in QII; cot ✓ = 12 , sec ✓ = tan2 ✓ + 1 = , cos ✓ = ,
p 5 13
sin ✓ = 1 cos ✓ = 13 , csc ✓ = 13
2 12
12
186
3 3⇡
(c) csc ✓ = 2
and ⇡ < x < 2
p p
Answer:
p
✓ in QIII;
p
sin ✓ =p 23 , cos ✓ = 1 sin2 ✓ = 3
5
, sec ✓ =
3 5
5
, tan ✓ = 2 5 5 , cot ✓ = 25
7 3⇡
(d) cot ✓ = 5
and 2
< ✓ < 2⇡
5
p p
74
p
7 74
Answer: ✓ in QIV; tan ✓ = , sec ✓ = tan2 ✓ + 1 = , cos ✓ = ,
p p
74
7 p 7 74
csc ✓ = cot2 ✓ + 1 = 5
, sin ✓ = 5 7474
(e) sin ✓ = 1
3⇡
Answer: ✓ coterminal with 2
; csc ✓ = 1, cos ✓ = 0, sec ✓ undefined,
tan ✓ undefined, cot ✓ = 0
(f) cot ✓ = 1
Answer: ✓ either in QII or QIV
p p p p
✓ in QII: tan ✓ = 1, sin ✓ = 22 , csc ✓ = 2, cos ✓ = 22 , sec ✓ = 2
p p p p
✓ in QIV: tan ✓ = 1, sin ✓ = 22 , csc ✓ = 2, cos ✓ = 22 , sec ✓ = 2
187
Solution. tan( ✓) sin( ✓) + cos( ✓) = tan ✓ sin ✓ + cos ✓
sin2 ✓
= + cos ✓
cos ✓
sin2 ✓ + cos2 ✓
=
cos ✓
1
= = sec ✓ = sec( ✓)
cos ✓
1 + sin u + cos u 1 + cos u
(d) =
1 + sin u cos u sin u
Solution
1 + sin u + cos u 1 + sin u + cos u 1 + cos u
= ·
1 + sin u cos u sin u + 1 cos u 1 + cos u
Teaching Notes (1 + sin u + cos u)(1 + cos u)
=
Since you need sin u + sin u cos u + 1 cos2 u
1 + cos u to retain
in the numerator
(1 + sin u + cos u)(1 + cos u)
=
at the end, do not sin u + sin u cos u + sin2 u
expand the
numerator.
(1 + sin u + cos u)(1 + cos u)
=
(sin u)(1 + cos u + sin u)
1 + cos u
=
sin u
1 sec2 x
6. Express in terms of sin x. Answer: sin2 x
sec2 x
1 sec2 x 1
Solution. 2
= 1 = cos2 x 1= sin2 x
sec x sec2 x
p
± 1 cos2 x
7. Express tan x sec x in terms of cos x. Answer:
cos2 x
p
sin x ± 1 cos2 x
Solution. tan x sec x = cos · 1 = cos
x cos x
sin x
2x =
cos2 x
8. Express all other five trigonometric functions in terms of tan x (allowing ± in
the expression).
tan x 1 1
Answer: sin x = p 2 ; cos x = p ; cot x = ; sec x =
± tan p x+1 ± tan2 x + 1 tan x
p ± tan2 x + 1
± tan2 x + 1; csc x =
tan x
9. If sec ✓ tan ✓ = 3, what is sec ✓ + tan ✓? Answer: 13
Solution
tan2 ✓ + 1 = sec2 ✓
sec2 ✓ tan2 ✓ = 1
188
(sec ✓ tan ✓)(sec ✓ + tan ✓) = 1
3(sec ✓ + tan ✓) = 1
1
sec ✓ + tan ✓ =
3
Lesson Outline
(1) The sum and di↵erence identities for cosine, sine, and tangent functions
(2) Cofunction identities
(3) More trigonometric identities
Introduction
In previous lesson, we introduced the concept of trigonometric identity, pre
sented the fundamental identities, and proved some identities. In this lesson, we
derive the sum and di↵erence identities for cosine, sine, and tangent functions,
establish the cofunction identities, and prove more trigonometric identities.
Let u and v be any real numbers with 0 < v u < 2⇡. Consider the unit circle
with points A = (1, 0), P1 , P2 , P3 , and u and v with corresponding angles shown
in Figure 3.27. Then P1 P2 = AP3 .
189
Figure 3.27
Recall that P1 = P (u) = (cos u, sin u), P2 = P (v) = (cos v, sin v), and P3 =
P (u v) = (cos(u v), sin(u v)), so that
p
P1 P2 = (cos u cos v)2 + (sin u sin v)2 ,
while p
AP3 = [cos(u v) 1]2 + [sin(u v) 0]2 .
Equating these two expressions and expanding the squares, we get
(cos u cos v)2 + (sin u sin v)2 = [cos(u v) 1]2 + sin2 (u v)
190
Cosine Di↵erence Identity
⇡
Example 3.5.1. Find the exact values of cos 105 and cos 12 .
Solution.
⇡ ⇣⇡ ⇡ ⌘
cos = cos
12 4 6
⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡
= cos cos + sin sin
p 4p 6 p 4 6
2 3 2 1
= · + ·
p2 p2 2 2
6+ 2
= 2
4
3 12
Example 3.5.2. Given cos ↵ = 5
and sin = 13
, where ↵ lies in QIV and in
QI, find cos(↵ + ).
191
cos(↵ + ) = cos ↵ cos sin ↵ sin
✓ ◆
3 5 4 12
= ·
5 13 5 13
63
= 2
65
Seatwork/Homework 3.5.1
3.5.2. The Cofunction Identities and the Sine Sum and Di↵erence
Identities
192
Cofunction Identities
Teaching Notes
⇣⇡ ⌘ ⇣⇡ ⌘ The Cofunction
cos B = sin B sin B = cos B Identities for the
2 2 reciprocal
⇣⇡ ⌘ functions will
tan B = cot B follow:
2 csc ⇡2 B =
sec B
sec ⇡2 B =
csc B
Using the first two cofunction identities, we now derive the identity for sin(A+ cot ⇡2 B =
tan B.
B).
h⇡ i
sin(A + B) = cos (A + B)
h⇣2 ⇡ ⌘ i
= cos A B)
⇣ ⇡2 ⌘ ⇣⇡ ⌘
= cos A cos B + sin A sin B
2 2
= sin A cos B + cos A sin B
In the last identity, replacing B with B and applying the evenodd identities
yield
5⇡
Example 3.5.3. Find the exact value of sin 12
.
Solution.
✓ ◆ ⇣⇡
5⇡ ⇡⌘
sin = sin +
12 4 6
⇣⇡ ⌘ ⇣⇡ ⌘ ⇣⇡ ⌘ ⇣⇡ ⌘
= sin cos + cos sin
4 6 4 6
193
p p p
2 3 2 1
= · + ·
p2 p2 2 2
6+ 2
= 2
4
3
Example 3.5.4. If sin ↵ = 13 and sin = 12 , where 0 < ↵ < ⇡
2
and ⇡
2
< < ⇡,
find sin(↵ + ) and sin( ↵).
Solution.
194
Seatwork/Homework 3.5.2
⇡
1. Find the exact value of sin 12
.
2. Find the exact value of sin 20 cos 80 sin 80 cos 20 .
sin(x + y) tan x + tan y
3. Prove: = .
sin(x y) tan x tan y
Recall that tan x is the ratio of sin x over cos x. When we replace x with A + B,
we obtain
sin(A + B)
tan(A + B) = .
cos(A + B)
Using the sum identities for sine and cosine, and then dividing the numerator
and denominator by cos A cos B, we have
sin A cos B + cos A sin B
tan(A + B) =
cos A cos B sin A sin B
sin A cos B cos A sin B
cos A cos B
+ cos A cos B
= cos A cos B sin A sin B
cos A cos B cos A cos B
tan A + tan B
= .
1 tan A tan B
We have just established the tangent sum identity.
In the above identity, if we replace B with B and use the evenodd identity
tan( ✓) = tan ✓, we get
195
Seatwork/Homework 3.5.3
5⇡ ⇡ 7⇡
1. Find the exact values of tan 12
, tan 12
, and tan 12
.
⇡
2. Express tan 4
+ ✓ and tan(2⇡ x) in terms of tan ✓.
cot A cot B 1
3. Prove: cot(A + B) = .
cot A + cot B
Exercises 3.5
(a) cos(⇡ x)
(b) tan(x + ⇡)
3⇡
(c) sin 2
+x
(d) cos(x ⇡)
196
5. Let n be an integer. Prove that cos(n⇡ + ✓) = ( 1)n cos ✓ and sin(n⇡ + ✓) =
( 1)n sin ✓.
6. In an alternating current circuit, the instantaneous power P (t) at time t is
given by
where Im and Vm are the maximum current (in amperes) and voltage (in volts),
respectively. Express this function as a product of two sine functions.
