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BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO

FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

MODULE 1 - STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

TRAINER'S GUIDE
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Section 9 of the Presidential Decree No. 49 provides: “No copyright shall
subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior
approval of the government agency or office within the work is created shall
be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit.” This material has
been developed within the Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM)
project. Prior approval must be given by the author(s) or the BEAM Project
Management Unit and the source must be clearly acknowledged.

RHIZA T. ERBINA
SECONDARY SCIENCE SPECIALIST
BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO, REGION XI
Edited and produced by the Materials Development Center
Wednesday, February 15, 2006
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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

To facilitate this lesson for 5 groups, you will need the


following materials:
1 “Problem Solving Wheel of Choice” Illustration
1 “Phases of People” Illustration
5 step card game templates
5 Enlarged Sequence chart
5 sets of step cards
5 maze illustrations
2 bathroom tissues of different brands
20 rubber bands
10 identical disposable cups
5 sets of 100 marbles
5 marker pens
5 scissors
5 rolls of scotch tape
1 wall clock or wrist watch
5 sets of SAS
OHT 1 – Topic name
OHT 2 - Session Objectives
OHT 3 – Lesson Objective
OHT 4-5 - Vocabulary
OHT 6 – Trial-and Error activity sheet
OHT 7 – Sequence Chart
OHT 8 - RIBBONS

This trainer's guide hopes to help the trainer who will introduce the learning
guide. This contains speaker's notes to introduce the different stages of the
lesson, reminder to act as prompts for the things to be emphasized, activities to
be performed by the trainer and the participants, and overhead transparency
(OHT) to prompt the trainer to present it to the audience at a particular time.

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Speaker's Notes
Welcome to this module on THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD! Please go through the
outcomes that we want to achieve in this session....

OHT #1 Session Objectives

Speaker's Notes
Tell me about how you interact with your students in the classroom and how
they interact with you as well. Is that interaction helping you both in the
teaching and learning process? How? As we journey from the traditional to a
constructivist approach the relationship of teachers and students changes. Can
you name some of these changes? How would these changes be made possible?
As you face the challenge of improving the classroom atmosphere to help
facilitate learning, this module which employs a variety of strategies, has been
developed to make teaching and learning easy, fun and effective.
In this lesson you will pretend to be first year high school students while
subconsciously considering how YOU AS (trainers/ teachers), would do this with
YOUR (teacher participants/ students) in the (training of teachers/classroom).

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

OHT #2 Topic Name

Speaker's Notes
One of the most important variables in learning is student's prior knowledge.
Learning can be easily facilitated when we relate the new information, or
concepts, to what we already know (constructivism theory). According to Jim
Cummins, “activating prior knowledge is like preparing the soil before sowing
the seeds of knowledge”.
To activate prior learning of students, the “Call out” strategy is employed
where the teacher collects all possible ideas about problems that students
encounter at home.

Ask students about problems they encountered at home and let


them record some on the board.

Activity 1 Call Out Strategy (5 min)


What are some of the problems you encountered
at home?
________________ ___________________ ________________
________________ ___________________ ________________

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Speaker's Notes
Thank you for your responses! Indeed we can't get away from problems.
In fact they are considered as “spices of life”. Now, look at these
illustrations and choose which one you often do when you have
problems.

Show the “Wheel of choice” or the “Phases of People” and


ask them to choose which one they most often do when they
have problems.

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

PROBLEM-SOLVING WHEEL OF CHOICE

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

PHASES OF PEOPLE

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Activity 2 “Pick Your Choice” (5 min)


The 2 illustrations will be shown and students will choose which one
they most often do when they face problems.

Speaker's Notes
So what can you say about the two illustrations presented? Did
they offer you new ideas? What are those? In this lesson let us try
to solve problems the way scientists do while trying to achieve this
objective.

OHT #3 Lesson Objective

Speaker's Notes
The following scientific terms are used in this lesson:

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

OHT 4 Vocabulary (1)

OHT 5 Vocabulary (2)

Speaker's Notes
Now that you are aware of the targeted outcome let's now move on to the next
activity where you will be working scientifically in trying different approaches
to solve a problem using the materials given. This is called trial-and-error
where one tries an option to see if it works. If it works, then that is the
solution. If it doesn't work, there is an error — then one tries another option.
Your group will be provided with a sequence chart where you will logically
arrange events, ideas or steps to solve a problem. We use it here to record the
steps you had undertaken in the trial-and-error activity.

