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H{hufðflrv gh Suredelolgdghv h Hvwdwðvwlfd

Ghsduwdphqwr gh Pdwhpäwlfd
Hvfrod Vxshulru gh Whfqrorjld gh Vhwýedo
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Vhwhpeur gh 5338
4 Hohphqwrv gd Whruld gdv Suredelolgdghv
H{hufðflrv
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vhqwd0vh r uhvxowdgr sru xp sdu rughqdgr Ec T 1 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gd
vrpd  n T vhu=
41 Sdu1
51 Glylvðyho sru wuív1
61 Sdu rx glylvðyho sru 1
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mruqdlv gläulrv= R Dxurud h r R Frqkhfhgru1 Xp lqtxìulwr uhyhorx rv
vhjxlqwhv gdgrv=
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 Dfff shvvrdv oíhp glduldphqwh rv grlv mruqdlv1
Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh dr hvfrokhuprv dr dfdvr xp kdelwdqwh ghvwd flgdgh/
hvwh vhmd ohlwru=
41 Gh shor phqrv xp grv mruqdlv1
51 Gh qhqkxp ghvvhv mruqdlv1
61 H{foxvlydphqwh gr mruqdo R Dxurud1
H{hufðflr 416 Qxpd srsxodêær 2fI gdv idpðoldv wíp pätxlqd gh odydu
orxêd/ fI wíp pätxlqd gh odydu urxsd h fI wíp dperv rv wlsrv gh
pätxlqdv1 Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh xpd idpðold hvfroklgd dr dfdvr=
41 Whu shor phqrv xp grv wlsrv gh pätxlqd1
51 Qær whu qhqkxp grv wlsrv gh pätxlqd1
61 Whu xp vö wlsr gh pätxlqd1
H{hufðflr 417 Vxsrqkd txh /  h  vær dfrqwhflphqwrv wdlv txh=

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e
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Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh txh shor phqrv xp grv dfrqwhflphqwrv /  rx
 rfruud1

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 ^  ^  ' l(  _  ' >(  _  ' >(


 
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Fdofxoh  E _  h  E ^ 1

H{hufðflr 419 Vdeh0vh txh hp uhodêær d xp gdgr surjudpd gh whohylvær vh


whp sdud xp fdvdo/ d vhjxlqwh vlwxdêær= d suredelolgdgh gh r krphp yhu
xp surjudpd ì fe> d suredelolgdgh gd pxokhu yhu r phvpr surjudpd ì
fD> d suredelolgdgh gr krphp yhu r surjudpd srutxh d pxokhu r yí ì f.1
Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gh=

41 Xp fdvdo yhu r surjudpd1

51 D pxokhu yhu r surjudpd srutxh r krphp r yí1

61 Shor phqrv xp hohphqwr gr fdvdo yhu r surjudpd1

H{hufðflr 41: Dsöv dojxqv whvwhv hihfwxdgrv ã shuvrqdolgdgh gh xp lqglyð0


gxr frqfoxlx0vh txh/ hvwh ì orxfr frp xpd suredelolgdgh ljxdo d fS/ odguær
frp xpd suredelolgdgh ljxdo d f. h qær ì orxfr qhp odguær frp xpd sur0
edelolgdgh gh f2D1

41 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gr lqglyðgxr vhu orxfr h odguær1

51 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gr lqglyðgxr vhu dshqdv orxfr rx dshqdv


odguær1

61 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gr lqglyðgxr vhu odguær/ vdehqgr txh r phv0


pr qær ì orxfr1

H{hufðflr 41; Frqvlghuh grlv dfrqwhflphqwrv  h  wdlv txh=

 E ^  '  E n  E  f


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Ghwhuplqh  E h  * 

H{hufðflr 41< Gdgrv grlv dfrqwhflphqwrv  h / wdlv txh


  
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Ghwhuplqh=

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41 Vh  h  vær pxwxdphqwh h{foxvlyrv1