? 7. The force (in pounds) on the back of a person when he or she bends over at
an acute angle ✓ (in degrees) is given by F (✓) = 0.6Wsin
sin(✓+90)
12
, where W is the
weight (in pounds) of the person.
197
http://cnx.org/contents/XGjYtByD@4/Lab6AnalogtoDigitalConver
(a) Write the equation of the sound created by touching the * key as a product
of sine and cosine functions.
(b) In (a), what is the maximum value of s(t)?
x+y x y
10. (a) Prove: cos x + cos y = 2 cos 2
cos 2
.
(b) Two atmospheric waves in space produce pressures of F (t) and G(t) pas
cals at t seconds, where
and ✓ ◆
3⇡
G(t) = 0.04 cos 2⇡t .
4
Express the total pressure of F (t) and G(t) in the form P (t) = a cos(bt +
c).
11. (a) In the figure, two intersecting lines have equations y = m1 x + b1 and
y = m2 x + b2 , respectively. Let ✓ be the acute angle between them, as
shown. Prove that
m2 m1
tan ✓ = .
1 + m1 m2
198
(b) Two nonvertical lines intersect at the point ( 3, 2), and one angle be
tween them measures 30 . If one line is 2y = x + 7, find the equation of
the other line.
12. The length s(✓) of the shadow cast by a vertical pole when the angle of the
sun with the horizontal is given by
h sin(90 ✓)
s(✓) = ,
sin ✓
where h is the height of the pole.
199
(2) simplify trigonometric expressions using known identities;
(3) prove other trigonometric identities using known identities; and
(4) solve situational problems involving trigonometric identities.
Lesson Outline
(1) The doubleangle and halfangle identities for cosine, sine, and tangent
(2) More trigonometric identities
Introduction
Trigonometric identities simplify the computations of trigonometric expres
sions. In this lesson, we continue on establishing more trigonometric identities.
In particular, we derive the formulas for f (2✓) and f 12 ✓ , where f is the sine,
cosine, or tangent function.
The doubleidentity for cosine has other forms. We use the Pythagorean
identity sin2 ✓ + cos2 ✓ = 1.
cos 2A = cos2 A sin2 A
= cos2 A (1 cos2 A)
= 2 cos2 A 1
200
Other DoubleAngle Identities for Cosine
3 ⇡
Example 3.6.1. Given sin t = 5
and 2
< t < ⇡, find sin 2t and cos 2t.
Solution. We first find cos t using the Pythagorean identity. Since t lies in QII,
we have s
p ✓ ◆2
2 3 4
cos t = 1 sin t = 1 = .
5 5
Solution. We use the sum identity for sine, the doubleangle identities for sine
and cosine, and the Pythagorean identity.
sin 3x = sin(2x + x)
= sin 2x cos x + cos 2x sin x
= (2 sin x cos x) cos x + (1 2 sin2 x) sin x
= 2 sin x cos2 x + sin x 2 sin3 x
= 2(sin x)(1 sin2 x) + sin x 2 sin3 x
= 3 sin x 4 sin3 x 2
201
For the doubleangle formula for tangent, we recall the tangent sum identity:
tan A + tan B
tan(A + B) = .
1 tan A tan B
When A = B, we obtain
tan A + tan A 2 tan A
tan(A + A) = = .
1 tan A tan A 1 tan2 A
1
Example 3.6.3. If tan ✓ = 3
and sec ✓ > 0, find sin 2✓, cos 2✓, and tan 2✓.
From the given information, we deduce that ✓ lies in QIV. Using one Pythagorean
identity, we compute cos ✓ through sec ✓. (We may also use the technique dis
cussed in Lesson 3.2 by solving for x, y, and r.) Then we proceed to find cos 2✓.
s ✓ ◆2 p
p 1 10
sec ✓ = 1 + tan2 ✓ = 1 + =
3 3
p
1 1 3 10
cos ✓ = = p =
sec ✓ 10 10
3
p !2
3 10 4
cos 2✓ = 2 cos2 ✓ 1 = 2 1=
10 5
sin 2✓ 3
tan 2✓ = =) sin 2✓ = tan 2✓ cos 2✓ = 2
cos 2✓ 5
Seatwork/Homework 3.6.1
2 3⇡
1. If cos ✓ = 3
and 2
< ✓ < 2⇡, find sin 2✓, cos 2✓, and tan 2✓.
2. Express tan 3✓ in terms of tan ✓.
2 tan ✓
3. Prove: = sin 2✓.
1 + tan2 ✓
202
3.6.2. HalfAngle Identities
A
From these identities, replacing A with 2
, we get
A
2A 1 + cos 2 2 1 + cos A
cos = =
2 2 2
and
A 1 cos 2 A2 1 cos A
sin2 = = .
2 2 2
These are the halfangle identities for sine and cosine.
Solution. Clearly, 22.5 lies in QI (and so sin 22.5 and cos 22.5 are both posi
tive), and 22.5 is the halfangle of 45 .
s p
r p
2
p
1 cos 45 1 2 2 2
sin 22.5 = = =
2 2 2
s p
r p p
1 + cos 45 1 + 22 2+ 2
cos 22.5 = = = 2
2 2 2
203
✓ ◆
✓ 2 tan ✓ + sin ✓
Example 3.6.5. Prove: cos = .
2 2 tan ✓
Solution.
✓ ◆
✓
2 1 + cos ✓
cos =
2 2
✓ ◆
1 + cos ✓ tan ✓
=
2 tan ✓
tan ✓ + cos ✓ tan ✓
=
2 tan ✓
sin ✓
tan ✓ + cos ✓ · cos ✓
=
2 tan ✓
tan ✓ + sin ✓
= 2
2 tan ✓
We now derive the first version of the halfangle formula for tangent.
A sin A2
tan =
2 cos A2
!
sin A2 2 sin A2
=
cos A2 2 sin A2
2 sin2 A2
=
2 sin A2 cos A2
2 · 1 cos
2
A
=
sin 2 · A2
1 cos A
=
sin A
There is another version of the tangent halfangle formula, and we can derive
it from the first version.
A 1 cos A
tan =
2 sin A ✓ ◆
1 cos A 1 + cos A
=
sin A 1 + cos A
2
1 cos A
=
(sin A)(1 + cos A)
sin2 A
=
(sin A)(1 + cos A)
sin A
=
1 + cos A
204
Tangent HalfAngle Identities
A 1 cos A A sin A
tan = tan =
2 sin A 2 1 + cos A
✓ ◆
A sin A2 A 1 cos A
tan = tan2 =
2 cos A2 2 1 + cos A
⇡
Example 3.6.6. Find the exact value of tan 12 .
Solution. p
⇡ 1 cos ⇡6 1 2
3 p
tan = ⇡ = 1 =2 3 2
12 sin 6 2
2
Example 3.6.7. If sin ✓ = 5
, cot ✓ > 0, and 0 ✓ < 2⇡, find sin 2✓ , cos 2✓ , and
tan 2✓ .
3⇡
Solution. Since sin ✓ < 0 and cot ✓ > 0, we conclude the ⇡ < ✓ < 2
. It follows
that
⇡ ✓ 3⇡
< < ,
2 2 4
which means that 2✓ lies in QII.
s ✓ ◆2 p
p 2 21
2
cos ✓ = 1 sin ✓ = 1 =
5 5
v ⇣ ⌘
r up p
u1 p 21
✓ 1 cos ✓ t 50 + 10 215
sin = = =
2 2 2 10
v ⇣ p ⌘
r u p
u1 + 21 p
✓ 1 + cos ✓ t 5 50 10 21
cos = = =
2 2 2 10
⇣ p ⌘
1 21 p
✓ 1 cos ✓ 5 5 + 21
tan = = 2 = 2
2 sin ✓ 5
2
Seatwork/Homework 3.6.2
205
Exercises 3.6
1. Given some information about ✓, find sin 2✓, cos 2✓, and tan 2✓.
1 ⇡
(a) cos ✓ = 4
and 2
<✓<⇡
5
(b) sec ✓ = 2
and sin ✓ > 0
3⇡
(c) tan ✓ = 2 and 2
< ✓ < 2⇡
3
(d) sin ✓ = 5
and tan ✓ < 0
2. Given the same information as in Item (1), where 0 ✓ < 2⇡, find sin 2✓ , cos 2✓ ,
and tan 2✓ .
3. Express each expression as one trigonometric expression, but do not find the
exact value.
v2
R= sin(2✓),
g
where g is the acceleration due to gravity, which is 9.81 m/sec2 near the Earth’s
surface.
(a) An archer targets an object 100 meters away from her position. If she
positions her arrow at an angle of 32 and releases the arrow at the speed
of 30 m/sec, will she hit her target?
(b) If sin ✓ = 25 , solve for v when R = 50.
206
(c) Given v, what is ✓ to reach largest possible range? At this ✓, what is the
range?
