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Cover page

Abstract
Acknowledgment
Table of Contents
I Introduction...................................................................................................................................3

1.1 Background of the Study 3

1.2 Statement of the Problem 4

1.3 Significance of the Study 4

1.4 Scope and Limitation 5

1.5 Definition of term 5

Chapter II.........................................................................................................................................7

Review and Related Literature........................................................................................................7

Environmental Factors 7

Personal factors 10

Chapter III......................................................................................................................................12

Methodology..................................................................................................................................12

3.1 Research Design 12

3.2 Population and Sampling Procedure 12

3.3 Research Instrument 12

3.4 Data Gathering Procedure 13

3.5 Analysis of Data 13


3.6 Validity of Results 13

Chapter IV.....................................................................................................................................14

Results and Discussion..................................................................................................................14

4.1 Graph 1.Start of smoking 14

4.2 Graph 2. Influence to Smoke 15

4.3 Graph 3. Family Awareness 16

4.4 Graph 4. Reason for smoking 17

4.5 Graph 5. Frequency of smoking 18

4.6 Graph 6. Place to spend smoking 19

4.7 Graph 7.After effect of smoking 21

4.8 Graph 8. Willingness to Stop Smoking 23

4.9 Graph 9. Management Intervention 24

V Conclusion.................................................................................................................................27

References......................................................................................................................................28

List of figures

Appendix A....................................................................................................................................29

Appendix B....................................................................................................................................30

Appendix C....................................................................................................................................32

Abstract 33
I. Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to Reitsma et al., (2017) Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned

and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Most

commonly the substance is the dried leaves of the tobacco plant which have been rolled into a

small square of rice paper to create a small, round cylinder called a "cigarette". Lock et al.,

(2003) The history of smoking dates back to as early as 4000 BC in the Americas in shamanistic

rituals. Smoking has been practiced in one form or another since ancient times. Many ancient

civilizations, such as the Babylonians, Indians and Chinese, burnt incense as a part of religious

rituals. In Ancient Greece, smoke was used as healing practice The Greek

historian Herodotus also wrote that the Scythians used cannabis for ritual mourning purposes

and, to some degree, pleasure.

According to Tackett (2017) Teens are often exposed to images of celebrities smoking,

which can make it seem cool, even though there are many serious downsides to smoking. In

some instances, the media tries to make smoking look acceptable, which helps tobacco

companies make profit. Teens may be faced with peers who smoke or family members who

smoke at home. Being bullied to start smoking is very possible, especially for those who are over

18. If teens live with smokers, teenagers and the people around the smoker are likely to become a

second-hand smoker and inherit the risk to health problem that a second-hand smoker have.

These teens are also more likely to have access to packs of cigarettes that older siblings, parents

or other family members have at home. Teens may start smoking for a number of reasons,

including peer pressure. Friends may smoke at parties or events and offer a cigarette to a friend

6
or a circle of friends. When everyone is participating, this teen may feel obligated to join in. Teen

smoking can be dangerous no how it started or who influence teenagers to smoke. It is important

to recognize the different areas of this teen’s life that could cause the start of smoking and to

keep teenagers to be aware of the damage that smoking can cause to the human lungs, heart and

other parts of the body. The proponents conducted this study to the make the teenager aware the

danger of smoking to the human health and body. Teenagers play an important role in society

that can help the country in the near future and encourage teenage smokers to stop.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Smoking is known to be damaging to one’s health and can cause various cancers in the

body. Smoking at any age has negative effects, including for teenagers and young adults.

This study determined the effects of smoking to teenager’s health. Specifically, it sought

to achieve the following objectives:

1. Profiling of the age that teenagers start to smoke.


2. To establish the reason for teenagers to smoke.
3. To determine the factors that influence teenager to smoke.
4. To find out the number of cigarette consumed by teenage smokers.
5. To investigate ways on how to stop teenagers from smoking.

1.3 Significance of the Study

This study is highly significant due to its purpose to the young teenagers. It could

enlighten teenage minds to the fullest to overcome this temptation of using cigarettes. That is

because; it is harmful to one’s health. It can also help teenagers to avoid this bad habit as soon as

possible.

