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®

TITAN® 5500/S
High-Speed Digital Cross-Connect Systems

Technical Description

Technical Manual 76.5500/3

®
The TITAN 5500/S digital cross-connect system has been
® ®
renamed the Tellabs 5500 digital cross-connect and Tellabs
5500S digital cross-connect. This is a change in the name only.
®
You may see references to both the TITAN 5500/S digital
®
cross-connect system and the Tellabs 5500 digital
®
cross-connect and Tellabs 5500S digital cross-connect when
doing business with Tellabs. For more information, please visit
http://www.tellabs.com/products/.

Revision J2, 9/03


Copyright © 2003 Tellabs. All rights reserved.
FCC Notification Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Rules require that you be notified
Statement of the following:
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class
A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed
to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the
equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in
accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to
cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the
interference at his own expense.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by Tellabs Operations, Inc., in
writing can void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.

Industry Canada Industry Canada interference-causing equipment regulations require that you be
Notification Statement notified of the following:
This Class A digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe A est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du
Canada.

CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC)


Notification Statement regulations require that you be notified of the following:
This product complies with the limits for Class A equipment pursuant to
EN 55022. This product is intended for use only in a telecommunication center
environment. This product must not be used in a residential environment.

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Contact Information In an effort to improve the quality of this document, please notify Tellabs
Technical Assistance at 1.800.443.5555 in North America or 1.630.378.1192
outside North America if any anomalous conditions are observed.
Technical Description Contents

Contents Page
Section 1 Introduction 3-1

Section 2 System Architecture 3-3


Physical Layout .................................................................................................. 3-3
Port Rack Layout................................................................................... 3-4
Switch Network Layout.......................................................................... 3-4
Administrative Complex Layout............................................................. 3-5
Breaker/Frame Alarm Panel (B/FAP) .................................................... 3-5
System Protection .............................................................................................. 3-6
System Redundancy.................................................................................... 3-6
Remote Backup and Restore....................................................................... 3-6
Maintenance Philosophy .................................................................................... 3-6
System Health Reports (SHR)..................................................................... 3-8

Section 3 TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves 3-9


Introduction ........................................................................................................ 3-9
Definition of Terms....................................................................................... 3-9
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) ............................................... 3-9
Synchronous Transport Signal Level 1 (STS1) ..................................... 3-9
Synchronous Transport Signal Level 3 (STS3) ..................................... 3-9
STS1 Synchronous Payload Envelope (STS1 SPE)........................... 3-10
Payload Pointer ................................................................................... 3-10
Electrical Carrier Level (EC1) Interface............................................... 3-10
Optical Carrier Level 3 (OC-3)............................................................. 3-10
Optical Carrier Level 12 (OC-12)......................................................... 3-10
Virtual Tributary (VT) ........................................................................... 3-10
Tellabs Virtual Tributary (TVT) ............................................................ 3-10
Quad Tellabs Virtual Tributary (QTVT)................................................ 3-10
Floating Virtual Tributary ..................................................................... 3-10
Peripheral Communication Protocol (PCP) ......................................... 3-10
Floating VT1.5 Byte-Synchronous Mapping........................................ 3-10
Floating VT1.5 Byte-Asynchronous Mapping ...................................... 3-11
System Data Format (SDF)................................................................. 3-11
System Control Format (SCF) LAN..................................................... 3-11
Data Communication Channel LAN .................................................... 3-11
Transmux ............................................................................................ 3-11
Level II Performance Monitoring ......................................................... 3-11
Port Shelf Functions ......................................................................................... 3-12
Port Shelf Physical Design ............................................................................... 3-13
550M Double-density DS1/1 Port Shelf ..................................................... 3-13
5514DD Double-density DS1/1 Port Module (5514DDPM1D) ............ 3-13
5515DD T1 Line Interface Module (5515DD LIM1D) .......................... 3-15
5516DD DS1/1 Time Slot Interchange (5516DD TSI1D) Module ....... 3-15
Redundant Provisioning for Double-density DS1/1 Shelf Modules............ 3-16
550E DS3/STS-1E Port Shelf Optioned for DS3 ....................................... 3-18
81.5517A Enhanced DS3/1 Port Module (5517A PM31A).................. 3-18
5517B DS3/3 Port Module (5517B PM33) .......................................... 3-20
82.5517A DS3/1-3/3 Combination Port Module
(5517A PM331A).................................................................... 3-21
5517C G.747 DS3 Port Module (5517C PM331C).............................. 3-21

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-i


Technical Description Contents

Contents Page
5518 T3/EC1 Line Interface Module (5518 LIM3) ............................... 3-22
81.5519 DS3/1 Time Slot Interchange (5519 TSI31) Module ............. 3-22
81.5519A DS3/1 Time Slot Interchange (5519A TSI31A) Module ...... 3-23
Redundant Provisioning for DS3/1 and/or DS3/3 Shelf Modules .............. 3-23
550E DS3/STS-1E Port Shelf Optioned for STS-1E.................................. 3-25
81.5520 STS-1E, 82.5520 STS-1E (Enhanced) and the
81.5520T STS-1E (TMUX) Port Modules (5520 PME)........... 3-25
5518 T3/EC1 Line Interface Module (LIM3) ........................................ 3-27
5519 DS3/1 Time Slot Interchange (5519 TSI31) Module .................. 3-27
Redundant Provisioning for STS-1E Shelf Modules .................................. 3-28
550JK Configured for an OC-3 Port Shelf ................................................. 3-30
5542A/B SONET OC-3 Port Modules (5542A/B OPM3) ..................... 3-30
5544/A/B/T or 5545/A/B/T Mapping Modules
(MM3/A/B/T) ........................................................................... 3-31
5546 TSIO Time Slot Interchange Optical (5546 TSIO) Module ......... 3-34
5549 Data Communication (DCC) Processor Module
(5549 DPM) ............................................................................ 3-34
5549A Data Communication (DCC) Processor Module
(5549A DPM).......................................................................... 3-35
Redundant Provisioning for OC-3 Shelf Modules ...................................... 3-35
550K OC-12 Port Shelf or 550JK Configured for an OC-12
Port Shelf ...................................................................................... 3-37
5543A/B SONET OC-12 Port Modules (5543A/B OPM12) ................. 3-37
5544/A/B/T or 5545/A/B/T Mapping Modules
(MM3/A/B/T) ........................................................................... 3-38
5546 TSIO Time Slot Interchange Optical (5546 TSIO) Module ......... 3-39
5549 Data Communication (DCC) Processor Module
(5549 DPM) ............................................................................ 3-40
5549A Data Communication (DCC) Processor Module
(5549A DPM).......................................................................... 3-41
Redundant Provisioning for OC-12 Shelf Modules .................................... 3-41
Common Modules (Port and Switch Network Shelves) ............................. 3-43
5512A/B Group Controller Module (5512A/B GCM)............................ 3-43
82.5535 and 83.5535/A Power Supply Network/Port
(5535/A PSNP)....................................................................... 3-44
Common Functionality (Port and Switch Network Shelves) ...................... 3-44
Fault Detection and Protection Switching............................................ 3-44
Redundancy ........................................................................................ 3-45
Facility Monitoring ............................................................................... 3-45
Hard Failures....................................................................................... 3-46
Soft Failures ........................................................................................ 3-46
Audits/Diagnostics............................................................................... 3-47
Alarm Profiles ...................................................................................... 3-48
Partitioning ....................................................................................................... 3-49
Performance Monitoring High-speed Output (PMHSO) ................................... 3-50
Commanded PMHSO ................................................................................ 3-50
System Communication ................................................................................... 3-50
System Control Format (SCF) LAN Bus.............................................. 3-50
Port-to-Switch Network Optical Transmission ..................................... 3-50
System Data Format (SDF) Bus.......................................................... 3-51
Mapping Payloads Into SDF................................................................ 3-52
Quad Tellabs Virtual Tributary (QTVT) Bus ........................................ 3-52
Firmware/Software Characteristics .................................................................. 3-55
Random Access and Read Only Memory (RAM and ROM) ............... 3-55

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-ii


Technical Description Contents

Contents Page
Processing in Port Shelf Modules ....................................................... 3-55
Command Language........................................................................... 3-56
Processing in the Administrative Complex .......................................... 3-56
Software Updates................................................................................ 3-56
Remote Software Download................................................................ 3-57
Software Patch .................................................................................... 3-57
Remote File Transfer Via LAN ............................................................ 3-57
Remote Patch Activation ..................................................................... 3-57
Remote Patch Activation upon Upgrade ............................................. 3-57

Section 4 TITAN 5500/S Switch Network 3-59


Introduction ...................................................................................................... 3-59
Plan to Limit Obsolescence ....................................................................... 3-59
Network Switching Levels.......................................................................... 3-59
Switching Network Capacity Defined......................................................... 3-60
Switch Network Architecture ............................................................................ 3-60
Time Switch, Space Switch Comparison ................................................... 3-60
Switch Network Redundancy..................................................................... 3-62
Hitless Reconfiguring of Cross-connect Paths .......................................... 3-62
Rerouting to Prevent Blocking ................................................................... 3-62
Switch Network Variations ............................................................................... 3-63
DS1 Switch Configuration.......................................................................... 3-64
DS3 Switch Configuration.......................................................................... 3-64
STS-1E Switch Configuration .................................................................... 3-64
OC-3 Switch Configuration ........................................................................ 3-66
OC-12 Switch Configuration ...................................................................... 3-66
Switch Network Synchronization ...................................................................... 3-67
Intrasystem Synchronization ............................................................... 3-67
Asynchronous Operation..................................................................... 3-67
Synchronous Operation....................................................................... 3-67
Synchronization Status Messages ...................................................... 3-67
Switch Network Control .................................................................................... 3-69
System Expansion ........................................................................................... 3-70
TITAN 5500S....................................................................................... 3-70
TITAN 5500 ......................................................................................... 3-70

Section 5 TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex 3-75


Introduction ...................................................................................................... 3-75
Physical Arrangement of the Administrative Complex ..................................... 3-76
550A AC Shelf Module Complement ......................................................... 3-76
Administrative Complex Architecture......................................................... 3-78
Signal Flow Within the Administrative Complex ........................................ 3-81
Redundancy Switching Within the Administrative Complex ...................... 3-82
Active/Standby Status Arbitration Between Administrative
Complex Shelves .......................................................................... 3-83
Active/Standby Status Arbitration Between GCM Modules ....................... 3-83
External Reset of Administrative Complex ................................................ 3-83
Time-of-Day (TOD) Clock Options ................................................................... 3-84
Alarm Interface Panel....................................................................................... 3-84
Alarm Reporting......................................................................................... 3-84
Inputs for External Control by Users.......................................................... 3-85

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-iii


Technical Description Contents

Contents Page
DS1 and DS3 Test Ports ........................................................................... 3-85
Administrative Link Termination on the AIP ..................................................... 3-86
Ethernet DCC and CO LAN Termination on the AC Rack......................... 3-86
DCC Configurations ............................................................................ 3-87

Section 6 TITAN 5500/S Power Distribution 3-89


Overview .......................................................................................................... 3-89
Redundancy Strategy....................................................................................... 3-89
Power Distribution Scheme .............................................................................. 3-89
Grounding .................................................................................................. 3-89
Power Distribution...................................................................................... 3-90
Fault Location Indicators............................................................................ 3-91
Trouble Reporting via
Software Diagnostics.............................................................. 3-91
Fault Location Indicators ..................................................................... 3-91

Index 3-93

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-iv


Technical Description 1. Introduction

1. Introduction

1.01 This section provides a technical description of Tellabs’ TITAN 5500 and
5500S High-speed Digital Cross-connect Systems. For an overview of the TITAN
5500/S, with application information, refer to the General Description, 76.5500/1.
1.02 This document is updated to include all the features added to the TITAN
5500/S systems, up to and including Feature Package 8.0.x.y.
1.03 Hereafter in this document, each reference to the TITAN 5500/S should be
understood to include the TITAN 5500 and TITAN 5500S.
1.04 The TITAN 5500/S terminates OC-12, OC-3, STS-1E, DS3, and DS1
facilities, and it cross-connects them at the STS3C, STS1 SPE, DS3, E1 CST,
VT1.5, and DS1 rates. The SONET-based cross-connect system has adaptable
facility-interface capability made possible by a switch network that passes SONET
signals. The signals range from VT.5 to concatenated STS3C connections.

Figure 1.1 Typical TITAN 5500 System

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-1


1. Introduction FPlatest Technical Description

1.05 In the TITAN 5500/S family of cross-connect systems, system capacity is


determined by the number of concurrent bidirectional cross-connect paths of
System Data Format (SDF) bandwidth that can be routed through the switch
network. The SDF data rate is 62.208Mbps, which allows cross-connection of
STS1 SPE or lower-rate signals. SDF capacity is measured in SDF increments,
which are the equivalent of an STS1 or a DS3 signal.
1.06 Both the TITAN 5500 and the TITAN 5500S are configured via software
control with the TL1 command language. Both systems are compatible with remote
Operations Support Systems (OSS). Refer to the Software Release Document,
76.5500/16, of the desired feature package for a description of compatibility with
OSSs.
1.07 The TITAN 5500S and 5500 systems are virtually identical except for the
number of cross-connect paths available and the physical arrangement of the
Administrative Complex (AC) shelves and switch Network Complex (NC) shelves.
The TITAN 5500S is configured for a minimum footprint, whereas the TITAN 5500
has a larger initial footprint. Both allow for the hitless expansion of a traffic-bearing
system. The TITAN 5500S is available in the standard capacity of 128 SDF ports.
The TITAN 5500 is available in standard capacities of 256, 1024, 2048, and 3072
SDF ports, with provisions for further expansion.

Note: Beginning with FP7.0, expansion from 2048 to 3072 SDF port layouts will
require the use of 83.5524B NTDM modules on 550G shelves. However,
these 83. 5524B modules are not backwards compatible with FP6.1 and
lower loads.

1.08 In the TITAN 5500S, the AC shelves and the NC shelves are combined
into a single rack, the common equipment rack. The End Switch Modules (ESMs)
and Center Switch Modules (CSMs) are combined into a single shelf (550BC). In
the TITAN 5500, the AC shelves are provided in their own rack and the NC shelves
are provided in one or more racks. The ESMs and CSMs are separated into their
own shelves (type 550B and types 550C and 550G/GR, respectively).

Reason for Reissue


1.9 This manual is being reissued from Revision J1 to J2 to include general
formatting changes.

Page 3-2 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 2. System Architecture

2. System Architecture

Physical Layout
2.01 The TITAN 5500/S system consists of port interface equipment, switch
Network Complex (NC) equipment, and Administrative Complex (AC) equipment.
For physical divisions of the TITAN systems, refer to Figure 2.1 for the TITAN 5500
and Figure 2.2 for the TITAN 5500S. The port equipment interfaces with facilities
terminated on the system; the switch network provides a matrix for cross-con-
necting digital signals between the facilities; the AC equipment allows communica-
tion between all equipment and the personnel who administer the system.
2.02 TITAN 5500 and TITAN 5500S systems function in the same way, but they
differ physically. In the TITAN 5500S, the switch network and AC are located on
the same rack to minimize the system footprint. Refer to Figure 2.2. In the TITAN
5500, the switch network and AC are located on separate racks.

Figure 2.1 Three Physical Divisions of a TITAN 5500 System

SDF
fiber optic six async links
PORT RACKS LINKS SWITCH ADMIN
FACILITIES two X.25 links
(FACILITY INTERFACE) NETWORK COMPLEX
two X802.3 links

SCF LAN BUSES

10Mbps Data Communication Channel LAN to optical port shelves only

Figure 2.2 Two Physical Divisions of a TITAN 5500S System


COMMON EQUIPMENT RACK
six async links
two X.25 links
ADMINISTRATIVE
COMPLEX two X802.3 links

SDF
PORT RACKS fiber optic
FACILITIES (FACILITY INTERFACE) LINKS SWITCH NETWORK

SCF LAN buses

10Mbps Data Communication Channel LAN to optical

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-3


2. System Architecture Technical Description

2.03 All equipment is mounted in standard, 26-inch wide unequal-flange equip-


ment racks with 23-inch wide (nominal) mounting centers. Regardless of rack
height, all equipment is mounted below the 7-foot level. The following types of port
shelves are currently available:
• The 81.0550K (550K) OC-12 shelf interfaces with one working and
one protection SONET OC-12 optical facility. The 550K shelf cross-
connects at STS3C, DS3 (STS1 SPE), and DS1 (VT1.5) rates.

• The 81.0550JK (550JK) OC-3/OC-12 shelf, which can be converted


from an OC-3 to an OC-12 shelf, terminates either up to four working
and four protection SONET OC-3 optical facilities or one working and
one protection SONET OC-12 optical facilities. The 550JK shelf cross-
connects at STS3C, DS3 (STS1 SPE), and DS1 (VT1.5) rates.

• The 82.0550E (550E) DS3/STS-1 shelf, when optioned for STS-1E,


interfaces with 16 SONET EC1 (STS-1E) facilities and cross-connects
at DS3 (STS1 SPE) and DS1 (VT1.5) rates.

• The 82.0550E (550E) DS3 shelf, when optioned for DS3, interfaces
with 16 DS3 facilities and cross-connects at DS3/STS-1 (STS1 SPE),
E1 CST, and/or DS1 (VT1.5) rates.

• The 81.0550M (550M) double-density DS1 shelf interfaces with 224


DS1 facilities and cross-connects at the DS1 (VT1.5) rate.

Port Rack Layout 2.04 Port racks contain up to four shelves of port modules per rack. Any
combination of metallic-facility and optical-facility port shelves within the same rack
is possible. For TITAN systems designated up to 3072 SDFs, the maximum
number of usable port shelves is 254.

Switch Network Layout 2.05 Each switch network copy of a 256-port capacity system consists of 1
Center Switch Shelf (CSS) and 1 End Switch Shelf (ESS). Because duplicate
switch networks (copy A and copy B) are provided for redundancy, there is a total
of two CSSs and two ESSs per system.
2.06 For a nonexpandable 256-port system, both switch network copies (a total
of 2 CSS shelves and 2 ESS shelves) are provided in the same rack. For an
expandable 256 SDF port system, each switch network copy (1 CSS shelf and 1
ESS shelf) is provided in its own rack, and 2 additional, vacant racks are provided
for expansion.
2.07 When the system is expanded to a 1024-port system, 2 ESSs and 1 CSS
are added to each of the vacant racks, and 1 ESS is added to each of the populated
racks (for a total of 8 additional shelves). For additional information on expansion,
refer to System Expansion, page 3-70.
2.08 Each switch network of a 2048-port system consists of 2 copies (copy NC-
A and copy NC-B), providing redundancy. Each copy has 4 racks populated with 1
control CSS, 3 other CSSs, and 8 ESSs, for a total of 12 shelves per copy.
2.09 Each switch network of a 3072-port system consists of 2 copies (copy NC-
A and copy NC-B), providing redundancy. Each copy has 4 racks populated with 1
control CSS, 3 other CSSs, and 12 ESSs, for a total of 16 shelves per copy.

Page 3-4 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 2. System Architecture

Administrative Complex 2.10 The Administrative Complex (AC) consists of two AC shelves (AC- A and
Layout AC-B), an Alarm Interface Panel (AIP), and an optional modem shelf equipped with
telephone-type modems and/or DDS-type Data Service Units (DSUs). This equip-
ment is provided in a single equipment rack that serves all systems, regardless of
port capacity. The modem shelf is not an option for the TITAN 5500S system.

Note: The above product has been Manufacturer Discontinued by Tellabs.

2.11 The AC rack contains six RS-232-C serial ports that interface with ASCII
input/output terminal devices, which form the man-machine interface. Two addi-
tional ports pass data in the synchronous X.25 protocol to permit interfacing with
Operations Support Systems (OSS). Three additional redundant 10Mbps Ethernet
Central Office (CO) LAN interfaces are optional.

Breaker/Frame Alarm Panel 2.12 Each rack in a TITAN 5500/S system has a Breaker/Frame Alarm Panel
(B/FAP) (B/FAP) located at the top. This B/FAP protects and distributes office battery power
to all equipment in the rack. It displays individual faults within its rack by lighting
LEDs contained on its panel. Each shelf in every rack has two power supply
modules that convert the office battery voltage to the various voltage levels
required by the circuit modules of the system.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-5


2. System Architecture Technical Description

System Protection

System Redundancy
2.13 Every subsystem in the TITAN 5500/S has sufficient redundant equipment
to meet system reliability requirements. Each port shelf is designed with redundant
equipment: Port Modules (PMs) and Group Controller Modules (GCMs). The
system automatically switches to the redundant modules in the case of failure. Two
copies of the switch network are provided for redundancy, and both are on line
simultaneously. The system contains two copies of the AC shelf for redundancy.
The mass storage magnetic memory in the standby AC shelf is continuously
updated to agree with its counterpart in the active AC shelf. Each equipment rack
is also supplied by redundant power feeds, and each shelf is provided with load-
sharing power supply modules that can supply power to the entire shelf if the other
member of the pair fails.

Remote Backup and Restore


2.14 The Remote Backup and Restore (RBR) feature provides the capability to
backup or restore critical NE data and program files via a remote server over an IP
network. The remote backup feature enables users to perform data backups
without having to physically transport a Single Removable Media (SRM) from a site
for storage at a remote location. The remote restore feature provides an additional
safeguard for disaster recovery in the case of a catastrophic event.
2.15 A remote backup can be performed manually or at regularly scheduled
intervals using a TL1 command. A remote restore can be performed using TL1
commands or Utility Mode (UM).

Note: For more information on the Remote Backup feature, refer to Performing
Data Backups in the Maintenance Manual, 76.5500/24; for more informa-
tion on the Remote Restore feature, refer to Restoring the System in the
Troubleshooting Manual, 76.5500/29.

Maintenance Philosophy
2.16 The maintenance philosophy adopted for the TITAN 5500/S calls for
sufficient redundancy to minimize service interruptions that may result from equip-
ment failures. This redundancy is supplemented by a rapid approach to fault-
locating that permits timely repairs before a possible second failure causes a
service interruption. To this end, ample service indicators are featured on a central
Alarm Interface Panel (AIP), and fault LEDs are located on the B/FAP at the top of
each equipment rack and on the front panel of every plug-in module containing
active circuitry. An extensive Troubleshooting Manual, 76.5500/29, and Mainte-
nance Manual, 76.5500/24, also help to ensure quick repairs of potential service-
affecting problems and to maintain the health of the system.
2.17 Field-level troubleshooting and repair is facilitated through the replace-
ment of plug-in modules, connectorized intra- and inter-rack cabling, and installer-
provided wire wrap cabling. Spare modules should be held in reserve, in types and
quantities required by current system provisioning, to permit normal operations to
continue while bad circuit modules are repaired or replaced.

Page 3-6 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 2. System Architecture

2.18 In each TITAN 5500/S system, the Group Controller Module (GCM) in
each copy of the switch network and the active GCM in each port shelf perform an
equipage audit every few seconds, during which each GCM verifies the health of
every plug-in module. Any detected faults are reported to the active AC, which ini-
tiates automatic recovery processes and alerts craft personnel via the office alarm
system. Aisle and rack visual alarm indicators guide craft personnel to the approx-
imate location, and a fault LED lights on the front panel of the affected module. In
addition, all in-service administrative terminals print an autonomous message
stating the time of the alarm report, the name and location of the affected module,
and the nature of the problem. If necessary, craft personnel can supplement an
autonomous printout by commanding displayed responses to various queries
aimed at isolating the cause. This approach is especially helpful when trouble-
shooting the malfunctioning module.
2.19 Since the responsibility of performing audits and diagnostics throughout
the system is given to microprocessors, their integrity is verified on a continuous
basis. The microprocessor, in every circuit module where one exists, is continually
tested for normal operation via the use of a watchdog timer. The affected modules
include the following:
• System Processor Modules (SPMs, APM functionality) in both AC
shelves

• System Processor Modules (SPMs, CPM functionality) in both AC


shelves when configured for DCC

• Group Controller Modules (GCMs) in both switch network copies

• Group Controller Modules (GCMs) in each port shelf


• Data Communication Channel (DCC) processor modules in each
optical port shelf when configured for DCC

• Port Modules (PMs) in each port shelf

2.20 The watchdog timer provides a repeating window of time during which it
can be reset by its associated microprocessor. When a microprocessor fails to
reset its watchdog timer, the watchdog forces the microprocessor to reinitialize. In
all cases, the redundant module automatically assumes control and continues
execution of the failed module’s function. Failed traffic-bearing modules are
switched out hitlessly in the port complexes or switch networks. In turn, the system
responds by activating a system-level alarm that can be sounded to alert mainte-
nance personnel to a failure condition that may require their attention.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-7


2. System Architecture Technical Description

Note 1: Beginning with FP7.0, the 5501C System Processor Module (SPM) is
required for use in the Administrative Processor Module (APM) slot (#4)
of the 550A Administrative Complex (AC) shelf. Also, either the 5501B
SPM or 5501C SPM can be used in the Communications Processor
Module (CPM) slot (#3) of the 550A AC shelf. For systems running
FP6.1, the 5501C SPM can be used in either APM or CPM slots. How-
ever, for systems running FP6.0, the 5501C SPM is not supported in
either the APM or CPM slot.

Note 2: The 81.5501C cannot be used in a TITAN 5500 system running FP6.0
or lower loads. If the 81.5501C SPM is inserted into a system running
FP6.0, the module will reset and the following error message will appear:
"The 81.5501C SPM is not supported on a FP6.0 system. Remove this
card and insert an 81.5501B."