8. The figure shows a laser scanner projection system. The optical angle ✓, throw
distance D, and projected image width W are related by the equation
W
2
D= .
csc ✓ cot ✓
https://pangolin.com/userhelp/scanangles.htm
207
Lesson 3.7. Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Lesson Outline
(1) Definitions of the six inverse trigonometric functions
(2) Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions
(3) Domain and range of inverse trigonometric functions
(4) Evaluation of inverse trigonometric expressions
Introduction
In the previous lessons on functions (algebraic and trigonometric), given a
number in the domain of a function, we computed for the value of the function
at that number. Now, given a value in the range of the function, we reverse this
process by finding a number in the domain whose function value is the given
one. Observe that, in this process, the function involved may or may not give a
unique number in the domain. For example, each of the functions f (x) = x2 and
g(x) = cos x do not give a unique number in their respective domains for some
values of each function. Given f (x) = 1, the function gives x = ±1. If g(x) = 1,
then x = 2k⇡, where k is an integer. Because of this possibility, in order that
the reverse process produces a function, we restrict this process to onetoone
functions or at least restrict the domain of a nononetoone function to make it
onetoone so that the process works. Loosely speaking, a function that reverses
what a given function f does is called its inverse function, and is usually denoted
by f 1 .
Teaching Notes More formally, two functions f and g are inverse functions if
The concept of
inverse function
was studied in g(f (x)) = x for any x in the domain of f ,
General
Mathematics
course.
and
f (g(x)) = x for any x in the domain of g.
We denote the inverse function of a function f by f 1 . The graphs of a function
and its inverse function are symmetric with respect to the line y = x.
208
In this lesson, we first restrict the domain of each trigonometric function
because each of them is not onetoone. We then define each respective inverse
function and evaluate the values of each inverse trigonometric function.
All the trigonometric functions that we consider are periodic over their entire
domains. This means that all trigonometric functions are not onetoone if we
consider their whole domains, which implies that they have no inverses over those
sets. But there is a way to make each of the trigonometric functions onetoone.
This is done by restricting their respective domains. The restrictions will give us
welldefined inverse trigonometric functions.
The domain of the sine function is the set R of real numbers, and its range is
the closed interval [ 1, 1]. As observed in the previous lessons, the sine function
is not onetoone, and the first step is to restrict its domain (by agreeing what the
convention is) with the following conditions: (1) the sine function is onetoone
in that restricted domain, and (2) the range remains the same.
1
y = sin x or y = arcsin x
if and only if
sin y = x,
⇡
where 1 x 1 and 2
y ⇡2 .
1
Throughout the lesson, we interchangeably use sin x and arcsin x to mean
the inverse sine function.
209
(3) arcsin 0 = 0
1 1 ⇡
(4) sin 2
= 6
2
1 1
Solution. (1) sin sin 2
= sin ⇡6 = 1
2
p
3
(2) arcsin sin ⇡3 = arcsin 2
= ⇡
3
To sketch the graph of y = sin 1 x, Table 3.28 presents the tables of values
for y = sin x and y = sin 1 x. Recall that the graphs of y = sin x and y = sin 1 x
are symmetric with respect to the line y = x. This means that if a point (a, b) is
on y = sin x, then (b, a) is on y = sin 1 x.
⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡
x 2 3 4 6
0 6 4 3 2
y = sin x p p p p
3 2 1 1 2 3
y 1 2 2 2
0 2 2 2
1
p p p p
3 2 1 1 2 3
1
x 1 2 2 2
0 2 2 2
1
y = sin x
⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡
y 2 3 4 6
0 6 4 3 2
Table 3.28
210
The graph (solid thick curve) of the restricted sine function y = sin x is shown
in Figure 3.29(a), while the graph of inverse sine function y = arcsin x is shown
in Figure 3.29(b).
1
(a) y = sin x (b) y = sin x
Figure 3.29
211
Solution 2. In this solution, we graph first the corresponding sine function, and
then use the symmetry with respect to y = x to graph the inverse function.
Seatwork/Homework 3.7.1
212
(b) y = sin 1 (2x)
213
1
y = cos x or y = arccos x
Teaching Notes means
Observe that this
definition of
cos y = x,
cos 1 x is
equivalent to where 1 x 1 and 0 y ⇡.
cos 1 x =
⇡
2
sin 1 x.
The graph (solid thick curve) of the restricted cosine function y = cos x is
shown in Figure 3.30(a), while the graph of inverse cosine function y = arccos x
is shown in Figure 3.30(b).
1
(a) y = cos x (b) y = cos x
Figure 3.30
⇡
Solution. (1) cos 1 0 = 2
because cos ⇡2 = 0 and ⇡
2
2 [0, ⇡].
⇣ p ⌘
3
(2) arccos 2
= 5⇡6
⇣ ⇣ p ⌘⌘ p p
1 3 3 3
(3) cos cos 2
= 2
because 2
2 [ 1, 1]
(4) cos 1
cos 3⇡
4
= 3⇡
4
because 3⇡
4
2 [0, ⇡].
214
⇣ p ⌘
3
(5) arccos cos 7⇡
6
= arccos 2
= 5⇡
6
⇣ p ⌘ p
1 2 2
(6) sin cos 2
= 2
2
Solution. We know that arccos 12 = ⇡3 . Using the Sine Sum Identity, we have
Solution.
1 1
y= cos 1 (2x) () 4y = cos 1 (2x) () x = cos(4y)
4 2
215
We graph first y = 12 cos(4x). The domain of this graph comes from the restriction
of cosine as follows:
⇡
0 4x ⇡ =) 0 x .
4
Then reflect this graph with respect to y = x, and we finally obtain the graph of
y = 14 cos 1 (2x) (solid line).
In the last example, we may also use the following technique. In graphing
y = 14 cos 1 (2x), the horizontal length of cos 1 x is reduced to half, while the
vertical height is reduced to quarter. This comparison technique is shown in
the graph below with the graph of y = cos 1 x in dashed line and the graph of
y = 14 cos 1 (2x) in solid line.
Seatwork/Homework 3.7.2
216
(c) arccos sin 5⇡
2
Answer: 0
1 2 2
(d) cos cos 5
Answer: 5
1 3⇡
(e) cos tan 4
Answer: 0
13⇡ ⇡
(f) arccos cos 3
Answer: 3
✓ ✓ ◆◆
1 2 1 1
cos cos sin = cos(↵ )
3 3
= cos ↵ cos + sin ↵ sin
✓ ◆ p ! p !✓ ◆
2 2 2 5 1
= +
3 3 3 3
p p
4 2 5
= .
9
p p
1 17 3 4 21
(b) tan arcsin 2
+ arccos 25 Answer:
9
1 ⇡
Solution. First, note that arcsin 2
= 6
. Second, we let ✓ =
2 2
arccos
p 5
, which means that cos ✓ = 5 and ✓ is in QI. We get tan ✓ =
21
2
.
We now simplify the expression as follows:
✓ ✓ ◆ ◆ ⇣ ⇡ ⌘
1 2
tan arcsin + arccos = tan +✓
2 5 6
tan( ⇡6 ) + tan ✓
=
1 (tan( ⇡6 ))(tan ✓)
p p
3 21
3
+ 2
= p p
3 21
1 ( 3
)( 2
)
p p
2 3 + 3 21
= p
6 3 7
217
p p
17 3 4 21
=
9
3. Sketch the graph of each equation.
(b) y = 12 cos 1 (x + 2)
The inverse tangent function is similarly defined as inverse sine and inverse cosine
functions.
218
1
y = tan x or y = arctan x
means
tan y = x,
where x 2 R and ⇡
2
< y < ⇡2 .
The graph (solid thick curve) of the restricted function y = tan x is shown
in Figure 3.31(a), while the graph of inverse function y = arctan x is shown in
Figure 3.31(b).
1
(a) y = tan x (b) y = tan x
Figure 3.31
⇡ ⇡
Solution. Note the range of arctan is the open interval ,
2 2
.
1 ⇡
(1) tan 1= 4
p ⇡
(2) arctan 3 = 3
1 5 5
(3) tan tan 2
= 2
1 ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡
(4) tan tan 6
= 6
because 6
2 ,
2 2
.
219
7⇡ ⇡ ⇡
(5) Here, note that 6
62 ,
2 2
. Use the idea of reference angle, we know that
tan 7⇡
6
= tan ⇡6 .
✓ ◆ ⇣
1 7⇡ 1 ⇡⌘ ⇡
tan tan = tan tan =
6 6 6
(6) Here, we cannot use the idea of reference angle, but the idea can help in a
way. The number (or angle) 19⇡ 6
is in QII, wherein tangent is negative, and
its reference angle is ⇡6 .
✓ ✓ ◆◆ ⇣ ⇣ ⇡ ⌘⌘
19⇡
arctan tan = arctan tan
6 6
⇡
= 2
6
Example 3.7.9. Find the exact value of each expression.
(1) sin 2 tan 1 8
3
(2) tan sin 1 35 tan 1 1
4
8
Solution. (1) Let ✓ = tan 1 3
. Then tan ✓ = 83 . Following the notations in
Lesson 3.2 and the definition of inverse tangent
p function, we know
p that ✓ lies
in QIV, and x = 3 and y = 8. We get r = 32 + ( 8)2 = 73.