51 Vh  h  vær lqghshqghqwhv1
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61  E*c  E*c 7
 E*c 7 
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H{hufðflr 4143 Frqvlghuh rv dfrqwhflphqwrv /  h  gh suredelolgdgh qær


qxod1 Vdeh0vh txh=

  ì lqfrpsdwðyho frp  h frp 1


 Grlv grv dfrqwhflphqwrv vær lqghshqghqwhv hqwuh vl1
  E ' f2/  E ' fD h  E _  ' ffS

Fdofxoh  E ^  ^  

H{hufðflr 4144 Frqvlghudqgr rv dfrqwhflphqwrv /  h  wdlv txh=

 E : f>  E : f>


 h  vær dfrqwhflphqwrv lqghshqghqwhv1
   
Suryh txh  E* '  E* _   E n  * _    

H{hufðflr 4145 Lqgltxh/ mxvwlfdqgr/ r ydoru oöjlfr gd vhjxlqwh dupdêær=


 
 * '  E* ,  h  vær dfrqwhflphqwrv lqghshqghqwhv1

H{hufðflr 4146 Frqvlghuh grlv dfrqwhflphqwrv  h  lqghshqghqwhv/ hp


txh  whp suredelolgdgh gxsod hp uhodêær d 1 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh
gh fdgd xp ghohv/ vdehqgr txh ì gh fD d suredelolgdgh gh rfruuíqfld gh shor
phqrv xp ghohv1

H{hufðflr 4147 Vhmdp  h  grlv dfrqwhflphqwrv lqghshqghqwhv/ suryh txh


r frpsohphqwdu gh  h r frpsohphqwdu gh  wdpeìp r vær1

H{hufðflr 4148 Qxpd dprvwud frqvwlwxðgd sru ff lqglyðgxrv rewlyhudp0vh


rv uhvxowdgrv dsuhvhqwdgrv qr txdgur vhjxlqwh=

Frp Eurqtxlwh Vhp Eurqtxlwh


Ixpdgruhv ef 2f
Qær Ixpdgruhv f f

41 Gljd/ mxvwlfdqgr/ vh rv dfrqwhflphqwrv vhu ixpdgru h whu eurq0


txlwh vær lqghshqghqwhv1

51 Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh xp lqglyðgxr txh ì ixpdgru whu eurqtxlwh1

6
H{hufðflr 4149 Vxsrqkd txh d hqwuhylvwd gh fdqglgdwxud d xp hpsuhjr/
ì xpd h{shulíqfld dohdwöuld h txh d qrvvd dwhqêær vh fhqwud hp grlv dfrq0
whflphqwrv r fdqglgdwr whp erd dsduíqfld +dfrqwhflphqwr , h r fdq0
glgdwr frqvhjxlx r hpsuhjr +dfrqwhflphqwr ,1 Vdehqgr txh  E ' fec
 E ' f2 h  E ^  ' fe

41 Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh r fdqglgdwr whu erd dsduíqfld h frqvhjxlu


r hpsuhjr1

51 Rv dfrqwhflphqwrv r fdqglgdwr whp erd dsduíqfld h r fdqglgdwr


frqvhjxlx r hpsuhjr vær lqghshqghqwhvB

61 Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh r fdqglgdwr whu erd dsduíqfld vdehqgr txh


frqvhjxlx r hpsuhjr1

H{hufðflr 414: Qxpd iäeulfd yhulfrx0vh txh xp fhuwr duwljr srgh dsuh0
vhqwdu ghihlwrv gh grlv wlsrv1 D suredelolgdgh gh rfruuhu r ghihlwr gr wlsr 
ì f h d suredelolgdgh gh rfruuhu r ghihlwr gr wlsr  ì ffD1 Vdehqgr txh
rv ghihlwrv rfruuhp lqghshqghqwhphqwh xp gr rxwur/ fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh
gh=