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Parents

School or community

1.4 Scope and Delimitation

The respondents were randomly taken from the students of Western Mindanao State

University (WMSU). All of them were identified as Senior High School students at Grades 11

and 12 in the College of Engineering and Technology. They were given survey questionnaires for

them to answer.

1.5 Definition of term

For the purpose of clarification, the important terms are used in this study have been

defined

The following terms are:

Shamanism. Is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in

order to perceive and interact with a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into

this world.

Cigarette. Is a small cylinder of finely cut tobacco leaves rolled in thin paper for smoking.

Tobacco. Is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.

Incense. Is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.

The Scythians. Were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited

the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st

century BC.

8
Cannabis. Also known as marijuana among other names is a psychoactive drug

Psychoactive drug. Psychopharmaceutic or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes

brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness or behavior

Peer pressure. (Or social pressure) is the direct influence on people by peers,

Peer. a person who is the same age or has the same social position or the same abilities as

other people in a group.

9
II. Review of Related Literature

2.1 Environmental Factors

Factors in the environment that potentially influence initiation and maintenance of

smoking by adolescents have been the focus of many investigations since early studies

demonstrated the importance of peer and parental smoking as risk factors. The broad categories

that have been studied are: smoking among parents, siblings and peers; attitudes and norms about

smoking (including parental reactions to smoking by their children); family environment; and

attachment to family and friends. Availability and ease of acquiring cigarettes are also

environmental factors that can have an impact on smoking among adolescents. Interpretation of

these studies was complicated by inconsistencies in the outcome variable (smoking status,

intentions, initiation, and attitudes); the different combinations of predictor variables; the range

of methods and populations; and the variety of analytical approaches that have been used.

The impact of parental smoking has been studied in a wide range of contexts in a large

number of studies with a variety of outcomes. Approximately twice as many of the reviewed

studies have found a significantly increased risk of adolescent smoking with parental smoking—

for example, refs, than have noted a non-significant association. Studies examining the effect of

paternal and maternal smoking separately have reported both to be significant, non-significant, or

each one significant while the other was not. Some of the inconsistencies may reflect gender-

specific differences: parental smoking may be more important for girls than boys because several

studies reported a significant effect only for girls whereas none found the reverse.

10
It is unclear whether parental smoking has a stronger influence when it occurs in the

same-gender parent: reports have both supported and opposed this hypothesis. A dose-response

effect may also be present, with a stronger influence if both parents smoke. Finally, some reports

noted that the significance of parental smoking depended on the outcome studied. It was

significant only for intention to smoke and not for current smoking in one study. Another study

found paternal smoking significant for current smoking but not for experimental smoking,

whereas maternal smoking was significant for both. Parental attitudes toward smoking and, in

particular, toward their own children’s smoking have been shown to be related to adolescent

smoking.

The weight of the summarised studies supports the influence of sibling smoking on

adolescent smoking—for example, refs. Some of the studies reporting non-significant results did

find a significant effect of sibling smoking before controlling for other variables in multivariate

analyses. In some studies, the influence of smoking by siblings was stronger than that of

smoking by parents—for example, refs. Sibling but not parental smoking was also associated

with less negative attitudes towards smoking. Given the influence of parental and sibling

smoking, it is not surprising that some adolescents attributed their own initiation to smoking to

the fact that one or more of their family members smoked.

Aspects of the family environment which have been examined with regard to adolescent

smoking include parental supervision, attachment, support, and parenting style. The amount of

time in self-care, lack of knowledge about their children’s friends and inadequate

monitoring were associated with increased smoking, although other studies on parental

supervision did not observe a significant relationship.

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The most important component of parental attachment may be attachment to the mother:

it has been related to smoking in studies where attachment to the father was not significant. A

poor relationship between mother and child was associated with a higher prevalence of smoking

for boys and girls; a poor father/child relationship significantly influenced smoking only for

girls.

Parental attachment and support may interact with parental smoking to influence smoking

among adolescents. Parental and other adult support was protective against adolescent smoking

mainly at low levels of parental smoking. Adolescents modelled their parents’ smoking status

more closely as attachment to their parents increased. An authoritative, positive parenting style

has been associated with lower levels of adolescent smoking. some aspects of child rearing,

however, may have differential effects for males and females. Low parental concern increased

the risk of boys taking up regular smoking whereas poor communication with parents and

restrictions on going out raised the prevalence of smoking in girls. A permissive, distracted

family environment was also related to illicit drug use in girls.