Applying the Sine DoubleAngle Identity (page 200) gives
✓ ✓ ◆◆
1 8
sin 2 tan = sin 2✓
3
= 2 sin ✓ cos ✓
y x
=2· ·
✓r r ◆ ✓ ◆
8 3
=2 p p
73 73
48
= .
73
220
the notations used p
in Lesson 3.2, we know that ✓ lies in QI, and y = 3 and
r = 5. We get x = 52 32 = 4, so that tan ✓ = xy = 34 .
✓ ◆
1 3 1 1 tan sin 1 35 1
4
tan sin tan =
5 4 1 + tan sin 1 3
5
· 1
4
3 1
4 4
=
1 + 34 · 1
4
8
= 2
19
221
Define
1 ⇡
cot x= tan 1 x.
2
It follows that the domain of y = cot 1 x is R and its range is (0, ⇡).
1
y = sec x or y = arcsec x
Teaching Notes means
Keep in mind that
the domain
sec y = x,
restrictions are ⇥ ⇥
conventions we set. where x 1 and y 2 0, ⇡2 [ ⇡, 3⇡2
.
Other books and
sources might have
di↵erent domain
restrictions. The
restrictions we Define
1⇡
made aim to make csc sec 1 x.
x=
calculus 2
computations
easier in the future. This means that the⇤domain⇤of y = csc 1 x is ( 1, 1] [ [1, 1) and
its range is ⇡, ⇡2 [ 0, ⇡2 .
The graphs of these last three inverse trigonometric functions are shown in
Figures 3.32, 3.33, and 3.34, respectively.
1
(a) y = cot x (b) y = cot x
Figure 3.32
222
1
(a) y = sec x (b) y = sec x
Figure 3.33
1
(a) y = csc x (b) y = csc x
Figure 3.34
Observe that the process in getting the value of an inverse function is the
same to all inverse functions. That is, y = f 1 (x) is the same as f (y) = x. We
need to remember the range of each inverse trigonometric function. Table 3.35
summarizes all the information about the six inverse trigonometric functions.
223
Function Domain Range Graph
1
⇥ ⇡ ⇡
⇤ Figure
sin x [ 1, 1] ,
2 2 3.29(b)
1 Figure
cos x [ 1, 1] [0, ⇡]
3.30(b)
Figure
tan 1
x R ⇡ ⇡
,
2 2 3.31(b)
Figure
cot 1
x R (0, ⇡)
3.32(b)
⇥ ⇥ Figure
sec 1
x {x : x 1} 0, ⇡2 [ ⇡, 3⇡
2 3.33(b)
⇡
⇤ ⇤ Figure
csc 1
x {x : x 1} ⇡, 2
[ 0, ⇡2
3.34(b)
Table 3.35
4⇡
⇥
Solution. (1) sec 1 ( 2) = 3
because sec 4⇡
3
= 2 and 4⇡
3
2 ⇡, 3⇡
2
⇣ p ⌘
2 3
(2) csc 1 3
= 2⇡ 3
1
p 5⇡
(3) cot 3 = 6
⇣ p ⌘
1 2 3 2⇡ 1 3
(4) From (2), we know that csc 3
= 3
. Let ✓ = sec 2
. Then
3
sec ✓ = .
From defined range of inverse secant function and the notations
2
in Lesson
p 3.2, ✓ lies in QIII,
p and r = 3 and x = 2.p Solving for y, we get
y= 32 ( 2)2 = 5. It follows that sin ✓ = 35 and cos ✓ = 23 .
We now use the Sine Sum Identity.
✓ ◆ p !!
1 3 1 2 3
sin sec csc
2 3
✓ ✓ ◆◆
2⇡
= sin ✓
3
✓ ◆
2⇡
= sin ✓ +
3
224
2⇡ 2⇡
= sin ✓ cos + cos ✓ sin
3 3
p !✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ p !
5 1 2 3
= +
3 2 3 2
p p
5 2 3
= 2
6
Seatwork/Homework 3.7.3
225
1
tan arctan 2
+ tan arctan 53
= 1
1 tan arctan 2
tan arctan 53
1 5
2
+ 3
= 1 5
1 2 3
7
=
11
Exercises 3.7
(a) cos 1
cos ⇡3 Answer: ⇡
3
(b) csc 1
tan ⇡6 Answer: undefined
1 5⇡ ⇡
(c) tan tan 4
Answer: 4
1 ⇡ ⇡
(d) sin cos 4
Answer: 4
(e) cos 1
csc ⇡3 Answer: ⇡
6
226
⇣ p ⇣ p ⌘⌘
1 1 3
(b) cos tan 3 + sin 2
Answer: 1
(c) tan (2 tan 1 ( 1)) Answer: undefined
1 4 1 5 33
(d) cos tan 3
+ cos 13
Answer: 65
⇣ p ⌘
1 1 1 3 1
(e) sin 2 sin 2
3 tan 3
Answer: 2
(a) y = cos 1 (x + 1)
(b) y = sin 1 (x 2)
227
1
(c) y = sin 2x
1 x
(d) y = cos 2
228
(e) y = 2 cos 1 (x 1)
(f) y = 1
2
sin 1 (2x)
229
(g) y = 2 sin 1 (2x + 2)
230
7. Solve for x in the equation sin 1 (x2 2x) = ⇡
2
. Answer: x = 1
⇡
8. Solve for x in the equation tan 1 (4x2 + 5x 7) = 4
. Answer: 2, 34
9. A woman is standing x ft from a wall with a billboard nailed on it. The
billboard is 15 ft tall, and its base is 6 ft above the eye level of the woman.
Find the viewing angle subtended on the eyes of the woman from the base to
15x
the top of the billboard. Answer: tan 1 2
x + 126
? 10. During a leap year, the number of hours of daylight in a city can be modeled
by D(t) = 12 + 2.4 sin(0.017t 1.377), where t is the day of the year (that is,
t = 1 means January 1, t = 60 is February 29, and so on).
(a) Give one day of that year whose number of hours of daylight is about
14.4. Answer: ⇡ 173 days, so the day would be June 21
(b) Find another day of that year whose number of hours of daylight is the
same as that of February 29.
Answer: ⇡ 287 days, so the day would be October 13
? 11. After getting a job, a man started saving a percentage of his annual income,
which can be modeled by
where P (t) is the percentage of his annual income that he was able to save on
year t after he got a job.
231
(a) What percentage of his annual income did he save on the second year?
Answer: 7.58% of his annual income
(b) On what year right after getting a job did he save the least?
Answer: 20 years after getting a job
(c) On what year right after getting a job did he save the most? When would
it happen again? Answer: 40 years after getting a job
(d) If he got his job at the age of 20, how much will he save on the year of
his retirement (that is, when he is 60)? Answer: 7.7% of his annual
income
12. Prove each identity.
p
2
2 , x 2 R
1+x
(a) cos (tan 1 x) = 1+x
Solution. Let ✓ = tan 1 x, where x is any real number. This implies that
tan ✓ = x. One can think of a right triangle, with acute angle ✓ whose
opposite side is x and adjacent side as 1. Solving for the hypotenuse,
p adjacent side 1
p
1+x2
we get 1 + x2 . Thus cos ✓ = = p1+x = . But
hypotenuse
p
2 1+x2
1+x2
✓ = tan 1 x, therefore, cos(tan 1 x) = 1+x 2 .
232
(d) sin 1 x + cos 1 x = ⇡2 , x 2 [ 1, 1]
Solution. Same as in (c), we show that sin(sin 1 x + cos 1 x) = 1, where
x 2 [ 1, 1].
Let ↵ = sin 1 x and = cos 1 x. It follows that sin ↵ = x andp cos = x.
Using fundamental identities, we obtain the following: cos ↵ = 1 x2 =
sin .
Then, we do the following manipulations:
1 1
sin(sin x + cos x) = sin(↵ + )
= sin ↵ cos + cos ↵ sin
p p
= x(x) + ( 1 x2 )( 1 x2 )
= x2 + 1 x2
= 1.
1
Therefore, sin x + cos 1
x = ⇡2 .
Lesson Outline
(1) Definition of a trigonometric equation
(2) Solution to a trigonometric equation
(3) Techniques of solving a trigonometric equation
Introduction
We have studied equations in Lesson 3.4. We di↵erentiated an identity from
a conditional equation. Recall that an identity is an equation that is true for all
values of the variable in the domain of the equation, while a conditional equation
is an equation that is not an identity.
In this lesson, we mostly study conditional trigonometric equations. We
have started it unnoticeably in the preceding lesson. For example, the equa
tion sin x = 12 has the unique solution x = sin 1 12 = ⇡6 in the closed interval
233
⇥ ⇡ ⇡
⇤
,
2 2
. However, if we consider the entire domain (not the restricted domain)
of the sine function, which is the set R of real numbers, there are solutions (other
than ⇡6 ) of the equation sin x = 12 . This current lesson explores the techniques of
solving (conditional) trigonometric equations.