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Prepare the materials (for 5 groups): 10 of (10cm2) bathroom


tissues of different brands,20 rubber bands, 10 identical
disposable cups, 500 marbles, 5 sequence charts, 5 marker pens
and a clock or wrist watch before starting the activity.

Activity 3
TRIAL- AND- ERROR ACTIVITY (30 min)
1. Show 2 bathroom tissues of different brands to the students.
Gather observations and possible questions about the issues.
2. Put the problem to be investigated on the chalkboard (e.g. Which
bathroom tissue is stronger—Brand X or Brand Y?)
3. Solicit possible answers to the problem or question.
4. Instruct all groups to write their responses on the meta cards to be
posted on the board.

Present and discuss OHT #6 (Trial-and-Error Activity)

Distribute the needed materials for each group: 2 of (10cm2 )


bathroom tissues of different brands, 2 identical disposable cups, 4
rubber bands, 1 sequence chart, 1 marker pen. Give each group
enough time to plan and conduct a simple experiment to test their
hypothesis. Give 25 minutes for the activity.

Emphasize that steps undertaken and data gathered must all be


recorded in the sequence chart (Show OHT # 7). Give 5 minutes for
this activity.

The following roles are suggested for group members' participation:


scribe/data recorder to take down details of the whole group activity
in logical order in the sequence chart. Rows can be added to the chart
as needed, trainer to remind the group of the objectives of the
activity and set up a safe environment where members feel
comfortable to contribute ideas, especially the shy ones, time keeper
to remind the group of the time set for the activity, procurer to get
the materials for the whole group, rapporteur to explain the
information needed during the discussion, and all members will serve
as observers.

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

OHT #6 TRIAL-AND–ERROR ACTIVITY (1)

OHT #7 SEQUENCE CHART

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

SEQUENCE CHART
Problem Which bathroom tissue is stronger – Brand x or y?

Hypothesis

Steps

Data presentation Tissue Brands X Y


Trial 1 2 3 4 Ave 1 2 3 4 Ave

No. of coins

How did you perform


a fair test?

Was your experiment


successful?
Why or why not?

Based on your data,


what did you find out?

How can you make


your work easy and
fast?

**The notes below should only be delivered after the conduct of the
trial-and-error activity.

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Speaker's Notes
Science is a process in which experiments are used to answer questions.
Scientists may try many different experiments before they become successful.
In conducting an investigation, conclusions are not made in haste but a process
should be undertaken to accurately arrive at an answer. In this activity you have
experienced how to work like little scientists — trying options to find an answer
to your question.
For that scientific endeavor, turn to the person next to you. Tap his/her
shoulder and whisper ”you are a scientist”! Do you know why? Let's find out how
you worked as a scientist by reviewing the steps of the scientific method and
relating them to the task just performed.

Let all groups post the sequence charts on the wall. Distribute the
printed steps of the scientific method. Ask them to label their
sequence chart using the printed steps of the scientific method.

Activity 4 “Label Me” (5 min)

Students label their sequence charts with the printed steps of the
scientific method.

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD


DEFINING A PROBLEM

FORMULATING HYPOTHESIS

DESIGNING A PROCEDURE TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS

COLLECTING DATA AND PRESENTING THEM IN APPROPRIATE FORMAT

MAKING GENERALIZATION / CONCLUSION

IDENTIFYING LIMITATIONS AND MAKING RECOMMENDATIONS

Speaker's Notes
Well done! Now that you are aware of how problems are solved using the steps
of the scientific method, lets try to test your knowledge in this fun and
interesting “maze” activity.
Help the boy find out which brand of detergent bar is more effective by
considering the logical steps of the scientific method. You can choose between
option 1 (step cards) and option 2 (maze).

FOR OPTION 1: Give a complete set of cards to each group. Get the
students to decide which cards belong in each of the 6 steps of the
Scientific Method and get them to place the cards in the appropriate
place on the template provided.