The 81.5501C SPM will then freeze and its fault LED will light. Once the
81.5501C SPM is removed from the FP6.0 system, it will be fully func-
tional in a system running FP6.1 or higher loads.

System Health Reports (SHR)


2.21 The System Health Report (SHR) feature helps to manage the health of
the TITAN 5500/S system. The SHR can be scheduled and retrieved, via TL1 com-
mands, to provide alarm annunciations and clears as well as general system infor-
mation on up to 12,000 AID/alarm type combinations residing on the TITAN
5500/S system.
2.22 The SHR provides information for 24-hour periods, from midnight to mid-
night, based on the TITAN 5500/S time stamp. This information is stored on non-
volatile memory for 30 days, and the report for any of the past 30 days can be
printed at any time. The SHR can be scheduled to print on a daily basis to aid in
preventative maintenance; or it can be printed on demand, such as during an
outage, to aid in identifying any failed equipment.
2.23 The information contained in the SHR is divided into three sections: the
header, the body, and the footer. The header contains information pertaining to the
state of the TITAN 5500/S at the beginning of a collection period. The body con-
tains information pertaining to events that occur during the collection period and
standing alarms. The footer contains information pertaining to the state of the
TITAN 5500/S at the end of the collection period. If an SHR is requested before the
24-hour collection period is complete, the footer will contain information pertaining
to the state of the TITAN 5500/S at the time the request was generated.

Note: For additional information on the System Health Report (SHR) feature,
refer to Setting Up and Retrieving System Health Reports in the Mainte-
nance Manual, 76.5500/24.

Page 3-8 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

Introduction
3.01 The architecture of the TITAN 5500/S facility port shelves is described in
this section. Each facility port shelf performs the following functions:
• contains the port modules on which facilities are terminated

• contains the ancillary modules that distribute switch network and


administrative control processes and provide power

These modules include time slot interchangers, group controllers,


power supplies, and, for optical port shelves, SONET signal mapping
modules and DCC processor modules.
• defines bandwidths for incoming signals and maps them into the
common SDF signals of the switch network

• contains Line Interface Modules (LIMs) for terminating metallic


facilities and for connecting them to port modules

Each LIM is also responsible for switching to a redundant port module


when a fault is detected in its associated port module. LIMs are not
used in optical port shelves. Each optical port shelf terminates redun-
dant facilities, permitting protection switching to include the facility.
3.02 Currently, port shelves are available for OC-12, OC-3, STS-1E, DS3, and
DS1 port modules. These shelves support their nominal interfaces to the facility,
and they allow cross-connection at the STS3C, STS1, DS3, E1 CST, VT1.5, and/
or DS1 levels. Broadband cross-connections are made at the STS3C, STS1-SPE,
and DS3 levels. Wideband cross-connections are made at the VT1.5, E1 CST, and
DS1 levels.

Definition of Terms
3.03 The following terms are defined at this point as a preface to further
descriptions:

Synchronous Optical SONET is a term generally used to refer to the rates and formats specified in ANSI
Network (SONET) T1.105-1988 and its successors. In general, SONET defines a hierarchy that pro-
vides the platform for today’s digital networks. SONET standards define both elec-
trical and optical interfaces, as well as the rates and multiplexing schemes required
to establish an entire hierarchy. SONET allows for mid-span meeting of optical
interfaces and facilitates cross-connection of embedded payloads.

Synchronous Transport STS1 refers to the first level in the SONET hierarchy. The STS1 signal has a trans-
Signal Level 1 (STS1) mission rate of 51.84Mbps. The format of an STS1 consists of 810 8-bit bytes per
frame, 8000 frames per second, and a frame duration of 125 µsec.

Synchronous Transport STS3 refers to the second level in the SONET hierarchy. It is the electrical signal
Signal Level 3 (STS3) obtained by concatenating three synchronous payload envelopes together. The
resulting rate is 155.520Mbps. STS3C refers to an STS3 signal formed by linking
three consecutive STS1 signals together in fixed phase alignment.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-9


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

STS1 Synchronous Payload STS1 SPE refers to a 125 µsec frame structure composed of STS1 Path Overhead
Envelope (STS1 SPE) and bandwidth for the payload. An STS1 SPE can contain a DS3 signal, many
Virtual Tributaries (VTs) each containing lower rate payloads such as a DS1, or any
other tributary signal that can be mapped into the STS1 SPE bandwidth of
50.112Mbps.

Payload Pointer The timing of an SPE can be slightly different than the timing of the signal (STS1
or VT) in which it is embedded. The payload pointer indicates the location of the
SPE with respect to the signal. As the location of the SPE changes, it is said to float
with respect to the reference signal.

Electrical Carrier Level (EC1) The Electrical Carrier Level (EC1) Interface is the electrical interface between an
Interface STS-1E port module and the line connecting it to the EC1 distributing frame. Its
main functions are line buildout and protection switching to the redundant port
module.

Optical Carrier Level 3 The Optical Carrier Level 3 (OC-3) refers to the optical signal that results from the
(OC-3) conversion of an STS3 or STS3C signal.

Optical Carrier Level 12 The Optical Carrier Level 12 (OC-12) refers to the optical signal that results from
(OC-12) the conversion of an STS12 signal, which may have been formed by the inter-
leaving of 12 STS1 signals or four STS3 signals.

Virtual Tributary (VT) The VT is the basic SONET-defined structure for the transport and switching of
sub-STS1-level payloads. The following levels are defined:
• VT1.5 (1.728Mbps)

• VT2 (2.304Mbps)

• VT3 (3.456Mbps)

• VT6 (6.912Mbps)

Tellabs Virtual Tributary The TVT is the Tellabs counterpart of the VT. Each TVT is capable of containing
(TVT) one SONET VT1.5 plus additional bandwidth for system overhead, and it has an
overall bandwidth of 1.944Mbps. The TVT is an intra-system format, and it is not
passed through the facility interfaces.

Quad Tellabs Virtual The QTVT corresponds to a SONET VT group and has the bandwidth of four TVTs.
Tributary (QTVT) It is capable of containing four DS1 signals or four VT1.5 signals. Like the TVT, the
QTVT is an intra-system format.

Floating Virtual Tributary The floating VT mode defines four consecutive frames (500 µsec) of the STS1 SPE
as a VT superframe, which contains VT payload pointers and VT Synchronous
Payload Envelopes (VT SPE) of various capacities. These are defined according
to their VT size. VT payloads, which may be asynchronous, are allowed to float
freely within the VT SPE capacity and to pass freely through VT SPE boundaries
into an adjacent VT SPE. This is allowed because their boundaries (the first byte
of every payload envelope) are identified by VT payload pointers.

Peripheral Communication PCP is Tellabs proprietary peripheral communication protocol used to communi-
Protocol (PCP) cate with and control switch network modules. It allows control of a non-intelligent
module by an associated group controller module.

Floating VT1.5 Byte- Each DS0 channel within a DS1 is mapped into a VT1.5 payload to provide down-
Synchronous Mapping stream network elements with direct identification and access to the 24 DS0 chan-
nels. Specific VT1.5 overhead bits are assigned to carry signaling, framing, and
phase information.

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Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

Floating VT1.5 Byte- The entire DS1 signal is treated as a clear channel signal mapped into a VT1.5
Asynchronous Mapping payload. Specific VT1.5 overhead bits are defined for stuff control, stuff opportu-
nity, and DS1 specific overhead communication.

System Data Format (SDF) SDF is an internal signal format used for buses that pass cross-connect traffic
through the switch network within the TITAN 5500/S and from the switch network
to the port racks. In addition to traffic payloads, the SDF carries timing information
and error detection/isolation channels. The data rate of the SDF signal is
62.208Mbps, arranged into 864 9-bit bytes per frame. Its 125 µsec frame length is
the same as that of an STS1. However, it contains 1 additional bit per byte and 54
additional bytes per frame to accommodate system overhead in addition to an
STS1 signal.

System Control Format SCF is a LAN signal format that is used for TITAN 5500/S intrasystem
(SCF) LAN communication at a 1Mbps rate over shielded, twisted-pair cabling. It is
responsible for distributing control information between the master processor in the
AC rack and the group controllers located in the switch network and port racks.

Data Communication The DCC LAN is a 10Mbps Ethernet bus used for routing DCC packets between
Channel LAN optical port shelves and the System Processor Modules (SPMs/ CPM functionality)
in the AC shelves via the Communication Interface Panels (CIPs).
Starting with FP6.1, distributed routing capabilities are available when the system
is equipped with 5549A DPMs. Refer to the TCP/IP and DCC Activation Manual,
76.5500/46, for possible DCC LAN configurations.

Transmux Transmux consists of the 3/1 demultiplexing of channelized DS3 payloads of


SONET signals and subsequent cross-connection at the DS1 level. All transmux
functions except cross-connection are performed within the optical port shelves by
the 5544A/T or 5545A/T modules.
For systems running FP6.1, the transmux application is available on the STS-1
550E port shelves when configured with the 81.5520T STS-1E TMUX port module.

Level II Performance Level II performance monitoring consists of near-end and far-end monitoring of
Monitoring DS1 and DS3 payloads of SONET SPE or VT1.5 signals.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-11


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

Port Shelf Functions


3.04 The facility interfaces for a DCS/EDSX are implemented via the port
modules; this is the means by which subscriber data is passed to and from the
system switch network. However, in the case of the TITAN 5500/S, the following
supporting functions also are performed by port modules or ancillary modules
located in the port shelves:
• mapping of input signals of various digital carrier formats (DS1, DS3,
SONET, etc.) into a common switchable format to allow cross-connec-
tion and subsequent output

• implementation and processing of SONET DCCs on optical port


shelves

• performance monitoring to allow line and path statistics to be gathered


and stored

• alarm processing of maintenance conditions (for example, loss of


signal, loss of frame, alarm indication signal)

• hitless upgrade to new feature packages

• automatic diagnostics for newly inserted modules

• scheduled periodic diagnostics for redundant modules

• automatic configuration upon initialization

• fault detection and redundancy switching that allows hardware failures


to be corrected automatically and in real-time

• best-byte/best-clock selection from redundant data received from


duplicate switch networks that are in-service simultaneously

• redundant provisioning and switching of all circuits within the port


shelf, including processors

3.05 The TITAN 5500/S detects all port problems as they arise and automati-
cally corrects those problems generated internally by switching to redundant equip-
ment. The detection and correction of hardware failures is handled entirely by
equipment within the port shelves, including line interface modules, time slot inter-
change modules, port modules, group controller modules, and redundant port
modules. The system does not require a reroute through the switch network to
bypass a failed port module.
3.06 The following figures show the general architecture of the port shelves and
how they relate to the rest of the system:
• 550M Double-density DS1/1 Port Shelf Architecture:
Refer to Figure 3.1, page 3-17.

• 550E DS3/STS-1E Port Shelf Architecture (shelf configured for DS3):


Refer to Figure 3.2, page 3-24.

• 550E DS3/STS-1E Port Shelf Architecture (shelf configured for


STS-1E): Refer to Figure 3.3, page 3-29.

• 550K SONET OC-12 Port Shelf Architecture:


Refer to Figure 3.5, page 3-42.

Page 3-12 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

• 550JK SONET OC-3/OC-12 Port Shelf Architecture (shelf configured


for OC-3): Refer to Figure 3.4, page 3-36.

• 550JK SONET OC-3/OC-12 Port Shelf Architecture (shelf configured


for OC-12): Refer to Figure 3.5, page 3-42.

Port Shelf Physical Design


3.07 This section describes the physical design of the various port shelves of a
TITAN 5500/S system, including a brief functional description of each component
circuit module.

550M Double-density DS1/1 Port Shelf


3.08 The 550M port shelf complex consists of the following equipment:
• four quadrants of port modules, each made up of

- seven 5514DD double-density DS1/1 (5514DDPM1D) port


modules
- one redundant 5514DD double-density DS1/1 (5514DDPM1D)
port module
- fifty-six 5515DD (5515DD LIM1D) T1 line interface modules
• two 5512A/B GCMs

• two 5516DD TSI1Ds

• two 5535/A PSNPs

3.09 The port modules in each 550M shelf are arranged in four quadrants; each
quadrant contains seven active port modules and one redundant module. Each
working module interfaces 8 T1 facilities, for a total of 224 T1 interfaces per shelf
(4 x 7 x 8= 224). Refer to Figure 3.1, page 3-17.

5514DD Double-density 3.10 The 5514DD PM1D implements the following functions within the TITAN
DS1/1 Port Module 5500/S system:
(5514DDPM1D)
• Reformatting each group of four DS1 (1.544Mbps) lines into a single
line in the QTVT format (7.776Mbps). The resulting QTVT signal con-
tains each DS1 payload with its unique asynchronous timing phase
preserved and includes pointer information that identifies the start of
each of the four payloads.

• Performance monitoring. The 5514DD PM1D provides monitoring


capability on a per-DS1 basis. This performance picture is drawn from
statistics gathered by monitoring the data bitstreams at line and
internal path terminations, and it includes framing status, BPVs, CRC-
6, and nonintrusive monitoring of the facility data link. Ranges for mon-
itors with settable maintenance and service thresholds are defined in
the TITAN 5500/S Command Reference Manual, 76.5500/13.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-13


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

• Fault Indication/Escalation (FI/FE). FI/FE provides a mechanism for


protecting dual-homed rings from a single-point failure. Fault indica-
tion uses the PDI section of the SONET overhead to indicate payload
faults. Fault escalation propagates a constituent failure by transmitting
AIS at the transport level.

• Recognition/generation of facility alarm and maintenance condition.


AIS and either framed or unframed QRSS signals are generated. DS1
yellow alarm, LOS, LOF, and BER are detected on a per-facility basis.

• Performance monitoring and alarming suspension (PASUSP).


PASUSP provisioning inhibits performance monitoring and alarm
reporting on a termination that is edited in-service before the far-end
termination is turned up. PASUSP is provided for DS1 terminations.

• Software-controlled Line Build-out (LBO) functions. Each facility inter-


face must be capable of connecting to a DSX-1 through a cable
ranging in length from 0 to 655 feet. Compensation for cable within this
range is accomplished within each 5514DD PM1D by an independent
software-controlled LBO adjustment provided for each of its DS1
interfaces.

• Best-byte, Best-clock Selection of Subscriber Data. The 5514DD


PM1Ds modules check for errors in the data bitstreams coming out of
the pair of redundant TIme SLot Interchange (TSI1D) modules. The
best byte is selected from each pair of bytes based upon the state of
the parity bit. In addition to promptly passing the selected byte, the port
module maintains a history of best-byte selections and, when required
to select between two equally valid bytes, makes the selection based
upon the better of the performance records of the two associated
TSI1Ds. Best-clock selection allows for reduced jitter and smooth
timing reference changes on the clock signal recovered from the
switch networks when switching between network copies.

• Supports the following framing modes:


- Superframe (SF)
- Extended Superframe (ESF) mode with read/write capability on
the 4kbps facility data link
- Unframed DS1 (UNF)
• DS1 Interface Loopback. Each individual DS1 interface supports its
own craft-initiated regenerative line loopback. Both incoming timing
and BPVs are passed through to the outgoing line. (A terminal loop-
back that can be set separately is also supported using the switch net-
work, in which timing and BPVs are terminated and not passed with
the data.)

Page 3-14 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

5515DD T1 Line Interface 3.11 Each LIM1D provides the physical interface to one T1 facility and the
Module (5515DD LIM1D) following functions:
• Transmit and receive redundancy relays. Each active 5514DD PM1D
contains eight DS1 ports, which connect to eight 5515DD LIM1D, each
of which contains the redundancy relays for its associated T1 facility
interface. The active 5514DD PM1Ds sense port equipment failure,
while the redundant 5514DD PM1Ds control redundancy relay
switching. The redundancy relays route data either through their
associated primary 5514DD PM1Ds or, in the case of a fault, through
their quadrant’s redundant 5514DD PM1Ds. Since both directions of
transmission are affected when a redundant port module is switched
in, two redundancy relays are provided at the interface, one each for
the transmit and the receive path.

• Redundant module switching. Each 5515DD LIM1D splits the


incoming signal and passes it onto two paths; one path leads to the
primary 5514DD PM1D, while the other leads to the input of the redun-
dant 5514DD PM1D through the redundancy relay. In the outgoing
direction, the output of the primary port module (or, alternatively, that
of the redundant module) is passed through the redundancy relay to
the T1 facility.

5516DD DS1/1 Time Slot 3.12 Each port shelf is equipped with two active 5516DD TSI1D modules, one
Interchange (5516DD TSI1D) for each switch network. While they reside with the port equipment, functionally
Module these modules implement the initial and final stages of the switch network and
serve the following purposes:
• Time Slot Interchange. The 5516DD TSI1D module primarily receives
the QTVT-formatted bitstreams from all of the 5514DD PM1Ds located
in the same port shelf and interchanges their time slot positions as
required in support of the current cross-connect map. Prior to per-
forming the TSI function, the 5516DD TSI1D assembles each shelf
quadrant’s group of 14 QTVTs to form 2 SDF signals, and then it
passes the resulting 8 SDF signals (2 from each quadrant) onto the
5509 ESM. This process is reversed for the eight SDF signals coming
into the 5516DD TSI1D from the 5509 ESM.

• Transmit and receive redundancy logic. Each 5516DD TSI1D module


is also equipped with redundancy logic in the transmit and receive
direction for each of the 56 primary and 8 redundant QTVT-port inter-
faces that it terminates. Each active 5514DD PM1D is the primary
source of sensing for its logic in the 5516DD TSI1D. Each of the four
redundant 5514DD PM1Ds becomes the source of control for one of
its associated seven active 5514DD PM1Ds when its input ports are
bridged onto those of a potentially faulty primary 5514DD PM1D
module. The redundancy logic routes data either through the primary
5514DD PM1D or, after a fault condition has been verified, through the
redundant 5514DD PM1D. Since a 5514DD PM1D contains an
interface to both a 5516DD TSI1D and an external facility (via a
LIM1D), operation of redundancy logic in the 5516DD TSI1D is
coordinated by the group controllers via the redundant port module;
the redundant port module operates the relays in the associated
LIM1D. This action creates a complete bypass after diagnostics verify
that the primary 5514DD PM1D module is faulty.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-15


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

• Optical interface to the end switch module. The 5516DD TSI1D


module receives 56 QTVT signals from (and transmits 56 QTVT
signals to) the 28 primary 5514DD PM1Ds in its shelf. These signals,
after being processed and converted to eight SDF-transmit signals
(and from eight SDF-receive signals) in the 5516DD TSI1D module,
are passed to/from the end switch rack via fiber optic cable. In pre-
paring these signals for transmission to the end switch shelf, the
5516DD TSI1D module provides a 2:1 multiplex function that causes
two SDF signals that are transmitted in the same direction to share the
same fiber in the cable (two SDF-transmit signals or two SDF-receive
signals on the same fiber). This cuts in half the number of intrasystem
cables required to connect a port rack to the end switch rack.

Redundant Provisioning for Double-density DS1/1 Shelf Modules


3.13 The 5514DD PM1D double-density modules are equipped in a 1:7 redun-
dant/active ratio. Each shelf of 28 active and 4 redundant 5514DD PM1Ds commu-
nicates with a pair of redundant 5512A/B GCMs (located within the same port
shelf), which are connected to the AC via a pair of redundant SCF LAN buses. A
pair of 5535/A PSNP modules share equally in supplying power to the shelf, but
each is able to power the entire shelf should the other fail.

Page 3-16 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

Figure 3.1 550M Double-density DS1/1 Port Shelf Architecture

GCM GCM
A B

Peripheral
UART Control
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV
LIM1D # 1
QTVT X, R, CLK, SYNC
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV
LIM1D # 2 TSI1DMODU
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV
LIM1D # 3
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV PM1D QTVT X, R, CLK, SYNC ESM
LIM1D # 4 1 SWITCH
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV eight SDFs copy A
LIM1D # 5 (two SDFs
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV per
LIM1D # 6 quadrant)
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV
LIM1D # 7
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV
LIM1D # 8

PCP
redundancy relay port µC ok UART bus
bus control signal bus

DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV
LIM1D # 49
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV
LIM1D # 50 TSI1D
MODULE B
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV
LIM1D # 51
(Common to
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV PM1D ESM
all quadrants)
LIM1D # 52 7 SWITCH
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV eight SDFs copy B
LIM1D # 53 (two SDFs
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV per
LIM1D # 54 quadrant)
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV
LIM1D # 55
DS1_IN/OUT DS1_XMT/RCV
LIM1 # 56

REDUNDANT
PM11A

ONE OF FOUR IDENTICAL


QUADRANTS

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-17


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

550E DS3/STS-1E Port Shelf Optioned for DS3


3.14 The 550E port shelf complex, when optioned for DS3, consists of the fol-
lowing equipment:
• two groups of eight DS3 port modules

• two redundant DS3 modules that provide 1:8 protection

• two groups of eight 5518 T3/EC1 Line Interface Modules (5518 LIM3)

• two 5512A/B GCMs

• two 5519/A TSI31/A modules

• two 5535/A PSNPs

3.15 Each DS3 port module provides 1 T3 facility interface, for a total of 16 T3
interfaces per shelf (2 x 8 = 16). Refer to Figure 3.2, page 3-24.

81.5517A Enhanced DS3/1 3.16 The 5517A PM31A implements the following functions when required
Port Module (5517A PM31A) within the TITAN 5500/S system:
• Transforms a single channelized DS3 signal into an SDF signal. In the
receive direction, the 5517 PM31 or 5517A PM31A converts a chan-
nelized DS3 signal into seven DS2 signals and then converts each
DS2 signal to a QTVT signal containing four TVT1.5 signals for a DS1
signal. The resulting 7 QTVT signals are then converted to a single
SDF signal containing 28 TVT1.5s, each containing a single DS1
signal. (In the transmit direction, the process is reversed.) Throughout
the process, the inherent timing of each asynchronous DS1 is main-
tained. The resulting SDF signal contains the original 28 DS1 payloads
intact, pointer information for identifying the start of the payload, and
the stuffing mechanism for mapping this signal information into the
62.208Mbps SDF format.

• Monitors facility performance. The 5517A PM31A provides diagnostic


capability on a per-DS3 basis. This determination is drawn from statis-
tics gathered by monitoring the data bitstreams at the line and internal
path terminations, as suggested by TR-TSY-000009, and it includes
loss of signal, framing status, and BPVs. Ranges for monitors with
maintenance and service thresholds that can be set are defined in the
TITAN 5500/S Command Reference Manual, 76.5500/13.
• Performance monitoring. The 5517A PM31A provides monitoring
capability on a per-DS1 basis. This performance picture is drawn from
statistics gathered by monitoring the data bitstreams at line and
internal path terminations, and it includes framing status, BPVs, CRC-
6, and nonintrusive monitoring of the facility data link. Ranges for mon-
itors with settable maintenance and service thresholds are defined in
the TITAN 5500/S Command Reference Manual, 76.5500/13.

• Monitors DS1-constituent far-end facility performance.

• Supports Fault Indication/Escalation (FI/FE). FI/FE provides a mecha-


nism for protecting dual-homed rings from a single-point failure. Fault
indication uses the PDI section of the SONET overhead to indicate
payload faults. Fault escalation propagates a constituent failure by
transmitting AIS at the transport level.

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Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

• Supports the following framing modes:


- DS1-to-DS3 multiplexing via DS2
- C-bit parity
- Unframed (UNF)
• Recognition/generation of facility alarm and maintenance conditions.
The system generates DS3, DS2, and DS1 red-alarm signals and AIS,
as well as DS3 BER service and maintenance alarms. DS3, DS2, and
DS1 yellow alarms, DS3 LOS, LOF, and BER are detected on a per-
facility basis.

• Performance monitoring and alarming suspension (PASUSP).


PASUSP provisioning inhibits performance monitoring and alarm
reporting on a termination that is edited in-service before the far-end
termination is turned up. PASUSP is supported for digroup DS1 termi-
nations, DS1 constituents of T3s, DS1s carried within synchronous
payloads, and DS3 terminations.

• Routes data bitstream onto the monitor bus. This routing function
bridges the redundant port module input path onto the receive path of
a failed port module to permit system diagnostics to make a compar-
ison of monitored performance parameters for differentiating between
internally caused and facility caused problems.

• Communicates to the group controllers. Each 5517A module has an


internal microprocessor that functions as a communications interface
to the two 5512A/B GCMs (one active and one redundant) serving its
port shelf. The 5512A/Bs are located within the port shelf and commu-
nicate with the AC via the SCF LAN.

• Supports an 1:8 redundant/active DS3 port module ratio. When a fault


appears in any active 5517A PM31A, the redundant 5517A PM31A for
that group is switched-in to take its place by the action of the 5518
LIM3 and the 5519 TSI31 module switching together on the facility
side and switch network side of the 5517A PM31A, respectively.

• Best-byte, Best-clock Selection of Subscriber Data. The 5517A


PM31A module checks for errors in the data bitstreams coming out of
the pair of redundant Time Slot Interchange (TSI31) modules. The
best byte is selected from each pair of bytes based upon the state of
the parity bit. In addition to promptly passing the selected byte, the port
module maintains a history of best-byte selections and, when required
to select between two equally valid bytes, makes the selection based
upon the better of the performance records of the two associated
TSI31s. Best-clock selection allows for reduced jitter and smooth
timing reference changes on the clock signal recovered from the
switch networks when switching between network copies.