41 Xp duwljr qær whu txdotxhu ghihlwr1

51 Xp duwljr whu ghihlwr1

61 Xp duwljr frp ghihlwr whu xp h xp vö wlsr gh ghihlwr1

H{hufðflr 414; Vxsrqgr txh vh whp frqkhflphqwr gd vhjxlqwh lqirupdêær=

 d suredelolgdgh gr dfrqwhflphqwr yhu r dqýqflr gr surgxwr  ì f D(


 d suredelolgdgh gr dfrqwhflphqwr frpsudu r surgxwr  ì f2
 d suredelolgdgh gr dfrqwhflphqwr frpsudu r surgxwr / whqgr ylvwr r
dqýqflr gr surgxwr  ì fe 

41 Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh yhu r dqýqflr h frpsudu r surgxwr 1

51 Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh yhu r dqýqflr rx frpsudu r surgxwr 1

61 Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh yhu r dqýqflr gr surgxwr  vh frpsurx hvvh


surgxwr1

71 Rv dfrqwhflphqwrv yhu r dqýqflr gr surgxwr  h frpsudu r surgxwr


 vær lqghshqghqwhvB Mxvwltxh1

7
H{hufðflr 414< Qxpd wxupd/ 2fI grv doxqrv idodp ehp Lqjoív/ efI idodp
ehp Iudqfív h DI grplqdp dv gxdv oðqjxdv1

41 Dyhuljýh vh idodu Iudqfív h idodu Lqjoív vær dfrqwhflphqwrv lqghshq0


ghqwhv1
51 Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh=

+d, Xp doxqr hvfroklgr dr dfdvr idodu shor phqrv xpd gdv oðqjxdv1
+e, Xp doxqr qær idodu qhqkxpd gdv oðqjxdv1
+f, Xp doxqr idodu xpd h xpd vö gdv gxdv oðqjxdv1

61 Vdehqgr txh xp doxqr qær idod Lqjoív/ txdo d suredelolgdgh gr phvpr


idodu IudqfívB

H{hufðflr 4153 D suredelolgdgh gh xp lqglyðgxr  hvwdu ylyr gdtxl d f


dqrv ì fS h d suredelolgdgh gh xp rxwur lqglyðgxr  hvwdu ylyr gdtxl d f
dqrv ì f./ vxsrqkd txh rv dfrqwhflphqwrv vær lqghshqghqwhv1 Ghwhuplqh d
suredelolgdgh gh gdtxl d f dqrv=

41 Hvwduhp ylyrv rv lqglyðgxrv  h 1


51 Qær hvwduhp ylyrv rv lqglyðgxrv  h 1
61 Hvwdu ylyr shor phqrv xp grv lqglyðgxrv1

H{hufðflr 4154 Xp frphufldqwh uhfheh edwdwd gh wuív uhjløhv glihuhqwhv1 Dr


fkhjdu fdgd orwh ì fodvvlfdgr hp gxdv fodvvhv/  h / gh dfrugr frp d txd0
olgdgh gr surgxwr1 Vdehqgr txh xp orwh dfdedgr gh fkhjdu irl fodvvlfdgr qd
fdwhjruld / txdo d suryhqlíqfld pdlv suryäyho ghvwh orwh/ whqgr hp dwhqêær
txh d glvwulexlêær grv orwhv uhfhelgrv dwì ã gdwd ì d vhjxlqwh=
Uhjløhv Wrqhodgdv Txdolgdgh  Txdolgdgh 
U f 2 H
UU 2f e S
UUU 2f f f
H{hufðflr 4155 Xpd gdgd grhqêd dsduhfh hp fhufd gh xpd shvvrd sru fd0
gd fff qxpd gdgd srsxodêær1 Søh0vh hp ixqflrqdphqwr xp surjudpd
sdud dqdolvdu d suhvhqêd gd grhqêd/ vhqgr sdud wdo xvdgr xp dsduhokr gh
ghwhfêær txh gä whvwh srvlwlyr frp suredelolgdgh gh fbb sdud xpd shvvrd
frp d grhqêd/ h ffD sdud xpd shvvrd vhp d glwd1 Suhwhqgh0vh vdehu txdo
ì d suredelolgdgh gh txh xpd shvvrd frp whvwh srvlwlyr whqkd uhdophqwh d
grhqêd1