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Activity 5a-1 Step Cards (5 min)

Each group arranges the steps by placing the step cards chronologically on
the scientific method template.

STEPS O F TH E SCIENTIFIC METH O D TEMPLATE

1-PROBLEM 2-OBSERVATION 3-HYPOTHESIS

6-CONCLUSION 5-DATA ANALYSIS 4-EXPERIMENTATION

STEP CARDS

Don't use water Which brand of


Stain should not T-shirt A is new detergent bar is
and detergent
be used T more effective?
bar
A
D S
Same kind and
amount of stain The 2 new shirts
Wash 2 new
Both brands are will be used on 2 should not be
shirts with Brand
advertised on TV new white shirts equally stained
A only
of the same brand
C U N
E
Which brand is
cheaper? Brand A removed Brand A is more
F Brand A is more 90% of the stain effective than Brand
effective than while Brand B B, or Brand B is
Brand B removed only 50% more effective than
Who owns the
of it Brand A
shirt? B
R P
M

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SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

For option 1:Make a step card table onto the chalkboard. Ask them to
place the letter on each step card in the appropriate box

For option 2: Provide each group with a step card table for them to
complete. At a given signal, all group scribes will show their step card
tables at the same time.

Activity 5a-2 Step Card Table (2 min)

Students will place the letter on each step card on the appropriate box.
STEP CARD TABLE

Step 1 2 3 4 5 6

Letter

The correct result can be easily checked by ensuring that the word spelled is SUPERB. It
means brilliant or excellent.

FOR OPTION 2: Give the maze illustration to each group and ask them
to trace the right path to solve the boy's problem.

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Activity 5b – Maze (5 min)

Using the maze activity sheet, each group will trace the right path to
help the boy find out which detergent bar is more effective.

MAZE ILLUSTRATION

Speaker's Notes

Well done! How was your journey? What helped you in finding your way out? Did
you enjoy it? Why? Now that you have experienced how to work scientifically,
would you follow the same procedure whenever you encounter problems? Why
or why not?

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Ask students to provide an explanation about their choice in handling


problems.

Speaker's Notes
Your varied responses are highly appreciated. Thank you very much! Let's give
everyone a round of applause!
Though there are many ways to solve our problems there is always a need to
consider the best way. The scientific method allows the brain the process of
thinking through the possible solutions to a problem and testing each possibility
to find the best solution. Do not follow the Phase I people -stressed by problems
or the Phase III people –who refuse to face their problems. Be one of those
Phase II people who look at problems as a way of finding new opportunities to
grow. In our country today, even in our own community conflicts are evident
due to lack of scientific temper—the attitude of being rational, considering all
factors, testing possible solutions before arriving at decisions.

Speaker's Notes
Reflection notes
You had just witnessed and personally experienced the
demonstration lesson using the constructivist approach. Let me
know some feedback or comments by responding to these questions
using the RIBBONS format. RIBBONS is formed by using letters of
the following essential evaluative concepts: ensuring student
centeRed learning,addressing dIversity, incorporating BEC,
encouraging proBlem solving, developing HOTS, involving active
learNing, and varying asseSsment practices. This has been adapted
from the BEAM-pre-service component.

Show OHT #8 and explain the meaning of RIBBONS. Distribute the


RIBBONS work sheet and facilitate discussion using the format.

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FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

OHT #8 RIBBONS

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SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Activity 6 Feedback (20 min)

These are Key Education Concepts to use when planning your lesson/unit. They
will help you develop MEANINGFUL Lessons/Unit of Work.

NAME OF UNIT: ____________________LEARNING AREA:_____________LEVEL:________

BEAM's Indicate WHICH of these Key Education What did this look like in the
Concepts you saw in this lesson? session?
7 Pre-Service
Tick or Highlight Provide a specific example for the
RIBBONS
points you have ticked
Please add others that you may have
observed
TRAINER PARTICIPANTS
(What did the (What did you as
TRAINER do— the participant do
HOW was it —HOW did you do
done?) it?)

