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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Project Context

It is widely accepted that the use of information and communication technology

(ICT) in the healthcare sector offers great potential for improving the quality of services

provided, the efficiency and effectiveness of personnel, and also reducing organizational

expenses

Traditional systems are replaced with information systems that provide patient

safety and improve the quality and efficiency of health care systems. Different

innovations , such as electronic patient records and especially hospital information

systems , have significantly changed the workflow in healthcare

In the innovative reform of healthcare systems the role of information technology

(IT) and information systems (IS) is recognized as a catalyst. In particular, integrated

information systems within the secondary healthcare domain are expected to upgrade the

services provided to patients, support the rational allocation and use of resources by

either saving resources or improving productivity and create innovative products and

services

Macabebe District Hospital patient records have been in paper – pen system and

have been used to store patient care data, wherein, it resulted to difficulty in searching for

that particular file of the patient. In view of this, MDH agrees to have a hospital

information system that would help them organize their hospital records and for more fast

and efficient service among their clienteles.


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A hospital information system (HIS) is a socio-technical subsystem of a hospital

which consists of information processing together with the associated human or technical

actors in their respective information processing roles. Hospital Management System

(HMS) for Macabebe District Hospital is a computer-based system that would allow them

to transact with their clients without using paper-pen system. It integrates all the

information regarding patients, doctors, staff, and hospital administrative details into one

software. It has sections for various professionals such as receptionist, hospital

administrator, cashier and doctors that make up a hospital. The system allows the user to

create systematic patient files, ensuring that all patients’ individual information is

recorded efficiently and in one place. In addition, the system provides accessibility to

complete and accurate data of the patient for the management to know and be reminded

about the conditions that need corrective soon. Particularly, focuses on the data collection

that is effectively and efficiently collects information from inpatient and outpatient

respectively. Also, this developed system allows all-inclusive function that will give the

hospital access from the administrative office, billing, to their cashier, up to the pharmacy

and other 13 directory rooms that would like to pay a visit or be admitted.

The whole management system for Macabebe District Hospital will cover the

patient’s records, history, medical treatment done, assigned doctors, medicines and

billing information for both inpatient and outpatient. For doctors’ use, it will allow them

to see their schedules and the patient’s information assigned to them. For the

receptionists’ use, it will give them the information about the assigned doctor and the

patient’s information as well the room. For hospital administrator, he/she will be able to
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access all the information of the hospital including the patients up to the cashier. Lastly,

for the billing or cashier, they will be able to see the billing information of the patients as

well as its records.

Project Objectives

The main objective of the capstone project entitled “Hospital Management System

for Macabebe District Hospital” is to manage the information regarding patients, doctors,

staff, and hospital administrative details into one software. The project is totally built at

administrative end therefore, he/she has all-inclusive to the system. The purpose of the

project is to build a management system to reduce the manual work for managing the all

Hospital information but not limited to patients and doctors.

General Objective

To provide hospital management information system for Macabebe District

Hospital

Specific Objectives

The scope covers only to the requirement documentation, design and the whole

system. Therefore, Macabebe District Hospital, the one who can handle above mention

part.

1. Design a system for better patient care.

2. To collect personal and medical data to identify the system’s requirements by

patients filling up some documents, especially for those first-time admitted

patients, for their information that would be recorded in the system.


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3. Provide MIS (Management Information System) report on demand to

management for better decision making.

4. Provide top management a single point of control.

5. Admin can view the information about the profile, schedule and the times they’ve

logged in.It can monitor the number of inpatient and outpatient.

Hospital management System handles activities of major departments in a hospital like:

1. Front Office/OPD Management

2. Patient management (scheduling, registration and long-term care)

3. Patient care management and departmental tests (radiology, pharmacy and

pathology labs)

4. Billing

5. Medical Stores

6. Financial Accounting (billing, insurance processing, materials management,

accounts payable/receivable, payroll and general ledger)

Hospital management system can be developed by using waterfall model which is a

popular version of development life cycle model for software engineering. It describes a

development method that is linear and sequential. It has distinct goals for each phase of

development. In this model once, a phase of development is completed, there is no

turning back, the development proceeds to the next phase. The advantage of this model is

that it allows for departmentalization and managerial control.