8
H{hufðflr 4156 Dv pätxlqdv  h  surgx}hp uhvshfwlydphqwh fI h bfI
gd surgxêær wrwdo gh xp fhuwr wlsr gh duwljrv1 Vxsrqgr txh d suredelolgdgh
gd pätxlqd  surgx}lu duwljrv ghihlwxrvrv ì gh I h txh sdud d pätxlqd 
ì gh DI/ txdo d suredelolgdgh gh xp duwljr wrpdgr dr dfdvr gh xp gld gh
surgxêær suryhqkd gd pätxlqd / dvvxplqgr txh ì ghihlwxrvrB

H{hufðflr 4157 Xpd hpsuhvd srvvxl phlrv gh wudqvsruwh/ A c A2 h A / sdud


frorfdu rv vhxv surgxwrv qr phufdgr1 Vdeh0vh txh dv suredelolgdghv ghvwhv
wudqvsruwhv dwudvduhp vær/ uhvshfwlydphqwh/ ffD/ f h f2D1 Vdeh0vh dlqgd
txh hvwhv phlrv gh wudqvsruwh vær hpsuhjxhv frp iuhtxíqfldv lqyhuvdphqwh
sursruflrqdlv drv uhvshfwlyrv fxvwrv sru uhphvvdv= Hf/ ef h S xqlgdghv pr0
qhwäuldv uhvshfwlydphqwh1

41 Fdofxoh dv shufhqwdjhqv gh xwlol}dêær gh fdgd xp grv phlrv gh wudqv0


sruwh1

51 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gh kdyhu dwudvr1

61 Frqvlghudqgr dv uhphvvdv fkhjdgdv frp dwudvr/ txdo d suredelolgdgh


gdv phvpdv whuhp vlgr wudqvsruwdgdv sru A2 q

H{hufðflr 4158 R Mrær whp ã vxd glvsrvlêær wuív phlrv gh wudqvsruwh gl0
ihuhqwhv sdud vh ghvorfdu gh fdvd sdud d hvfrod= r wudqvsruwh /  rx 1
Vdeh0vh txh d suredelolgdgh gh=

 fkhjdu dwudvdgr ã hvfrod ì fS(


 fkhjdu dwudvdgr xwlol}dqgr r wudqvsruwh  ì fH(
 fkhjdu dwudvdgr xwlol}dqgr r wudqvsruwh  ì fD(
 fkhjdu dwudvdgr xwlol}dqgr r wudqvsruwh  ì fS(
 xwlol}du rv wudqvsruwhv  h  ì d phvpd1

41 Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gr Mrær xwlol}du r wudqvsruwh 1

51 Vdehqgr txh r Mrær fkhjrx dwudvdgr ã hvfrod/ fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh


gh whu xwlol}dgr r wudqvsruwh 1

H{hufðflr 4159 Frqvlghuh gxdv xuqdv  h 1 D xuqd  frqwìp  erod


eudqfd h bbb erodv suhwdv h d xuqd  frqwìp  erod suhwd h bbb erodv eudqfdv1
Ì hvfroklgd xpd xuqd dr dfdvr gd txdo ì h{wudðgd xpd erod1 Vh hvwd ì suhwd/
txdo d suredelolgdgh gh d xuqd  whu vlgr d hvfroklgdB

9
H{hufðflr 415: Xp vdfr whp prhgdv xpd gdv txdlv irl fxqkdgd frp 2
fdudv hqtxdqwr txh dv rxwudv r irudp frp  fdud h  frurd1 Wlud0vh xpd
prhgd dr dfdvr gr vdfr h odqêd0vh dr du 2 yh}hv vhjxlgdv1 Txdo d suredelol0
gdgh gh txh vh wudwh gd prhgd gh 2 fdudv vdehqgr txh qrv grlv odqêdphqwrv
vdlx vhpsuh fdudB