Findings with regard to peer smoking were more consistent than those for parental

smoking. “Peers” have been variously defined as classmates, friends, and best friends; opposite

or same sex friends, and boyfriends or girlfriends. The influence of best friends has been noted to

be greater than that of other good friends which, in turn, was greater than that of peers of the

same age. Regardless of the definition used, however, peer smoking was consistently found to be

related to adolescent smoking initiation, maintenance and intentions—for example, refs. Some of

the inconsistency in the reported influence of parental smoking on adolescent smoking may

reflect whether peer smoking was also examined, because the effect of parental smoking may

become non-significant after controlling for peer smoking—for example, ref. It is less the

12
existence of a causal relationship between peer and individual smoking than the direction of that

association that has been a matter of debate. It is unclear whether peer influence leads to

smoking or whether individuals who smoke tend to seek out other smokers. (Tyas SL., Pederson

LL., 1998)

2.2 Personal factors

Research on psychosocial correlates of smoking and other drug use, specifically

investigations of personality characteristics, motivational factors such as stress, and personal

resources such as coping, has arisen from attempts to delineate the mechanisms explaining

initiation to smoking among some population subgroups defined by their sociodemographic

characteristics. These studies are summarized in this section. Research on smoking knowledge

and attitudes, sex roles, socialization, and religiosity has also been included in this section

because of their interrelationships and their functions as proximal determinants of smoking.

In addition to the methodological and analytic issues raised earlier, the problems in

interpretation of the factors in this section were compounded by the use of concepts that were

given the same name but measured different constructs (such as stress: acute or chronic) or that

were given different names but measured similar constructs (for example, competence and locus

of control). In addition, the different combinations of variables included make it difficult to draw

definitive conclusions about any single variable. Some overall statements, however, can be made

about the influence of personal variables on adolescent smoking.

Stress and associated distress or depressions are important factors in the initiation to

smoking. It has long been recognized that life change or life stress may have a substantial

negative impact on emotional wellbeing. It is the unsuccessful adjustment to this life change that

is postulated to lead to psychological distress. Indeed, in adult and adolescent samples, stress has

13
been shown to be positively correlated with levels of psychological distress. It has been

repeatedly demonstrated that stress, measured in a variety of ways, is associated with initiation to

smoking and with maintenance of the behavior—for example, For those studies that do not

include a direct measure of stress, the impact can be implied through associations with its

outcome— depression/distress.

The use of smoking for dealing with stress is not unexpected as nicotine may have direct

pharmacological effects that moderate stress. In fact, smoking has been cited as a means of

dealing with stress among young smokers as well as among adults. Although there is some

evidence that drugs in general are used for coping, Wills and Shiffman, in their review of the

literature, noted that smoking was consistently reported to be a coping mechanism. The

relationship of smoking status and the availability of other coping strategies for dealing with

stress have been investigated with significant and non-significant results. Pederson and

colleagues reported that, although a total coping score was not associated with ever/never-

smoking, problem solving was higher in never-smokers, and drug use and ventilation of feelings

were more likely to be used as coping strategies in ever-smokers.

Other factors that have been consistently associated with smoking are self-esteem,

whether overall or with regard to specific contexts such as home or school—for example, refs,

adult and scholastic competence, locus of control—for example, refs, socialization, susceptibility

to peer influence, and risk-taking. The first four factors appear to be protective against smoking

whereas the last two are risk factors. (Tyas SL., Pederson LL., 1998)

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III. Methodology

3.1 Research Design

The type of research that was used is mixed Quantitative method to determine a teenagers

smoking habit and how can it affect one’s health using collected data through survey

questionnaires. The researchers also examined the phenomenon through observations through

statistical analysis. Along with questionnaires that were given out to respondents, interviews with

them were also conducted.

3.2 Population and Sampling Procedure

The sample size was fifty (50) participants. The questionnaire consisted of asking basic

question like age, smoking habit, number of cigarettes per week and age of first cigarette.

Secondly a personal interview was conducted placed in order to have more detailed information.

The basic questionnaire was used as a guide for the interview which focused on the exposure to

cigarettes.

3.3 Research Instrument

The researchers designed a questionnaire that will be used as the data collection

instrument for this study. Senior High students were interviewed. The questionnaires (see

Appendix B) were aimed at extracting relevant information concerning teenage smoking.