• Performs maintenance loopback. The 5517A PM31A responds to DS2


C-bit loopback codes received through the LIM3 interface to initiate a
terminal loopback in which the receive paths of the 28 contained DS1
signals are looped back onto their transmit paths. Additionally, a
5517A PM31A can be commanded to transmit the appropriate codes
for activating loopback in the end terminal equipment. DS3 Line and
internal loopbacks and DS1 C-bit loopbacks are also performed.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-19


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

5517B DS3/3 Port Module 3.17 The 5517B PM33 implements the following functions when required within
(5517B PM33) the TITAN 5500/S system:
• Transforms a single nonchannelized DS3 signal into an SDF signal. In
the receive direction, the 5517B PM33 encodes a nonchannelized
DS3 signal within a single SDF signal to prepare it for passing through
the switch network. (In the transmit direction, the process is reversed.)
Throughout the process, the inherent timing of the asynchronous DS3
is maintained. The resulting SDF signal contains the original DS3
payload intact pointer information for identifying the start of the
payload and the stuffing mechanism for mapping this signal informa-
tion into the 62.208Mbps SDF format.

• Monitors facility performance. The 5517B PM33 provides diagnostic


capability on a per-DS3 basis. Facility performance is based upon sta-
tistics gathered by monitoring the data bitstreams at the line and
internal path terminations, as suggested by TR-TSY-000009. It
includes loss of signal, framing status, and BPVs. Ranges for monitors
with maintenance and service thresholds that can be set are defined
in the TITAN 5500/S Command Reference Manual, 76.5500/13.

• Supports Fault Indication/Escalation (FI/FE). FI/FE provides a mecha-


nism for protecting dual-homed rings from a single-point failure. Fault
indication uses the PDI section of the SONET overhead to indicate
payload faults. Fault escalation propagates a constituent failure by
transmitting AIS at the transport level.

• Recognition/generation of facility alarm and maintenance conditions.


DS3 red-alarm signals and DS3 BER service and maintenance alarms
are generated. DS3 yellow alarms, DS3 LOS, DS3 LOF, and DS3 BER
are detected on a per-facility basis.

• Routes data bitstream onto monitor bus. This routing function bridges
the redundant port module’s input ports onto the receive paths of a
failed port module to permit the system diagnostics to make a compar-
ison of monitored performance parameters for differentiating between
internally caused and facility caused problems.

• Performance monitoring and alarming suspension (PASUSP).


PASUSP provisioning inhibits performance monitoring and alarm
reporting on a termination that is edited in-service before the far-end
termination is turned up. PASUSP is supported for DS3 terminations.

• Communicates to the group controllers. Each 5517B PM33 has an


internal microprocessor that functions as a communications interface
to the two (one active and one redundant) 5512A/B GCMs serving its
port shelf. The 5512A/B GCMs are located within the port shelf and
communicate with the AC via the SCF LAN.

• Supports an 1:8 redundant/active DS3 port module ratio. When a fault


appears in any active 5517B PM33, the redundant 5517B PM33 for
that group is switched-in to take its place by the action of the 5518 LIM
and the 5519 TSI31 switching together on the facility side and switch
network side of the 5517B PM33, respectively.

• Best-byte, Best-clock Selection of Subscriber Data. The 5517B PM33


modules check for errors in the data bitstreams coming out of the pair
of redundant Time Slot Interchange (TSI33) modules. The best byte is
selected from each pair of bytes based upon the state of the parity bit.

Page 3-20 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

In addition to promptly passing the selected byte, the port module


maintains a history of best-byte selections and, when required to
select between two equally valid bytes, makes the selection based
upon the better of the performance records of the two associated
TSI31s. Best-clock selection allows for reduced jitter and smooth
timing reference changes on the clock signal recovered from the
switch networks when switching between network copies.

• Performs maintenance loopback. The 5517B PM33 responds to loop-


back codes received through the LIM3 interface to initiate a terminal
loopback in which the receive path loops back onto the transmit path.
Additionally, a 5517B PM33 can be commanded to transmit the appro-
priate codes for activating loopback in the end terminal equipment.

82.5517A DS3/1-3/3 3.18 The 82.5517A PM331A can be optioned to provide all the features and
Combination Port Module functions of either a 5517A DS3/1 module or a 5517B DS3/3 port module. As a
(5517A PM331A) DS3/1, it functions exactly as the 81.5517A. However, as a DS3/3 it provides a
DS3-intact cross-connect exactly as the 5517B, and it can therefore be used in
DS3/3 DCS/EDSX applications. The 82.5517A PM331A has the following
additional features:
• monitors DS3-intact far-end performance

• monitors DS3 (3/1 mode) far-end performance

• monitors DS1-constituent far-end performance

• provides DS3 interface loopback capability

- Each DS3 interface supports a craft-initiated regenerative line


loopback, effected through a loopback relay located in the 5518
LIM3. Both incoming timing and BPVs are transparently passed
through to the outgoing line. In addition, for channelized DS3 sig-
nals, DS2 C-Bit codes for looping DS1s and DS3 C-bit codes for
looping DS2s are responded to (and generated).

5517C G.747 DS3 Port 3.19 The 5517C PM331C provides all the features and functions of the
Module (5517C PM331C) 82.5517A DS3/1-3/3 Combination Port Module. In addition, the 5517C can provide
a combination of DS1 CST and E1 CST cross-connects simultaneously on a single
card. The DS1 CST and E1 CST cross-connects are provisioned at the DS2 level,
either as 4 DS1 CSTs or 3 EI CSTs, for a total of 28 DS1 CST terminations, 21 EI
CST terminations, or a combination of the two.
3.20 The 5517C PM331C has the following additional features:
• monitors E1 CST near-end performance

• provides PASUSP for E1 CSTs

• allows mixing of both T1 and E1 mapped DS2s within a DS3

• supports monitor, split, and loop test access for E1 CSTs and DS3s

• provides support of the partitioning feature for E1 CSTs

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-21


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

5518 T3/EC1 Line Interface 3.21 Each 5518 LIM3 terminates one T3 facility and interfaces this facility to one
Module (5518 LIM3) DS3/1 or DS3/3 port module. Each 5518 LIM3 also provides the following
functions:
• Transmit and receive redundancy switching. Each active 5517A/B/C
port module connects to a 5518 LIM3, which contains the redundancy
relays for the associated DS3 facility interface. Active 5517/A/B/Cs are
the source of port equipment failure sensing while the redundant
5517A/B/C module provides control for the redundancy switching
relays. These relays route data either through the LIM3 associated
5517A/B/C or, in the case of a fault, through the redundant 5517A/B/
C. Since both directions of transmission are affected when a redun-
dant module is switched-in, two redundancy relays are provided at the
interface, one each for the transmit and receive paths.

• T3 Line Build-out (LBO). The T3 facility interface port on each 5518


LIM3 is provided with a manually operated two-position switch for
setting the equalization to correct for cable lengths of 0 - 225 feet and
226 - 450 feet from the port rack to the DSX-3.

81.5519 DS3/1 Time Slot 3.22 Each port shelf has two 5519 TSI31 modules (one for each network copy).
Interchange (5519 TSI31) While they reside with the port equipment, these modules constitute the initial and
Module final stages of the switch network and provide the following functions:
• Time Slot Interchange. The 5519 TSI31 primarily receives SDF bit-
streams from all 5517A port modules located in the same port shelf
and interchanges their VT1.5 time slot positions as required in support
of the current cross-connect map. After performing the TSI function,
the 5519 TSI31 reassembles each SDF and then passes it on to the
5509 ESM. This process is reversed for SDF signals coming into the
5519 TSI31 from the ESM. The process is essentially the same for
5517B PM33s, except that nonchannelized signals at the DS3 rate
interchange at the STS1 SPE level, not the VT1.5 level.

• Transmit and receive redundancy logic. Each 5519 TSI31 module is


also equipped with redundancy logic for each of the 16 primary and
two redundant 5517A/B/C port modules that it terminates. Each active
5517A/B port module is the source of sensing for its associated logic
in the 5519 TSI31. Each redundant 5517A/B port module provides a
source of control for the switching process. The redundancy logic
routes data either through the active 5517A/B port modules or in the
case of a fault condition, through the redundant 5517A/B port mod-
ules. Since a port module contains an interface to both a TSI and to an
external facility (via a LIM3), operation of redundancy logic in the
TSI31 module coordinates with operation of relays in the associated
LIM3 module. This action creates a complete bypass after diagnostics
verify that the primary 5517A/B port module is indeed faulty.

• Optical interface to the end switch module. The 5519 TSI31 module
receives 16 SDF signals from (and transmits 16 SDF signals to) the 16
primary 5517A/B port modules in its shelf. These signals, after being
processed in the TSI31 module, pass to/from the end switch rack via
fiber optic cable. In preparing these signals for transmission to the end
switch shelf, the TSI31 module provides a 2:1 multiplex function that
causes two SDF signals that are transmitted in the same direction to
share the same fiber in the cable (either two SDF-transmit signals or
two SDF-receive signals on the same fiber). This reduces the number
of cables required to connect a port rack to the end switch rack.

Page 3-22 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

81.5519A DS3/1 Time Slot 3.23 The 5519A TSI31A provides all the features and functions of the 5519
Interchange (5519A TSI31A) TSI31. In addition, the 5519A TSI31A provides time slot interchange module func-
Module tions for the 5517C port module. A 5519A TSI31A must be used if a shelf is to be
provisioned for E1 mode.

Redundant Provisioning for DS3/1 and/or DS3/3 Shelf Modules


3.24 The 5517/A/B/C port modules are equipped in a 1:8 redundant/active ratio.
When DS3/1, DS3/3, and/or combination DS3/3/1 port modules are mixed in the
same shelf, the redundant module must be a 5517C port module so that it can take
over for a failed PM31, PM31A, PM33, PM331A, or PM331C. Refer to Table 3.1.
Each shelf containing 16 active and 2 redundant port modules communicates with
a pair of redundant 5512A/B GCMs (located within the same port shelf), which are
connected to the AC via a pair of redundant SCF LAN buses. A pair of 5535/A
PSNPs share equally in supplying power to the shelf, but each is able to power the
entire shelf should the other fail.

Note: If the 5519A TSI module is provisioned for E1 CST functionality, all port
modules in the 550E DS3/1 port equipment shelf must be 5517C port mod-
ules. Both E1 CST and T1 functionality will still be supported in this
instance, but only with the use of the 5517C.

Table 3.1 5517/A/B/C Port Module Type Protection Table

RPM
TYPE CAN SUPPORT THE FOLLOWING PORT MODULE TYPE(S) IN A PROTECTION GROUP
81.5517 81.5517

81.5517A 81.5517 81.5517A

81.5517B 81.5517B

81.5517C 81.5517 81.5517A 82.5517A 81.5517B 81.5517C

82.5517A 81.5517 81.5517A 81.5517B 82.5517A

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-23


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

Figure 3.2 550E DS3/1 and DS3/3 Port Shelf Architecture

GCM GCM
A B

Peripheral
UART Control

SDFX,R,CLK
DS3_RCV
DS3_in
TSI31
DS3_XMT MODULE A
T3/EC1 LIM SDFX,R,CLK
PM331A ESM
DS3_out
CONTROL or PM331C (Common to SWITCH
STATUS #1 redundancy copy A
16 SDFs
groups in per shelf
shelf)

PCP
redundancy relay port µC ok UART bus
bus control signal bus

TSI31
DS3_RCV MODULE B
DS3_in
PM331A (Common to ESM
DS3_XMT
T3/EC1 LIM or PM331C redundancy SWITCH
DS3_out #8 #8 groups in 16 SDFs copy B
CONTROL
shelf) per shelf
STATUS

RELAY
CONTROL
REDUNDANT
PM331A
REDUNDANCY BUS or PM331C

one-half DS3 port shelf


(one redundancy group)

Page 3-24 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

550E DS3/STS-1E Port Shelf Optioned for STS-1E


3.25 The 550E port shelf complex (when optioned for STS-1E) consists of the
following equipment:
• two groups of eight STS-1E port modules

• two redundant STS-1E modules that provide 1:8 protection

• two groups of eight 5518 T3/EC1 Line Interface Module (5518 LIM3)

• two 5512A/B GCMs

• two 5519 TSI31 modules

• two 5535/A PSNPs

3.26 Each STS-1E port module provides 1 EC1 facility interface, for a total of
16 EC1 interfaces per shelf (2 x 8 = 16). Refer to Figure 3.3, page 3-29.

Note: Beginning with FP6.0, all TITAN systems must operate in synchronous
mode. The system must be equipped with SIM modules and be synchro-
nized to an external clock.

81.5520 STS-1E, 82.5520 3.27 The 5520 PME module implements the following functions when required
STS-1E (Enhanced) and the within the TITAN 5500/S system:
81.5520T STS-1E (TMUX)
• Transforms a single STS-1E signal into an SDF signal. In the receive
Port Modules (5520 PME)
direction, the 5520 PME encodes an STS1 SPE signal (and its constit-
uent VT1.5 signals when present) within a single SDF signal to
prepare it for passing through the switch network. (In the transmit
direction, the process is reversed.) Throughout the process the
inherent timing of the synchronous SPE is maintained. The resulting
SDF signal contains the original SPE intact pointer information for
identifying the start of the payload, and the stuffing mechanism for
mapping this signal information into the 62.208Mbps SDF format.

• Monitors facility performance. The 5520 PME module provides end-to-


end diagnostic capability on a per-EC1 basis. This determination is
drawn from statistics gathered by monitoring the data bitstreams at the
line and internal path terminations, as suggested by TR-TSY-000009,
and it includes loss of signal, framing status, and BPVs. Ranges for
monitors with maintenance and service thresholds that can be set are
defined in the TITAN 5500/S Command Reference Manual,
76.5500/13.
• Recognition/generation of facility alarm and maintenance conditions.
EC1 and STS1 BER service and maintenance alarms are generated.
The STS1 path Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) is generated and pro-
cessed on a per VT1.5 basis if the STS1 SPE is channelized. In
addition, when using an 82.5520 enhanced PME for a channelized
STS1 SPE, the VT1.5 path AIS and path RDI are escalated to the
STS1 SPE level.

• Performance monitoring and alarming suspension (PASUSP).


PASUSP provisioning inhibits performance monitoring and alarm
reporting on a termination that is edited in-service before the far-end
termination is turned up. PASUSP is supported for VT1.5 terminations,
EC1 terminations, and STS1 terminations.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-25


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

• Supports Fault Indication/Escalation (82.5520 and 81.5520T). FI/FE


provides a mechanism for protecting dual-homed rings from a single-
point failure. Fault indication uses the PDI section of the SONET over-
head to indicate payload faults. Fault escalation propagates a constit-
uent failure by transmitting AIS at the transport level.

• Routes data bitstream onto monitor bus. This routing function bridges
the redundant port module’s input ports onto the receive paths of a
failed port module to permit the system diagnostics to make a compar-
ison of monitored performance parameters for differentiating between
internally caused and facility caused problems.

• Communicates port status to the group controllers. Each 5520 PME


has an internal micoprocessor that functions as a communications
interface to the two (one active and one redundant) 5512A/B GCMs
serving its port shelf. The 5512A/B GCMs are located within the port
shelf and communicate with the AC via the SCF LAN.

• Supports an 1:8 redundant/active STS-1E port module ratio. When a


fault appears in any active 5520 PME, the redundant 5520 PME for
that group is switched-in to take its place by the action of the 5518
LIM3 and the 5519 TSI31 switching together on the facility side and
switch network side of the 5520 PME, respectively.

• Best-byte, Best-clock Selection of Subscriber Data. The 5520 PME


modules check for errors in the data bitstreams coming out of the pair
of redundant Time Slot Interchange (TSI31) modules. The best byte is
selected from each pair of bytes based upon the state of the parity bit.
In addition to promptly passing the selected byte, the port module
maintains a history of best-byte selections and, when required to
select between two equally valid bytes, makes the selection based
upon the better of the performance records of the two associated
TSI31s. Best-clock selection allows for reduced jitter and smooth
timing reference changes on the clock signal recovered from the
switch networks when switching between network copies.
• Performs maintenance loopback. The 5520 PME responds to loop-
back codes received through the EC1 interface to initiate a terminal
loopback in which the receive path is looped back onto the transmit
path. Additionally, a 5520 PME can be commanded to transmit the
appropriate codes for activating loopback in the end terminal
equipment.

• EC1 interface loopback. Each EC1 interface supports a craft-initiated


regenerative line loopback, effected through a loopback relay located
in the 5518 LIM3. Both incoming timing and BPVs are transparently
passed through to the outgoing line.

Page 3-26 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

3.28 The 5520T STS-1E (TMUX) implements the following functions within the
TITAN 5500/S system:
• Transmux. The 5520T provides transmux functionality and level II
performance monitoring.

• Recognition/generation of facility alarm and maintenance conditions.


The system generates DS3, DS2, and DS1 red-alarm signals and AIS,
as well as DS3 BER service and maintenance alarms, and DS3, DS2,
and DS1 yellow alarms.

• Performance monitoring and alarming suspension (PASUSP).


PASUSP provisioning inhibits performance monitoring and alarm
reporting on a termination that is edited in-service before the far-end
termination is turned up. PASUSP is supported for VT1.5 terminations,
EC1 terminations, and STS1 terminations.

5518 T3/EC1 Line Interface 3.29 Each LIM3 terminates one EC1 facility and interfaces it to one 5520 PME.
Module (LIM3) In addition, each LIM3 also provides the following functions:
• Transmit and receive redundancy logic. Each active 5520 PME con-
nects to a 5518 LIM3, which contains the redundancy relays for the
associated EC1 facility interface. Active 5520 PMEs are the source of
port equipment failure sensing while the redundant 5520 PME pro-
vides control for the redundancy switching relays. The redundancy
relays route data through either the LIM3 associated 5520 PME or, in
the case of a fault, the redundant 5520 PME. Since both directions of
transmission are affected when a redundant module is switched-in,
two redundancy relays are provided at the interface, one each for the
transmit and receive paths.

• T3 Line Build-out (LBO). The EC1 facility interface port on each 5518
has a manually operated two-position switch for setting the equaliza-
tion to correct for different cable lengths from the port rack to the DSX.
For all EC1 applications, this switch must be set to the LONG position
regardless of cable length. The required equalization is set via a soft-
ware command.

5519 DS3/1 Time Slot Inter- 3.30 Each port shelf has two 5519 TSI31 modules for each network copy. While
change (5519 TSI31) Module they reside with the port equipment, these modules constitute the initial and final
stages of the switch network, and they provide the following functions:
• Time Slot Interchange. The primary function of the is to receive the
SDF bitstreams from all of the 5520 PME modules located in the same
port shelf and interchange their STS1 SPEs (or VT1.5 time slot posi-
tions in the case of channelized SPEs) as required in support of the
current cross-connect map. After performing the TSI function, the
5519 TSI31 reassembles each SDF and then passes it on to the 5509
ESM. This process is reversed for SDF signals coming into the 5519
TSI31 from the 5509 ESM.

• Transmit and receive redundancy switching. Each 5519 TSI31 module


is also equipped with redundancy logic for each of the 16 primary and
two redundant 5520 PMEs which it terminates. Each active 5520 PME
is the source of sensing for its associated logic in the 5519 TSI31.
Each of the redundant 5520 PMEs provides a source of control for the
switching process. The redundancy logic routes data either through
the active 5520 PME or, in the case of a fault condition, through the
redundant 5520 PME. Since a port module contains both an interface

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-27


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

to a TSI and an interface to an external facility (via a 5518 LIM3), the


operation of the redundancy logic in the 5519 TSI31 module is coordi-
nated with the operation of relays in the associated 5518 LIM3 module
to effect a complete bypass after diagnostics has verified that the
primary 5520 PME module is indeed faulty.

• Intrasystem optical interface to the end switch module. The TSI


module receives 16 SDF signals from (and transmits 16 SDF signals
to) the 16 primary 5520 PMEs in its shelf. After being processed in the
TSI31 module, these signals are passed to/from the end switch rack
via fiber optic cable. In preparing these signals for transmission to the
end switch shelf, the TSI31 module provides a 2:1 multiplex function
that causes two SDF signals that are transmitted in the same direction
to share the same fiber in the cable (either two SDF-transmit signals
or two SDF-receive signals on the same fiber). This reduces the
number of cables required to connect a port rack to the end switch
rack.

Redundant Provisioning for STS-1E Shelf Modules


3.31 The 5520 PME port modules are equipped in a 1:8 redundant/active ratio.
When standard 5520 PMEs and enhanced 5520 PMEs are mixed in the same
shelf, the redundant module must be an enhanced 5520 PME (82.5520) so that it
can take over for either a failed standard 5520 PME or a failed enhanced 5520
PME. If the shelf is equipped with 5520T PMEs, the redundant module must also
be a 5520T PME to support transmux functionality. Each shelf containing 16 active
and 2 redundant 5520 PMEs communicates with a pair of redundant 5512A/B
GCMs (located within the same port shelf) which are connected to the AC via a pair
of redundant SCF LAN buses. A pair of 5535/A PSNPs share equally in supplying
power to the shelf, but each is able to power the entire shelf should the other fail.

Page 3-28 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

Figure 3.3 550E STS-1E Port Shelf Architecture

GCM GCM
A B

Peripheral
UART Control

SDFX,R,CLK
STS-1E _in STS-1E_RCV
TSI31
MODULE A
T3/EC1 LIM STS-1E_XMT
PME SDFX,R,CLK
STS-1E _out #1 (Common to
CONTROL ESM
redundancy SWITCH
STATUS #1
groups in 16 SDFs copy A
shelf) per shelf

PCP
redundancy relay port µC ok UART bus
bus control signal bus

TSI31
STS-1E_RCV MODULE B
EC1_in
PME ESM
STS-1E_XMT (Common to
T3/EC1 LIM SWITCH
redundancy
EC1_out #8 #8 16 SDFs copy B
CONTROL groups in
per shelf
STATUS shelf)

RELAY
CONTROL
REDUNDANT
PME
REDUNDANCY BUS

one-half STS-1E port shelf


(one redundancy group)

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-29


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

550JK Configured for an OC-3 Port Shelf


3.32 The 550JK shelf configuration for an OC-3 port shelf consists of the fol-
lowing equipment:
• four working 5542A/B OC3 (OPM3) port modules

• four protection 5542A/B OPM3s

• five 5544/A/B/T or 5545/A/B/T Mapping Modules (MM3/A/B/T),


including one redundant

• two 5512A/B GCMs

• two 5546 TSIOs

• two 5549/A DPMs

• two 5535/A PSNPs

3.33 The four working 5542A/B OPM3s and the four protection 5542A/B
OPM3s are arranged into four protected pairs with 1:1 redundancy. Two additional
module slots for 5549/A DCC Processor Modules (DPMs) are included in the shelf
to implement DCC routing. Refer to Figure 3.4, page 3-36.

Note: Beginning with FP6.0, all TITAN systems must operate in synchronous
mode. The system must be equipped with SIM modules and be synchro-
nized to an external clock.

5542A/B SONET OC-3 Port 3.34 The 5542A/B OPM3 is available with either short-range optics (5542A) or
Modules (5542A/B OPM3) medium/long-range optics (5542B). In addition, the 5542A and the 5542B are each
available with three different styles of optical connector at the facility interface,
designated by the suffixes -FC, -ST, and -SC:
• FC style has threaded coupling

• ST style has bayonet coupling

• SC style has push-on coupling

3.35 The 5542A/B OPM3 module implements the following functions when
required within the TITAN 5500/S system:
• Converts from optical signals on the SONET facility to electrical
signals within the TITAN 5500/S system. Each 5542A/B OPM3 inter-
faces with one SONET OC-3 facility. It converts the incoming OC-3
signal into an electrical STS3 or STS3C signal, terminates the section
and line overhead, and sends the STS3 payload into its associated
mapping module (MM3/A/B/T). In the transmit direction, the process is
reversed.

• Terminates and routes DCC data transported on SONET facility


overhead.

Page 3-30 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

• Monitors facility performance. The 5542A/B OPM3 provides diag-


nostic capability on a per-OC-3 basis. This determination is drawn
from statistics gathered by monitoring the data bitstreams at the
section and line terminations; such information includes detection of
loss of signal, loss of framing, and section coding violation. Ranges for
monitors with maintenance and service thresholds that can be set are
defined in the TITAN 5500/S Command Reference Manual,
76.5500/13.
• Supports Fault Indication/Escalation (FI/FE). FI/FE provides a mecha-
nism for protecting dual-homed rings from a single point failure. Fault
indication uses the PDI section of the SONET overhead to indicate
payload faults. Fault escalation propagates a constituent failure by
transmitting AIS at the transport level. The shelf must be equipped with
an MM3A, MM3B, or MM3T mapping module.

• Recognition/generation of facility alarm and maintenance condition.


The 5542A/B OPM3 generates any needed BER alarms.

• Communicates port status to the group controllers. The 5542A/B


OPM3 acts upon commands from the GCMs in its shelf, sent via a
serial interface. It also relays its status information to these GCMs.

• Performs Linear Automatic Protection Switching (APS). The 5542A/B


OPM3 module allows for a working and protection OC-3 facility to be
arranged in a 1+1 protection scheme. Traffic is transmitted and
received simultaneously on both the working and protection facilities.
The protection OPM3 controls a selector located in the mapping
module that chooses between the working and the protection facilities.
A switch from working to protection is carried out automatically upon
detection of a facility fault, hardware failure, or the decoding of a
control byte embedded in the overhead.

• Performs Unidirectional Path Switched Ring (UPSR) protection


switching. The 5542A/B OPM3 supports the add/drop, drop-and-con-
tinue, and pass-through modes in unidirectional path switched rings.
The shelf must be equipped with a 5544A or 5545A mapping module.

• Performs maintenance loopback. The 5542A/B OPM3 module


responds to loopback codes by performing line loopbacks.