H{hufðflr 415; Gh uhjlvwrv hihfwxdgrv frqfoxl0vh txh rv frqgxwruhv txh flu0


fxodp hp ghwhuplqdgd hvwudgd srghp frphwhu xp h xp vö grv grlv wlsrv
gh wudqvjuhvvøhv= wlsr U/ wlsr UU/ h qxqfd dpedv1 Gh Dff frqgxwruhv pxowd0
grv ff frphwhudp wudqvjuhvvøhv gr wlsr U1 fI grv txh frphwhudp wudqv0
juhvvøhv gr wlsr U vær pxowdgrv1 I grv frqgxwruhv frphwhp wudqvjuhvvøhv
gr wlsr U h 2I gr wlsr UU1 Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh vhu pxowdgr txhp
frphwhu xpd wudqvjuhvvær gr wlsr UU1

H{hufðflr 415< Frqvlghuh xuqdv frp d vhjxlqwh frpsrvlêær= d xuqd 


frqwìp f erodv yhuphokdv h gxdv yhughv/ d xuqd 2 frqwìp e erodv yhuphokdv
h S yhughv h d xuqd frqwìp 2 erodv yhuphokdv h . yhughv1 Xpd erod ì
h{wudðgd gh xpd gdv xuqdv/ vhqgr d hvfrokd gd xuqd ihlwd gr vhjxlqwh prgr=
xp gdgr ì odqêdgr xpd yh}/

 vh vdlu d idfh / hvfrokh0vh d xuqd (


 vh vdluhp dv idfhv 2 rx / hvfrokh0vh d xuqd 2(
 vh vdluhp dv idfhv e/ D rx S/ hvfrokh0vh d xuqd 

41 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gd erod h{wudðgd vhu yhughB

51 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh vh whu hvfroklgr d xuqd / gdgr txh d erod


h{wudðgd ì yhuphokdB

:
Vroxêøhv
41414= 2  41415=   41416= 2 
41514= . ef
 41515= 2
ef
 41516= efb

41614= fe 41615= fS 41616= f 
417= DH 
418=  E _  ' f(  E ^  ' f.
41914= f D 41915= fH.D 41916= fDD
41:14= fDD 41:15= f2  41:16=
 f .D
41;=  E ' fD(  * ' fH
7
41<14= Qær1 41<15= Vlp1 41<16=  E* ' e c  E* 7
' e c  E* ' 2 c
7 
 E* 7 ' 
e
4143= fDb
4144= 
4145= Yhugdghlud1
4146=  E ' f Hc  E ' fb1
4147= 
414814= Qær vær lqghshqghqwhv1 414815= 2 
414914= f2 414915= Qær1 414916= 
414:14= fHDD 414:15= feD1 414:16= fe
414;14= fD 414;15= fe 1 414;16= fSDe 414;17= Qær1
414<14= Qær1 414<15d= feD1 414<15e= fDD1 414<15f= f 1 414<16= f  1
415314= fe2 415315= f21 415316= fHH
4154= Uhjlær UU1
4155= ffb
4156= ff22
415714= A ì c .SIc A2 ì 2bc eIc A ì DHc H2I 415715= fH21
415716= fS
415814= f2 415815= fe1
4159= fbbb
415:= 2 
415;= f2
415<14= fS. 415<15= f S21

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5 Yduläyhlv Dohdwöuldv
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H{hufðflr 514 Qxp odqêdphqwr gh prhgdv htxloleudgdv vhmd f d yduläyho
dohdwöuld txh uhsuhvhqwd r qýphur gh fdudv vdðgdv1 Hvfuhyd d ixqêær gh
suredelolgdgh gh f1

H{hufðflr 515 Txdqwdv yh}hv vh ghyh odqêdu xp gdgr dr du sdud txh d sur0
edelolgdgh gh qær vdlu vhqd hp qhqkxp grv odqêdphqwrv vhmd lqihulru d ffB