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3.4 Data Gathering Procedure

This research was conducted over a 5- day period starting from January 2018 to February

of the same year. Survey questions were given to teenagers between 15 and 18 years old who

belong to the students of WMSU

3.5 Analysis of Data

It was based on the data that has been gathered through surveys and questionnaire. Then

it was checked carefully by the researchers if it is correctly answered. Finally, the data was

gathered, analyzed and conclusions have been made.

3.6 Validity of Results

For the validation of results, the researchers had communicated with the Research and

Daily Life teacher, thus, having a flourishing output.

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IV. Results and Discussion

This Chapter presents the results of the research conducted to the students of Western

Mindanao State University, Senior High School of College of Engineering Grade 11 and 12. Data

were arranged in table form as shown in appendix_. The summary of which, was analyzed and

interpreted and shown in graphical presentation. These are as follows:

4.1 Graph 1.Start of smoking

Start of Smoking

25

20

15

10

0
8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17
10,12,14,16 9,11,13,15,17

The above graph shows that teenager start to smoke at the age of sixteen and seventeen

years old (16-17). It would also be noted at the age of sixteen (16) year old has the highest

number of teenagers that start to smoke among the senior high school of Western Mindanao State

University. This could be attributed to the fact that the age level where most teenagers start to

have some fun, begin to explore new things in life and act arrogantly thinking that one actions

are good, teenagers are known to be risk taker because most teenager cannot control to respond

17
to a threat, this is with the knowledge of not to do the action. Especially when influence by

friends/peers ignoring the bad effect of smoking once teenagers are in groups.(cite source)

4.2 Graph 2. Influence to Smoke

Influence

30

25

20
29
15
20
10

5 4

0
Rel atives Fri ends Curi os i ty

Relatives should be role model to teenagers. However results show that partly relatives

tend to influence teenagers to smoke. Though only eight (8) of them but it is alarming that they

participate in contributing bad influence to their own family relative to smoke. It is because when

a teenagers sees a family member or a relative is smoking, the concept of smoking is good for

teenager due to the present of its relative is a smoker. The above show fifty five (55) percent of

the respondent are influence by friend. This is relatively true to teenagers since as stated by

Chirban (2014), As soon as we begin developing friendships, we start to view our peers as a

source of information as well as for approval. More time are spend by most teenagers with

friend. Chirban (2014) statement can be said that thought is the same to smoking especially for

those who are just starting to smoke, in friendship, something that others are doing must also be

18
done by the teenager who want to be accepted in the group. Many people can influence anyone

to smoke but for some teenagers, nobody needs influence to start smoking because of Curiosity,

where thirty seven (37) percent of respondent, the action was done because of some factors such

as: 1) anything that enter teenagers mind are explores, 2) things that saw usually on T.V., movies,

and 3) the people being idolise influence teenagers to start smoking,

4.3 Graph 3. Family Awareness

Awareness of the family

40

35

30

25 39

20

15
14
10

0
Yes No

The above graph shows that majority of the respondent confess that family member have

no knowledge with the smoking habit that is being development among the respondent. Fourteen

(14) of the fifty three (53) respondent has approval or knowledge family member of the smoking

habit. This just indicates that when teenagers are unhappy and cannot find a healthy outlet on

frustration or a trusted confidant, teenager or the respondent turn to smoking cigarettes for

solace. Teenagers feel blissfully oblivious, wonderfully happy or energized and confident. The

often rough teenage years can take an emotional toll on children, sometimes even causing

19
depression, so when teens are given a chance to take cigarettes, many cannot resist. In this

scenario, families of these young teenagers are unaware of this smoking habit because teenager

confine this habit among its friend and oneself. The family should be responsible for keeping a

member in a family safe and connected to one another. The family of a smoking teenager must

give time to talk to its sons and give some advice

4.4 Graph 4. Reason for smoking

Reason

25

20

15 24
21

10

8
5

0
Fun Peer Pres s ure Satisfa ction

Forty-five (45) percent of respondent are diverting to forget ones problem by smoking

but also method to get satisfied and be rewarded. Twenty four (24) of the fifty three (53)

respondent or merely forty (40) percent of the teenagers among the Senior High School of