We divide the lesson into two groups of equations: the ones with a basic way
of solving and those that use more advanced techniques.
Solution. Note that the choices (except 2⇡) are numbers within the interval [0, ⇡].
To quickly determine which numbers among the choices are solutions to a par
Teaching Notes ticular equation, we use some distinctive properties of the possible solutions.
In the actual
classroom
discussion, you
may only choose
(1) The sine function is positive on (0, ⇡). From Lesson 3.2, we recall that ⇡6 is
some of these an obvious solution. We may imagine the graph of y = sin x. We may also
items.
use the idea of reference angle. Thus, among the choices, only ⇡6 and 5⇡
6
are
1
the only solutions of sin x = 2 .
(2) Since tan x = 1 > 0, any solution of the equation among the choices must
be in the interval 0, ⇡2 (that is, in QI). Again, among the choices, the only
solution to tan x = 1 is ⇡4 .
234
p
(3) Here, the given equation is equivalent to sec x = 2 3 3 . Among the choices, Teaching Notes
p For convenience in
the only solution of the equation 3 sec x = 2 3 is 5⇡
6
. showing or finding
a solution of an
(4) Eliminating
p
the absolute
p
value sign, the given equation is equivalent topcot x = equation, we may
use an equivalent
3
or cot x = 3 . Among the choices, the only solution of cot x = 33 is ⇡3 ,
3
equation. By
3 p definition, the
while the other equation has 2⇡ 3
. Thus, the only solutions of 3 cot x = 1 solutions of the
from the given set are ⇡3 and 2⇡3
. equivalent equation
are exactly the
same as the
(5) The given equation is one of the Pythagorean Identities (page 181). It means solutions of the
that all numbers in the domain of the equation are solutions. The domain original equation.
(6) For the sum of sin x and cos x to be 0, they must have equal absolute values
but di↵erent signs. Among the choices, only 3⇡4
satisfies these properties, and
it is the only solution of sin x + cos x = 0.
(7) This equations is one of the DoubleAngle Identities for Cosine. This means
that all numbers in the domain of the equation are its solutions. Because the
domain of the given equation is R, all numbers in the given set are solutions
of cos2 x = cos 2x + sin2 x.
(8) We substitute each number in the choices to the expression on the leftside
of the equation, and select those numbers that give resulting values equal to
1. Teaching Notes
If one side of an
equation is
x = 0: sin 0 + cos 2(0) = 0 + 1 = 1 constant and if the
nonconstant
x = ⇡6 : sin ⇡6 + cos 2( ⇡6 ) = 1
2
+ 12 = 1 expression is a bit
p p complicated, the
2 2
x = ⇡4 : sin ⇡4 + cos 2( ⇡4 ) = 2
+ 0 = 2 basic method of
p p showing that a
3 3 1
x = ⇡3 : sin ⇡3 + cos 2( ⇡3 ) = 2
1
2
= 2
number is a
solution of the
x = ⇡2 : sin ⇡2 + cos 2( ⇡2 ) = 1 1=0 equation is more
appropriate; that
p p
2⇡ 3 3 1 is, to start on the
x= 3
: sin 2⇡
3
+ cos 2( 2⇡
3
)= 2
1
2
= 2 nonconstant side,
p p then substitute the
2
x= 3⇡
4
: sin 3⇡
4
+ cos 2( 3⇡
4
)= 2
+ 0 = 22 number to the
variable, simplify
5⇡
x= 6
: sin 5⇡
6
+ cos 2( 5⇡
6
)= 1
2
+ 12 = 1 the expression, and
end on the value of
x = ⇡: sin ⇡ + cos 2⇡ = 0 + 1 = 1 the constant on the
other side.
x = 2⇡: sin 2⇡ + cos 2(2⇡) = 0 + 1 = 1
From these values, the only solution of sin x + cos 2x = 0 among the choices
is ⇡2 .
(9) We again substitute the numbers in the given set one by one, and see which
resulting values are equal to 1.
235
x = 0: 2 sin 0 + tan 0 2 cos 0 = 2
p
3 2 3
x = ⇡6 : 2 sin ⇡6 + tan ⇡6 2 cos ⇡6 = 3
x = ⇡4 : 2 sin ⇡4 + tan ⇡4 2 cos ⇡4 = 1
p
x = ⇡3 : 2 sin ⇡3 + tan ⇡3 2 cos ⇡3 = 2 3 1
x = ⇡2 : Since tan ⇡2 is undefined, this value of x cannot be a solution of the
equation.
2⇡
x= 3
: 2 sin 2⇡
3
+ tan 2⇡
3
2 cos 2⇡
3
=1
3⇡
p
x= 4
: 2 sin 3⇡
4
+ tan 3⇡
4
2 cos 3⇡
4
=2 2 1
p
5⇡ 3+2 3
x= 6
: 2 sin 5⇡
6
+ tan 5⇡
6
2 cos 5⇡
6
= 3
x = ⇡: 2 sin ⇡ + tan ⇡ 2 cos ⇡ = 2
x = 2⇡: 2 sin 2⇡ + tan 2⇡ 2 cos 2⇡ = 2
Thus, the only solution of 2 sin x + tan x 2 cos x = 2 from the given set is ⇡.
(10) This equation has no solution because one of the Pythagorean Identities says
sin2 x + cos2 x = 1.
(11) We substitute each number in the given set to the expression of each side of
Teaching Notes the equation, and see which resulting values are equal.
If both sides of an
equation are both
nonconstant
x = 0: sin 2(0) = 0; sin 0 = 0
p
expressions, one 3
method of showing x = ⇡6 : sin 2( ⇡6 ) = 2
; sin ⇡6 = 1
2
that a number is a p
2
solution of the x = ⇡4 : sin 2( ⇡4 ) = 1; sin ⇡4 = 2
equation is to p p
3 3
substitute the
number to both
x = ⇡3 : sin 2( ⇡3 ) = 2
; sin ⇡3 = 2
expressions (but
never join them
x = ⇡2 : sin 2( ⇡2 ) = 0; sin ⇡2 = 1
with equality sign p
3⇡ 2
because they are x= 4
: sin 2( 3⇡
4
)= 1; sin 3⇡
4
= 2
not yet equal p
5⇡ 3
logically), and x= 6
: sin 2( 5⇡
6
)= 2
; sin ⇡3 = 1
2
check if the
resulting values are x = ⇡: sin 2⇡ = 0; sin ⇡ = 0
equal.
x = 2⇡: sin 2(2⇡) = 0; sin 2⇡ = 0
Thus, among the numbers in the given set, the solutions of sin 2x = sin x are
0, ⇡3 , ⇡, and 2⇡.
236
x=0: 2 tan 0 + 4 sin 0 = 0
2 + sec 0 = 3
p
⇡ 2 3+6
x= 6
: 2 tan ⇡6 + 4 sin ⇡6 = 3
p
2 3+6
2 + sec ⇡6 = 3
⇡
p
x= 4
: 2 tan ⇡4 + 4 sin ⇡4 = 2 2 + 2
p
2 + sec ⇡4 = 2 + 2
⇡
p
x= 3
: 2 tan ⇡3 + 4 sin ⇡3 = 4 3
2 + sec ⇡3 = 4
⇡
x= 2
: Both tan ⇡2 and sec ⇡2 are undefined.
2⇡
x= 3
: 2 tan 2⇡
3
+ 4 sin 2⇡
3
=0
2 + sec 2⇡
3
=0
3⇡
p
x= 4
: 2 tan 3⇡
4
+ 4 sin 3⇡
4
= 2 2 2
p
2 + sec 3⇡
4
=2 2
p
5⇡ 6 2 3
x= 6
: 2 tan 5⇡
6
+ 4 sin 5⇡
6
= 3
p
6 2 3
2 + sec 5⇡
6
= 3
Seatwork/Homework 3.8.1
⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ 2⇡
In each equation, list down its solutions from the set 3
, , , , , ⇡, 3⇡
4 6 4 3 2
.
p ⇡
(1) 3 sec ✓ = 2 Answer: 6
⇡
(2) (sin x)(tan x + 1) = 0 Answer: 4
, ⇡
237
3.8.2. Equations with One Term
From the preceding discussion, you may observe that there may be more solutions
of a given equations outside the given set. We now find all solutions of a given
equation.
We will start with a group of equations having straightforward techniques
of finding their solutions. These simple techniques involve at least one of the
following ideas:
(1) equivalent equations (that is, equations that have the same solutions as the
original equation);
(4) values of the trigonometric function involved on the interval [0, ⇡] or [0, 2⇡]
(depending on the periodicity of the function); and
238
Solution. By the ZeroFactor Law, the given equation is equivalent to
Example 3.8.4. Find all values of x in the interval [ 2⇡, 2⇡] that satisfy the
equation (sin x 1)(sin x + 1) = 0.