The proponents’ survey-questionnaire will be used as an evaluation tool in evaluating

the system.
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Significance of the Study

The study aims to develop a system for Macabebe District Hospital to help their

services to be accurate and easy to serve for their patients. Also it can provide various

benefits to the following:

Hospital Administrator. The system will help them improve and make sure that

operational and clinical decision-making process is fast, accurate, and efficient. With an

easy, single view availability of data points, doctors, and medical support staff gets

facilitated.

Patients. The system will make transaction fast, accurate and efficient

Receptionist. The system will help them avoid errors and track every single detail

resulting to quick and fast service.

Doctors. The system will provide convenience for the doctors to see their schedules

and patients information.

Macabebe District Hospital. The system provide fast and accurate transactional

and management reports that give an instant feel of how the business is doing. It will also

achieve good quality ratings as well as establishing MDH as technically advanced

Future Researchers. The data on the system will help to further improve and

create hospital management system


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Scope and Limitations

This project is basically designed for Macabebe District Hospital. This project is for

analyzing and developing a hospital management system to manage the entire

information in the health care such as:-

 Patient information: personal patient information, patient consultations

history, patient treatments and diagnosis, patient medications history,

patient appointments, patient documents, and patient payments.

 Doctors’ schedule information.

 Products and medicine information.

 Health care client information such as insurance companies.

 Users Scope

Doctors can only see their schedules, Patient information: personal patient

information, patient consultations history, patient treatments and diagnosis,

patient medications history, patient appointments, patient documents. He/She

cannot create patient/admit or remove patient.

Receptionist can only see the doctors’ schedule, Patient information:

personal patient information, patient consultations history. He/she can create

patient/admit or remove patient.

Hospital Administrator has the access to all information from Doctor’s

Schedule to Patient information: personal patient information, patient consultations

history, patient treatments and diagnosis, patient medications history, patient

appointments, patient documents, and patient payments.


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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE SYSTEMS

This chapter provides the studies done by the previous researchers and articles

that are related to the project. It is the review of the related literature and studies after

doing some thoroughly and in-depth research conducted by all of the members. This

chapter includes discussion that is alike to the concepts of the study. The major point of

the study is to develop a Hospital Management System for Macabebe District Hospital.

Studies, Inquiries, or investigations already conducted to which the present

proposed study is related or has some bearing or similarity. They are usually unpublished

materials such as manuscripts, thesis, and dissertations. It is composed of discussions of

facts and principles to which the present study is related.

Related Literature Systems

The use of information systems (ISs) has increased in the last 10 years not

only by firms, but also by individuals and even governments. The use of ISs was

encouraged by the technological breakthroughs; the advancements in

telecommunications such as the internet, the globalization that created a global

unlimited marketplace, the strong growing for information economy, and the rise

of competitive digital firms. All of these factors transformed the ISs from data

processing systems to decision support systems and became the foundation of

the new business environment (Munirat, Sanni, and Kazeem, 2012).


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As the world’s population increases, and as a significant proportion of

making human beings live longer than ever in history, health issues are

becoming more prominent in politics and economies. It is, therefore, no surprise

that the world of information technology (IT) has linked up with the medical world

and the field of health information systems (HISs) and has grown into a special

focus area in the circles of Information and Knowledge Management (Serobatse,

2013).

Hospital Information Systems (HIS) are increasingly becoming an emerging

tool in health care arena to efficient delivery of high quality health services. HIS is

a necessary component of modern hospital infrastructure. HIS is considered a

prerequisite for the efficient delivery of high quality health care in hospitals. The

use of information technology in hospitals to improve quality and reduce costs

dates back to the early1960s.(Hayajneh, Hayajneh, et al., 2006).