Western Mindanao State University think that smoking is fun, because of what can be seen in

TV, Advertisement, Idols, especially in cartoons when they see cartoons character that smoking

is fun, little do teenager know the diseases that can be acquire from smoking is of no joke. The

most common reason for teenagers to smoke is peer pressure. It is a surprise that this is not the

20
main reason to why teenagers are smoking. Like what the proponents had pointed in previous

topic teenagers need approval from peers because teenagers always comes in pack, that rarely

can be seen a teenager that is alone, teenagers are scared to be alone because of the vulnerability

to bully, so they find a friends that can protect or can lean on, and this friend push friend to

smoke for acceptance it its friend circles.

4.5 Graph 5. Frequency of smoking

Cigarettes a Day

16 1
2
14
1
12

10
7
8
8 15

6
1
4 2
5
4 4
2 2

0
1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 10 and above

Graph 5 show that majority of the respondent smoke five (5) stick of cigarette, and the

combined smoker that smoke ten (10) or more is comparatively lesser that the latter. The

frequency of smoking is to assess the impact of individual, peer, and school influences on the

quantity and frequency of tobacco consumption among teenagers of Western Mindanao State

University Senior High School. The results shows that only a few teenagers that has permission

from parents to smoke and in that case most respondents are chain-smokers or cigarette addict

that consume cigarette ranging from ten to thirty (10-30) per day. The family of the respondent

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knew of its smoking habit that give impression to respondent that smoking is not bad and in that

sense or idea respondent has nothing to fear to stop smoking. While for teenagers that family

members have no idea its smoking habit had a control on consumption of cigarettes in a day.

These teenagers fear of getting sick for smoking a lot in a day so balancing it in an average of

four to five (4-5) cigarette sticks per day.

4.6 Graph 6. Place to spend smoking

Place to Smoke

30

25

20

15 27

10
10 10
5 6

0
Publ i c School Secl uded Hous e

Over fifty one (51) percent of these teenagers on Senior High level were smoking on

secluded areas where no one can caught or see, especially by its parent, for sure it does not allow

smoking. Mostly, the parents of these teenagers doesn't have the knowledge on the smoking

activity of its child, and most of these teenagers doesn't have the intention of telling the truth

about this unusual activity because of the fear of being scolded or disappoint its parents and the

families. Almost fifty (50) percent of the respondent smoke at home and public places since

parents have accepted or knowledge on the smoking activity of the respondent. The reason why

smokers smoke at its own house is because it's secluded respondent can be assure that no

22
violation any public laws on smoking is violated, although smoking is illegal. Another possible

reason, the smokers may not want non-smokers to inhale the smoke and be a second-hand

smoker, because second-hand smoking is more dangerous. The other forty nine (49) percent of

the respondents had nearly the same percentage among the choices. Cigarette addicted person

can smoke anywhere and at any time own its free will, maybe most of these teenager's parents

have already the knowledge about these activity that and accepted it. So these gave the teenagers

the confidence to smoke anywhere and fell comfortable on smoking without the fear of being

caught. The other ten (10) percent of these respondents have chosen school premises. The

teenagers disobey the rules and regulations of the school the smoking inside the school campus

or around the school premises. These teenagers might be afraid of being caught smoking in other

places, smoker search for some hidden spots inside the school.

4.7 Graph 7.After effect of smoking

Feeling After Smoking

40

35

30

25
38
20

15

10
7 6
5
2
0
Rel axed Di zzy Breathi ng Probl em Hi gh

23
Most respondents felt relaxed after smoking, seventy two (72) percent think that smoking

reduces stress, but in reality smoking actually causes stress. The addiction to nicotine makes

smokers moody. The cigarette appears to relax because the nicotine removes the uncomfortable

withdrawal symptoms caused by smoking. The second highest after effect of smoking is

dizziness, followed by feeling high and lastly the breathing problem. Nicotine is the chemical

that causes cigarette addiction, and it is the cause of most dizzy spells. While the smoke inhaled

can cause some mild dizziness, prolonged periods of dizziness particularly those occurring in

withdrawal can be exhale the smoke. After inhaling, keep the smoke in your lungs for a short

while then exhale. Smoking a cigarette is not like smoking marijuana; you will not get high from

inhaling and waiting until you nearly pass out to exhale. For long term smokers Smoking causes:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease that gets worse over time and causes

wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and other symptoms. Emphysema, a condition in

which the walls between the air sacs in your lungs lose their ability to stretch and shrink back.

