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Steps in Epidemic
Activities Tools Indicator for completion of step
 History, PE, Laboratory Tests When the diagnosis has been
1. Verify diagnosis Case Definition
 Compare with case definition established
 Count the cases
When it is confirmed that the
2. Confirm existence of  Compare with usual occurrence
Line Graph current incidence is markedly in
epidemic  Determine if current incidence is in excess of the
excess of the usual
 Determine the type of epidemic
 Determine the probable period of exposure
 Determine the age- and sex- specific attack rates
 Determine specific attack rates for other
When the characteristics as to
characteristics Epidemic Curve
3. Characterize as to person-place-time provide a
 Determine where cases live, work or may have Attack rates (incidence rate)
person-place-time basis for the formulation of
been exposed Spot map
 Observe for
 Clustering
 Patterns
 Determine area- specific attack rates
Analytic studies
4. Identify source of When sources and mode of
 Compute for the measure of association. (Retrospective cohort and
etiologic agent. transmission are identified
case control)
5. Institute control When control measures have
measures. been initiated.

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