Most health centers nowadays use new information management systems

like hospital information systems (HIS) in order to integrate the patients'

information and modify communication patterns among different hospital wards

and the professional staff. HIS can play a significant role in providing the

patients‟ safety. In fact, it can be said that hospital information systems are big

and organized data bases that are utilized to integrate patients' information for

the purpose conducting official and administrative undertakings. In hospital

information systems, computers and communication devices are used to collect,

store, process, and retrieve patients' data and contact between patient care and

official information in all hospital activities and also to meet the system users'
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needs. Hospital information systems should not only support the hospital

activities in practical, technical, and strategic perspectives but also protect

medical and organizational processes of the patients in separate and integrated

way in order to provide them with better service, decrease medical costs, reduce

service provision time, minimize medical faults, and document the patients‟

documents. Now a high quality information system is required to support the

medical process and meet the service receivers‟ needs (Aghazadeh, et al. 2013).

(Ismail, et al., 2010) defined Hospital Information System (HIS) is a

comprehensive, integrated information system designed to manage the

administrative, financial and clinical aspects of a hospital. (HIS) is also defined as

a comprehensive software for patients‟ information integration for sending and

exchanging comprehensive patients‟ information between wards and other

medical centers in order to expedite the process of patient care, improve quality,

increase satisfaction and reduce costs (Aghazadeh, et al., 2012). (Khalifa, 2014)

considered (HIS) as a major part of the healthcare system, on which the

processes of care delivery. While (Farzandipour, et al. 2011) defined Hospital

Information System as one of the most common computer systems that have

been designed to support health care services. These systems are large

computerized data bases intended primarily for communication and store health

and administrative information. They also believe that HIS implementation is an

organizational process conducted toward information technology within user

community. User community in health care arena consists of many different user

groups (physicians, nurses, administrators, managers, researchers, etc.).


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A Patient Information System (PIS) is just another component of this

comprehensive process, aiming to increase the efficiency with which hospitals

work. The general principle behind such a system is the enabling of the

authorized hospital staff to store and access data for their patients. This patient

information system is connected to a database which is protected through

several layers of security (World Health Organization [WHO], 2012). There are

several users of this system including doctors and nurses, hospital IT support

staff and lastly, patients (Paul, Ezz, & Kuljis, 2012). T

The engagement of these three main components in the patient information

system is what enables this system to yield satisfactory results. Patients together

with doctors provide the data for the system, i.e. personal information and

medical record. This information is used again by doctors in all other meetings

with their patients and also by managers to generate data about costs and other

maintenance related details (WHO, 2012). Other features of this system include

allowing patients to schedule meetings at available time slots, thus, increasing

the interactivity between patient and doctor (WHO, 2012).

Types Hospital Information System

Clinical information system: Clinical Information systems are based on

technology and applied at the point of care. The system is designed, based on

the requirement and need for support and processing of information. The CIS

systems provide storage with processing capabilities. (Abubakar, 2015)

Community based on health information system: Community health

Information network (CHIN) may be conceived as a network that links health care
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stakeholders throughout a community, region or district. It also facilitates an

efficient flow of funds information among various 29 providers, employers and

other stakeholders within a specified area. (Rodrigues J, 2010. Health

Information systems, concepts, systems, tools)

According to Paras Kumar Bishwakarma et al (2014), “Hospital management

system” is a computerized system designed and programmed to deal with day to day

operations taking place. The program can look after inpatients, outpatients, records,

database treatments, status illness, billings in the pharmacy and labs. It also maintains

hospital information such as ward id, doctors in charge and department administering.

The purpose of the project is to computerize the Front Office Management of Hospital to

develop software which is user friendly, simple, fast, and cost – effective. It deals with

the collection of patient’s information, diagnosis details, etc. Traditionally, it was done

manually. The project outlines all the process followed to come up with the software that

is from analysis to testing the system.