Like the Feeling of Smoking

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Yes No

24
Graph 7.2. Results of teenagers liking the taste of smoking

Teenagers like the taste of because cigarette are additives like cocoa can have a

dangerous effect when inhaled. Teenagers may find missing more nicotine when finally snub out

the last butt. Cigarettes are designed to manipulate taste buds, both natural and added, can hold

extra sway for many people struggling to quit. A typical cigarette may include cocoa, honey,

vanilla, and licorice. While the taste of a particular brand has a lot to do with its tobacco blend,

hundreds of additives may be included to smooth out the tobaccos rough edges and create a more

delicious puff, There are lots of brand that serve different flavors for teenager’s to taste.

4.8 Graph 8. Willingness to Stop Smoking

Plan to Stop Smoking

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
Yes No Undeci ded

The above graph shows the teenagers who are planning to stop smoking and those who

don’t have the idea of stopping. The combine teenagers that answered no and undecided clearly

shows that there are more teenagers who are not willing to stop smoking. This shows that that

more and more teenagers are getting addicted to smoking nowadays. Teenagers who answered

25
yes have felt the negative effect of cigarette smoking and Teenagers who answered no and

undecided are clueless of what smoking can do to its bodies. In most cases teenagers who are

planning to stop smoking are those influence by friends and most of this respondent, family do

not have knowledge that smoking is mandatory for teenagers to stop smoking because some

parents are very strict especially about children addiction to smoking. For those teenagers do not

have plan to stop smoking, it really hard to quit smoking because no one force or influence

respondents to smoke and family had approval on its smoking activity, thus, there is no point to

stop smoking unless diseases will start to felt and get sick.

Getting out of Addiction

25

20

15

10

0
Yes No Undeci ded

Graph 8.2 Results of teenagers thought of getting of the addiction (Smoking)

26
4.9 Graph 9. Management Intervention

Help From Family/ Relatives

28

27

26

25

24

23

22
Yes No

The above graph shows that, teenagers wanting help from families/relatives to totally quit

smoking. Parents should be the one that guide the children in the journey in child growing up. It

causes the child to become a rebel getting addicted to anything because of the lacks of attention

coming from parents. Graph nine (9) indicates that many teenagers answered are longing for the

help by parent in quitting smoking but parents ignore this teenagers. This only means that a lot of

teenagers nowadays are getting neglected by parents, maybe parents are working abroad and

busy working, or because teenager do not really have parents for guidance which is either has

broken family or parents are separated and have other family to attend with.

27
Possible Help to Stop Smoking

35
30
25
20
32
15
10
10 10
5 4
3 1 3
0
t t
lp or o n
en es in
e ng
e p nti i ti l hi
lH up e at
m
tiv ip ot
ia S Att re A c sc N
an
c al lT l Di
n or ica na
Fi M
ed tio
a
M
e cre
R

Graph 9.2: Results of teenager possible help to stop smoking

Majority of the teenagers answered nothing, thirty two (32) out of fifty three (53)

respondent. This shows that Teenagers are so addicted to smoking that nothing can replace the

habit of smoking. The result shows that no one can help this teenagers to stop smoking without

the free will to stop. On the other hand, discipline and financial help are the next thing that can

help teenage smoker from stopping. Combining all the other aspect to stop teenage smoking is

not enough to stop from smoking.

28
Possible Help to Stop Smoking

70 10
3
1
60 4
3
50 10
40
30 32
20
10
0
Category 1 Category 2
Nothi ng Fi nanci a l Hel p Moral Support Attention
Medi cal Treatment Recreationa l Activi ties Di s cipl i ne

Graph 9.3. Comparing the help possible from nothing to all possible help

29
V Conclusion and Recommendation

Smoking is known to be damaging to one’s health and can cause various diseases in the

body. Teenagers nowadays tend to smoke knowing or even not knowing the negative effects of

smoking. On this premise, important points where noted in the study. These are the following:

1. That teenagers start to smoke at the age of sixteen (16) to seventeen (17)
2. Teenagers smoke around five (5) to six (6) cigarette sticks a day.
3. That the reason for teenagers to smoke is because smoking satisfies them.
4. That teenagers are influenced to smoke by their friends.