H{hufðflr 516 R qýphur gh fduurv yhqglgrv vhpdqdophqwh qxp vwdqg ì xpd


yduläyho dohdwöuld f frp d vhjxlqwh ixqêær gh suredelolgdgh=

%  2 e
S S S
s E% S 2 e

41 Fdofxoh/ mxvwlfdqgr/ r ydoru gh S1

51 Ghwhuplqh d ixqêær gh glvwulexlêær gh f

61 Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gr qýphur gh fduurv yhqglgrv qær fkhjdu d e/


vdehqgr txh hvwh ydoru ì vxshulru d 1

71 Vh rv fxvwrv {rv vhpdqdlv vær gh f xqlgdghv prqhwäuldv +x1p1, txdq0


gr vær yhqglgrv 2 rx phqrv fduurv h D x1p1 txdqgr vh yhqgh pdlv gh
2 fduurv h/ doìp glvvr/ sru fdgd fduur yhqglgr kä xp oxfur gh D x1p1/
ghwhuplqh d uhfhlwd oðtxlgd vhpdqdo1

H{hufðflr 517 Xpd hpsuhvd ghglfd0vh ã yhqgd gh duwljrv hoìfwulfrv1 Dv


yhqgdv gläuldv gh judydgruhv +hp xqlgdghv, vær uhsuhvhqwdgdv sru xpd y1d1
f frp d vhjxlqwh ixqêær gh suredelolgdgh=

&E% n  c % ' fc c 2c c e
s E% '
f c fdvr frqwuäulr

41 Ghwhuplqh r ydoru gh &1 Mxvwltxh d vxd uhvsrvwd1

51 Ghqd d ixqêær gh glvwulexlêær gd y1d1 f

61 Fdofxoh/ dwudyìv gd ixqêær gh suredelolgdgh h gd ixqêær gh glvwulexlêær/


d suredelolgdgh gh dv yhqgdv vhuhp h{dfwdphqwh ljxdlv d judydgruhv/
qxp gld hp txh hvwdv irudp shor phqrv 21

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H{hufðflr 518 Qxpd ormd gh hohfwurgrpìvwlfrv d surfxud gläuld gh dvsl0
udgruhv ì xpd y1d1 f frp ixqêær gh suredelolgdgh=
% f  2 e
sE% f2 K f f2 f
41 Fdofxoh K/ mxvwlfdqgr1
51 Qr lqðflr gh xp gld h{lvwhp dshqdv 2 dvsludgruhv qd ormd1 Fdofxoh
d suredelolgdgh gh vhuhp yhqglgrv +frqvlghuh txh surfxud ' yhqgd
vhpsuh txh h{lvwd r surgxwr surfxudgr,1
61 D sduwlu gd doðqhd dqwhulru rewhqkd d ixqêær gh glvwulexlêær gd yduläyho
qýphur gh dvsludgruhv yhqglgrv1
H{hufðflr 519 Gdgr r txdgur vhjxlqwh=
% f  2
   
sE% H e 2 H

41 Prvwuh txh s uhsuhvhqwd d ixqêær gh suredelolgdgh gh xpd y1d1 f>


51 Fdofxoh . dfo c . df n 2o h T d2f n o 
H{hufðflr 51: Vhmd1 f xpd y1d1 glvfuhwd frp ixqêær gh suredelolgdgh gdgd
sru=
% f  2
   D
s E% H H 2

41 Ghwhuplqh d ixqêær gh glvwulexlêær gd y1d1 f


51 Fdofxoh  Ef f  2
61 Fdofxoh .dfo h T dfo
H{hufðflr 51; Vhmd f xpd y1d1 glvfuhwd frp d ixqêær gh glvwulexlêær gdgd
sru=
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71 Fdofxoh .dfo h T dfo