5544/A/B/T or 5545/A/B/T 3.36 The 5544/A/B/T or 5545/A/B/T MM3/A/B/T receives an incoming STS3
Mapping Modules signal from its 5542A/B OPM3. It selectively terminates the path overhead of the
(MM3/A/B/T) signal and then maps the STS3 or STS3C payload into the STS1 SPEs of three
adjacent SDF signals. If the STS1 signals contain payload DS3, VT1.5s, or DS1
signals, they are mapped as well. The MM3/A/B/T passes these SDF signals into
the pair of redundant 5546 TSIOs, which constitute the first stage of each copy of
the switch network.
3.37 In the reverse direction, the MM3/A/B/T receives three SDF signals in
duplicate from the two 5546 TSIOs on the shelf, which also constitute the last (fifth)
stage of each copy of the switch network. It selects the best byte and best clock
signals from the duplicates and then reverses the conversion process to provide
outgoing STS3 or STS3C signals to the associated working and protection 5542A/
B OPM3s.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-31


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

3.38 The MM3/A/B/T also provides protection switching between working and
protection ports and facilities in the event of facility or equipment failure as follows:
• In the case of Linear APS, the MM3/A/B/T performs the APS function
under the control of the protection 5542A/B OPM3.

• In the case of UPSR, the MM3A performs either STS3, STS1, or VT1.5
path selection under firmware control. Path selection is based upon
user-configurable performance monitoring thresholds.

3.39 The modules of the MM3/A/B/T series differ in the following features,
summarized in Table 3.2, page 3-33:
• A 5544/5545 MM3 supports only linear 1+1 APS at the OC-3 or OC-
12 line level, and it can support the following cross-connections:

- An STS3 signal can be terminated and its STS1 components can


be cross-connected intact.
- An STS3 signal and its STS1 components can be terminated, and
the VT1.5 components of the STS1s can be cross-connected
intact.
• A 5544B /5545B MM3B supports fault escalation/indication (FE/I) and
the following cross-connections:

- An STS3C signal can be cross-connected intact.


- An STS3 signal can be terminated and its STS1 components can
be cross-connected intact.
• A 5544A /5545A MM3A or a 5544T/5545T MM3T supports FE/I,
Transmux, Level II PM, linear 1+1 APS at the OC-3 or OC-12 line level
and the following cross-connections:

- An STS3C signal can be cross-connected intact.


- An STS3 signal can be terminated and its STS1 components can
be cross-connected intact.
- An STS3 signal and its STS1 components can be terminated, and
the DS3 or VT1.5 components of the STS1s can be cross-con-
nected intact.
- An STS3 signal and its STS1 components can be terminated, and
then the DS3 or VT1.5 components can be terminated to permit
their DS1 components to be cross-connected intact.
Of the four types of mapping modules, only the 5544A/5545A MM3A
supports UPSR functionality.

Page 3-32 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

Table 3.2 Features Versus Mapping Module Type

Linear Unidirec- CP-bit Based Fault Cross-


Module Automatic tional Path Level II DS3 Escalation connect
Type Protection Switched Trans- Performance Performance or Fault Levels
Switching Ring mux Monitoring Monitoring Indication Supported

5544/ STS1
5545 X VT1.5
MM3

5544A/ STS3C
5545A X X X X X X STS1
VT1.5
MM3A DS1

5544B/ STS3C
5545B X X STS1
MM3B

5544T/ STS3C
5545T X X X X X STS1
VT1.5
MM3T DS1

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-33


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

5546 TSIO Time Slot Inter- 3.40 Each port shelf is equipped with two 5546 TSIO modules (one for each
change Optical (5546 TSIO) network copy). While they physically reside with the port equipment, these
Module modules constitute the initial and final (fifth) stages of the switch network and
provide the following functions:
• Time Slot Interchange. The primary function of the 5546 TSIO module
is to receive the SDF bitstreams from all of the MM3/A/B/Ts located in
the same port shelf and interchange their STS1 SPEs (or VT1.5 time
slot positions in the case of channelized SPEs) as required in support
of the current cross-connect map. Subsequent to performing the TSI
function, the 5546 TSIO reassembles each SDF and then passes it on
to the 5509 ESM. This process is reversed for SDF signals coming into
the 5546 TSIO from the 5509 ESM.

• Transmit and receive redundancy switching. Each port shelf has two
5546 TSIOs, which perform parallel functions. Each 5546 TSIO con-
nects the shelf ports to one of the system’s two switch network copies
(NC-A or NC-B). This arrangement provides redundancy at all times
via the best-byte/best-clock feature; and if one NC fails or is put out-of-
service, the ports switch to receive signals only from the other NC,
through its 5546 TSIO. At the port interface, each 5546 TSIO can
accept signals from a primary or redundant mapping module.

• Intrasystem optical interface to the end switch module. The 5546 TSIO
module receives 12 SDF signals from (and transmits 12 SDF signals
to) the four active and one redundant MM3s in its shelf. These signals,
after being processed in the 5546 TSIO module, are passed to/from
the end switch rack via fiber optic cable. In preparing these signals for
transmission to the end switch shelf, the 5546 TSIO module provides
a 2:1 multiplex function that causes two SDF signals that are trans-
mitted in the same direction to share the same fiber in the cable (either
two SDF-transmit signals or two SDF-receive signals on the same
fiber). This reduces the number of cables required to connect a port
rack to the end switch rack.

5549 Data Communication 3.41 Each optical port shelf can be equipped with two 5549 DPM modules for
(DCC) Processor Module redundancy; one is normally active while the other is in standby. The 5549 DPM
(5549 DPM) provides the TITAN 5500/S system access to the data link fields embedded within
the SONET overhead signal. Each 5542A/B OPM3 can insert SONET data link
bytes into the first STS1 of the OC-3 frame. The 5549 DPM bridges between the
Link Access Protocol on D-channel (LAPD) entering and leaving through the
5542A/B OPM3 and the logical link control class-1 message protocol leaving the
5549 DPM through its on-board Ethernet LAN port.
3.42 Ethernet LAN packets containing DCC data are sent to the SPM (CPM
functionality) in the associated copy (A or B) of the AC shelf for routing and further
processing. A 5530D Communication Interface Panel (CIP) in the associated AC
shelf interfaces the LAN link from each DPM to the SPM (CPM functionality).

Note: Beginning with FP7.0, the 5501C System Processor Module (SPM) is
required for use in the Administrative Processor Module (APM) slot (#4) of
the 550A Administrative Complex (AC) shelf. Also, either the 5501B SPM
or 5501C SPM can be used in the Communications Processor Module
(CPM) slot (#3) of the 550A AC shelf. For systems running FP6.1, the
5501C SPM can be used in either APM or CPM slots. However, for
systems running FP 6.0, the 5501C SPM is not supported in either the
APM or CPM slot.

Page 3-34 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

5549A Data Communication 3.43 The 5549A has the same functionality as the 5549 with the added capa-
(DCC) Processor Module bility of routing and further processing of the DCC data rather than passing it on to
(5549A DPM) the CPM. This enhancement makes the 5549A a fully standard OSI router, it
accesses the data link fields in the SONET overhead and routes the OSI packets
among other DCCs and its Ethernet port. Distributed routing allows a separate
router to be used for each optical shelf.
3.44 Distributed routing via the 5549A DPM allows the TITAN 5500 system to
be configured as multiple level 2 routers. When configured as a level 1 router, data
is received and routed to the network elements (NEs) in that area. When config-
ured as multiple level 2 routers, communication is possible with other OSI routers
in other areas. This allows the TITAN to act as a central node for subdividing the
OSI network into areas.

Note 1: The 81.5501C cannot be used in a TITAN 5500 system running FP6.0
or lower loads. If the 81.5501C SPM is inserted into a system running
FP6.0, the module will reset and the following error message will appear:
"The 81.5501C SPM is not supported on a FP6.0 system. Remove this
card and insert an 81.5501B."

The 81.5501C SPM will then freeze and its fault LED will light. Once the
81.5501C SPM is removed from the FP6.0 system, it will be fully func-
tional in a system running FP6.1 or higher loads.

Note 2: For more information concerning routers, refer to the TCP/IP and DCC
Activation Manual, 76.5500/46.

3.45 Beginning with FP6.1, the TITAN system is capable of simultaneously


receiving and routing TCP/IP and OSI information. The TCP/IP information packets
can be converted to OSI packets at the SPM/CPM.
3.46 The 5549 and 5549A can be mixed on the same DCC LAN run as long as
that DCC LAN run is configured properly.

Redundant Provisioning for OC-3 Shelf Modules


3.47 The 5542A/B OPM3 port modules are equipped in a 1+1 working/
protection ratio. Each shelf of four working and four protection 5542A/B OPM3s
communicates with a pair of redundant 5512A/B GCMs (located within the same
port shelf), which are connected to the AC via a pair of redundant SCF LAN buses.
Redundant 5549/A DPMs route DCC packets to/from the AC shelves via a pair of
redundant DCC LAN buses. The shelf mapping modules have a 1:4 redundancy,
and the TSIO Modules have a 1:1 redundancy. A pair of 5535/A power supply
modules share equally in supplying power to the shelf, but each is able to power
the entire shelf should the other fail.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-35


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

Figure 3.4 550J SONET OC-3 Port Shelf Architecture

GCM GCM
A B

Peripheral
UART UART Control

STS3 1W SDF ESM


MM3/ SWITCH
O 3 A
OC-3 MM3A/ copy A
P 12 SDFs
MM3B/
M STS3 1P
MM3T 3 B per shelf

OC-3
3 O
1
P
1W M UART PORT µ-C
3 bus OK ESM
SWITCH
SDF 12 SDFs copy B
1P MM3/
O STS3 2W 3 per shelf
OC-3 MM3A/
P
MM3B/
M 3
STS3 2P MM3T
3
OC-3

O 2
P
2W M UART PORT µ-C
3 bus OK

O 2P MM3/ SDF
OC-3 STS3 3W MM3A/ 3
T
P
M MM3B/ S
3 STS3 3P MM3T 3 I
3 O
OC-3

O
3W P
M UART PORT µ-C
3 bus OK
OC-3 O MM3/ SDF
P 3P MM3A/ 3
STS3 4W
M MM3B/
3 MM3T 3
STS3 4P
4
OC-3

4W O
P
to/from M UART PORT µ-C
working 3 bus OK
port
RDN STS3 P MM3/ SDF
modules 4P
RDN STS3 W MM3A/ 3
TO/FROM MM3B/
PROTECTION MM3T
PORT MODULES R 3

5549/A DCC 5549/A DCC


PROCESSOR PROCESSOR
module A module B
to
additional DCC LAN copy B
equipment
DCC LAN copy A
racks
if used

Page 3-36 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

550K OC-12 Port Shelf or 550JK Configured for an OC-12 Port Shelf
3.48 The 550K OC-12 port shelf complex or 550JK consists of the following
equipment:
• one working 5543A/B OC12 (OPM12) port modules

• one protection 5543A/B OPM12s

• five 5544/A/B/T or 5545/A/B/T Mapping Modules (MM3/A/B/T),


including one redundant

• two 5512A/B GCMs

• two 5546 TSIOs

• two 5549/A DPMs

• two 5535/A PSNPs

3.49 The working 5543A/B OPM12 and the protection 5543A/B OPM12 are
arranged into a protected pair with 1:1 redundancy. Two additional module slots for
5549/A DPMs are included in the shelf to implement DCC routing. Refer to Figure
3.5, page 3-42.

5543A/B SONET OC-12 Port 3.50 The 5543A/B OPM12 is available with either short-range optics (5543A) or
Modules (5543A/B OPM12) medium/long-range optics (5543B). In addition, the 5543A and the 5543B are each
available with three different styles of optical connector at the facility interface,
designated by the suffixes -FC, -ST, and -SC:
• FC style has threaded coupling

• ST style has bayonet coupling


• SC style has push-on coupling

3.51 The 5543A/B OPM12 implements the following functions when required
within the TITAN 5500/S system:
• Converts from optical signals on the SONET facility to electrical
signals within the TITAN 5500/S system. Each 5543A/B OPM12 inter-
faces with one SONET OC-12 facility. It converts the incoming OC-12
signal into four electrical STS3C or STS3 signals, terminates the
section and line overhead, and sends each of the four STS3 payloads
into its own mapping module (MM3/A/B/T). In the transmit direction,
the process is reversed.

• Terminates and routes DCC data transported on SONET facility


overhead.

• Monitors facility performance. The 5543A/B OPM12 module provides


diagnostic capability on a per-OC-12 basis. This determination is
drawn from statistics gathered by monitoring the data bitstreams at the
section and line terminations; such information includes detection of
loss of signal, loss of framing, and section coding violation. Ranges for
monitors with maintenance and service thresholds that can be set are
defined in the TITAN 5500/S Command Reference Manual,
76.5500/13.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-37


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

• Supports Fault Indication/Escalation (FI/FE). FI/FE provides a mecha-


nism for protecting dual-homed rings from a single-point failure. Fault
indication uses the PDI section of the SONET overhead to indicate
payload faults. Fault escalation propagates a constituent failure by
transmitting AIS at the transport level. The shelf must be equipped with
an MM3A, MM3B, or MM3T mapping module.

• Recognition/generation of facility alarm and maintenance conditions.


The 5543A/B OPM12 generates any needed BER alarms.

• Communicates port status to the group controllers. The 5543A/B


OPM12 is slaved and acts upon commands from its shelf’s GCMs via
a serial interface. It also relays its status information to these GCMs

• Performs Linear Automatic Protection Switching (APS). The 5543A/B


OPM12 module allows for a working and protection OC-12 facility to
be arranged in a 1+1 protection scheme. Traffic is transmitted and
received simultaneously on both the working and protection facilities.
The protection 5543A/B OPM12 controls a selector located in the
mapping module that chooses between the working and the protection
facilities. A protection switch from working to protection is carried out
automatically upon detection of facility faults, embedded overhead
control byte decoding, or hardware failure.

• Performs Unidirectional Path Switched Ring (UPSR) Protection


Switching. The 5543A/B OPM12 supports the add/drop, drop-and-
continue, and pass-through modes in unidirectional path switched
rings. The shelf must be equipped with a 5544A or 5545A mapping
module.

• Performs maintenance loopback. The 5543A/B OPM12 module


responds to loopback codes by performing line loopbacks.

5544/A/B/T or 5545/A/B/T 3.52 The 5544/A/B/T or 5545/A/B/T MM3/A/B/T receives an incoming STS3
Mapping Modules signal from its 5542A/B OPM3. It selectively terminates the path overhead of the
(MM3/A/B/T) signal and then maps the STS3 or STS3C payload into the STS1 SPEs of three
adjacent SDF signals. If the STS1 signals contain payload DS3, VT1.5s, or DS1
signals, they are mapped as well. The MM3/A/B/T passes these SDF signals into
the pair of redundant 5546 TSIOs, which constitute the first stage of each copy of
the switch network.
3.53 In the reverse direction, the MM3/A/B/T receives three SDF signals in
duplicate from the two 5546 TSIOs on the shelf, which also constitute the last (fifth)
stage of each copy of the switch network. It selects the best byte and best clock
signals from the duplicates and then reverses the conversion process to provide
outgoing STS3 or STS3C signals to the associated working and protection 5542A/
B OPM3s.
3.54 The MM3/A/B/T also provides protection switching between working and
protection ports and facilities in the event of facility or equipment failure as follows:
• In the case of Linear APS, the MM3/A/B/T performs the APS function
under the control of the protection 5542A/B OPM3.

• In the case of UPSR, the MM3A performs either STS3, STS1, or VT1.5
path selection under firmware control. Path selection is based upon
user-configurable performance monitoring thresholds.

Page 3-38 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

3.55 The modules of the MM3/A/B/T series differ in the following features, sum-
marized in Table 3.1, page 3-36:
• A 5544/5545 MM3 supports only linear 1+1 APS at the OC-3 or OC-
12 line level, and it can support the following cross-connections:

- An STS3 signal can be terminated and its STS1 components can


be cross-connected intact.
- An STS3 signal and its STS1 components can be terminated, and
the VT1.5 components of the STS1s can be cross-connected
intact.
• A 5544B /5545B MM3B supports fault escalation/indication (FE/I) and
the following cross-connections:

- An STS3C signal can be cross-connected intact.


- An STS3 signal can be terminated and its STS1 components can
be cross-connected intact.
• A 5544A /5545A MM3A or a 5544T/5545T MM3T supports FE/I,
Transmux, Level II PM, linear 1+1 APS at the OC-3 or OC-12 line level
and the following cross-connections:

- An STS3C signal can be cross-connected intact.


- An STS3 signal can be terminated and its STS1 components can
be cross-connected intact.
- An STS3 signal and its STS1 components can be terminated, and
the DS3 or VT1.5 components of the STS1s can be cross-con-
nected intact.
- An STS3 signal and its STS1 components can be terminated, and
then the DS3 or VT1.5 components can be terminated to permit
their DS1 components to be cross-connected intact.
Of the four types of mapping modules, only the 5544A/5545A MM3A sup-
ports UPSR functionality.

5546 TSIO Time Slot Inter- 3.56 Each port shelf is equipped with two 5546 TSIO modules. Although redun-
change Optical (5546 TSIO) dant, both are normally active. While they physically reside with the port equip-
Module ment, these modules constitute the initial and final (fifth) stages of the switch
network, and they provide the following functions:
• Time Slot Interchange. The primary function of the 5546 TSIO module
is to receive the SDF bitstreams from all of the 5544/A/B/T or
5545/A/B/T MM3/A/B/Ts located in the same port shelf, and inter-
change their STS1 SPEs (or VT1.5 time slot positions in the case of
channelized SPEs) as required in support of the current cross-connect
map. Subsequent to performing the TSI function, the 5546 TSIO reas-
sembles each SDF and then passes it on to the 5509 ESM. This
process is reversed for SDF signals coming into the 5546 TSIO from
the ESM.

• Transmit and receive redundancy switching. Each port shelf has two
5546 TSIOs, which function as mates to each other. Each 5546 TSIO
connects the shelf ports to one of the system’s two switch network
copies (NC-A or NC-B). This arrangement provides redundancy via

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-39


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

the best-byte/best-clock feature, and if one NC fails or is put out-of-ser-


vice, ports switch to receive signals only from the other NC through its
5546 TSIO. At the port interface, each 5546 TSIO can accept signals
from a primary mapping module.

• Intrasystem optical interface to the end switch module. The 5546 TSIO
module receives 12 SDF signals from (and transmits 12 SDF signals
to) the four primary and one redundant MM#s in its shelf. These
signals, after being processed in the 5546 TSIO module, are passed
to/from the end switch rack via fiber optic cable. In preparing these
signals for transmission to the end switch shelf, the 5546 TSIO module
provides a 2:1 multiplex function that causes two SDF signals that are
transmitted in the same direction to share the same fiber in the cable
(either two SDF-transmit signals or two SDF-receive signals on the
same fiber). This reduces the number of cables required to connect a
port rack to the end switch rack.

5549 Data Communication 3.57 Each optical port shelf can be equipped with two 5549 DPM modules for
(DCC) Processor Module redundancy; one is normally active while the other is in standby. The 5549 DPM
(5549 DPM) provides the TITAN 5500/S system access to the data link fields embedded within
the SONET overhead signal. Each 5543A/B OPM12 can insert SONET data link
bytes into the first STS1 of the OC-12 frame. The 5549 DPM bridges between the
Link Access Protocol on D-channel (LAPD) entering and leaving through the
5543A/B OPM12 and the logical link control class-1 message protocol leaving the
5549 DPM through its on-board Ethernet LAN port.
3.58 Ethernet LAN packets containing DCC data are sent to the 5501C SPM
(CPM functionality) in the associated copy (A or B) of the AC shelf for routing and
further processing. A 5530D Communication Interface Panel (CIP) in the associ-
ated AC shelf interfaces the LAN link from each DPM to the 5501C SPM (CPM
functionality).

Note: Beginning with FP7.0, the 5501C System Processor Module (SPM) is
required for use in the Administrative Processor Module (APM) slot (#4) of
the 550A Administrative Complex (AC) shelf. Also, either the 5501B SPM
or 5501C SPM can be used in the Communications Processor Module
(CPM) slot (#3) of the 550A AC shelf. For systems running FP6.1, the
5501C SPM can be used in either APM or CPM slots. However, for
systems running FP 6.0, the 5501C SPM is not supported in either the
APM or CPM slot.

Page 3-40 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

5549A Data Communication 3.59 The 5549A has the same functionality as the 5549 with the added capa-
(DCC) Processor Module bility of routing and further processing of the DCC data rather than passing it on to
(5549A DPM) the CPM. This enhancement makes the 5549A a fully standard OSI router, it
accesses the data link fields in the SONET overhead and routes the OSI packets
among other DCCs and its Ethernet port. Distributed routing allows a separate
router to be used for each optical shelf.

Note: The 81.5501C cannot be used in a TITAN 5500 system running FP6.0 or
lower loads. If the 81.5501C SPM is inserted into a system running FP6.0,
the module will reset and the following error message will appear: "The
81.5501C SPM is not supported on a FP6.0 system. Remove this card and
insert an 81.5501B."

The 81.5501C SPM will then freeze and its fault LED will light. Once the
81.5501C SPM is removed from the FP6.0 system, it will be fully functional
in a system running FP6.1 or higher loads.

3.60 Distributed routing, via the 5549A DPM, allows the TITAN 5500 system to
be configured as multiple level 2 routers. When configured as a level 1 router, data
is received and routed to the Network Elements (NEs) in that area. When config-
ured as multiple level 2 routers, communication is possible with other OSI routers
in other areas. This allows the TITAN to act as a central node for subdividing the
OSI network into areas.

Note: For more information concerning routers, refer to the TCP/IP and DCC
Activation Manual, 76.5500/46.

3.61 Beginning with FP6.1, the TITAN system is capable of simultaneously


receiving and routing TCP/IP and OSI information. The TCP/IP information packets
can be converted to OSI packets at the SPM/CPM.
3.62 The 5549 and 5549A can be mixed on the same DCC LAN run as long as
that DCC LAN run is configured properly.

Redundant Provisioning for OC-12 Shelf Modules


3.63 The 5543A/B OPM12s are equipped in a 1:1 working/protection ratio.
Each shelf of working and protection port modules communicates with a pair of
redundant 5512A/B GCMs (physically located within the same port shelf) which are
connected to the AC via a pair of redundant SCF LAN buses. Redundant 5549/A
DPMs route DCC packets to/from the AC shelves via a pair of redundant DCC LAN
buses. The MM3/A/B/Ts have a 1:4 redundancy, and the 5546 TSIO Modules have
a 1:1 redundancy. A pair of 5535/A PSNPs share equally in supplying power to the
shelf, but each is able to power the entire shelf should the other fail.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-41


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

Figure 3.5 .550K SONET OC-12 Port Shelf Architecture


5512A/B
5512A/B
GROUP
GROUP
CONTROLLER
CONTROLLER
MODULE
MODULE
copy A
copy B

UART Peripheral
UART Control

STS3 1W SDF
MM3/ ESM
3 A
MM3A/ SWITCH
one OC-12
fiber faciliy

MM3B/ 12 SDFs copy A


STS3 1P 3 B per shelf

fiber facility
MM3T

one OC-12
1

UART PORT µ-C


bus OK ESM
SDF SWITCH
one OPM12 port module (working)

STS3 2W MM3/ 3 12 SDFs copy B


MM3A/ per shelf
MM3B/
one OPM12 port module (protection) STS3 2P 3
MM3T
2

UART PORT µ-C


bus OK
SDF
STS3 3W MM3/ 3
MM3A/
T
MM3B/
STS3 3P S
MM3T 3
3
I
UART PORT µ-C O
bus OK

SDF
MM3/ 3
STS3 4W MM3A/
MM3B/
STS3 4P MM3T
4 3

UART PORT µ-C


bus OK

MM3/ SDF
RDN STS3 P 3
MM3A/
MM3B/
RDN STS3 W MM3T
R 3

5549/A DCC 5549/A DCC


PROCESSOR PROCESSOR
module A module B
to
additional DCC LAN copy B
equipment DCC LAN copy A
racks
if used

3.64

Page 3-42 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

Common Modules (Port and Switch Network Shelves)


3.65 The two modules described below are common to all port shelves and
switch network shelves used in the TITAN 5500/S:
• 5512A/B Group Controller Module (GCM)

- Switch Networks use only one 5512A/B GCM per switch network
copy.
• 5535/A Power Supply Module (PSNP)

3.66 In port shelf applications, two modules of each type are provided to mini-
mize the effect of equipment failure upon service. (The functionality of the above
modules in the switch network is described in TITAN 5500/S Switch Network,
page 3-59.)

5512A/B Group Controller 3.67 In port shelf applications, the two 5512A/B GCMs (one active and the other
Module (5512A/B GCM) standby) oversee and control all the equipment within the shelf where they are
installed. In addition, for intrasystem communications, the 5512A/B functions as
the intermediary between the 5501C system processor modules (APM function-
ality, located within the AC equipment rack) and the equipment located in the port
shelf or switch network copy where the 5512A/B GCM is resident.
3.68 When used in port shelf applications, one 5512A/B GCM is active and the
other is standby. Since the standby GCM is also in-service it can immediately
become the active copy should the active 5512A/B GCM fail. (The standby 5512A/
B GCM can also be made active by entering a TL1 command.)
3.69 Functionally, the 5512A/B GCM is made up of four major sections:
• Administrative processor interface. This pair of serial communications
ports is implemented in each 5512A/B GCM by a LAN controller chip
that terminates the communications links from the administrative
complex shelves. This chip passes control information at a data rate
of 1Mbps via two separate and redundant LAN buses, each of which
is routed throughout the system via shielded, twisted-pair cable, and
terminates upon a 5506A/B SCM located in one of the two AC shelves.