Ensuring Student • lesson/unit is clear


CenteRed
• students' prior knowledge and
Learning
experiences are determined and
taken into account when planning
and teaching
• needs, abilities and interests of
learners are considered
• learning styles are taken into
account
• active participation of
students/participants in
determining their learning needs;
make decisions
• topics/examples have relevance
to the students
• teacher acts as a trainer, students
assume responsibility to learn

Addressing • terms and examples are gender


dIversity (gender inclusive or gender neutral
inclusiveness,
• examples are culture- sensitive
culture,
harmony) • local examples/materials are used

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

BEAM's Indicate WHICH of these Key Education What did this look like in the
Concepts you saw in this lesson? session?
7 Pre-Service
Tick or Highlight Provide a specific example for the
RIBBONS
points you have ticked
Please add others that you may have
observed
TRAINER PARTICIPANTS
(What did the (What did you as
TRAINER do— the participant do
HOW was it —HOW did you do
done?) it?)

• fostering respect, understanding


and tolerance (building
relationships in the classroom, by
exploring and encouraging
individual's beliefs and values)
• establishing a safe learning
environment/classroom
• modeling good practices in
diversity
• students using collaborative and
cooperative practices
• taking holistic approach (looks at
the big picture and this is evident
in the materials, the activities,
the delivery and language used)
• including strategies/content to
promote peace education
• referring to relevant internet
sites eg “access asia” (where
available)

Incorporating • Thematic approaches are planned


BEC for, integrated and modeled
• BEC content is the basis of the
lessons
• Values are integrated

Encouraging Students apply their thinking and


ProBlem Solving strategies to solve everyday problems
• problems are posed or students
identify problems, suggest
solutions, investigate possibilities,
make decisions, choose solutions;
solve the problems and evaluate
the outcome
• students identify problems
through questions (*could be
teacher or student generated)

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

BEAM's Indicate WHICH of these Key Education What did this look like in the
Concepts you saw in this lesson? session?
7 Pre-Service
Tick or Highlight Provide a specific example for the
RIBBONS
points you have ticked
Please add others that you may have
observed
TRAINER PARTICIPANTS
(What did the (What did you as
TRAINER do— the participant do
HOW was it —HOW did you do
done?) it?)

• involves a process of problem


solving (eg. Question-ideas-
conclusion-solution)
Encouraging creativity in
addressing/solving the problem/s
Involves manipulating information
(collecting and processing)
Posing challenges to students
Moving from familiar to abstract, simple
to complex
Using a variety of strategies-

Developing HOTS • Challenges are posed for


students/participants
• a variety of intelligences are
addressed
• students/participants are engaged
in a wide variety of tasks that
involve critiquing, analyzing,
synthesizing, evaluating
• students/participants are helped
to identify the type of thinking
they are doing

Involving Active • Students/participants regularly


LearNing use equipment and materials
• students/participants work in
groups
• students/participants engagement
in activities
• develop thinking skills and
thinking to be applied in other
activities
• ensuring students are aware of
the lesson's intent
• time is provided for practice and
for the application of learning

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TRAINER'S GUIDE
FIRST YEAR - SCIENCE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD — STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

BEAM's Indicate WHICH of these Key Education What did this look like in the
Concepts you saw in this lesson? session?
7 Pre-Service
Tick or Highlight Provide a specific example for the
RIBBONS
points you have ticked
Please add others that you may have
observed
TRAINER PARTICIPANTS
(What did the (What did you as
TRAINER do— the participant do
HOW was it —HOW did you do
done?) it?)

• a variety of spaces are utilized


(inside and outside the classroom)
• students/participants collect
information
• students/participants make
choices to suit how they learn
best

Varying • Assessment strategies include


AsseSsment conferencing students, observing
Practices students, as well as product
analysis (of objects and written
materials)
• students/participants have some
choice on how to demonstrate
their learning
• self-assessment, peer assessment
and teacher assessment is valid

Speaker's notes — Concluding statement


Admittedly, our students exposure nowadays is different from those students
several years ago. This change of environment poses a great challenge on the
different roles we play --- as trainers to help our teacher participants to re-
think and reflect on their current teaching and learning practices if they are
still the best and effective ones; and as teachers on how to help our students
process the information learned from school and the environment. We need to
cope with the changes around us if we should develop globally-competitive
children.
GOOD LUCK AND MORE POWER!

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