Solution.
sin x 1=0 or sin x + 1 = 0
sin x = 1 sin x = 1
⇡ 3⇡ 3⇡ ⇡
x= 2
or 2
x= 2
or 2
⇡ 3⇡ 3⇡ ⇡
Solutions: 2
, 2
, 2, 2
2
Solution.
5
3 tan ✓ + 5 = 0 =) tan ✓ = 3
tan ✓ = 5
3
=) ✓ = tan 1 5
3
+ k⇡, k 2 Z 2
? Example 3.8.7. The voltage V (in volts) coming from an electricity distribut
ing company is fluctuating according to the function V (t) = 200 + 170 sin(120⇡t)
at time t in seconds.
239
(1) Determine the first time it takes to reach 300 volts.
(2) For what values of t does the voltage reach its maximum value?
Solution. (1) We solve for the least positive value of t such that V (t) = 300.
(2) The maximum value of V (t) happens when and only when the maximum
value of sin(120⇡t) is reached. We know that the maximum value of sin(120⇡t)
is 1, and it follows that the maximum value of V (t) is 370 volts. Thus, we
need to solve for all values of t such that sin(120⇡t) = 1.
sin(120⇡t) = 1
⇡
120⇡t = + 2k⇡, k nonnegative integer
2
⇡
+ 2k⇡
t= 2
120⇡
1
+ 2k
t= 2 ⇡ 0.00417 + 0.017k
120
This means that the voltage is maximum when t ⇡ 0.00417 + 0.017k for each
nonnegative integer k. 2
Seatwork/Homework 3.8.2
2. Find all values of the variable in the interval [ 2⇡, 2⇡] that satisfy the given
equation.
⇡ 3⇡
(a) (sin ✓ + 1)(tan ✓) = 0 Answer: , , 0, ⇡, 2⇡, ⇡,
2 2
2⇡
(b) sec ✓ + 2 = 0 Answer: 2⇡
3
, 4⇡3
, 4⇡
3
, 2⇡
3
240
3.8.3. Equations with Two or More Terms
Solution.
Solution.
sin 2x = sin x
sin 2x sin x = 0
2 sin x cos x sin x = 0 Sine DoubleAngle Identity
(sin x)(2 cos x 1) = 0
241
Tips in Solving Trigonometric Equations
(1) If the equation contains only one trigonometric term, isolate that
term, and solve for the variable.
(3) Rewrite the equation to have 0 on one side, and then factor (if
appropriate) the expression on the other side.
Solution.
2 cos2 x = 1 + sin x
2(1 sin2 x) = 1 + sin x Pythagorean Identity
2 sin2 x + sin x 1=0
(2 sin x 1)(sin x + 1) = 0 Factoring
Solution.
3 cos2 x + 2 sin x = 2
3(1 sin2 x) + 2 sin x = 2 Pythagorean Identity
(3 sin x + 1)(sin x 1) = 0 Factoring
242
3 sin x + 1 = 0 or sin x 1=0
1
sin x = 3
sin x = 1
x = sin 1 ( 13 ) + 2⇡ x= ⇡
2
or
x = ⇡ sin 1 ( 13 )
Solution.
sin2 x + 5 cos2 x
2
=2
sin2 x + 5 1+cos x
2
=2 Cosine HalfAngle Identity
2 sin2 x + 5 cos x + 1 = 0
2(1 cos2 x) + 5 cos x + 1 = 0 Pythagorean Identity
2 cos2 x 5 cos x 3=0
(2 cos x + 1)(cos x 3) = 0
Example 3.8.13. Solve for x 2 [0, 2⇡) in the equation tan 2x 2 cos x = 0.
243
Solution.
tan 2x 2 cos x = 0
sin 2x
2 cos x = 0
cos 2x
sin 2x 2 cos x cos 2x = 0
Apply the DoubleAngle Identities for Sine and Cosine, and then factor.
These values of x should be checked in the original equation because tan 2x may
not be defined. Upon checking, this is not the case for each value of x obtained.
The solutions are ⇡2 , 3⇡
2
, ⇡6 , 5⇡
6
, and 3⇡
2
. 2
? Example 3.8.14. A weight is suspended from a spring and vibrating vertically
according to the equation
4 5
f (t) = 20 cos 5
⇡ t 6
,
where f (t) centimeters is the directed distance of the weight from its central
position at t seconds, and the positive distance means above its central position.
(1) At what time is the displacement of the weight 5 cm below its central
position for the first time?
(2) For what values of t does the weight reach its farthest point below its central
position?
Solution. (1) We find the least positive value of t such that f (t) = 5.
4 5
20 cos 5
⇡ t 6
= 5
4 5 1
cos 5
⇡ t 6
= 4
244
• 4
5
⇡ t 5
6
= cos 1 1
4
+ 2k⇡, k 2 Z
5 cos 1 ( 14 )+2k⇡
t= 6
+ 4
⇡
5
In this family of solutions, the least positive value of t happens when
k = 0, and this is
1 1
5 cos 4
+ 2(0)⇡
t= + 4 ⇡ 1.5589.
6 5
⇡
• 4
5
⇡ t 5
6
= 2⇡ cos 1 1
4
+ 2k⇡, k 2 Z
5 2⇡ cos 1 ( 4)
1
+2k⇡
t= 6
+ 4
⇡
5
Here, the least positive value of t happens when k = 1, and this is
1 1
5 2⇡ cos 4
+ 2( 1)⇡
t= + 4 ⇡ 0.1078.
6 5
⇡
Therefore, the first time that the displacement of the weight is 5 cm below
its central position is at about 0.1078 seconds.
(2) The minimum value of f (t) happens when and only when the minimum
value of cos 45 ⇡ t 56 is reached. The minimum value of cos 45 ⇡ t 56 is
1, which implies that the farthest point the weight can reach below its
central position is 20 cm. Thus, we need to solve for all values of t such that
cos 45 ⇡ t 56 = 1.
cos 45 ⇡ t 5
6
= 1
4
5
⇡ t 5
6
= cos 1 ( 1) + 2k⇡, k 0
4 5
5
⇡ t 6
= ⇡ + 2k⇡
5 ⇡+2k⇡ 25
t= 6
+ 4 = 12
+ 52 k
⇡
5
Therefore, the weight reaches its farthest point (which is 20 cm) below its
25
central position at t = 12 + 52 k for every integer k 0. 2
Seatwork/Homework 3.8.3
245
2. Find the solutions in the interval [0, 2⇡).
Exercises 3.8
246
(c) 3 cos 2x 3 cos x = 0 Answer: 0 , 120
? (d) 6 sec2 x + 3 = 7 tan x Answer: 161.6 , 56.3
? (e) tan2 x + tan x = 6 Answer: 63.4 , 108.4
? 4. A weight is suspended from a spring and vibrating vertically according to the
equation
f (t) = 25.2 sin(3.8t 2.1),
where f (t) centimeters is the directed distance of the weight from its cen
tral position at t seconds, and the positive distance means above its central
position.
(a) Find the times when the weight is at its central position.
Solution. We solve the equation f (t) = 0.
sin(3.8t 2.1) = 1
3⇡
3.8t 2.1 = + 2k⇡ where k is a whole number
2
3⇡+4k⇡
2
+ 2.1
t = where k is a whole number
3.8
(3 + 4k)⇡ + 4.2
t = where k is a whole number
7.6
t ⇡ 1.79 + 1.65k where k is a whole number
Therefore, the weight reaches it farthest point below the central position
at t ⇡ 1.79 + 1.65k seconds (where k is a whole number). For instance,
at t = 1.79 s, t = 3.44 s, t = 5.09 s, etc.
247
? 5. The finance department of a car company conducted a study of their weekly
sales in the past years, and came out with the following approximating func
tion:
s(t) = 12.18 cos(0.88t 7.25) + 20.40, t 0,
where s(t) represents weekly car sales in million pesos at week t (t = 0 repre
sents the start of the study).
The weekly sales of the car company at the start of the study is approx
imately 27.32 million pesos.
(b) Find the projected maximum and minimum weekly sales of the company.
Solution. The projected maximum and minimum weekly sales of the
company are attained when the cosine values are 1 and 1, respectively.
Thus, the maximum weekly sales is 12.18 + 20.40 = 32.58 million pesos,
and the minimum weekly sales is 12.18 + 20.40 = 8.22 million pesos.
(c) If the company were able to reach its maximum sales this week, when
will the next projected maximum weekly sales and upcoming projected
minimum weekly sales be?
Solution. The next projected maximum weekly sales will be attained after
2⇡
one period. That is, P = 0.88 ⇡ 7.14. Hence, if the company were able
to reach its maximum sales this week, then the next projected maximum
weekly sales will be after about 7 weeks.
On the other hand, the upcoming minimum weekly sales is projected after
half the period. That is, 12 P = 12 0.88
2⇡
⇡ 3.57. Hence, if the company were
able to reach its maximum sales this week, then the upcoming projected
minimum weekly sales will be after about 3.5 weeks.