• CPU core. A Motorola 68HC000 8-bit microprocessor coordinates all


internal module activities.
• Port interface. This interface is provided by an intelligent communica-
tions controller. It terminates up to four serial communications ports,
one of which operates at 62.5kbps and is similar to that of a Universal
Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART). A second serial
synchronous communications port on this controller chip, a Peripheral
Control Protocol (PCP) link, is used for communication at 1Mbps to the
TSI modules located in the same port shelf.

• Switch network interface. An additional port similar to the one


described above, is used to communicate with the active administra-
tive processor and a fourth such port is used only to communicate with
modules in the switch network racks when the 5512A/B GCM is
installed with the switch network equipment.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-43


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

82.5535 and 83.5535/A 3.70 For redundancy, 5535/A PSNPs are equipped in pairs (same or mixed 82/
Power Supply Network/Port 83) in both port equipment and switch network shelves. These modules convert the
(5535/A PSNP) CO-supplied −48Vdc power to regulated and filtered +5Vdc and -5Vdc sources for
use within the shelf where they reside. They also provide an alarm indication
should any of their outputs fail. The 5535/A PSNPs are provided with over-current
shutdown to protect the modules and backplane in the event of a short circuit in
any of the modules which they power.
3.71 Redundancy is achieved with diode isolation on the outputs of each PSNP
module of a pair. Normally, the two modules share the shelf load equally. If a fault
condition occurs on one 5535/A PSNP module, the other takes over the full load.
The diodes ensure that the shorted components on a faulty 5535/A PSNP module
do not bring down an entire shelf.
3.72 Distributing the power supply function across all of the shelves in the
system increases the area available to heat sinks and allows for heat dissipation
across the rack surface. The convection cooling made possible by this arrange-
ment is used to advantage to cool the 5535/A PSNP modules while convecting the
heat away from the remainder of the system.
3.73 The 83.5535A PSNP provides test jacks on the front panel.

Common Functionality (Port and Switch Network Shelves)


3.74 The following topics were previously introduced. However, additional
details are presented below.

Fault Detection and 3.75 This feature allows hardware failures to be corrected automatically and
Protection Switching promptly. In reference to all port shelves, the active port modules are the first line
of defense for detecting a faulty hardware condition. This type of condition could
appear at any of the four port interfaces related to the bidirectional transmission
path of a given facility through its port shelf. These port interfaces are as follows:
• facility-side-transmit

• facility-side-receive

• switch network-side-transmit
• switch network-side-receive

3.76 Software diagnostics, which are initiated for events such as a facility alarm,
perform tests to determine whether the facility or its port module is at fault. This
determination can lead to the reconnection of a facility through the redundant port
module. For ports that interface to metallic facilities, software diagnostics begins
the process by bridging the receive paths of the redundant port module onto those
of the affected active port module. This ensures that both are receiving the same
data from the facility and from the switch network. The outputs of both modules are
compared by software diagnostics. If the outputs from both modules are consis-
tent, software decides that the data is corrupted before it enters the port modules,
and that a switch to the redundant port module is not required. In this case, soft-
ware does not proceed to switch to the redundant port module, and the redundant
module remains free to back up the other active port modules in its group.

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Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

3.77 If the signal condition on the active port module differs from the signal on
the redundant module, software makes a decision to fail the active port module.
Software then completes the transfer by switching the transmit and receive paths
at the facility side and at the switch network side of the active port module away
from this module and by connecting them instead to the redundant module.
3.78 For port modules that terminate metallic facilities, the actual switching
function that causes a redundant port module to replace a faulty port module is
performed by logic that resides on the redundant module. This logic controls
selectors on the LIM module, which interfaces the port module to the facility.
Additional support is provided by redundancy logic that resides in the TSI module,
which interfaces the port module to the switch network. Redundancy logic is
controlled by the active group controller module.

Redundancy 3.79 All circuits within the system, except LIMs, are redundant, including
processors. Processor redundancy is included because the ability to change
network configurations can be crucial to maintaining the viability of the overall
network.
3.80 Redundancy in the switch network is managed differently than it is in the
rest of the system. The redundant copy of the switch network is given equal status
with the primary copy, and both copies are in-service simultaneously. During
normal operation, both copies are configured with the same connection map and
pass identical traffic. Error-free data is obtained by selecting the best byte from
redundant bytes received from both copies of the switch network. The best byte is
selected first on the basis of a parity. However, when both bytes yield identical
parity information, the byte is selected from the copy of the switch network that has
made the fewest errors over time, according to a performance history of both
copies that is maintained in software.
3.81 For convenience during reconfiguration, either copy of the switch network
can be taken out-of-service, leaving the other copy in-service. This feature is useful
for expanding the switch network itself, such as when growing the system capacity
from 256 to 1024 SDF ports or 2048 to 3072 SDF ports. In this case, the system
continues to run on one copy of the switch network while the other copy is being
expanded. Although switch network redundancy is removed, service is maintained
throughout the expansion process.

Facility Monitoring 3.82 All active port modules provide monitoring capability on a per-facility basis
including constituent signals. In addition, for optical terminations, the MM3/A/B/T
mapping modules monitor path performance parameters, and the MM3A/T
mapping modules monitor any constituent DS3s and DS1s as well. This permits
line statistics (and path statistics, when present) to be gathered and alarms to be
processed. This information is used to assess the health of the facility and thereby
determine whether further troubleshooting procedures are needed.
3.83 The TITAN 5500/S system constantly monitors facility performance to
perform the following functions:
• determine the usability of signals for transport, such as to determine
hard failures

• provide performance data to the operations systems, such as circuit


availability and soft or degraded failures

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-45


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

Hard Failures 3.84 Hard failures typically initiate alarms. Parameters monitored for this
purpose are the following:
• Loss of Signal (LOS)

• Loss of Frame (LOF) or Out of Frame (OOF)

• Loss of Pointer (LOP)

• Bit Error Rate (BER)

- Where parity (DS3) or CRC-type (DS1) checks are available,


these are turned into a bit-error-rate count and are treated as
BPVs.
• Bipolar Violations (BPV rates)

Soft Failures 3.85 Soft failures are reported only to the appropriate Operations System (OS).
All parameters are measured as counts, consisting of hourly and daily cumulative
counts. Thresholds are software selectable for all counts, on a per-line basis.
Typically, if an hourly or daily count threshold is exceeded, a threshold crossing
alert indication is sent to the OS. This does not cause a system alarm because it is
an event, not an alarm state. These counters are reset at the end of the interval or
by a software command. However, as a software option, the count can be dumped
to an OS on the hour or every 24 hours (known as the midnight report). The mon-
itored parameters are as follows:
• Path Background Block Errors. Monitored on E1 CST terminations.
• Path Controlled Slip Seconds, far end (CSSP). Monitored on T1
terminations.

• Line Coding Violation (CVL). Monitored on OC-12, OC-3, EC1, T3,


and T1 terminations.

• Section Coding Violation (CVS). Monitored on OC-12 and OC-3


terminations.

• Path Coding Violation (CVP). Monitored on STS1, T3, and T1


terminations.

• VT1 Coding Violation (CVV). Monitored on VT1 terminations.


• Line Errored Seconds (ESL). Monitored on OC-12, OC-3, EC1, T3,
and T1 terminations.

• Path Errored Seconds (ESP). Monitored on STS1, T3, T1, and E1


CST terminations.

• Section Errored Seconds (ESS). Monitored on OC-12 and OC-3


terminations.

• VT1 Errored Seconds (ESV). Monitored on VT1 termination.


• Line Failure Count (FCL). Monitored on OC-12, OC-3, and EC1
terminations.

• Path Failure Count (FCP). Monitored on STS1 terminations.


• VT1 Failure Count (FCV). Monitored on VT1 terminations.
• Protection Switch Count (PSC). Monitored on OC-12 and OC-3
terminations.

Page 3-46 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

• Protection Switch Duration (PSD). Monitored on OC-12 and OC-3


terminations.

• Framed Severely Errored Seconds (SEFS). Monitored on OC-12,


OC-3, and EC-1 terminations

• Line Severely Errored Seconds (SESL). Monitored on OC-12, OC-3,


EC-1, T3, and T1 terminations.

• Line Errored Seconds (SESS). Monitored on OC-12 and OC-3


terminations.

• Path Severely Errored Framing or AIS seconds (SASP). Monitored on


T3 and T1 terminations.

• Path Severely Errored Seconds (SESP). Monitored on STS1, T3, T1,


and E1 CST terminations.

• VT1 Severely Errored Seconds (SESV). Monitored on VT1


termination.

• Line Unavailable Seconds (UASL). Monitored on OC-12, OC-3, and


EC-1 terminations.

• Path Unavailable Seconds (UASP). Monitored on STS1, T3, T1, and


E1 CST terminations.

• Path Uncontrolled Slip Seconds (USSP). Monitored on T1 and E1 CST


terminations.

• VT1 Unavailable Seconds (UASV). Monitored on VT1 terminations.


• ESF Facility Data Link (nonintrusive monitoring).
• Level II Performance Monitoring for monitoring the performance of
DS3 and DS1 constituents of an STS1 signal.

• DS3 far-end performance monitoring using C-bit parity.

• DS1 far-end performance monitoring per ANSI T1.403 or AT&T TR


54016. Supports both passive and intrusive modes (intrusive mode is
not supported on OC-3/12 facilities).
• ANSI-compliant PDI is supported on all synchronous (and asynchro-
nous-to-synchronous) cross-connects.

Audits/Diagnostics 3.86 The TITAN 5500/S system constantly runs audits on itself to look for state
transitions that can be reported. Should one of these be found, the next step is
isolation to the module level. Finally, this fault condition is reported via the alarm
interface module.
3.87 The following audits were included with FP4.1:
• Connection Management Content Integrity (CMCI) Audit. A scheduled
and command-initiated CMCI audit is provided to check the connec-
tion management files and records for continuity through the database
on all cross-connect paths.

• Database Structural Integrity (DBSI) Audit. A scheduled and


command-initiated DBSI audit is provided to check the database files
and records for truncation.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-47


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

• Network Content Integrity (NCI) Audit. A scheduled and command-


initiated NCI audit is provided to detect content integrity defects
between connection management system data stored on nonvolatile
memory and the ESM and Center Switch Modules (CSM) network
modules.

An NCI audit is automatically invoked on a network module after the


module has completed a successful memory download. If the module
does not pass this audit, a fault is generated against it and it is not
allowed to transition to the in-service state.
• Administrative Complex Database Synchronization Audit (DBSAC).
The system provides a software audit to detect data inconsistencies
between the active and standby AC Primary (PRI) memory entities.

The DBSAC audit is executed on demand by the AUD-DATA


command or by scheduled execution of the data audits.
• Primary Content Integrity (PCI) Audit. When the CMCI Audit is initiated
the PCI Audit is automatically run. The PCI audit is provided to detect
content integrity defects between connection management system
data stored on nonvolatile memory and the TSI port shelf network
modules.

A PCI audit is automatically invoked on a network module after the


module has completed a successful memory download. If the module
does not pass this audit, a fault is generated against it and it is not
allowed to transition to the in-service state.
• AC Diagnostics. A scheduled and command-initiated AC audit can be
run to check the AIM, APM, CPM, DSM, and SCM modules. The diag-
nostics can also be run on a per module basis.

• NTDM diagnostics allows a scheduled and command-initiated check


of the NTDM.

Alarm Profiles 3.88 An alarm profile table is a table of alarm conditions versus the desired
severity of alarm response. It can be assigned to a particular signal termination
type (either OC-12, OC-3, STS3C, EC1, STS1, E1 CST, T3, T2, T1, or VT1.5) or
to an equipment entity or synchronization reference source. It is constructed by the
user and stored in system software. The TITAN 5500/S system provides for the
defining and storing of up to 20 different user-configurable alarm profile tables for
each type of signal termination or equipment entity. This permits the operating
company to use its own standards for alarm reporting to develop 20 unique, num-
bered alarm profile tables. Such profiles can standardize system alarm responses.
In addition, the system has four pre-set non-user-configurable alarm profile tables
including a default table. System responses that are triggered by the crossing of
the various performance thresholds may be assigned in combination with the stan-
dard levels of alarm reporting (critical, major, minor, not reported, and not alarmed)
to develop each unique profile.
3.89 A default profile is provided for each different type of signal termination (for
example OC-12, OC-3, EC-1). These default alarm profile tables are shown in
matrix form in the Alarm Profile Default Values table located in the Introduction
section of the TITAN 5500/S Command Reference Manual, 76.5500/13.

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Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

3.90 An alarm profile table for a particular type of termination (such as a T1) is
created by editing the default alarm profile table, using a variation of the TL1 SET-
ATTR command to change the alarm severity assigned to each monitored perfor-
mance parameter. The SET-ATTR command stores the created alarm profile table
under a new number (1-20), thereby preserving the integrity of the default alarm
profile table (99).
3.91 Once created, an alarm profile table can be assigned to an existing
termination or equipment entity by entering a TL1 ED-T1 command against the
termination or equipment entity. For example, the ED-T1 command would be used
to apply an alarm profile table to a T1 facility.
3.92 Changing an alarm profile to table 99 at any time in the future returns the
equipment or termination to the default profile. Changing to table “0” inhibits all
alarms on the equipment or termination.

Partitioning
3.93 Partitioning is a feature that allows users to limit access to facilities and
functions of the TITAN 5500/S system. With this partitioning feature, service pro-
viders can provide access to selected aspects of TITAN systems to customers and
other service providers for provisioning, performance monitoring, and alarm
surveillance capabilities.
3.94 The partitioning function is available under two classes: vertical and hori-
zontal. Vertical partitioning refers to limiting or restricting use access to certain
functionalities of the TITAN 5500/S by designating which commands a user can or
cannot enter. This feature is currently available on TITAN systems. Horizontal par-
titioning, introduced with FP7.0, refers to limiting or restricting users to only desig-
nated facility groups on TITAN 5500/S systems.
3.95 Other partitioning features and parameters include the following:
• Up to 64 partitions can be created (with a user assigned up to four
partitions).

• There is no limit to the number of facilities that can be assigned to a


partition. However, each facility can only be assigned one partition
each.

• No restrictions on types of facilities that can be assigned a partition


(T1, OC-3, OC-12, etc.)
• Partition names are defined by end users.

• Access/control is limited to facilities-based functions; system-wide


command access is restricted from partitioned users.

• Constituent facilities and their “parents” may not be assigned to


different partitions. All partition assignments must share the same
number and/or designation, and as such, are automatically assigned
to same partitions.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-49


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

Performance Monitoring High-speed Output (PMHSO)


3.96 PMHSO provides high-speed output of performance monitoring (PM) data
using data compression and the 19.2 kbits asynchronous links. This enables the
system to output 15-minute intervals of PM data more efficiently.
3.97 The data included in the PMHSO determines precise signal quality. This
information can help validate customer tariffs.

Commanded PMHSO
3.98 Commanded PMHSO allows collected PM data to be output using a single
TL1 command (CPY-DATA) via a TCP/IP link. Once the TL1 command has been
received, the TITAN 5500/S system will transfer the previously stored PM file to a
remote FTP server.
3.99 It is possible to output a single file containing the 15 minute historical PM
registers, the hourly historical PM registers, or the daily historical PM registers. If
you choose to transfer the hourly historical PM register, far-end performance data
will not be output.

Note: The availability of PM data may be delayed due to system size or other
current system activities.

System Communication
System Control Format 3.100 The SCF LAN bus is the means by which the AC shelf communicates with
(SCF) LAN Bus the port shelves and switch network to distribute the control function throughout the
TITAN 5500/S system. Its main tasks are to carry messages for performing audits,
transferring downloads, updating database information, and performing control
functions. It is an electrical signal bus implemented via a modified Ethernet protocol
and distributed on shielded, twisted-pair cabling. It exists in two copies (A and B),
one of which is the redundant copy. Copy A connects the 5506A/B SCM 1 in AC-
A to each of the GCMs in the switch network and port racks. Similarly, copy B con-
nects the SCM 1 in AC-B to each of the GCMs in the switch network and port racks.
Copy A is active only when AC-A is active, and copy B is active only when AC-B is
active. SCM 2 increases the number of LANs and functions similarly, but must be
equipped with a 5506B module.

Port-to-Switch Network 3.101 In a typical TITAN 5500/S system, the port racks and the switch network
Optical Transmission racks may be located in different areas of the CO, separated by as much as 600
feet of cable. To minimize signal distortion and loss on interconnecting cable of this
length, fiber optic transmission is used between port and switch network racks.
Each quad DS1/1 shelf requires one copy A and one copy B 4-fiber cable for con-
nection to the switch network racks; in each cable, two of the fibers are used for
transmit and two are used for receive. The double-density DS1/1 shelves require
twice as many cables; two for copy-A of the switch network and two for copy-B.
Each optic fiber carries two SDF signals (either two transmit or two receive) regard-
less of port shelf type. Conversion from electrical to optical (outgoing) and from
optical to electrical (incoming) is performed by the TSI modules in the port shelves
and by the ESM modules in the switch network shelves.

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Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

3.102 Each DS3/1, DS3/3, and STS-1E shelf requires 4 fiber optic cables
supplying 16 fibers, 8 for transmit and 8 for receive, per switch network copy. Each
SONET OC-3 or OC-12 shelf requires three fiber optic cables supplying 12 fibers,
6 for transmit and 6 for receive, per switch network copy.

System Data Format (SDF) 3.103 The SDF is an internal TITAN 5500/S signal format that serves as the
Bus primary information link between port racks and switch network racks, as well as
within the switch network between the end switch shelves and the center switch
shelves. It carries all types of switched traffic payloads (including DS1, DS3, VT,
E1 CST, and STS1 SPE), timing information, bit clocks, frame and multiframe sig-
nals, and error detection/isolation channels.
3.104 The SDF is structured for compatibility with the SONET STS1 electrical
signal format (or with the OC-1 format when passed on an optical fiber), but
contains additional bandwidth for overhead related to the routing of payloads
through the system. (The SDF has a total bandwidth that is about 20 percent
greater than that of an STS1 signal.) Such compatibility requires that the contents
of an STS1 frame be directly mappable into a frame of the SDF signal. An under-
standing of how this is accomplished can be obtained by comparing Figure 3.7,
page 3-53, which depicts a typical VT mapping within an STS1 frame, to Figure
3.8, page 3-54, which shows an equivalent mapping in an SDF frame. Evident
common characteristics include a frame rate of 8000/second, a frame width of 125
µsec, a payload capacity of 7 VT groups, and a VT group capacity of 27 bytes each.
Although it is not evident from the figures, an additional common feature is that four
adjacent frames are grouped into a superframe in both the STS1 and the SDF
formats to accommodate the SONET floating-VT mode and its associated pointer
bytes V1 through V4.
3.105 Significant differences between the STS1 and the SDF frames arise from
a requirement of the SDF to provide a greater overhead capacity and to allow for
growth to new services that may become available. Specifically, the SDF has a
9-bit byte in contrast to the STS1, which has an 8-bit byte. The extra bit is added
as the least significant bit in each byte and provides four overhead functions:
• SDF overhead (parity, framing, multiframe)

• payload and SDF level communication channels

• byte parity

• error isolation via yellow alarm

3.106 Figure 3.6 depicts the byte structure. This 9-bit byte, together with 54 extra
overhead bytes per frame, give the SDF signal a 62.208Mbps bit rate, in contrast
to the STS1 51.84Mbps bit rate. An additional feature of the SDF, not provided in
the STS1 format, is that consecutive SDF frames are organized into 48-frame mul-
tiframes for increased flexibility in VT organization and a further increase in over-
head capacity.

Figure 3.6 SDF 9-bit Byte Structure

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 0H

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-51


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

Mapping Payloads Into SDF 3.107 The basic packaging element of a digital signal transmission payload is the
byte. In SDF, the byte consists of nine binary digits (bits) transmitted serially, in
order beginning with the most significant bit and ending with the overhead bit. Refer
to Figure 3.6. The bytes in SDF form a frame made up of 32 columns by 27 rows,
as shown in Figure 3.8, page 3-54. Each column in SDF is defined as a Tellabs
Virtual Tributary (TVT), which can completely accommodate the mapping of a
payload configured in SONET VT1.5 format in addition to path overhead. This
configuration allows the renumbering of TVTs into seven 4-column VT groups,
which compounds the interleaving of bytes by allowing the interleaving of TVTs
when payloads larger than VT1.5 are mapped into an SDF frame. The manner in
which interleaving is used when mapping VT2, VT3, and VT6 payloads into the
SDF is shown in Figure 3.8, page 3-54. The mapping for STS1 SPE is not shown
in this drawing to preserve simplicity, but it consists of TVTs 0 through 31, with 11
and 21 considered unused and with pointer bytes located in bytes 7 through 9 of
TVT 0.

Quad Tellabs Virtual 3.108 The QTVT is a payload signal format that is used in the port shelf on buses
Tributary (QTVT) Bus that run between a DS1 port module and its associated TSI module. It is directly
related to the SDF to the extent that a QTVT carries four TVTs in the same time
period that an SDF carries 32 TVTs. Although the number of bits per byte (9) is the
same, each QTVT byte is eight times the length of an SDF byte, causing its
frequency to be one-eighth that of the SDF frequency, or 7.776Mbps. Payload
mappings in the QTVT are identical to SDF mappings for one VT group, because
the SDF is simply seven QTVTs interleaved together with four spare TVTs (with
some accommodation made in the overhead information).

Page 3-52 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

Figure 3.7 3-D Layout of STS1 Frame at Four Levels of VT Switching


transmission sequence
(for STS1)
2
D Z N Q
1
C Y M Q

FIXED B X N Q

3 A Z M Q

D Y N Q
STS1 path
OVERHEAD C X M Q

B Z N Q

A Y M Q

STS1 D X N Q
TRANSPORT C Z M Q
OVERHEAD 12
B Y N Q
11
A X M Q
10
9
8
7
6 u p7 Notes:
gro
5 VT
4 1. = 1 byte 8 bits.
3 2. Bits outlined in bold are STS1-SPE.
VT group 1 is shown as four VT1.5s (labeled
2 A, B, C, and D), each VT consisting of 3
1 columns and occupying one-fourth of a VT
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 group. VT group 2 is shown as three VT2s
VT groups (labeled X, Y, and Z), each VT consisting of 4
columns and occupying one-third of a VT4
group. VT group 3 is shown as two VT3s
(labeled M and N), each VT consisting of 6
columns and occupying one-half of a VT5
. group. VT group 4 is shown as one VT6
(labeled Q), consisting of 12 columns and
occupying one entire VT group. VT7 groups +
overhead = 1 frame = 125 µsec
= 90 columns/frame X 9 bytes/column X 8 bits/
byte = 6480 bits.
6480 bits/frame X 8000 frames/second =
51.84Mbps.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-53


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

Figure 3.8 3-D Layout of STS1 Frame at Four Levels of VT Switching


VT group numbering 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 01 2 3 4 5 6 7
TVT numbering 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 1718 19 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 30 31

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

SPare

SPare

SPare

SPare
12
subframe 13
numbering 14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

TRANSMISSION
SEQUENCE
A b C D A b c a A b a b 1 2 3
1 1 1 1
2 A b c d b c a b A b a b 4 5 6 7
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3
Legend A b c d c a b c A b a b 8 9 10 11
2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5
1. =
2. A=
B=
A b c d b c a b A b a b 100 101102103
C= 25 25 25 25 33 33 34 34 50 50 51 51
D= A b c d c a b c A b a b
26 26 26 26 34 35 35 35 52 52 53 53 104105106107
VT1.5 mapping VT2 mapping VT3 mapping VT6 mapping

Notes: 4. VT group 3 is shown as two VT3s (labeled A and B),


each VT consisting of 2 columns and occupying one-
1. = 1 byte of 9 bits. half of a VT group.
2. VT group 1 is shown as four VT1.5s (labeled A, B, C, 5. VT group 4 is shown as one VT6 (labeled A), consisting
and D), each VT consisting of 1 column and of 4 columns and occupying one entire VT group.
occupying one-fourth of a VT group. 6. 7 VT groups (+ 1 spare group) = 1 frame = 125 µsec
3. VT group 2 is shown as three VT2s (labeled A, B, and = 32 columns/frame X 27 bytes/column X 9 bits/byte =
C), each VT consisting of one and one-third columns 7776 bits.
and occupying one-third of a VT group. 7. 7776 bits/frame X 8000 frames/second = 62.208Mbps.

Page 3-54 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

Firmware/Software Characteristics
Random Access and Read 3.109 All memory functions of the machine, except that of the BOOT code, are
Only Memory (RAM and handled via static RAM, hard disk, and removable optical disk cartridge. BOOT
ROM) code is stored in FLASH EEPROM on the SPMs, GCMs, and DPMs. The port
modules receive their downloads from the GCMs, which in turn respond to instruc-
tions from the SPMs (APM functionality). The entire download process is dis-
cussed in more detail in Processing in the Administrative Complex, page 3-56.

Processing in Port Shelf 3.110 There are four main areas of firmware control in the port modules:
Modules
• Maintain cross-connections. The primary function of the port modules
is to maintain cross-connections. A cross-connection is established
after signal routing is completed through the switch and the idle code
is removed at the termination end points. Terminations processed by
DS1/1 port modules can be configured for B8ZS as an option and for
Superframe (SF), Extended Superframe (ESF), or for unframed (UF)
mode. Terminations processed by DS3/1, DS3/3, and STS-1E port
modules employ B3ZS at the facility interface.

