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APARICIO- MAEd Physical Science

1. As an educator advocating environmental conservation and natural resources sustainability, give at

least five (5) teaching strategies ( for 5 different topic) and the corresponding intended learning
outcomes for each one. Briefly discuss each strategy.

1. Differentiated Instructional Strategy- Differentiating instruction is teaching the same

material to all students using a variety of instructional strategies. This method benefits a wide
range of students, from those with learning disabilities to those who are considered high
ability. It is a way in which the teacher anticipates and responds to a variety of students needs
in the classroom.
2. Show and Tell Strategy- Telling simply involves sharing information or knowledge with
students while showing. It involves modelling how to do something. It provides the student
ample time to speak in front leading to become more confident in theirselves.
3. Teaching and Learning Strategy- Students are engage in activities, such as discussion or
problem solving that promote analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
4. Summarizing Strategy- in summarizing strategies, this includes the use of outline, flow-charts
and Venn diagram. This is to help students to summarize what they have learned and to
understand the interrelationships between the aspects of what you have target.
5. Discussion Strategy- it involves two-way communication between the students. In the classroom
situation, the teacher and students participate in the discussion. During the discussion, the teacher
spends time in listening and student keep on talking. The discussion therefore is more active learning
experience between the student and the teacher.
2. As one of the concerned soul in this Universe that communes and cares for the Planet, enumerate the
7 environmental principles and discuss at least two (2) that struck you most.

We are considered as the steward of God’s creation thus we should use it responsibly and protect
it through conserving and applying different sustainable practices as we are liable of the effect if we
will just disregard and do put action on it. There are seven environmental practices that we must
uphold and apply for the benefit not only to our living home, the planet but also to humanity. These
are as follows: 1. Everything is connected to everything else. 2. All forms of life are important. 3.
Everything must go somewhere. 4. Ours is a finite earth. 5. Nature knows best. 6. Nature is beautiful
and we are stewards of God’s creation. 7. Everything changes.
Out of these seven environmental practices, everything is connected to everything else and all
forms of life are important, are the two principles that struck me most.
In the ecosystem, all biotic and abiotic components are linked together to make sure that the
system is maintained and bind as one functional unit. If not, it may result to unevenness and
deterioration of the system. For instance, the trees are considered as the living home to aerobic
plants and animals such as insects and birds. Once these plants and animals die, they will decompose
and add to soil fertility. Plants provide the oxygen to animals in aerobic respiration whereas animals
give carbon dioxide to plants for photosynthesis. Furthermore, the quality of the soil depends on the
type of vegetation that is present on it while vegetation backs to the minerals of the soil when they
die and decompose. All these biotic components are affected also by the abiotic components such as
soil, temperature and air that’s why both of them are dependent to each other in order to live.
Each living organisms that are existing plays a vital role in the nature. Like for example, if there is
only one species living in a certain area, no homeostasis will occur in the ecosystem and these
species might not live any longer. There must have a niche, as all living things of different species are
valuable to each other and each of them is created for a purpose. If one of these species becomes
extinct, it is like removing a piece of a jigsaw puzzle from the web of life. Food webs, food chains and
ecological relationships associate the flora and fauna together in the web of life. Even bacteria,
insects, snakes and rats have ecological functions although humans distinguish them as parasites or
pests. Snakes limit the rat population and spiders decreases the population of mosquitoes and flies.
3. Through time there is a change in landscape due to erosion. Discuss the influence of some agro-
climatic conditions for soil erosion to occur.

Soil erosion is a mainly a serious problem globally faced by humanity. It leads to the
loss of topsoil and organic matter which are indispensable for the growing of plants. Soil
compaction, low organic matter, loss of soil structure, poor internal drainage, salinisation and
soil acidity problems are serious soil degradation conditions that can accelerate the soil
erosion process. Moreover, erosion is faster because of the following agroclimatic factors:
rainfall, wind and drying out of soil due to overexposure to heat. Erosion by the aid of natural
agent which is water is the most widespread and serious because the force of gravity on
water may lower the shear strength of landscape slopes making soils moist and easily eroded.
Soil erosion by water happens when sloped soil surface is exposed to great rainfall and the
rainfall intensity go beyond the rate of soil intake leading to soil-surface runoff. Soil erosion
exists in two stages: 1) detachment of soil particles by raindrop impact, splash, or flowing
water; and 2) transport of detached particles by splash or flowing water. Wind erosion on the
other hand, happens in any area where the soil or sand is not compact and very fine in
nature. Air pollution affects also in drying out and lessening the nutrients of the soil.
Enveloping crops, covering highways, and invading homes, the sand, dust, and dirt formed
from wind erosion can impact plant and human life in many ways. Sunlight has also a direct
effect on the soil. Sun heat dry up the soil which caused had chemicals and minerals to
Agricultural management practices are chiefly significant in reducing soil erosion such
as reducing tillage, maximizing ground cover with food crops, plant residues, and perennial
cover crops. These practices don’t only reduce soil erosion but also promote soil formation,
carbon sequestration, and nutrient preservation.
4. What are the sources of freshwater? Illustrate the processes that are involved in the hydrologic cycle
pertaining / emphasizing on fresh water. Explain each process comprehensively as possible.

One part of the water cycle that is vital to all life on this living planet is the existence
freshwater on the land surface. Freshwater flows by means of instream and outstream. Instream
flows are the into streams and rivers. Outflows are the flows from estuaries to the coastal ocean.
Fresh water is commonly categorized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts. It is mostly
found ice caps, glaciers, ponds, lakes, rivers, and underground water. The hydrological cycle or the
water cycle starts with the evaporation of water from the surface of the ocean. This water will turn
to moist air and begins to cool and then it condenses forming the clouds. The water from the clouds
falls to the Earth by precipitation in the form of rain. The precipitation may penetrate or infiltrate in
the ground and become a ground water or else it will be a runoff. The runoff disappears from the
ground surface as it evaporates and some of it flows into streams or rivers back into the ocean where
cycle start again. On the other hand, the groundwater may infiltrate on the surface and enters back
into the streams and rivers or it will be absorb by the atmosphere in the process of transpiration and
again undergo a water cycle.
5. With many issues/problems we are facing right now, e.g. water scarcity, soil degradation, ozone layer
and habitat destruction, and many more. As a graduate student in a research-based curriculum, design
a research proposal that focuses on one of this issue. Please follow the outline below:


Introduction: The use of water for agricultural production in water scarcity regions requires innovative and
sustainable research, and an appropriate transfer of technologies. This paper discusses some of the farm
irrigation management including the use of treated wastewater and saline water. The paper proposes
concepts related to water scarcity, drought, and water shortage as well as the policies to cope with this water
scarcity. Conceptual approaches on irrigation performances, water use and water savings are reviewed in
wide perspective. This is followed by a discussion of supply management to cope with water scarcity giving
particular attention to the use of wastewater including the respective impacts on health and the environment.
Then the paper focuses on demand management, starting with aspects relating to improvement of irrigation
methods and the respective performances, mainly the distribution uniformity as a fundamental tool to reduce
the demand water at the farm level, to control the over-irrigation.
Review of Literature: Water is become a scarce not only in drought areas but also in regions where rainfall is
abundant. The sustainable use of water – resource conservation, environmental friendliness, appropriateness
of technology, and social acceptability of the issues – is a priority for agriculture in water scarce regions.
Imbalances between availability and demand, degradation of surface and groundwater quality are some of the
factors for the water to become scarce. Innovations are required relative to irrigation management and

Methodology: Conduct an interview based from the respondents that you have. Asking some questions how
to mitigate water scarcity through irrigation management using the variables, treated wastewater and saline