(d) After the start of the study, when did the company experience a weekly
sales of only 10 million for the first time?
Solution. Here, we want to solve s(t) = 10 for the least nonnegative value
of t.
248
We get
✓ ◆
520
0.88t 7.25 = cos 1
+ 2k⇡, k 2 Z =) t ⇡ 11.19 + 7.14k
609
or
✓ ◆
1 520
0.88t 7.25 = cos + 2k⇡ =) t ⇡ 5.29 + 7.14k.
609
and
R(t) = 2.6 + 1.82 cos(0.52t 7.25),
where C(t) and R(t) are the costs and revenues in million of pesos at month t
(t = 0 represents January 2010). About how many months after January 2010
did the company experience a zero profit for the first time?
Solution. The profit is zero when the revenue is the same as the cost.
249
Solution.
2
cos 2x =
3
2
cos2 x sin2 x =
3
2
(cos x + sin x)(cos x sin x) =
✓ ◆ 3
1 2
(cos x + sin x) =
2 3
4
cos x + sin x =
3
16 sin4 x + 1 =8 sin2 x
16 sin4 x 8 sin2 x + 1 =0
(4 sin2 x 1)2 =0
4 sin2 x 1 =0
1
sin x = ±
2
5⇡ ⇡
x = ± ,±
6 6
Solution.
⇣⇡ ⌘ ⇣⇡ 3 ⌘
sin + ✓ + sin ✓ =
3 3 8
⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ 3
sin cos ✓ + cos sin ✓ + sin cos ✓ cos sin ✓ =
3 3 3 3 8
⇡ 3
2 sin cos ✓ =
3 8
p 3
3 cos ✓ =
8
p !
1 3
✓ = cos
8
250
10. In 4ABC, angles A and B (in degrees) satisfy
Prove that C = 30 .
Solution. (
3 sin A + cos B = 3
3 cos A + sin B = 2
Square both equations:
(
9 sin2 A + 6 sin A cos B + cos2 B = 9
9 cos2 A + 6 cos A sin B + sin2 B = 4
9 + 6 sin(A + B) + 1 = 13
6 sin(A + B) = 3
1
sin(A + B) =
2
A + B = 30 , 150
Lesson Outline
(1) Polar coordinate system: pole and polar axis
251
(2) Polar coordinates of a point and its location
(3) Conversion from polar to rectangular coordinates, and vice versa
(4) Simple graphs and applications
Introduction
Twodimensional coordinate systems are used to describe a point in a plane.
We previously used the Cartesian or rectangular coordinate system to locate a
point in the plane. That point is denoted by (x, y), where x is the signed dis
tance of the point from the yaxis, and y is the signed distance of the point
from the xaxis. We sketched the graphs of equations (lines, circles, parabolas,
ellipses, and hyperbolas) and functions (polynomial, rational, exponential, log
arithmic, trigonometric, and inverse trigonometric) in the Cartesian coordinate
plane. However, it is often convenient to locate a point based on its distance
from a fixed point and its angle with respect to a fixed ray. Not all equations
can be graphed easily using Cartesian coordinates. In this lesson, we also use
another coordinate system, which can be presented in dartboardlike plane as
shown below.
252
In the polar coordinate system, a point is described by the ordered pair (r, ✓),
where the radial coordinate r refers to the directed distance of the point from the
pole and the angular coordinate ✓ refers to a directed angle (usually in radians)
from the polar axis to the segment joining the point and the pole.
253
Example 3.9.1. Plot the following points in one polar plane: A(3, ⇡3 ), B(1, 5⇡
6
),
7⇡ 19⇡ 7⇡ 17⇡ 17⇡ 5⇡
C(2, 6 ), D(4, 12 ), E(3, ⇡), F (4, 6 ), G(2.5, 4 ), H(4, 6 ), and I(3, 3 ).
Solution.
As seen in the last example, unlike in Cartesian plane where a point has a
unique Cartesian coordinate representation, a point in polar plane have infinitely
many polar coordinate representations. For example, the coordinates (3, 4) in
the Cartesian plane refer to exactly one point in the plane, and this particular
point has no rectangular coordinate representations other than (3, 4). However,
the coordinates (3, ⇡3 ) in the polar plane also refer to exactly one point, but
this point has other polar coordinate representations. For example, the polar
coordinates (3, 5⇡3
), (3, 7⇡
3
), (3, 13⇡
3
), and (3, 19⇡
3
) all refer to the same point as
⇡
that of (3, 3 ).
254
Figure 3.36
Solution. As described above, a polar point with negative radial coordinate lies
on the opposite ray of the terminal side of ✓.
255
Points in Polar Coordinates
Seatwork/Homework 3.9.1
1. Plot the following points in one polar plane:
⇡
A(2, 2
) B(3, 7⇡
4
) C(4, ⇡
6
)
4⇡
D(2, 3
) E( 4, ⇡4 ) F (1, 41⇡
12
)
2⇡ ⇡ 11⇡
G( 3, 3
) H( 4, 12
) I( 2, 2
)
Answer:
2. Give the polar coordinates (r, ✓) with indicated properties that represent the
same point as the given polar coordinates.
256
(a) (2, ⇡); r > 0, 2⇡ < ✓ 0 Answer: (2, ⇡)
(b) (5, 3⇡
4
); r < 0, 0 < ✓ 2⇡ Answer: ( 5, 7⇡ 4
)
4⇡ 2⇡
(c) ( 5, 3 ); r < 0, 2⇡ < ✓ 0 Answer: ( 5, 3 )
(d) (1, 0); r < 0, 0 < ✓ 2⇡ Answer: ( 1, ⇡)
(e) (2, sin 1 (0.6)); r < 0, 2⇡ < ✓ 0 Answer: ( 2, sin 1 (0.6) ⇡)
(f) ( 3, cos 1 ( 0.4)); r > 0, 0 < ✓ 2⇡ Answer: (3, cos 1 ( 0.4) + ⇡)
We now have two ways to describe points on a plane – whether to use the Carte
sian coordinates (x, y) or the polar coordinates (r, ✓). We now derive the conver
sion from one of these coordinate systems to the other.
We superimpose the Cartesian and polar planes, as shown in the following
diagram.
Figure 3.37
Suppose a point P is represented by the polar coordinates (r, ✓). From Lesson
3.2 (in particular, the boxed definition on page 138), we know that
x = r cos ✓ and y = r sin ✓.
Given one polar coordinate representation (r, ✓), there is only one
rectangular coordinate representation (x, y) corresponding to it.
257
Example 3.9.3. Convert the polar coordinates (5, ⇡) and ( 3, ⇡6 ) to Cartesian
coordinates.
Solution. 8
< x = 5 cos ⇡ = 5
(5, ⇡) ! ! ( 5, 0)
: y = 5 sin ⇡ = 0
Teaching Notes
One can also easily 8 p
convert the polar < x= 3 cos ⇡6 = 3 3 p
2 3 3
coordinates (5, ⇡)
( 3, ⇡6 ) ! ! ( 2
, 3
2
) 2
to its : y= 3 sin ⇡
= 3
corresponding 6 2
rectangular
coordinates ( 5, 0)
by simply plotting As explained on page 254 (right after Example 3.9.1), we expect that there
the point.
are infinitely many polar coordinate representations that correspond to just one
given rectangular coordinate representation. Although we can actually determine
all of them, we only need to know one of them and we can choose r 0.
Suppose a point P is represented by the rectangular coordinates (x, y). Re
ferring back to Figure 3.37, the equation of the circle is
p
x2 + y 2 = r 2 =) r = x2 + y 2 .
258
(x, y) ! (r, ✓)
x6=0, y6=0
p
r= x2 + y 2
y
tan ✓ = x
Example 3.9.4. Convert each Cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates (r, ✓),
where r 0.
(1) ( 4, 0) (4) (6, 2)
(2) (4, 4) (5) ( 3, 6)
p
(3) ( 3, 3) (6) ( 12, 8)
(5) ( 3, 6) in QII
p p
r = ( 3)2 + 62 = 3 5
6
tan ✓ = 3
= 2 =) ✓ = ⇡ + tan 1 ( 2) Teaching Notes
p Recall that
( 3, 6) ! 3 5, ⇡ + tan 1 ( 2) tan 1 ( 2) is in
QIV.