• Self-diagnostics. The port modules continuously undergo internal


audits to detect and isolate potential faults.

• Performance monitoring. The equipment monitors facility performance


for BERs and other parameters defined in Telcordia FR-NWT-000475
OTGR: Network Maintenance: Transport Surveillance, Issue 94, 1/94.

• Initialization diagnostics. Each time a module initializes, it automati-


cally executes a set of diagnostic tests and reports the results to the
GCM.

• Audit interface. Signal quality such as framing or parity to/from TSIs.


3.111 The real-time firmware and software processing functions of highest
priority within the port shelves involve the fault detection and isolation routines
performed by active port modules and include a comparison to a secondary check
performed by the redundant module. Overall control of this function is maintained
by the GCM, which queries the suspect port module when a fault condition is
detected. The fault determination is then made, as described previously in para-
graph 3.75, page 3-44.
3.112 If the fault lies with a port module, the next step is to activate software
routines to determine the cause of the problem. Once the problem is determined,
the appropriate steps toward recovery can be accomplished while maintaining
continuous service.
3.113 Other GCM or port module processing is handled as follows:
• Communication between the group controller and port modules is via
a UART link (a full start-stop data link).

• Communication between the group controllers and TSIs is passed in


serial form via the PCP link.

• The line interface modules are controlled by the redundant port


module via the redundancy and relay control buses.

• The active and redundant port modules communicate via the port
module microcontroller OK signal and monitor buses.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-55


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

Command Language 3.114 Input commands to the TITAN 5500/S system are in TL1 command
language, governed by the appropriate Telcordia documents.
3.115 The message syntax and all commands, responses, error messages, and
autonomous messages are described in detail in the TITAN 5500/S Command
Reference Manual, 76.5500/13.

Processing in the 3.116 The TITAN 5500/S system executable code is stored on removable media
Administrative Complex that must be inserted into the 5502C/D module (DSM) in the active AC shelf when
the system is installed. The data from the removable media is downloaded from the
DSM into RAM in the 5501C System Processor Module (SPM/APM functionality)
in both copies of the AC shelf where it is validated. Following validation, the AP
software is stored on the hard disk drive in the event that reinitialization is required.
Then the GCMs (all of which have internal BOOT code) are downloaded from the
hard disk. When the GCMs that are located in the port shelves have finished
receiving their download, they in turn download to the port modules located in the
same shelf. When the executable code has been fully downloaded, the cross-
connect map is loaded, and from this point the active system processor module can
respond to new cross-connect requests (or any other commands).

Note 1: Beginning with FP7.0, the 5501C System Processor Module (SPM) is
required for use in the Administrative Processor Module (APM) slot (#4)
of the 550A Administrative Complex (AC) shelf. Also, either the 5501B
SPM or 5501C SPM can be used in the Communications Processor
Module (CPM) slot (#3) of the 550A AC shelf. For systems running
FP6.1, the 5501C SPM can be used in either APM or CPM slots. How-
ever, for systems running FP6.0, the 5501C SPM is not supported in
either the APM or CPM slot.

Note 2: The 81.5501C cannot be used in a TITAN 5500 system running FP6.0
or lower loads. If the 81.5501C SPM is inserted into a system running
FP6.0, the module will reset and the following error message will appear:
"The 81.5501C SPM is not supported on a FP6.0 system. Remove this
card and insert an 81.5501B."

The 81.5501C SPM will then freeze and its fault LED will light. Once the
81.5501C SPM is removed from the FP6.0 system, it will be fully func-
tional in a system running FP6.1 or higher loads.

Software Updates 3.117 New features can be added to the system as they become available by
changing the software load. Each software load consists of four removable media
(four identical copies) containing the updated data. Each removable media
contains all of the following:
• upgrade information

• initialization information

• storage for backup information

Page 3-56 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves

3.118 Two variations of data storage modules are available:


• The removable media for systems equipped with 81.5502C Data
Storage Modules (DSMs) are ISO/IEC 13963 standard, 3.5-inch
optical disk cartridges.

• The removable media for systems equipped with 81.5502D Data


Storage Modules (DSMs) are Personal Computer Memory Care Inter-
national Association (PCMCIA) flash memory cards.

3.119 The initial software load was designated Feature Package 1.0 (FP1.0); the
numerical suffix increases to indicate the order of appearance of subsequent
loads. For example, the first update was FP2.0. Refer to Table 6.2, Feature
Package Description, in the TITAN 5500/S General Description, 76.5500/1, for a
brief description of all feature packages up to the current feature package. A new
software load must be downloaded to both AC shelves and validated by each of
them before it is allowed to be brought up to control the system. If the new load
cannot be validated, the old software is loaded back into both AC shelves.
3.120 The recommended procedure for changing the system software load is
contained in the Software Upgrade Procedure, 76.5500/17.

Remote Software Download 3.121 Introduced with FP8.0, the Remote Software Download (RSWD) feature
allows the distribution of feature package upgrade software from a remote server
to a designated system over an IP network via TL1 commands.

Note: The Remote Software Download (RSWD) feature is available in software


beginning with FP8.0, but the feature cannot be implemented until an
upgrade from FP8.0 to a higher feature package is performed.

Software Patch 3.122 A software patch consists of files that are created to solve a problem with
a particular feature package load. The advantage of a patch is that it can be
created quickly when needed to correct a traffic-threatening situation. It eliminates
the need to wait for the next feature package update to fix a problem. Patches are
developed as needed by Tellabs engineering personnel. Patches are downloaded
to the affected TITAN 5500/S location by removable entity.

Remote File Transfer Via 3.123 Beginning with FP6.1, the ability to transfer files to and from the TITAN
LAN system via FTP is available. This feature allows the TITAN system to receive soft-
ware patches remotely. The TITAN 5500 Element Management System (EMS) can
receive software patches over TCP/IP via FTP. Patches are then transferred to the
TITAN system over TCP/IP and may be activated using TL1 commands.

Remote Patch Activation 3.124 Beginning with FP8.0, the ability to activate software patches to the TITAN
system from a remote location via network operation channels (TCP/IP or OSI con-
nection) is available. This feature allows the TITAN system to receive and activate
software patches remotely, thus eliminating the need for on-site personnel during
the patch activation process.

Remote Patch Activation 3.125 Beginning with FP8.0, software patches can also be loaded into the IMED
upon Upgrade memory and activated at the time of an upgrade using a new patch parameter that
has been added to the STA-UPGRADE command. Once the upgrade is complete,
you have the option of activating a different patch which was already loaded onto
your system during the upgrade.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-57


3. TITAN 5500/S Facility Port Shelves Technical Description

USER NOTES

TELLABS DOCUMENTATION

Page 3-58 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network

4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network

Introduction
4.01 The TITAN 5500/S switch network provides the medium for creating cross-
connections between the port modules upon which facilities are terminated. Its
main function is to support and give substance to the cross-connect map, which
details in software the paths of all of the cross-connects that are required to coexist.
As previously stated, the DCS operator inputs the details of each cross-connection,
one at a time or in a range, to the TITAN 5500/S system, to build up the cross-
connect map. As it is being completed, the cross-connect map is stored in
nonvolatile hard disk memory and also is passed to the switch network, where it is
stored in RAM memory and used to configure the cross-connect paths.
4.02 In any given switch network, the total overall bandwidth is limited to some
nominal fixed value. Therefore, the TITAN 5500 port modules preconfigure all
signals to specific bandwidths and data formats before passing them through
cross-connections in the switch network. The essential requirement for passage is
compatibility with the STS1 SPE. This means that the signal being passed must be
some natural extension of the STS1 SPE, such as Tellabs SDF, an integral multiple
of it, or a natural subdivision of the STS1 SPE. Such natural subdivisions include,
but are not limited to, the TVT and QTVT signal formats. Refer to paragraph 3.03,
page 3-9, of this manual for a description of STS1 SPE, TVT, and QTVT formats.

Plan to Limit Obsolescence


4.03 All current digital transmission formats at or below 44.736Mbps can be
reconfigured in a virtual tributary format for transport within an STS1 SPE, as
adopted for the SONET. Since international agreement ensures SONET compati-
bility for future formats, the TITAN 5500/S switch network complies with this stan-
dard by incorporating a SONET-based architecture in its switch network. As facility
standards change, port modules will be designed to convert the new formats to
STS1 SPE-compatible formats for interfacing with the switch network.

Network Switching Levels


4.04 Two broad classes of switching levels have been defined for the TITAN
5500/S switch network: STS1 SPE and VT1.5/VT.5. Signals of other bandwidths
can pass through the switch network when adjacent VT1.5 or SPE bandwidth seg-
ments are connected. As previously stated, concatenation to achieve the higher
bandwidths is performed by the port modules and not in the switch network.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-59


4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network Technical Description

Switching Network Capacity Defined


4.05 Since the number of facilities that can be switched by a network of a given
size is directly related to the bandwidth of the facilities, the switching levels at
various bandwidths were standardized by reference to the SDF level to allow a
single figure for switch network capacity to be given. In terms of switching capacity,
1 SDF port equates to 1 STS1 facility, 1 DS3 facility, 28 DS1 facilities, or 21 E1 CST
facilities. The TITAN 5500/S switch network is available at present in configura-
tions that support 128, 256, 1024, 2048, or 3072 SDF ports, and further expansion
is being planned.

Switch Network Architecture


4.06 Due to the large port capacity of the TITAN 5500/S, the switch network is
provided with a multistage rather than a single-stage switch configuration. In all,
five stages are provided. These stages contain a core of three cascaded space
switch stages. This core is both preceded and followed by a time switch stage. A
256 SDF switch network configuration is shown in Figure 4.1, page 3-61, as it
relates to DS1, DS3, and OC-12 cross-connect systems. The core of three space
switch stages (stages 2, 3, and 4) is identical for all 256 SDF configurations, but
differences among the configurations concern the type and number of TSI and port
modules that are provided.
4.07 All five stages of the switch network pass data in the SDF format at
62.208Mbps and operate synchronously with the port modules. They are also
synchronized to an external stratum 3 (or greater) reference source when SONET
facilities are terminated on the TITAN 5500/S system.

Time Switch, Space Switch Comparison


4.08 Space switch operation differs from time switch operation in that space
switch stages constitutes an X-Y switch matrix. In contrast, time switch stages pass
subscribers’ data in a serial form in which the subscribers’ data channels appear
interleaved in accordance with a time-division multiplex scheme. Time stages
(stages 1 and 5 in Figure 4.1, page 3-61) perform their switching by interchanging
the time slots of the channels as they occur in the signal bit stream. (A time slot is
the switching level of the switch network; for a DS3/1 or DS1/1 facility interface, a
time slot is TVT1.5, and for an STS1 or DS3/3 facility interface a time slot is STS1
SPE.) Thus data received in one facility’s receive time slot can be delayed for
output on a common bus in another facility’s transmit time slot when the two facili-
ties were selected for cross-connection.
4.09 The two time stages are supported by TSI modules. Actually, stage 1
(receive) and stage 5 (transmit) are both supported by each TSI module. Each TSI
module provides two independent time slot interchange functions for each time
stage, one for the transmit direction and one for the receive direction. The TSI
module functions by reordering the time slots in time per the requirements of each
cross-connect, and in accordance with a routing algorithm. Any outgoing time slots
that may remain unused are filled with the “idle” code.

Page 3-60 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network

Figure 4.1 Typical TITAN 5500/S 256 SDF Switch Network Architecture

switch network
copy A or copy B
switch core

ports stages 1 & 5 stages 2 & 4 stage 3

1792 XMT 64 XMT 32 XMT


and double- 64 RCV / 32 RCV 72 XMT
RCV density SDF DS1/1 fibers IN ESM 72 RCV /
1792 DS1 pairs DS1/1 Paths TSI 16 CABLES module SDFs
Facilities port module
module
#1 #1 #1
#2 #2 #2
etc. etc. 2 modules
224 modules 8 modules
8 SHELVES

64 XMT 32 XMT
64 XMT 72 XMT
and 32 RCV
64 RCV / 72 RCV /
RCV DS3/1 DS3/1 fibers IN ESM CSM
SDF SDFs
pairs port TSI 16 CABLES module module
64 DS3 Paths
Facilities module module

#1 #1 #3 #1
#2 #2 #4 #2
etc. etc. 2 modules #3
64 modules 4 modules
4 SHELVES

60 XMT 144 XMT


60 RCV 144 RCV /
fibers IN ESM Coax cables
TSIO 30 CABLES module
module

#1 #5
#2 #6
#3 #7
etc. #8
10 modules 4 modules

10 XMT 40 XMT 120 XMT


and 40 RCV MM3, 120 RCV
RCV OC-12 STS3 MM3A, SDF
pairs port Paths MM3B, Paths
10 OC-12
module or MM3T
Facilities
module
#1 #1
#2 #2
etc. etc.
10 modules 40 modules
10 SHELVES

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-61


4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network Technical Description

4.10 The stage 2 and stage 4 space-switch functions are both supported by
each 81.5509 End Switch Module (ESM). The stage 2 function provides a 32x36
matrix over 32 time slots (per module), with a 4-port expansion toward stage 3. The
stage 4 function provides a 36x32 matrix over 32 time slots (per module), with a
4-port concentration toward stage 5. The number of time slots depends upon
switching level: for a switching level of TVT1.5, 32 time slots are used; for a
switching level of STS1 SPE, a single time slot is used.
4.11 The stage-3 space-switch function is supported by the CSMs. For systems
at 1024 SDFs or smaller, the 81.5508 CSM function provides three 32x32 matrices
over 32 time slots (per module). For systems greater than 1024, the 81.5508A
Center Switch Module (CSM) used in the 550G/GR shelves provides one 96x96
matrix (per module).

Switch Network Redundancy


4.12 The switch network is provided in duplicate, with each copy functioning
independently of the other. Each is capable of supplying cross-connect paths for
the entire system, in the event that the other fails. Both copies are normally in-
service simultaneously; an active port module passes the same data signal to both
copies of the switch network and expects to have an identical data signal coming
into it from both copies after being passed through the cross-connect. Therefore,
after a data signal passes through the switch network and enters the outgoing port
module, the nominally duplicate copies of the data signal are tested for parity and
compared for similarity, byte-for-byte. The port module uses a best-byte algorithm
to select the best signal for transmission toward the facility. Thus passing data is
protected against single-point network faults, and any network errors are quickly
detected and corrected.

Hitless Reconfiguring of Cross-connect Paths


4.13 To make the most efficient use of the switch network when the number of
cross-connects approaches capacity, existing cross-connect paths may have to be
reconfigured. To avoid making a hit on a facility while rerouting its cross-connect
path, a new path must be configured before the old one is removed. This require-
ment would result in blocking if reconfiguration were attempted through a filled
space-switch element. Such blocking is minimized in the TITAN 5500/S switch
network by giving each stage-2 and stage-4 switch element four additional ports,
looking inward toward stage 3, and each stage-1 and stage-5 TSI element has
additional time slots.

Rerouting to Prevent Blocking


4.14 The switch network is functionally nonblocking for all point-to-point cross-
connects. In the event of the failure of an initial routing attempt, an unblocking
procedure is initiated automatically. A path is then found that circumvents the
blockage, and both copies of the switch network are reconfigured accordingly.
Finally, the cross-connect path is activated and the port modules begin their
dynamic best-byte and best-clock selection from the outputs of both copies of the
switch network.

Page 3-62 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network

Switch Network Variations


4.15 The types of cross-connects that can be performed within a TITAN
5500/S are shown in matrix form in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1 Cross-connect Types Available Through the TITAN 5500/S

Termination Type (to side)

Wideband Broadband

DS1 constituent

STS3C (intact)
E1 constituent

STS1 (async)

STS1 (intact)
DS1 digroup

VT1 (async)

DS3 (intact)
VT1 (intact)
Termination Type
(from side)

DS1 digroup

Wideband DS1 constituent T1

VT1 (async) VT1

VT1 (intact)

E1 constituent E1
CST

DS3 (intact) T3
Broadband

STS1 (async) STS1

STS1 (intact)

STS3C (intact) STS3C

Shaded areas at the intersections between two termination types indicate


that cross-connections cannot exist between those termination types.

4.16 The type of TSI module that is selected for stages 1 and 5 of the switch
network must be coordinated with the type of facility interface (port module) being
used. For example, 5514/A DS1/1 port modules must interface to 5516 DS1/1 TSI
modules, 5514DD DS1/1 port modules must interface to 5516DD DS1/1 TSI
modules, and all DS3/1, DS3/3, and STS-1E port modules must interface to 5519
DS3/1 TSI modules. SONET optical ports must interface (via mapping modules) to
5546 TSIO modules. Furthermore, the number of port modules that can interface
to each TSI module is different in each case. This is illustrated in Figure 4.2,
page 3-65.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-63


4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network Technical Description

4.17 The top quarter of Figure 4.2, page 3-65, shows the switch network
configuration for DS1 interfaces. The middle quarter of the diagram shows the
configuration for DS3/STS1-1E interfaces, while the bottom half of the diagram
shows the configuration for SONET OC-12 interfaces. The differences in switch
configuration as a function of facility termination are described in detail in the fol-
lowing five paragraphs. To simplify the following description, only one copy of the
switch network (either copy A or copy B may be assumed) will be considered in the
discussion and shown in Figure 4.2, page 3-65.

DS1 Switch Configuration


4.18 When the TITAN 5500 is configured exclusively for DS1/1 terminations
and is provided with a switch network capacity of 256 SDF ports, a maximum of
7168 DS1 facilities can be terminated on the system. This requires 896 active
double-density DS1/1 port modules, each of which passes 8 DS1 signals which it
assembles into QTVT format. A maximum of 1792 signals of the QTVT format pass
from the port modules into the first stage of the switch network, which consists of
32 (maximum) DS1/1 TSI modules. Each TSI module takes 56 signals of the QTVT
format, performs a time slot interchange upon them as directed by the connection
map, and assembles them into 8 SDF buses via a time-division multiplex process.
Each SDF signal contains 28 DS1 signals (four DS1s per QTVT, times 56 QTVTs
per TSI), plus overhead data.

DS3 Switch Configuration


4.19 When the TITAN 5500 is configured exclusively for DS3 terminations and
is provided with a switch network capacity of 256 SDF ports, a maximum of 256
DS3 facilities can be terminated on the system. This requires 256 active DS3 port
modules (288 including redundancy), each of which assembles the 28 DS1 CST
signals or 21 E1 CST (or a DS3-intact signal) into 1 SDF signal. A maximum of 256
signals in SDF format pass from the port modules into the first stage of the switch
network, which consists of 16 (maximum) DS3/1 TSI modules. Each TSI module
takes 16 signals in SDF format, performs a time slot interchange upon them as
directed by the connection map, and passes them into the second stage of the
switch network containing the end switch modules. At the same time but in the
receive direction, it takes 16 signals in SDF format from stage 4 of the switch
network and performs a time slot interchange on them and then passes them into
the DS3 port module for reassembling into a DS3 signal.

STS-1E Switch Configuration


4.20 The switch configuration used when the TITAN 5500 is equipped for STS-
1E termination at the facility interface is essentially the same as for DS3 termina-
tion. The difference is that STS-1E port modules are used instead of DS3 port mod-
ules, and the port shelf has its option strap configured for STS-1E.

Page 3-64 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network

Figure 4.2 Typical Traffic Signal-flow Diagram for 256 SDF System
stages 4 RCV SDFs
PORT stages 2 & 4 4 XMT SDFs stage 3
1&5
termination per link
ranges
shelf Switch
8 SDFs #1
1* 1-224 TSI 1
8 SDFs ESM #1
2* 225-448 TSI 2
8 SDFs 16 fibers XMT/16 RCV 32 RCV SDFs
DS1 /1 & 3* 449-672 TSI 3 in 8 cables 32 XMT SDFs
DS1/1DD 8 SDFs
4* 573-896 TSI 4 Switch
facilities
#2

CSM #1
8 SDFs
5* 897-1120 TSI 5
8 SDFs ESM #2
6* 1121-1344 TSI 6 16 fibers XMT/16 RCV
8 SDFs 32 RCV SDFs
7* 1345-1568 TSI 7 in 8 cables 32 XMT SDFs
8 SDFs
8* 1569-1792 TSI 8 Switch
#3

16 SDFs ESM #3
1 1-16 TSI 9 16 fibers XMT/16 RCV 32 RCV SDFs
16 SDFs in 8 cables
2 17-32 TSI 10 32 XMT SDFs
Switch

One-half of center stage Switch shelf


DS3/STS-1E #4
facilities
16 SDFs 16 fibers XMT/16 RCV ESM #4
3 33-48 TSI11
32 RCV SDFs
4 49-64 TSI 12 16 SDFs in 8 cables 32 XMT SDFs
Switch

CSM #2
#5
12 SDFs spare or DS1 8 SDFs
1 1 TSI 13
test access ESM #5
12 SDFs 32 RCV SDFs
2 2 TSI 14 12 fibers XMT/12 RCV 32 XMT SDFs
in 6 cables Switch
3 12 SDFs #6
3 TSI 15
12 fibers XMT/12 RCV ESM #6
4 4 TSI 16 12 SDFs in 6 cables
8 SDFs 32 RCV SDFs
32 XMT SDFs
5 5 12 SDFs
TSI 17 Switch
12 fibers XMT/12 RCV
OC-12 16 #7
12 SDFs in 6 cables
facilities 6 6 TSI 18 SDFs
ESM #7
12 fibers XMT/12 RCV 32 RCV SDFs
7 7 TSI 19 12 SDFs 32 XMT SDFs

CSM #3
in 6 cables 16
12 SDFs SDFs Switch
8 8 TSI 20 #8

9 12 SDFs ESM #8
9 TSI 21 8 SDFs 32 RCV SDFs
12 fibers XMT/12 RCV 32 XMT SDFs
12 SDFs in 6 cables Switch
10 10 TSI 22
#9
NOTES: This part of system is This column of 8 ESMs represents
To maintain simplicity in provided with 1:N one entire end switch shelf unit.
the drawing, redundant redundancy where
modules and associated N: = 7 for DS1
paths have been = 8 for DS3
omitted.
This part of the switch network is duplicated for redundancy.
Dotted lines indicate card boundaries.
Redundancy for OC-3
or OC-12 is 1 + 1.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-65


4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network Technical Description

OC-3 Switch Configuration


4.21 When the TITAN 5500 is configured exclusively for OC-3 terminations and
is provided with a switch network capacity of 256 SDF ports, a maximum of 84 OC-
3 facilities can be terminated on the system. This requires 168 OPM3 port modules,
each of which can convert 1 OC-3 signal into an STS3 signal and provides 1:1
facility protection. The STS3 signal from each OPM3 is converted to three STS1
signals by one of four active MM3/A/B/Ts on its shelf. The MM3/A/B/T outputs this
signal in SDF format. A maximum of 252 STS1 signals in SDF format pass from
the MM3/A/B/Ts into the first stage of the switch network, which consists of 21
(maximum) TSIO module pairs. Each TSIO module takes up to 12 signals in SDF
format, performs a time slot interchange function on them and passes them into the
second stage of one copy of the switch network containing the end switch modules.
At the same time, but in the reverse direction, it takes up to 12 signals in SDF
format from stage 4 of the switch network, performs a time slot interchange function
on them, and passes them into the MM3/A/B/Ts for conversion into STS3 bit
streams.

OC-12 Switch Configuration


4.22 When the TITAN 5500/S is configured exclusively for OC-12 termination
and is provided with a switch network capacity of 256 SDF ports, a maximum of 21
OC-12 facilities can be terminated on the system. This requires 42 OPM12 port
modules, each of which can convert 1 OC-12 signal into 4 STS3 signals and pro-
vides 1:1 facility protection. The 4 STS3 signals from each OPM12 are converted
to 12 STS1 signals by an associated group of 4 MM3/A/B/T modules, which
outputs them in SDF format. A maximum of 252 STS1 signals in SDF format pass
from the MM3/A/B/T modules into the first stage of the switch network, which con-
sists of 21 (maximum) TSIO modules. Each TSIO module takes 12 signals in SDF
format, performs a time slot interchange function on them, and passes them into
the second stage of 1 copy of the switch network containing the end switch mod-
ules. At the same time but in the reverse direction, it takes 12 signals in SDF format
from stage 4 of the switch network, performs a time slot interchange function on
them, and passes them into the MM3/A/B/Ts for conversion into STS3 bit streams.
The STS3 bit streams are later mapped into OC-12 bit streams by the OPM12 port
modules.

Page 3-66 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network

Switch Network Synchronization


Intrasystem Synchronization 4.23 All five stages of the switch network pass data among each other and
between the port modules at the SDF rate of 62.208Mbps. (Fiber cables that
connect the end switch modules to the TSI modules are an exception; on these
cables the SDF rate is multiplexed 2:1 for operation at 124.416Mbps). The source
of timing information for the switch network is the 5524B Network Timing Distribu-
tion Module (NTDM), which supplies an SDF-rate clock signal and a frame align-
ment pulse to each CSM and ESM in the switch core. The frame alignment pulse
is applied at a time-zero reference point in stage 3, from which all skews are mea-
sured; timing flows outward in both directions from stage 3 (from the center of the
switch network and to the port modules). This is accomplished by loop-timing the
port modules back to their associated TSI modules. The TSI modules in stages 1
and 5 are loop-timed back to the ESMs in stages 2 and 4, respectively. In turn, the
ESMs are loop-timed back to the CSMs in stage 3.
4.24 Phase alignment is maintained over distances of up to 600 feet between
the port racks and the switch network racks by a process of skew management.
Skews in the phase alignment, due mainly to the propagation delays of inter-rack
cabling, are incurred and, for example, can reach 300ns when the length of the
fiber cable reaches 200 feet. Their effects are canceled by timing offsets that are
automatically calculated and programmed into the stages of the switch network
during system initialization. Distances up to 300 feet can be accommodated by
using standard cable, and up to 600 feet by using special low loss cable.

