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Circular Function  Positive angle - the rotation of the ray is

Compiled by: Jhea and Analyn counter clockwise.


 The Unit Circle  Negative angle - the rotation of the ray
A unit circle is a circle whose center is at is clockwise.
the origin and with the radius equal to 1 unit.
Terminal side Terminal side
Every point on the unit circle satisfies the
equation 𝑥² + 𝑦² = 1.
Initial side
Initial side
Figure 1 Figure 2
 Angles in Standard Position

 Standard position – the vertex is at the


point of origin of Cartesian coordinate
plane and its initial side is along the
positive side of x-axis.

 Quadrantal angle – an angle in standard


Counter clockwise direction – Positive Measure position whose terminal side lies on the
of arc lengths x – or y – axis.
90° 180° 270° 360°
Figure 3 Figure 4
 Co terminal angle – are angles which
are both in standard position and have
the same terminal sides.

Positive Co-terminal:
Angle + 360°

Negative Co-terminal:
Clockwise direction – Negative Measure of arc Angle – 360°
lengths

 Some of the points on the circle on the unit  Reference angle – is the positive acute
circle are: angle formed by the terminal side of the
given angle and the x-axis.
(𝟏, 𝟎), (𝟎, 𝟏), (−𝟏, 𝟎)𝒂𝒏𝒅 (𝟎, −𝟏)

 A point is on the circle if it satisfies the


equation 𝑥² + 𝑦² = 1.
 A point is in the circle if it satisfies the
equation 𝑥² + 𝑦² < 1.
 A point is outside the circle if it satisfies Reference angle = 10°
the equation 𝑥² + 𝑦² > 1.

 Angles and Their Measurement


 Units of Angle Measure
Angle is formed by two rays with common Two units of angle measure:
endpoints.
 Initial side – one side off the angle that 1. Degree measure – developed by Babylonian
remains stationary (2000 B.C.) – based on sexagesimal numeration
 Terminal side – other side of the angle system
that rotates about the common end 1 rev=360° 1°=60’ 1’=60”
point.
 Vertex of the angle – the endpoint of 2. Radian measure
the ray.
Converting angles:  Finding the Coordinates of P(x,y)
𝜋 from Arc Length Angle
Degrees to Radians → 180 ° If the given value of the arc length, AB,
180°
corresponds to a central angle 𝜃 which is a
Radians to Degrees → multiple of 30 and 45, then we can use some
𝜋
concepts in geometry to obtain the values of 𝑥
 Arc Length and 𝑦.
Arc length is the distance between two
points on the circle. The distance between any Isosceles Triangle Scalene Triangle
two points is a real number, and then the arc 45° − 45° − 90° 30° − 60° − 90°
𝑐 = 𝑎√2 𝑐 = 2𝑎
length is real number.
𝑏 = 𝑎√3
For Example: Finding the value of 𝑃 (𝑥, 𝑦), 𝜃 = 30°

Since, 𝐶 = 2𝜋, then


2𝜋 𝜋
̂ =
𝑚 𝐴𝐵 =
4 2

Since, 𝐶 = 2𝜋, then


2𝜋
̂ =−
𝑚 𝐴𝐵 = −𝜋
2

Arc Length

𝜽
̂ =
𝒎 𝑨𝑷 𝝅𝒓
𝟏𝟖𝟎°
 Relation among Arc Length, Central 30°
̂ =
𝑚 𝐴𝑃 𝜋(1)
Angle, and Radius of a Circle 180°
𝜋
̂ =
𝑚 𝐴𝑃
On a circle radius 𝑟, a central angle θ 6
intercepts an arc whose length 𝑠 is 𝑠 = 𝑟𝜃
where θ is expressed in radians and 𝑠 and 𝑟 must
be expressed in the same unit.

Example 1: 1
On the circle of radius 20 cm, the arc 2
intercepts a central angle of 1/3 rad. What is the
arc length? √3
2

𝜋 √3 1
=( , )
6 2 2

𝜋
Finding the value of 𝑃 (𝑥, 𝑦) given 𝑃 ( ).
2

Example 2: Solution: Using Arc Length formula.


Find the central angle which intercepts a 𝜃
𝐴𝑟𝑐 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ = 𝜋𝑟
20cm arc of a circle whose diameter is 20 cm. 180°
𝜋 𝜃
= 𝜋𝑟
2 180°
180°𝜋 = 2𝜃𝑟
180° = 2𝜃
90° = 𝜃
𝑃 ( 𝑥, 𝑦) = (0,1)
Examples:
3
1. If cos 𝜃 = 5
, find the other five circular
function of 𝜃.
Solution:
To find the other circular functions of
𝜃, we use the given definition above and
Pythagorean Theorem.
3 3
Since cos 𝜃 = , then x =
5 5

Pythagorean Theorem:

𝑥2 + 𝑦2 = 1
3 2
( ) + 𝑦2 = 1
5
9
 Circular Function + 𝑦2 = 1
25
 are defined in terms of the coordinates 9
of trigonometric points on the unit 𝑦2 = 1 −
25
circle.
𝜋 𝜋 𝜋 16
 Real numbers such as 𝜋, 2 , 4 , 6 , or any √𝑦 2 = √
25
value 𝜃, is associated with ordered pairs 4
(𝑥, 𝑦). A function 𝜃 may be defined in 𝑦=±
5
terms of 𝑥 and 𝑦. 3 4
Thus, since (𝜃) = (5 , ± 5 ) , then the other
 𝑃: 𝜃 → (𝑥, 𝑦) (read as “𝑃 takes 𝜃 into (𝑥, 𝑦)”)
 The domain of the function is the set of five circular functions of 𝜃 are:
4 5
real numbers and the range is the set of 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 = ± 𝑐𝑠𝑐 𝜃 = ±
5 4
all ordered pairs such that
{(𝑥, 𝑦)|𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = 1}. 3 5
 To simplify a rather inconvenient 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 = 𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝜃 =
5 3
manner of associating real numbers with
ordered pairs, two circular functions are
4 3
defined as follows: 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃 = ± 𝑐𝑜𝑡 𝜃 = ±
3 4
𝑐𝑜𝑠: 𝜃 → 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛: 𝜃 → 𝑦
 Six Circular Functions  Six Trigonometric Functions of 𝜽
𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 = 𝑦 1 have positive and negative
𝑐𝑠𝑐 𝜃 =
𝑦 values.
𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 = 𝑥 1
𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝜃 =
𝑥
𝑦 𝑥
𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃 = 𝑐𝑜𝑡 𝜃 =
𝑥 𝑦
 Reciprocal Functions
1 1
𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 = 𝑐𝑠𝑐 𝜃 =
𝑐𝑠𝑐 𝜃 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃

1 1
𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 = 𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝜃 =
𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝜃 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃

1 1
𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃 = 𝑐𝑜𝑡 𝜃 =
𝑐𝑜𝑡 𝜃 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃

 Quotient Relation
𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃
𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃 = 𝑐𝑜𝑡 𝜃 =
𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃

 Pythagorean Relations
1. 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃 = 1
2. 1 + 𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝜃 = 𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝜃
3. 𝑐𝑜𝑡 2 𝜃 + 1 = 𝑐𝑠𝑐 2 𝜃
12
2. If sin 𝜃 = 13
and cos 𝜃 < 0 , find tan 𝜃.

 Properties of Cosine Function


1. The domain of cosine function
is {𝜃|𝜃 𝑖𝑠 𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟}, and the range is  The period of 𝑦 = 2 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 is 2𝜋.
{𝑦| − 1 ≤ 𝑦 ≤ 1}.  The maximum value is 3 which occurs at
2. The maximum value of cosine function is 1 𝜃 = 2𝜋𝑛, where 𝑛 is an integer.
and the minimum value is -1.
 The minimum value is 1 which occur at 𝜃 =
3. The maximum value of cosine function
occur when 𝜃 = 2𝑛 𝜋, where 𝑛 is an 2𝜋𝑛 + 𝜋.
integer. The minimum values occur Example 2
when 𝜃 = 2𝑛 𝜋 + 𝜋. Sketch the graph of 𝑦 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 = 2 sin 𝜃 on the
4. The cosine function is a continuous same Cartesian coordinate plane. State the period,
function. It has no break in its graph. the maximum and minimum values, and the values
5. The cosine function is periodic. Its period of 𝜃 at which the minimum and maximum values
is 2𝜋.
occur for the function 𝑦 = 2𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃.
 Properties of Sine Function
1. The domain of cosine function Solution:
is {𝜃|𝜃 𝑖𝑠 𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟}, and the range is
{𝑦| − 1 ≤ 𝑦 ≤ 1}.
2. The maximum value of sine function is 1 𝜃 0 𝜋 𝜋 3𝜋 𝜋 5𝜋 3𝜋 7𝜋 2𝜋
and the minimum value is -1. 4 2 4 4 2 4
3. The maximum value of sine function occur 0 1 0 -1 0
𝜋 √2 √2 √2 √2
when 𝜃 = 2𝑛𝜋 + , where 𝑛 is an integer. 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 − −
2 2 2 2 2
The minimum values occur when 𝜃 =
3𝜋
2𝑛 𝜋 + .
2𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 0 √2 2 √2 0 −√2 -2 −√2 0
2
4. The sine function is a continuous function.
It has no break in its graph.
5. The sine function is periodic. Its period is
2𝜋.
 Amplitude of Sine and Cosine
Function

The amplitude of 𝑦 = 𝑎 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 and


𝑦 = 𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝑖𝑠 |𝑎|.
Example 1

Sketch the graph of 𝑦 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 = 2 + cos 𝜃 on


the same Cartesian coordinate plane. State the
period, the maximum and minimum values, and the  The period of 𝑦 = 2𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 is 2𝜋.
values of 𝜃 at which the minimum and maximum  The maximum value is 2 which occurs at
𝜋
values occur for the function 𝑦 = 2 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃. 𝜃 = 2𝜋𝑛 + , where 𝑛 is an integer.
2
 When a periodic function is multiplied by a
Solution:
real number 𝑎, the amplitude of the graph
is multiplied by 𝑎.
𝜃 0 𝜋 𝜋 3𝜋 𝜋 5𝜋 3𝜋 7𝜋 2𝜋  Archimedes is the first attempt to compute the
4 2 4 4 2 4
value of 𝜋.
1 √2 0 √2 -1 √2 0 √2 1  Johann Heinrich Lambert showed that 𝜋 is
− −
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 2 2 2 2
irrational.
2 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 3 √2 2 √2 1 √2 2 √2 3  F. Lindenmann showed that 𝜋 is transcendental.
2+ 2− 2− 2+
2 2 2 2