According to Ricoh (2015), “Ricoh HIMS” manage and automates your medical

records and documents. It will be easy to keep track of appointments and availability of

doctors, hospital rooms, ambulance, OPD etc. over a click. It provides you with robust

and secure data storage along with the facility of data backup and recovery. Easy and

quick document retrieval Patients charts and other medical reports are at your fingertips.

Remote access to all the records related to patients, doctors, medicine, ambulance etc.

Smart and easy clinical work flow. Security compliance to assure privacy.
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According to Christopher Bain (2014), “Developing effective hospital management

information systems: A technology ecosystem perspective” The environment in which

hospital managers operate is characterised by high demand pressures, strong public

service expectations, and an ever diminishing income stream (in relative terms) with

which to provide services. Even in private hospital care, many of these pressures still

apply, as well as a pressure to maintain profit margins. The agenda context here is a

complex one, particularly when one considers the role of hospitals in this context.

Hospitals have multiple competing priorities when viewed from a management

perspective. This is despite the fact that the core mission of the hospital is to provide

timely, safe care within available human and financial resources, to patients who present

for care. This care can be across multiple care settings inside the hospital including the

inpatient space, the operating theatres, the intensive care unit, and the emergency

department; and in outreach settings. Hospitals however, have been described as a series

of cottage industries each loosely coupled with a common objective of supplying care to

patients. All of these factors combine to mean that managing a hospital with the above-

mentioned aim in mind, is a very difficult task.

According to Khaled Mohammad Ali et al (2015) “Centralized Medical Practice

Management Software System” this project was to construct a centralized patient

management system that would serve as a consolidated platform to provide an effective

and efficient mechanism for patient management and means for availing various

healthcare and health related services. The entire system is designed to streamline the

patient management system by primarily targeting small and medium sized hospitals,

diagnostic centers as well as individual practices of physicians by centralizing the process


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maintaining schedules, queues and appointments. Direct call ambulance service, locating

nearest ER facilities, blood bank and pharmacy with respect to user location have also

been encompassed to provide a holistic approach. Currently operations of these

procedures are of an erratic where due to delays and other factors of inefficiency

management services can neither be properly delivered nor availed. Using this system the

patients can locate services which are best suited for their need, based on different criteria

including specialty, location, queue and other aspects which are deemed to be of

convenience. The service providers; such as doctors or their assistants, diagnostic center

staff, etc. can manage appointment schedule using the token system; patients can be made

aware in real time of their current position in queue and be informed of delays or

situations of cancellation.
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Khaled Mohammad Ali, et al. (2015). Factors Influencing The Success Of Hospital
Management Information Systems In A Mental Hospital In Indonesia,
international journal of information system and engineering, 1(1), 2265-2289.

Paras Kumar Bishwakarma, et al. (2015). Information retrieval from hospital information
system: increasing affectivity using swarm intelligence. Journal of Applied Logic,
13(2), 126-137.

Khalifa, M. (2014).Technical and human challenges of implementing hospital


information systems in Saudi Arabia.Journal of Health Informatics in Developing
Countries, 8(1), 298-343.

Munirat, Y., Sanni, I., Kazeem, A. (2014). The Impact of Management Information
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(IJHSSE)1, 76-86.

Aghazadeh,S., Aliyev, A., Ebrahimnezhad, M. (2013). Study the effect of Hospital


Information Systems (HIS) on Communication Improvement and Service Quality
among Nursing Staff, Life Science Journal, 10(s), 307-310 .

Serobatse, M. D. (2013). The Challenge of Implementing Health Information Systems.Int


J Med Inform, )2-3(64, 56-143.

Rodrigues, G. (2012). Assessment of Hospital Information System Quality in


MultiSpecialty Hospitals. Intern

Farzandipour, M., F. Sadoughi, et al. (2011). Hospital information systems user needs
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Ismail, A., A. T. Jamil, et al. (2010). The implementation of Hospital Information System
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Hayajneh, Y. A., W. A. Hayajneh, et al. (2006). Extent of Use, Perceptions, and


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