(General statement about your findings)

The researchers recommend to those other future researchers that will conduct a survey

of this kind of topic that they will change their method in gathering data about the survey. This

will truly help them to easily gather data for their topic. The researchers recommend this because

as for now the researchers had difficulties in conducting a survey because not all respondents are

cooperating in answering a questionnaire. Also not all respondents answered the question

because others are shy of letting their selves known that they are smoking cigarettes.

30
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Tyas SL., Pederson LL., (1998) Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical

review of the literature Tobacco Control 1998; 7:409-420. Retrieved from

http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/7/4/409

Tackett, B., (2017). How Teens Are Exposed to Drugs and Alcohol: Smoking. Retrieved March

11, 2018, from https://www.projectknow.com/research/drugs-and-alcohol/

32
Appendix A

Respondent’s Consent Form

I______________________________, is willing to participate and spare a short time in

the research study, Smoking: Its Effect to Teenager’s Health, as a respondent by answering the

questionnaire. And, I will answer it honestly.

I am informed that m answers and the data that I will perceive will be used as well as the

order respondents for the study and presentation of the research. And, my name will not be used

to the study.

_____I agree to spare a sport time to answer the test questionnaires with honesty.

_____I disagree ton spare a short time to participate in the study.

_________________
Signature

33
Appendix B

Respondent’s Data sheet

Smoking: Its Effect to Teenager’s Health

Please fill out the information below:

Name (Optional):______________________________ Age:__

Grade: ________________

Instruction: Please indicate your answer honestly. Do not leave an item unanswered.

1. Who influenced you to smoke?

a.Relatives c.Yourself (Curiosity)


b. Friends d. Others

2. Why do you smoke?

a.For fun c.Satisfaction


b. Peer Pressure d. Other

3. What do you feel after smoking?


a.
4. Where do you often smoke?

a.Public Places c.Secluded Area


b. School Premises d. Others

5. What age did you start to smoke?

a.13 c.15
b. 14 d. Others

6. How many cigarettes do you smoke once a day?

7. Do you think your family/friends agree with your smoking

a.Yes b. No

8. Do you like the feeling of smoking

a.Yes b. No

34
9. Do you intend to stop smoking cigarettes?

a. Yes b. No c.Undecided

10. Do you think you cannot get out from this addiction?

a.Yes b. No c.Undecided

11. Do you want others (family/friends/relatives) to help you stop smoking?

a.Yes b. No

35
12. What possible help can be given to you if ever you want to stop smoking?
Appendix C

Documentation
Abstract

OBJECTIVE—To extend the analysis of psychosocial risk factors for smoking presented in the

philippines surgeon general's 1994 report on smoking and health, and to propose a theoretical

frame of reference for understanding the development of smoking.

DATA SOURCES—General Science Index, Medline, PsycLIT, Sociofile, Sociological Abstracts,

and Smoking and Health. Holdings of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario Library as

well as the authors' personal files.

STUDY SELECTION—Reviewed literature focused on studies that examined the association of

sociodemographic, environmental, behavioural, and personal variables with smoking.

DATA SYNTHESIS—Adolescent smoking was associated with age, ethnicity, family structure,

parental socioeconomic status, personal income, parental smoking, parental attitudes, sibling

smoking, peer smoking, peer attitudes and norms, family environment, attachment to family and

friends, school factors, risk behaviours, lifestyle, stress, depression/distress, self-esteem,

attitudes, and health concerns. It is unclear whether adolescent smoking is related to other

psychosocial variables.

CONCLUSIONS—Attempts should be made to use common definitions of outcome and

predictor variables. Analyses should include multivariate and bivariate models, with some

attempt in the multivariate models to test specific hypotheses. Future research should be theory

driven and consider the range of possible factors, such as social, personal, economic,
Environmental, biological, and physiological influences that may influence smoking behaviour.

The apparent inconsistencies in relationships between parental socioeconomic status and


adolescent disposable income need to be resolved as does the underlying constructs for which

socioeconomic status is a proxy

Keywords: adolescence; smoking initiation; psychosocial factors

Selected References

(http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/7/4/409) Suzanne L Tyasa, Linda L Pedersonb