259
(6) ( 12, 8) in QIII
p p
r = ( 12)2 + ( 8)2 = 4 13
8 2 1 2
Teaching Notes tan ✓ = 12
= 3
=) ✓ = ⇡ + tan 3
We may also use p
✓ = tan 1 23 ⇡. ( 12, 8) ! 4 13, ⇡ + tan 1 23 2
Seatwork/Homework 3.9.2
1. Convert each polar coordinates to Cartesian coordinates.
(a) (2, ⇡) Answer: ( 2, 0)
p p
(b) (4, 3⇡
4
) Answer: ( 2 2, 2 2)
(c) (6, 3⇡
2
) Answer: (0, 6)
p
(d) ( 2, 2⇡3
) Answer: (2, 3)
p
(e) ( 4, 7⇡6
) Answer: (2 3, 2)
p
(f) ( 3, 2⇡
3
) Answer: ( 32 , 3 2 3 )
p
(g) (1, sin 1 ( 1
3
)) Answer: ( 2 3 2 , 1
3
)
1 4 6 8
(h) ( 2, tan 3
) Answer: ( 5
, 5
)
2. Convert each Cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates (r, ✓), where r 0.
(a) (0, 6) Answer: (6, ⇡2 )
p
(b) (3, 3) Answer: (3 2, ⇡4 )
p
(c) ( 3 3, 3) Answer: (6, 5⇡
6
)
p
(d) ( 1, 3) Answer: (2, 4⇡
3
)
p
(e) (1, 4) Answer: ( 17, tan 1 4)
p
(f) ( 2, 4) Answer: (2 5, ⇡ + tan 1 ( 2))
p
(g) ( 6, 2) Answer: (2 10, ⇡ + tan 1 13 )
p
(h) ( 1, 1) Answer: ( 2, 3⇡4
)
260
Graph of a Polar Equation
The polar graph of an equation involving r and ✓ is the set of all
points with polar coordinates (r, ✓) that satisfy the equation.
Example 3.9.5. Identify the polar graph of r = 2, and sketch its graph in the
polar plane.
261
graph of ✓ = 5⇡ 4
is a line passing through the pole and with angle 5⇡
4
with
respect to the polar axis, as shown below.
Example 3.9.7. Identify (and describe) the graph of the equation r = 4 sin ✓.
Solution.
r = 4 sin ✓
r2 = 4r sin ✓
x2 + y 2 = 4y
x2 + y 2 4y =0
x2 + (y 2)2 =4
Therefore, the graph of r = 4 sin ✓ is a circle of radius 2 and with center at (2, ⇡2 ).
262
? Example 3.9.8. Sketch the graph of r = 2 2 sin ✓.
⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ 2⇡ 3⇡ 5⇡
x 0 6 4 3 2 3 4 6
⇡
r 2 1 0.59 0.27 0 0.27 0.59 1 2
7⇡ 5⇡ 4⇡ 3⇡ 5⇡ 7⇡ 11⇡
x 6 4 3 2 3 4 6
2⇡
r 3 3.41 3.73 4 3.73 3.41 3 2
263
(2) We construct a table of values.
⇡ ⇡ ⇡ ⇡ 2⇡ 3⇡ 5⇡
x 0 6 4 3 2 3 4 6
⇡
r 4 3.46 2.83 2 0 2 2.83 3.46 4
From the table, the microphone is most sensitive to sounds coming from
angles ✓ = 0 and ✓ = ⇡, and least sensitive to sound coming from an angle
✓ = ⇡2 . 2
Seatwork/Homework 3.9.3
1. Identify (and describe) the graph of each polar equation.
(a) ✓ = 2⇡
3
2⇡
Answer: Line passing through the pole with angle 3
with respect to the
polar axis
(b) r = 3
Answer: Circle with center at the pole and of radius 3
(c) r = 2 sin ✓
Answer: Circle of radius 1 and with center at (1, ⇡2 )
(d) r = 3 cos ✓
Answer: Circle of radius 1.5 and with center at (1.5, 0)
(e) r = 2 + 2 cos ✓ Answer: A cardioid
264
2. Sketch the graph of each polar equation.
(a) r = 3
(b) r = 2 sin ✓
(c) r = 2 + 2 sin ✓
265
(d) r = 4 cos ✓
266
(b) Sound coming from what angle ✓ 2 [0, 2⇡) is the microphone most sensi
tive to? Least sensitive?
Answer: Most sensitive at ✓ = 0; least sensitive at ✓ = ⇡
Exercises 3.9
A( 2, ⇡2 ) B(1, 7⇡
3
) C( 2, ⇡4 )
2⇡ ⇡
D( 3, 3
) E(4, 4
) F ( 3, 7⇡
12
)
8⇡ 11⇡
G(4, 3
) H( 2, 12
) I(1, 15⇡
2
)
Answer:
267
2. Give the polar coordinates (r, ✓) with indicated properties that represent the
same point as the given polar coordinates.
(a) ( 3, 2⇡); r > 0, 0 < ✓ 2⇡ Answer: (3, ⇡)
4⇡
(b) (10, 3
); r < 0, 0 < ✓ 2⇡ Answer: ( 10, 5⇡
3
)
3⇡ ⇡
(c) ( 4, 2
); r < 0, 2⇡ < ✓ 0 Answer: ( 4, 2
)
(d) ( 1, ⇡); r < 0, 0 < ✓ 2⇡ Answer: ( 1, ⇡)
1 2 1 2
(e) ( 2, cos 3
); r > 0, 2⇡ < ✓ 0 Answer: (2, ⇡ + cos 3
)
3. Convert each polar coordinates to Cartesian coordinates.
(a) (4, ⇡) Answer: ( 4, 0)
7⇡
p p
(b) ( 4, 4
) Answer: (2 2, 2 2)
2⇡
p
(c) (2, 3
) Answer: ( 1, 3)
(d) ( 5, 3⇡) Answer: (5, 0)
11⇡
p
(e) (8, 6
) Answer: (4 3, 4)
4. Convert each Cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates (r, ✓), where r 0
and 0 ✓2⇡.
(a) (0, 6) Answer: (6, 3⇡
2
)
p 5⇡
(b) ( 5, 5) Answer: (5 2, 4 )
p
(c) ( 2, 6) Answer: (2 10, ⇡ + tan 1 ( 3))
p
(d) (1, 4) Answer: ( 17, 2⇡ + tan 1 ( 4))
p
(e) (1, 3) Answer: (2, 5⇡
3
)
5. Identify and sketch the graph of each polar equation.
(a) ✓ = ⇡3
⇡
Answer: A line passing through the pole and with angle 3
with respect
to the polar axis
268
(b) r = 3 sin ✓
Answer: A circle tangent to the xaxis with center at (0, 1.5)
(c) r = cos ✓
Answer: A circle tangent to the yaxis with center at (0.5, 0)
(d) r = 2 2 cos ✓
Answer: A cardioid
269
(e) r = 1 + sin ✓
Answer: A cardioid
6. The graph of the polar equation r = 2 cos 2✓ is a fourpetaled rose. Sketch its
graph.
Answer:
270
? 8. Polar equations are also used by scientists and engineers to model motion of
satellites orbiting the Earth. One satellite follows the path
36210
r= ,
6 cos ✓
where r is the distance in kilometers between the center of the Earth and the
satellite, and ✓ is the angular measurement in radians with respect to a fixed
predetermined axis.
(a) At what value of ✓ 2 [0, 2⇡) is the satellite closest to Earth, and what is
the closest distance?
Answer: The satellite is closest to Earth when cos ✓ = 1, and this occurs
when ✓ = ⇡. The closest distance is, therefore, r = 636210 ( 1)
⇡ 5182.86
kilometers.
(b) How far away from Earth can the satellite reach?
Answer: The satellite can reach as far as r = 36210
6 1
⇡ 7242 km away from
the Earth.
9. The graph of the polar equation
15
r=
3 2 cos ✓
is a conic section. Identify and find its equation in rectangular coordinate
system. Answer: Ellipse, 5x2 + 9y 2 60x 225 = 0
Solution
15
r=
3 2 cos ✓
r(3 2 cos ✓) = 15
3r 2r cos ✓ = 15
p x
3 x2 + y 2 2r · = 15
p r
3 x2 + y 2 = 2x + 15
⇣ p ⌘2
2
3 x +y 2 = (2x + 15)2
9x2 + 9y 2 = 4x2 + 60x + 225
5x2 + 9y 2 60x 225 = 0
(x 6)2 y 2
+ = 1 an ellipse
81 45
271
is a parabola. Find its equation in rectangular coordinate system.
1 2
Answer: y = 4
x +1
11. For what values of ✓ 2 [0, 2⇡) will the graphs of r = 4 cos ✓ and r cos ✓ = 1
intersect? Answer: ⇡3 , 2⇡
3
, 4⇡
3
, 5⇡
3
12. Convert the polar equation
2 sin 2✓
r=
cos3✓ sin3 ✓
into Cartesian equation. Answer: x3 = y 3 + 4xy
272
References
[1] R.N. Aufmann, V.C. Barker, and R.D. Nation, College Trigonometry, Houghton
Mi✏in Company, 2008.
[2] E.A. Cabral, M.L.A.N. De Las Peñas, E.P. De LaraTuprio, F.F. Francisco,
I.J.L. Garces, R.M. Marcelo, and J.F. Sarmiento, Precalculus, Ateneo de
Manila University Press, 2010.
[5] M.L. Lial, J. Hornsby, and D.I. Schneider, College Algebra and Trigonometry
and Precalculus, AddisonWesley Educational Publisher, Inc., 2001.
[8] C. Young, Algebra and Trigonometry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
273
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