Asynchronous Operation 4.25 Beginning with FP6.0, the TITAN 5500/S system timing must be synchro-
nized to an external timing source for proper operation.

Synchronous Operation 4.26 Synchronous operation allows the entire TITAN 5500/S system to be
synchronized to an external timing reference, which is a requirement when inter-
facing with the SONET. It is accomplished by terminating redundant external refer-
ence signals upon the redundant 5507A/B Synchronization Interface Modules
(SIMs) resident in the AC shelves, which are described in TITAN 5500/S Adminis-
trative Complex, page 3-75. The synchronizing scheme is illustrated in Figure 4.3,
page 3-68. The output redundant timing references A and B for the SIMs are dis-
tributed to the NTDMs of both copies of the switch network. In this arrangement,
neither of the two copies of the switch network synchronize to the other, but both
synchronize to either SIM A or SIM B, as directed by the active SPM (APM func-
tionality) in the AC rack. If either reference fails, the SIMs for both copies of the
switch network automatically switch to the other reference (A or B) as required.
Reference signals can be derived from incoming T1 facilities or a DS1 Building
Integrated Timing Supply (BITS).

Synchronization Status 4.27 Synchronization Status Messages (SSMs) stating the overall stability and
Messages quality of the reference source can be received via the overhead of the reference
source signals. The available SSMs are listed in a table located in the TITAN 5500/
S General Description, 76.5500/1. This information can be used as a basis for
manually selecting (via TL1) either of the two references to be active or for causing
the selection to be made autonomously. The system is also able to relay SSMs and
source timing information to network elements via SONET overhead or DS1 facility
data link (if 5514DD DS1 port cards are used). SSMs comply with ANSI T1.105,
Telcordia GR-253-CORE, and a legacy K2-byte implementation. ANSI and Tel-
cordia-compatible SSMs are implemented via the S1 byte in the SONET overhead.
Lucent Technologies-compatible SSMs are implemented via the K2 byte in the
SONET overhead and are supported only for UPSR applications.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-67


4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network Technical Description

Figure 4.3 Synchronizing TITAN 5500/S to External Network


sync reference input B

sync reference input A

control/status UART bus control/status UART bus


to/from System to/from System
Processor Module (SPM) 5507A/B 5507A/B Processor Module (SPM)
(APM functionality), via Sync Sync (APM functionality), via
SCM 1 in copy A Interface Interface SCM 1 in copy A
Module copy A Module copy B
(SIM) (SIM)

TIMING TIMING
reference A reference B

5524A/B 5524/B
NTDM NTDM
copy A copy B

CENTER STAGE CENTER STAGE


SWITCH OF SWITCH OF
SWITCH SWITCH
NETWORK CSM CSM NETWORK

CSM CSM

Page 3-68 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network

Switch Network Control


4.28 Each copy of the switch network has its own GCM to provide resident pro-
cessing of local control, monitor, and test functions. Each copy of the GCM is syn-
chronized to the AC, independent of the other, over two inter-rack links using SCF
protocol (one from each SPM/ APM functionality). The active copy of the SPM
(APM functionality) provides both copies of the GCM with connection requests and
periodically polls both GCMs to receive status reports for their respective copies of
the switch network.

Note 1: Beginning with FP7.0, the 5501C System Processor Module (SPM) is
required for use in the Administrative Processor Module (APM) slot (#4)
of the 550A Administrative Complex (AC) shelf. Also, either the 5501B
SPM or 5501C SPM can be used in the Communications Processor
Module (CPM) slot (#3) of the 550A AC shelf. For systems running
FP6.1, the 5501C SPM can be used in either APM or CPM slots. How-
ever, for systems running FP6.0, the 5501C SPM is not supported in
either the APM or CPM slot.

Note 2: The 81.5501C cannot be used in a TITAN 5500 system running FP6.0
or lower loads. If the 81.5501C SPM is inserted into a system running
FP6.0, the module will reset and the following error message will appear:
"The 81.5501C SPM is not supported on a FP6.0 system. Remove this
card and insert an 81.5501B."

The 81.5501C SPM will then freeze and its fault LED will light. Once the
81.5501C SPM is removed from the FP6.0 system, it will be fully func-
tional in a system running FP6.1 or higher loads.

4.29 Both copies of the GCM monitor the following status points in their respec-
tive copies of the switch network:
• Power Alarms. Each GCM monitors the status of the two power supply
modules that reside in each center switch shelf and end switch shelf
of the switch network. The GCM then reports the result back to the
active SPM (APM functionality).
• Network Fault Detection and Isolation. Each GCM scans its copy of
the switch core in search of faults or failure conditions and reports the
results to the active copy of the SPM (APM functionality).

• Downloads. Each GCM contains a small amount of boot code in non-


volatile memory, which enables it to request and process downloaded
software code.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-69


4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network Technical Description

System Expansion
4.30 The TITAN 5500S system is available in a single configuration for up to
128 SDF ports. The TITAN 5500 system is available in four system configurations:
256 SDF ports, 1024 SDF ports, 2048 SDF ports, and 3072 SDF ports. Despite the
differences in system size, port shelves can be grown in all systems on a per-
module basis as needed, up to the limit of the switch network.

TITAN 5500S 4.31 The TITAN 5500S system is provided with the smallest footprint available
within the TITAN 5500/S family. All AC and switch network shelves fit into a single
rack. If future expansion is required, a TITAN 5500S to 5500 Expansion Package
enables growing the 128-port TITAN 5500S system into a 256NE (nonexpandable
beyond 256 ports), 256E (expandable beyond 256 ports), or 1024 port system. The
256NE system requires the addition of a single rack to mount the four switch
network shelves. The 256E and 1024 systems require the addition of four rack
spaces to mount the network shelves.

TITAN 5500 4.32 There are two different physical configurations of the 256-port TITAN 5500
system: a nonexpandable 256-port configuration with a minimum footprint to
conserve space and a 256 port expandable configuration that uses four equipment
rack spaces that can be easily grown to 1024 ports. In the 256 port expandable
system, floor space is left open for the addition of port racks, and empty racks are
provided and cabled for expanding the switch network. Refer to Figure 4.5,
page 3-71.

Note: The smaller 256-port configuration can also be expanded, but this expan-
sion requires additional steps and relocation of switch network shelves.
Refer to Figure 4.4, page 3-71.

4.33 At times, empty space is not available near the port equipment; therefore,
adding switch network racks may require a relocation of the AC equipment rack.
Figure 4.6, page 3-72, shows the configuration for a 1024-port TITAN 5500
system. Beginning with FP6.0, the 1024-port TITAN 5500 can be expanded to a
2048 port system. Beginning with FP7.0, the 2048-port TITAN 5500 system can be
expanded to a 3072 port system. Figure 4.8, page 3-73, shows the configuration
for a 3072-port TITAN 5500 system. It is recommended that the actual work of
installation and switch expansion be performed by the Tellabs Customer Services
Department.
4.34 The detailed procedure used to grow a 256-port TITAN 5500 system to a
new capacity of 1024 ports is provided in the 256 to 1024 5500 Expansion Proce-
dure, 76.5500/22. The detailed procedure to grow a 1024-port TITAN 5500 system
to a capacity of 2048 ports is provided in the 1024 to 2048 Expansion Procedure,
76.5500/34. The detailed procedure used to grow a 2048-port TITAN 5500 system
into a maximum capacity of 3072 ports is provided in the 2048 to 3072 Expansion
Procedure, 76.5500/49.

Page 3-70 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network

Figure 4.4 Typical (Nonexpandable) 256-port TITAN 5500 System

B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP

AC shelf center switch


copy B shelf copy B port shelf 4

AIP
end switch
shelf copy B port shelf 3
modem shelf
additional
port
shelves
AC shelf center switch
copy A shelf copy A port shelf 2

end switch
spares shelf port shelf 1
shelf copy A

Figure 4.5 Typical (Expandable) 256-port TITAN 5500 System


NC-A NC-B

B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP


AC shelf
vacant vacant vacant vacant port shelf 4
copy B

AIP
center switch center switch
vacant vacant port shelf 3
shelf 1, copy A shelf 1, copy B modem shelf
additional
port
shelves
end switch end switch AC shelf
vacant vacant copy A port shelf 2
shelf 1, copy A shelf 1, copy B

vacant vacant vacant vacant spares shelf port shelf 1

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-71


4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network Technical Description

Figure 4.6 Typical (Expandable) 1024-port TITAN 5500 System


NC-A NC-B

B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP

end switch end switch end switch end switch AC shelf


shelf 3, copy A shelf 4, copy B copy B port shelf 4
shelf 4, copy A shelf 3, copy B

AIP
center switch center switch center switch center switch
port shelf 3
shelf 1, copy A shelf 2, copy A shelf 1, copy B shelf 2, copy B modem shelf
additional
port
shelves
end switch end switch end switch AC shelf
end switch port shelf 2
shelf 1, copy A shelf 1, copy B shelf 2, copy B copy A
shelf 2, copy A

vacant vacant vacant vacant spares shelf port shelf 1

Figure 4.7 Typical (Expandable) 2048-port TITAN 5500 System


NC-X (one copy showing) Shown for Reference

B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP

end switch end switch end switch end switch AC shelf


shelf 3, copy X shelf 4, copy X shelf 7, copy X shelf 8, copy X copy B port shelf 4

AIP
C2 - copy X C1 - copy X C3 - copy X C4 - copy X port shelf 3
modem shelf

additional
port
AC shelf shelves
end switch end switch end switch end switch port shelf 2
shelf 2, copy X
A shelf 5, copy X shelf 6, copy X copy A
shelf 1, copy X

vacant vacant vacant vacant spares shelf port shelf 1

END STAGE SHELF CENTER STAGE SHELF CENTER STAGE SHELF


GCM - 5512A/B

POWER SUPPLY
NTDM - 83.5524B

POWER SUPPLY
POWER SUPPLY

POWER SUPPLY

POWER SUPPLY
POWER SUPPLY

CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A

NP - 5535/A

NP - 5535/A
NP - 5535/A
NP - 5535/A

NP - 5535/A

NP - 5535/A
ESM - 5509
ESM - 5509

ESM - 5509
ESM - 5509
ESM - 5509
ESM - 5509

ESM - 5509
ESM - 5509

BLANK
BLANK

550G 550GR

550C

Note: The 550G shelf is used in C1 only. The 550GR shelf is used in C2, C3
and C4.

Page 3-72 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network

Figure 4.8 Typical (Nonexpandable) 3072-port TITAN 5500 System


NC-X (one copy showing) Shown for Reference

B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP B/FAP

end switch end switch end switch end switch AC shelf


shelf 3, copy X shelf 4, copy X shelf 7, copy X shelf 8, copy X copy B port shelf 4

AIP
C2 - copy X C1 - copy X C3 - copy X C4 - copy X port shelf 3
modem shelf

additional
port
end switch AC shelf shelves
end switch end switch end switch port shelf 2
shelf 3, copy X shelf 4,
2, copy X
A shelf 7, copy X shelf 8, copy X copy A

end switch end switch end switch end switch


shelf 3, copy X shelf 4, copy X shelf 7, copy X shelf 8, copy X

END STAGE SHELF CENTER STAGE SHELF CENTER STAGE SHELF

GCM - 5512A/B

POWER SUPPLY
NTDM - 83.5524B

POWER SUPPLY
POWER SUPPLY

POWER SUPPLY

POWER SUPPLY
POWER SUPPLY

CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A
CSM - 5508A

CSM - 5508A

NP - 5535/A

NP - 5535/A
NP - 5535/A
NP - 5535/A

NP - 5535/A

NP - 5535/A
ESM - 5509
ESM - 5509

ESM - 5509
ESM - 5509
ESM - 5509
ESM - 5509

ESM - 5509
ESM - 5509

BLANK
BLANK
550G 550GR

550C

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-73


4. TITAN 5500/S Switch Network Technical Description

USER NOTES

TELLABS DOCUMENTATION

Page 3-74 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex

5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex

Introduction
5.01 In overview, the TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex (AC) provides
communications links between the TITAN 5500/S system and associated oper-
ating and maintenance personnel, including those interfaced through OSS. It con-
tains central as well as distributed processor units that translate typed input
instructions into electrical signals that set up the connection paths between the
facilities terminated upon the TITAN 5500/S. It also contains volatile and nonvola-
tile read/write memories for storing this connection map information as it accumu-
lates and for monitoring the performance of the digital facilities terminated upon the
system. Flash EEPROM is provided for boot-up operations that include internal
tests and diagnostic routines. Operating programs in the processor units monitor
the presence and condition of all plug-in circuit modules and use tests and diag-
nostic routines to ensure the continued health of the system. Information such as
the results of self-test and diagnostic routines, as well as confirmation messages
indicating command acceptance, are converted by the AC to TL1 output at the user
interface.
5.02 In addition, the AC provides a visual display of the system alarm status at
the equipment site, as well as alarm contact closures that output alarm status
signals to the office alarm grid. The time-of-day clock, which is used to provide a
time stamp for referencing each command, also is located within the AC. System
network synchronization, which can be derived from a free-running timing
reference, optionally can be derived from a reference that is synchronized to an
external office timing supply (stratum 3 or higher) for increased precision.
5.03 Administrative links to user-interface equipment terminate upon any of six
RS-232-C asynchronous serial communication ports on the AC. Two additional
ports support X.25 synchronous communication. Optionally, one or more links can
be provided with a modem or DDS-type DSU to allow remote connection to an
operational support center or to the Tellabs Customer Services Department.
5.04 Six IEEE 802.3 Ethernet LAN interfaces are terminated on two 5530D
Communication Interface Panels (CIP), which are mounted on the side of the AC
racks. All three redundant Ethernet interfaces can support an OSI link to the data
communications channel on the optical port shelves. One redundant Ethernet
interface can provide a high-speed TCP/IP administrative link to the TITAN 5500/S.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-75


5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex Technical Description

Physical Arrangement of the Administrative Complex


5.05 The AC is provided in a single equipment rack, regardless of the port
capacity of the system. This rack contains the following equipment:
• two 550A AC shelves, one active and one redundant

• one 5550 B/FAP, used for protecting equipment in the rack

• one 5540 AIP, used for displaying system alarm status

- This unit also contains alarm relays and test-access connectors


for T1 and T3 facilities.
5.06 The distributed part of the AC consists of the following co-processor
equipment:
• two 5512A/B GCMs located in the center switch control rack

• two 5512A/B GCMs per port shelf, one active and one standby

550A AC Shelf Module Complement


5.07 The module complement of the 550A AC shelf is the same in both copies,
and it consists of the following:
• Two 5534/A Administrative Complex Power Supply Modules (PSACs).
The 5534/A PSACs provide redundant power to the administrative
complex. Each 5534/A is capable of powering the entire shelf load by
itself if necessary.

• One 5501C System Processor Module (SPM/APM functionality). The


5501C SPM contains the CPU, which is the heart of the AC. The
5501C is a new component for TITAN 5500 systems, introduced with
FP7.0.

• One 5502C/D Data Storage Module (DSM). The 5502C/D DSM pro-
vides nonvolatile mass-storage for system configuration and connec-
tion map on a hard disk drive. Backup is provided by a removable
media. Software updates made available on removable medias are
downloaded through the removable storage drive on this module. The
5502C/D DSM has a hard disk drive in excess of 1GB.

- The removable medias for systems equipped with 81.5502C data


storage modules are ISO/IEC 13963 standard, 3.5-inch optical
disk cartridges.
- The removable media for systems equipped with 81.5502D data
storage modules are Personal Computer Memory Care Interna-
tional Association (PCMCIA) flash memory cards.
• One 5501B/C System Processor Module (SPM/CPM functionality)
(optional). The 5501B/C SPM (CPM functionality) is used for imple-
menting DCC or high-speed LAN links. It provides three Ethernet CO
LAN interfaces (IEEE 802.3) per AC shelf, using either TCP/IP or
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol. It also can perform
DCC routing from/to the optical interface shelves, through the AC
shelf. The 5501C is a new component for TITAN 5500 systems, intro-
duced with FP7.0.

Page 3-76 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex

Note 1: Beginning with FP7.0, the 5501C System Processor Module (SPM) is
required for use in the Administrative Processor Module (APM) slot (#4)
of the 550A Administrative Complex (AC) shelf. Also, either the 5501B
SPM or 5501C SPM can be used in the Communications Processor
Module (CPM) slot (#3) of the 550A AC shelf. For systems running
FP6.1, the 5501C SPM can be used in either APM or CPM slots. How-
ever, for systems running FP6.0, the 5501C SPM is not supported in
either the APM or CPM slot.

Note 2: The 81.5501C cannot be used in a TITAN 5500 system running FP6.0
or lower loads. If the 81.5501C SPM is inserted into a system running
FP6.0, the module will reset and the following error message will appear:
"The 81.5501C SPM is not supported on a FP6.0 system. Remove this
card and insert an 81.5501B."

The 81.5501C SPM will then freeze and its fault LED will light. Once the
81.5501C SPM is removed from the FP6.0 system, it will be fully func-
tional in a system running FP6.1 or higher loads.

• One 5504 Alarm Interface Module (AIM). The 5504 AIM provides
buffer registers and relay drivers for interfacing the 5501C SPM (APM
functionality) to the 5504 AIP. It also tests the sanity of both 5501C
SPMs (APM functionality) and determines which one will assume
active status.

• One 5506A/B System Communication Module (SCM 1). The 5506A/B,


when used as SCM 1, interfaces to the VME bus of the 5501C SPM
(APM functionality) and drives a LAN-type bus using the System
Control Format (SCF) for linking the 5501C SPM (APM functionality)
to the 5512A/B GCMs located in the switch network and port racks.
The 5501C SPM (APM functionality) functions as a master since it ini-
tiates all commands; the 5512A/B GCM functions as a slave and it
responds only when asked. An exception is that the 5512A/B GCM ini-
tiates all communication pertaining to fault detection, isolation, and
recovery.

• One 5506B System Communication Module (SCM 2). The SCM 2 slot
is equipped with a 5506B to support additional 1Mbps group controller
LANS used in port racks and is similar to the LANs described above.

• One of either of the following two Synchronization Interface Modules:

- 5507A Synchronization Interface Module (SIM). The 5507A SIM


synchronizes the switch network to an external reference signal.
- 5507B Synchronization Interface Module (SIM). The 5507B SIM
synchronizes the switch network to an external reference signal
and is required for use in 2048-port and /3072-port systems.
• Two 5530D Communication Interface Panels (CIP) (optional). The
5530D CIP is a connector panel that provides a termination point for
the Ethernet CO LAN interfaces used by the 5501B/C SPMs (CPM
functionality) in the AC shelves. In addition, it provides mounting for
two Ethernet transceivers when required by the DPM LAN. The 5530D
CIPs mount on the right side of the rear of the rack adjacent to the
respective AC shelf.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-77


5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex Technical Description

Administrative Complex Architecture


5.08 The overall architecture of the AC is shown in Figure 5.1, page 3-79. This
drawing illustrates distributed control, which is a key feature of the TITAN 5500/S
system. With regard to distributed control, the 5501C SPM (APM functionality)
(CPU) is located in each AC shelf. (The AC shelf is provided in duplicate for redun-
dancy, and both copies are located in the AC rack.) A variable number of 5512A/B
GCMs act as microprocessors with the 5501C SPM (APM functionality) to dis-
tribute control to the switch core and to the port shelves. One 5512A/B GCM,
located in one of the center switch shelves, controls all center switch modules and
end switch modules provided in copy A of the switch core, while another 5512A/B
GCM functions similarly in the redundant copy B of the switch core. Due to each
being located within its respective copy of the switch core, these 5512A/B GCMs
maintain alternative redundant paths and provide for a switch network reconfigura-
tion. In addition, a pair of 5512A/B GCMs, one active and one redundant, is pro-
vided in each port shelf. These 5512A/B GCMs, located with their associated port
equipment, provide for prompt port module protection switching upon detection of
a facility failure among many other maintenance and configuration functions.

Page 3-78 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex

Figure 5.1 Architecture of TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex

5512A/B TO ALL CENTER


group SWITCH
controller LAN SCF copy A MODULES AND
END SWITCH
LAN SCF copy B MODULES
#1
#2 TO ALL
#n CENTER- 5524B
SWITCH NTDM
one copy-B module 1
MODULES module
per port shelf

5512A/B
group 2
controller

3
all port shelves
to/from LIMS, ports, TSIs OR
switch core external
copy B router
(5549A only)

FROM NEXT PAGE


switch core
copy A
5512A/B
group
controller LAN SCF copy A
TO ALL CENTER
LAN SCF copy B SWITCH
#1 MODULES AND
#2 END SWITCH
#n TO ALL MODULES
one copy-A module CENTER
per port shelf SWITCH
MODULES
5524B
NTDM
4
module
TO/FROM ALL WORKING 5512A/B
PORT group
MODULES ON OPTICAL PORT controller
5

5549/A
DCC copy-B DCC LAN
processor 6
copy-A DCC LAN OR
external
one copy-A module per router
optical port shelf (5549A only)

TO/FROM ALL
PROTECTION PORT

5549/A
DCC
processor

one copy-B module


per optical port shelf

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-79


5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex Technical Description

Figure 5.2 Architecture of TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex (Continued)


A 5550 BREAKER/ALARM
POWER
5540
FEEDS B INTERFACE PANEL
ALARM
INTERFACE
TEST PANEL SYNCHRONOUS
REFERENCE
5504 5501C INPUT
ALARM SYSTEM
INTERFACE VME bus PROCESSOR 5 CONTROL
MODULE UART MODULE 6 CHANNEL
acting as APM 7 links:
TO 5, 6, 7= ASYNC
5507A/B 8*
OTHER AC 8 = SYNC X.25*
SYNC SCSI
1 INTERFACE bus
MODULE

HARD REMV
5506A/B DRIVE DRIVE
2 SCM 1 5502C/D data
storage module
3
5506B
5534/A
SCM 2 (optional) 5501B/C

CROSS-COPY LINK
POWER
SYSTEM SUPPLY,
(optional) FEED
PROCESSOR ADMIN
5530D MODULE “B”
5534/A COMPLEX
COMM. acting as CPM
INTERFACE POWER
FEED
PANEL SUPPLY, 550A shelf
“A”
ADMIN ADMIN COMPLEX B
COMPLEX

SYNCHRONOUS
5504 REFERENCE
5501C INPUT
ALARM SYSTEM
INTERFACE VME bus 1 CONTROL
PROCESSOR
MODULE UART 2 CHANNEL
MODULE
3 LINKS:
TO acting as APM
5507A/B 4* 1, 2, 3= A SYNC
OTHER AC
SYNC 4 = SYNC X.25*
SCSI
INTERFACE bus TO/FROM
4
MODULE ADMINISTRATIVE
COMPLEX
SERIAL LINKS
HARD REMV
5506A/B DRIVE DRIVE AS REQUIRED
5
SCM 1 5502C/D data
storage module
6
5506B (optional) 5501B/C 5534/A 5560A
SCM 2 SYSTEM POWER MODEM
FEED SHELF
PROCESSOR SUPPLY,
(optional) MODULE ADMINISTRATIVE “B” (OPTIONAL)
5530D acting as CPM COMPLEX
5534/A
COMM. 5562/5564
FEED POWER
INTERFACE MODEM
“A” SUPPLY, 550A shelf
PANEL MODULES
ADMINISTRATIVE ADMIN COMPLEX A
COMPLEX
5561A
POWER SY

OUTSIDE LINES
CO LAN

Page 3-80 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex

Signal Flow Within the Administrative Complex


5.09 Signal flow within the AC, including flow to the distributed elements in the
switch network and port racks, is shown in Figure 5.1, page 3-79, and is described
in the following paragraphs.

Note: The 5549 and the 5549A DPM modules cannot be intermixed on a LAN
run configured as standard. If using a mix of 5549 and 5549A DPM
modules configure the LAN run as proprietary. Similarly, if using all 5549A
DPM modules, configure the LAN run as standard.

5.10 Three types of signal lines terminate upon the AC equipment rack: the
administrative links, the telephone lines that may terminate upon the optional
modem shelf, and the SIM reference lines (used for synchronizing the system to
the communications network). The first four administrative links terminate upon the
5501C SPM (APM functionality) located in copy A of the AC shelf, while the
remaining four terminate upon the 5501C SPM (APM functionality) located in copy
B of the AC shelf. Although one copy of the 5501C SPM (APM functionality) is
always in standby, its four links remain active at all times and their data passes to
the active 5501C SPM (APM functionality) through a cross-copy link between
SPMs. If telephone lines connecting to a remote operations support center
terminate upon the modem shelf, this shelf is user-equipped with modems, as
required, and the RS-232-C ports of these modems are user-terminated to one or
more of the available six links.
5.11 A pair of redundant reference lines from a stratum-3 (or higher) clock ter-
minates upon the AC rack of the TITAN 5500/S system to provide timing reference
for the synchronous facilities. This requires providing a 5507A/B SIM to each copy
of the AC shelf. Each 5507A/B SIM terminates one reference line and uses the
derived signal for synchronizing its internal precision clock. This clock performs two
functions. First, it drives a timing reference bus that terminates upon the 5524B
NTDM in each copy of the switch network. Second, this bus provides a path by
which both copies of the switch network synchronize to the active external refer-
ence source.
5.12 Copy A and copy B of the AC shelf are identical, except for the numbering
of their administrative links (links 1 through 4 are located on copy A, and 5 through
8 are located on copy B). The 5501C SPM (APM functionality) in each AC copy
manages mass storage and retrieval to/from its 5502C/D DSM via a SCSI bus. The
5501C SPM (APM functionality) interfaces to the 5504 AIM, 5506A/B SCM mod-
ules, and the SPM (CPM functionality) in its shelf via a VME bus. The 5504 AIM
processes alarm signals that it receives from the 5501C SPM (APM functionality)
and then uses them to control the display on the 5540 AIP and to control the relay
contacts that interface to the office alarm grid and/or remote telemetry scan points.
The 5506A/B SCM modules convert the VME bus to a LAN-type bus that uses
Tellabs SCF for communicating with the 5512A/B GCMs in both copies of the
switch network and in each of the port shelves.
5.13 The 5501B/C SPM (CPM functionality), located in slot 3 of each AC shelf,
is a central control unit that supports data communication channel routing or high-
speed communication channels (Ethernet links). The 5501B/C SPM (CPM func-
tionality) communicates with the 5549 DPMs using an internal 10BASE2LAN, and
with external CO LAN devices using 10BASE2, 10BASE-T, or 10BASE5 via the
5530D CIP. The 5549A DPM communicates to the CIP or an external switch/router
using a 10BASE2LAN or an internal 1082 LAN.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-81


5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex Technical Description

Note 1: Beginning with FP7.0, the 5501C System Processor Module (SPM) is
required for use in the Administrative Processor Module (APM) slot (#4)
of the 550A Administrative Complex (AC) shelf. Also, either the 5501B
SPM or 5501C SPM can be used in the Communications Processor
Module (CPM) slot (#3) of the 550A AC shelf. For systems running
FP6.1, the 5501C SPM can be used in either APM or CPM slots. How-
ever, for systems running FP6.0, the 5501C SPM is not supported in
either the APM or CPM slot.

Note 2: The 81.5501C cannot be used in a TITAN 5500 system running FP6.0
or lower loads. If the 81.5501C SPM is inserted into a system running
FP6.0, the module will reset and the following error message will appear:
"The 81.5501C SPM is not supported on a FP6.0 system. Remove this
card and insert an 81.5501B."

The 81.5501C SPM will then freeze and its fault LED will light. Once the
81.5501C SPM is removed from the FP6.0 system, it will be fully func-
tional in a system running FP6.1 or higher loads.

5.14 Ethernet CO LAN supports both TCP/IP or Open Systems Interconnect


(OSI). Each 5501B/C SPM (CPM functionality) connects to an external CO LAN
and the DCC LANs via a 5530D CIP, which is mounted at the rear of the AC rack.
The 5530D CIP provides mounting and power for three Ethernet transceivers,
when required.
5.15 Protocol conversion takes place at the SPM, functioning as a CPM. The
following conversions are supported for the TL1 Command Language:
• Telnet over TCP/IP to OSI

• TCP/IP to OSI

• X.25 to OSI

• asynchronous RS-232 to OSI

5.16 For more information on available Data Communication Channel (DCC)


configurations, refer to the TCP/IP and DCC Activation Manual, 76.5500/46.

Redundancy Switching Within the Administrative Complex


5.17 Although two copies of the AC shelf are provided, only one copy can be
active; the other will be standby, unless it has failed. While in standby, the redun-
dant copy of the AC shelf is not completely off-line because in addition to providing
four fully active administrative ports, it also receives ongoing information from the
5501C SPM (APM functionality) in the active AC shelf via the cross-copy link. This
information keeps the standby shelf’s RAM and mass-storage memories updated
so that it can take over for an active shelf that fails.

Page 3-82 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex

Active/Standby Status Arbitration Between Administrative Complex Shelves


5.18 Initially, each 5501C SPM (APM functionality) continuously checks its own
sanity. It does this in part by regularly re-setting its internal watchdog timer. In addi-
tion to its alarm processing circuitry, each 5504 AIM contains one-half of a latch
circuit whose output state determines which APM and which AC shelf is active.
This latch is controlled by a pair of watchdog timers, one of which is located in the
5504 AIM in each AC shelf. The watchdog timer in each 5504 AIM receives
watchdog-reset signals from the 5501C SPM (APM functionality) located in its AC
shelf. In the interval following either system turn-up or system reset, when neither
5501C SPM (APM functionality) is active, the 5501C in either one of the AC
shelves (at random) retriggers its watchdog timer before its counterpart in the other
AC shelf, and seizes control of the AIM latch to become the active 5501C SPM
(APM functionality). The AIM latch then causes the lock out of the 5501C SPM
(APM functionality) on the other AC shelf so that it cannot become active when its
watchdog timer validates its sanity.

Active/Standby Status Arbitration Between GCM Modules


5.19 The 5506A/B SCM in each copy of the AC shelf interfaces to the 5512A/B
GCM in both copies of the switch network and to both copies of the 5512A/B GCMs
in all of the port shelves. However, the 5512A/B GCMs respond only to commands
issued by the active AC shelf. Since both copies of the switch network are normally
active at the same time, both copies of the 5512A/B GCM in the switch network
also are active. In the port racks, only one copy of the pair of 5512A/B GCMs is
active in each port shelf. Which of the pair becomes active is determined by an
arbitration process set up between the two 5512A/B GCMs of the shelf. Each port-
shelf 5512A/B GCM uses an internal watchdog timer to verify its sanity. This
watchdog must be regularly reset within a preset window of time; if it expires
without being reset, it automatically resets the entire module, causing the other
copy of the 5512A/B GCM module to become active. Each copy of the 5512A/B
GCM communicates its active/standby status to the other copy (and to all of the
port modules in the shelf) so that only one copy will be active and the copy in
standby will activate itself when signaled by the other 5512A/B GCM that it is going
into standby status.

External Reset of Administrative Complex


5.20 A sense point is provided, recessed behind a small hole on the AIP, for
resetting the SPMs (APM functionality) in both copies of the AC. This action ini-
tiates a reset via the reset line of the VME bus.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-83


5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex Technical Description

Time-of-Day (TOD) Clock Options


5.21 The TOD clock in copy A of the AC shelf, and its counterpart in copy B, are
synchronized to each other periodically and whenever either copy of the TOD clock
is set.
5.22 The TOD clocks in the 5501C SPMs (APM functionality), present in the two
copies of the AC shelf, is the source of timing for the AC. These clocks, having a
tolerance of better than ±2 minutes per month, are sufficiently accurate for ordinary
record keeping purposes.

Alarm Interface Panel


5.23 The 5540 AIP is located within the AC rack at a height that is convenient
for craft access to test ports and view the system alarm status. It connects to both
copies of the AC shelf, where it terminates upon the 5504 AIMs.

Alarm Reporting
5.24 Summary alarm conditions generated within a TITAN 5500/S system are
processed by the active AC shelf and then passed to the 5540 AIP. The AIP
accepts alarm control signals, activates appropriate relays to send signals to the
CO, and reports back to the AC shelves that the relays have actually operated. All
alarm states processed through the AIP, as well as the state of the Alarm Cut-off
(ACO) function, are also prominently displayed by incandescent lamps provided on
the front panel. In addition to visual displays, the front panel contains a Lamp Test
pushbutton and an ACO pushbutton.
5.25 The 5540 AIP processes and displays the following five alarm functions,
shown in Figure 5.3, page 3-85:
• Critical Alarm. This alarm is signaled by a red lamp that is normally
dark. The critical alarm relay is normally energized, but it de-energizes
after both power sources fail, to create an alarm state. Its output con-
sists of two sets of form-C contacts provided for connection to the
office alarm grid.

• Major Processor Alarm. This alarm is signaled by a red lamp that is


normally dark. The major processor alarm relay is normally de-ener-
gized, but it energizes if both AC shelves fail. Its output consists of two
sets of form-C contacts provided for connection to an office alarm grid.

• Major Alarm. This alarm is signaled by a red lamp that is normally dark.
The major alarm relay is normally de-energized, but it energizes if a
major alarm signal is received from either copy of the AC shelf. Its
output consists of two sets of form-C contacts provided for connection
to an office alarm grid.

Page 3-84 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex

• Minor Alarm. This alarm is signaled by a yellow lamp that is normally


dark. The minor alarm relay is normally de-energized, but it energizes
if a minor alarm signal is received from either copy of the AC shelf.
Output consists of two sets of form-C contacts provided for connection
to an office alarm grid.

• ACO Active. This alarm is signaled by a green lamp that is normally


dark. The ACO-active relay is normally de-energized, but it energizes
if an ACO-active signal is received from either copy of the AC shelf. Its
output consists of two sets of form-C contacts provided for connection
to an office test panel. This function can be activated either by a push-
button on the 5540 AIM front panel or by an optional user-provided
external pushbutton.

Figure 5.3 5540 AIP Front Panel Showing Alarm Displays

Inputs for External Control by Users


5.26 Inputs for the ACO and CPU-reset functions are terminated on the rear
panel wire wrap block for optional user-provided devices such as pushbuttons or
telemetry output contacts. Each function has its own set of four wire wrap pins on
the block. Two of these pins provide a current-limited power source derived from
the redundant −48Vdc supplies, and a termination for the power-return lead. The
remaining two are the actual input pins, which are floating with respect to ground.
This input responds to a signal greater than 2.5V and a current greater than 1.0mA
(for TTL compatibility) in either direction, but it is not damaged by continuous appli-
cation of up to 56V. The power pins can be used in conjunction with a simple
contact closure, or they can be disregarded when the input is derived from a
switched power source.

DS1 and DS3 Test Ports


5.27 Eight pairs of Western Electric (WECo) Type-358 jacks are provided on the
left side of the 5540 AIP front panel for terminating the in (receive) and out
(transmit) pairs of eight DS3 test-access ports. These jacks terminate, one for one,
in eight pairs of similar jacks provided on the 5540 AIP rear panel for connection
by the installer to the eight DS3 ports that are dedicated for test access.
5.28 In addition, eight pairs of dual bantam jacks are provided on the right side
of the 5540 AIP front panel for terminating the in (receive) and out (transmit) pairs
of eight DS1 test-access ports. These jacks terminate in self-contained wire wrap
pins that are accessible through the 5540 AIP rear panel for connection to the eight
DS1 ports that have been dedicated for test access.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-85


5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex Technical Description

Administrative Link Termination on the AIP


5.29 Two RS-232-C (DB25) female connectors are provided on the front of the
5540 AIP for use in connecting local administrative terminals to the system. Each
connector provides convenient access to an RS-232-C serial port for system
control. A three-foot cable is wired to the rear of each connector, and the other end
of the cable terminates in a male connector that mates with any one of four RS-
232-C connectors provided on the backplane of an AC shelf. Each of the two con-
nectors terminates on a different AC shelf.

Ethernet DCC and CO LAN Termination on the AC Rack


5.30 Three IEEE 802.3 Ethernet LAN interfaces terminate on each 5530D CIP,
which are mounted on the side of the AC rack adjacent to its respective AC shelf.
The Ethernet interface can provide a high-speed administrative link to the TITAN
5500/S, and/or it can provide a link to the DCC on the optical port shelves. Using
a 5530D CIP requires AC shelves to be equipped with 5501B/C SPMs (CPM func-
tionality) and optical port shelves to be equipped with 5549/A DPMs. For DPM LAN
use, an additional requirement is to install a 10Mbps DCC intra-system LAN. The
overall arrangement is shown in Figure 5.4, which represents the DCC path asso-
ciated with either the working or protection optical port terminations. Beginning with
FP6.1, the 5549A DPMs can bypass the CIP and the 5501B/C (CPM functionality)
and connect the DCC LAN directly to an external OSI switch/router. Refer to Figure
5.5, page 3-87.

Figure 5.4 DCC Path Routing and Processing


CO LAN

OPM3 DPM DCC LAN CIP SPM


DCC path
or (5549/A) (5530D) (5501B/C)
fiber optic OPM12 CPM
FACILITY functionality

OPM3 DPM CIP SPM


DCC path (5549/A) (5501B/C)
or (5530D)
fiber optic OPM12 DCC LAN CPM
FACILITY functionality

CO LAN

Page 3-86 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex

Figure 5.5 Enhanced DCC Path Routing and Processing

OPM3 DPM
DCC path
or (5549A)
fiber optic OPM12
FACILITY DC
C
LA
N SWITCH
ROUTER CO LAN

N
LA
C
DC
OPM3 DPM
DCC path (5549A)
or
fiber optic OPM12
FACILITY

DCC Configurations 5.31 For more information on available Data Communication Channel (DCC)
configurations, refer to the TCP/IP and DCC Activation Manual, 76.5500/46

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-87


5. TITAN 5500/S Administrative Complex Technical Description

USER NOTES

TELLABS DOCUMENTATION

Page 3-88 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 6. TITAN 5500/S Power Distribution

6. TITAN 5500/S Power Distribution

Overview
6.01 Dual central-office-supplied -48Vdc sources are distributed to each equip-
ment rack in the TITAN 5500/S system and terminate on a 5550 B/FAP located at
the top of each rack. Dual -48Vdc outputs from the 5550 B/FAP in each rack are
distributed to both power supply modules in all shelves in its rack. The power
modules provide fused, filtered, regulated, and redundant power to each shelf
backplane.

Redundancy Strategy
6.02 All power supply modules within each shelf are duplicated. Each of the
dual central office power sources feeds half the power supply modules. With this
arrangement, should one power source or one power module fail, the other source/
module can carry the entire power load for the shelf. Alarms are provided to signal
equipment failure and to identify the location of the trouble.

Power Distribution Scheme

Grounding
6.03 Frame (equipment rack) ground connections are provided by a copper
ground bar at the top of each rack. A 6AWG (American Wire Gauge) or larger wire
must be tied from this bar to the central office ground system. A two-hole lug is
supplied for each rack.
6.04 The TITAN 5500/S system is grounded in like manner to the method used
to distribute A/C power in the United States. Equipment racks are grounded, and
the -48Vdc power returns can float with respect to this ground. No galvanic
connection exists between the -48Vdc power returns and frame ground in the
TITAN system.
6.05 Backplane signal returns are grounded to the frame at several points to
provide good RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) shielding and to minimize noise
voltage on wiring shields. Since power conversion takes place on each shelf in the
system, ground current cannot flow in the equipment frames. Signals that run
between frames have isolated returns or use coaxial construction to provide noise
immunity. Fiber optic cables are used for high-speed signals, eliminating RFI
emission concerns.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-89


6. TITAN 5500/S Power Distribution Technical Description

Power Distribution
6.06 The central office must provide a dual -48Vdc feed for each rack in the
TITAN system. Each dual feed must be fused at 40A maximum to prevent damage
to wiring in the 5550 B/FAP, where power is split off to shelf breakers at lower
currents.
6.07 The four wires required for each power feed are listed below:
• -48Vdc A feed

• "A" return

• "B" return

• -48Vdc B feed

6.08 The return wires are connected inside the 5550 B/FAP so that a pair can
be removed without disturbing the return connection.
6.09 The correct size wire must be used so that the voltage at the input never
drops below -42.5Vdc when one feed is carrying the entire rack load.
6.10 Should a fault occur in the wiring to a shelf, one breaker on the 5550
B/FAP will trip. Refer to Figure 6.1. The fuses used to provide the rack power may
also blow when a fault is cleared by a shelf breaker. The second feed and breaker
will continue to supply shelf power.

Figure 6.1 Breakers and Fuses Provided on 5500 Breaker/Frame Alarm Panel

LED labels here cover shown in breakers fuses


correspond open position
to shelf type

frame alarm lamp


alarm module LEDs ESD jack for wrist
shows thru hinged
show thru front straps
cover
panel

Page 3-90 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description 6. TITAN 5500/S Power Distribution

Fault Location Indicators


Trouble Reporting via 6.11 The Breaker/Frame Alarm Panel provides no signals for trouble reporting
Software Diagnostics via TITAN 5500/S self-diagnostic software. Only visual indications and relay
contact closures are provided.
6.12 Each power supply module provides two signals monitored by system
software via in-shelf control components. One signal simply indicates the presence
of the module. The second indicates good power output.

Fault Location Indicators 6.13 The 5550 B/FAP contains a frame alarm lamp that lights if a trouble
indication is received from any shelf in the frame, a breaker trips, or a −48Vdc feed
fails. The panel also contains a green LED to indicate the presence of at least one
operational feed and five red LEDs to indicate problems associated with the 5550
B/FAP itself or with any of up to four shelf alarm inputs. These visual indicators
direct craft personnel to the shelf causing the problem, so that only one shelf cover
in the frame needs to be removed for further observation.
6.14 The 5550 B/FAP also provides a pair of normally open Form C relay
contacts that transfer (close to form a conducting path) if a total power failure
occurs or if the frame alarm lamp lights. These contacts can be connected to an
aisle alarm lamp supplied by the user.
6.15 The 8x.5534/A PSAC modules provide a green Power LED on their front
panels. This LED lights only when the module is supplying acceptable power to the
shelf, and it is dark under all other conditions. The 82.5534A PSAC module pro-
vides test jacks on the front panel.
6.16 The 82.5534/A PSNP modules provide a green Power LED on their front
panels. This LED lights only when the module is supplying acceptable power to the
shelf, and it is dark under all other conditions.
6.17 The 82.5535 PSNP modules provide a green Power LED on their front
panels. This LED lights only when the module is supplying acceptable power to the
shelf, and it is dark under all other conditions.
6.18 The 83.5535/A PSNP module contains a two-color Power LED on its front
panel. This LED lights green when the module is supplying acceptable power to
the shelf. It lights red when either of the output voltages fail, provided that the
module is still receiving -48Vdc power through its connector on the backplane of
the shelf. During -48Vdc input power failure, this LED remains dark. The 83.5535A
PSNP module provides test jacks on the front panel.

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-91


6. TITAN 5500/S Power Distribution Technical Description

USER NOTES

TELLABS DOCUMENTATION

Page 3-92 9/03 76.5500/3, Rev J2


Technical Description Index

Index

Numerics signal flow 3-81


administrative links 3-75
5501B system processor module (SPM) 3-76
alarm profiles 3-48
5502C data storage module (DSM) 3-76
alarm reporting 3-84, 3-85
5504 alarm interface module (AIM) 3-77
architecture
5506A/B system communication module (SCM 1) 3-77
0550E DS3 port shelf 3-12, 3-24
5506B system communication module (SCM 2) 3-77
0550E DS3 port shelf optioned for STS-1E 3-29
5507A sync interface module (SIM) 3-77
0550K SONET OC-12 port shelf 3-12
5507B sync interface module (SIM) 3-77
0550M double density DS1/1 port shelf 3-12, 3-17
550E DS3/STS-1E port shelf optioned for DS3 3-18
550J/K OC-3/OC-12 port shelf 3-13
5512B group controller module (GCM) 3-43
OC-3 port shelf 3-36
5514DD double density DS1/1 port module 3-13
port shelves 3-9
5515DD T1 line interface module 3-15
TITAN 5500 administrative complex 3-78, 3-79
5516DD DS1/1 time slot interchange (TSI) module 3-
audits 3-7, 3-50, 3-55
15
administrative complex database synchronization
5517A DS3/1-3/3 combo port module 3-21
(DBSAC) 3-48
5517B DS3/3 port module 3-20
connection management content integrity
5517C G747 DS3 port module 3-21
5518 T3/EC1 line interface module 3-22 (CMCI) 3-47
5519A G747 DS3/1 time slot interchange (TSI) network content integrity (NCI) 3-48
module 3-23
5519 DS3/1 time slot interchange (TSI) module 3-22 B
5520 STS-1E port module 3-25 best-byte, best clock 3-14
5520T STS-1E (TMUX) port module 3-25 bipolar violations (BPV rates) 3-46
5530D communication interface panel (CIP) 3-77 bit error rates 3-46
5534/A power module 3-76, 3-91
5535/A power module 3-44 C
5540 AIP front panel 3-85 commanded PMHSO 3-50
5542A/B SONET OC-3 port module (OPM3) 3-30 common functionality 3-44
5543A/B SONET OC-12 port module (OPM12) 3-37 common modules 3-43
5544A MM3A I-mux mapping module 3-11, 3-31, 3-32, cross-connect types 3-1
3-39
5544B MM3B B-mux mapping module 3-32, 3-39
5544 MM3 triple STS-1 mapping module 3-32, 3-39 D
5544T MM3T T-mux mapping module 3-11, 3-32, 3-39 database structural integrity (DBSI) 3-47
5545A MM3A I-mux mapping module 3-11, 3-31, 3-39 data communication channel (DCC) LAN 3-11
5545B MM3B B-mux mapping module 3-32, 3-39 DCC 3-35, 3-41
5545 MM3 triple STS-1 mapping module 3-32, 3-39 diagnostics 3-7, 3-19, 3-20, 3-22, 3-26, 3-47, 3-55
5545T MM3T T-mux mapping module 3-11, 3-32, 3-39 DPM 3-35, 3-41
5546 TSIO time slot interchange optical module 3-34, 3-
39 E
5549A DCC processor module (DPM) 3-34, 3-40 electrical carrier level interface (EC-1) 3-10
5549 DCC processor module (DPM) 3-34, 3-35, 3-40 equipment
port 3-3
A switch network 3-3
administrative complex 3-5, 3-75 Ethernet 3-82
550A AC shelf module complement 3-76 expansion, of TITAN 5500/S 3-70
active/standby status 3-83
alarm interface panel 3-84 F
external reset 3-83 facility
physical arrangement 3-76 alarm and maintenance conditions 3-20
redundancy switching 3-82 monitoring 3-45

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-93


Technical Description Index

port shelves 3-9 performance monitoring and alarm suspension See PA-
failures SUSP
fault detection and protection switching 3-44 performance monitoring high-speed output 3-50
fault indication/escalation 3-14, 3-20, 3-90 Personal Computer Memory Care International Associ-
firmware/software characteristics 3-55 ation (PCMCIA) 3-57
command language 3-56 PMHSO
processing in port shelf modules 3-55 commanded 3-50
processing in the administrative complex 3-56 PMHSO See performance monitoring high-speed
random access and read only memory (RAM and output 3-50
ROM) 3-55 port racks 3-4
software updates 3-56 port shelf
flash memory card 3-57 functions 3-12
floating VT1.5 byte 3-11 port-to-switch network optical transmission 3-50
framing modes 3-17, 3-19 power distribution 3-90
grounding 3-89
H redundancy strategy 3-89
hard failures 3-46
hitless reconfiguring of cross-connect paths 3-62 Q
Quad Tellabs Virtual Tributary (QTVT) bus 3-52
L
LBO See line build-out R
level II performance monitoring 3-11, 3-27 redundancy 3-6
linear automatic protection switching (APS) 3-31, 3-38 redundant module switching 3-15
line build-out (LBO) 3-27 redundant provisioning
line-interface modules (LIMs) 3-9 double-density DS1/1 3-16
link termination 3-86 DS3/1 and/or DS3/3 shelf modules 3-23
loopback OC-12 shelf modules 3-41
DS1 interface 3-14 OC-3 shelf modules 3-35
DS3 interface 3-19, 3-21 STS-1E shelf modules 3-28
loss of frame (LOF) 3-46 remote backup and restore 3-6
loss of signal (LOS) 3-46 remote patch activation 3-57
remote patch activation upon upgrade 3-57
M remote software download 3-57
rerouting 3-62
maintenance 3-6
router 3-35, 3-41
mapping payloads into SDF 3-52

N S
SCF (system control format) LAN bus 3-50
network content integrity (NCI) 3-48
SDF (system data format) capacity 3-2
network switching levels 3-59
shelf
81.0550J/K OC-3/OC-12 3-4
O 81.0550J/K OC-3/OC-12 port shelf 3-4
obsolescence 3-59 81.0550K OC-12 3-4
optical carrier level 81.0550M double density DS1 3-4
OC-12 3-10 82.0550E DS3 (optioned for DS3) 3-4
OC-3 3-10 82.0550E DS3 (optioned for STS-1E) 3-4
optical interface to the end switch module 3-16 SHR See system health report
out of frame (OOF) 3-46 soft failures 3-46
software-controlled line build-out (LBO) functions 3-14
P software patch 3-57
PASUSP 3-14, 3-19, 3-20, 3-21, 3-25, 3-27 Software Release Document (SRD) 3-2
payload pointer 3-10 SONET-based cross-connect system 3-1
PCMCIA 3-57 STS1 synchronous payload envelope 3-10
performance monitoring 3-13, 3-18 switch configuration
DS3 3-64

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Technical Description Index

OC-12 3-66
OC-3 3-66
STS-1E 3-64
switch network
architecture 3-60
capacity 3-60
control 3-68
redundancy 3-62
variations 3-63
synchronization
asynchronous operation 3-67
intrasystem synchronization 3-67
status messages 3-67
synchronous operation 3-67
synchronous optical network 3-9
synchronous transport signal level 1 3-9
system control format (SCF) LAN 3-11
system data format (SDF) 3-11
system health report (SHR) 3-8

T
T3 line build-out (LBO) 3-27
Tellabs virtual tributary 3-10
time slot interchange 3-15, 3-22
time switch, space switch comparison 3-60
transmit and receive redundancy
logic 3-15
relays 3-15
switching 3-22, 3-27, 3-34
transmux 3-11, 3-27

U
Unidirectional Path Switched Ring (UPSR) protection
switching 3-31, 3-38

V
virtual tributary 3-10

W
watchdog timer 3-7, 3-83

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-95


Technical Description Index

USER NOTES

TELLABS DOCUMENTATION

76.5500/3, Rev J2 9/03 Page 3-96