H{hufðflr 5143 R qýphur gh yhqgdv uhdol}dgdv sru xp djhqwh gh vhjxurv


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% f  2 e
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51 Ghwhuplqh T d2f  o

61 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gh txh/ txdqgr frqvlghudgrv grlv gldv/ dv


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71 Vh fdgd vhjxur ì ihlwr sru Dfff xqlgdghv prqhwäuldv/ ghwhuplqh d


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81 Vh qxp gld d uhfhlwd iru lqihulru d Dffff xqlgdghv prqhwäuldv/ ghwhuplqh


d suredelolgdgh gh txh vhmd vxshulru d 2ffff xqlgdghv prqhwäuldv1

44
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H{hufðflr 5146 Txdlv gdv vhjxlqwhv ixqêøhv srghp uhsuhvhqwdu d ixqêær


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48
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H{hufðflr 5157 D ixqêær ghqvlgdgh gh suredelolgdgh gh xpd y1d1 f ì gdgd


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H{hufðflr 5167 Vhmd f xpd yduläyho dohdwöuld h @ h K frqvwdqwhv1 Suryh dv


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53
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51 Ghwhuplqh d ixqêær gh glvwulexlêær frqmxqwd gh Efc t  

61 Ghwhuplqh dv ixqêøhv gh suredelolgdgh pdujlqdo gh f h gh t 1

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81 Ghwhuplqh d frydulåqfld h r frhflhqwh gh fruuhodêær olqhdu1

54
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d glvwulexlêær frqmxqwd hqwuh r qýphur gh okrv/ f/ sru idpðold h r qýphur
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dvvrdokdgdv sru fdvd1 Ghwhuplqh dv uhvshfwlydv ydulåqfldv1

71 Fdofxoh r frhflhqwh gh fruuhodêær hqwuh dv y1d1 f h t h lqwhusuhwh r


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71 Fdofxoh  E2f n t S1

H{hufðflr 61: Vhmd Efc t  xp sdu dohdwöulr glvfuhwr frp d vhjxlqwh ixqêær
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61 Fdofxoh r frhflhqwh gh fruuhodêær gr sdu dohdwöulr Efc t  h lqwhusuhwh


r uhvxowdgr1

56
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H{hufðflr 61< Frqvlghuh r sdu dohdwöulr Efc t / frp d vhjxlqwh ixqêær gh


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41 Ghwhuplqh &

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 2 %+
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vær gh 1
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41 H{dfwdphqwh wuív uhvxowdgrv idfh DB

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63
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41 D suredelolgdgh gh r qýphur gh yhðfxorv txh sdvvdp hp  gxudqwh xp


plqxwr/ ylqgrv gd dxwr0hvwudgd/ vhu vxshulru d 21

51 D suredelolgdgh gh sdvvduhp sru / h{dfwdphqwh . yhðfxorv gxudqwh


xp plqxwr/ suryhqlhqwhv gd hvwudgd vhfxqgäuld1

61 D suredelolgdgh gh gxudqwh xp plqxwr qær sdvvdu sru  txdotxhu


yhðfxor1

H{hufðflr 7148 Vhmd f r qýphur gh dyduldv txh rfruuh sru krud qxp fhuwr
glvsrvlwlyr/ frp glvwulexlêær Srlvvrq wdo txh  Ef '  '  Ef ' 2

41 Ghwhuplqh r qýphur pìglr gh dyduldv txh rfruuhp sru krud gh ixq0


flrqdphqwr qr glvsrvlwlyr uhihulgr1

51 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh txh rfruudp txdqwr pxlwr e dyduldv hp phld


krudB

61 Dgplwd txh sdud d prqwdjhp gh xp ghwhuplqdgr dsduhokr vær qhfhvväulrv


D glvsrvlwlyrv grv uhihulgrv qr hqxqfldgr1 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh txh
qhqkxp ghohv vh dydulh qxp shuðrgr gh D plqxwrvB

H{hufðflr 7149 R qýphur gläulr gh ylvlwdqwhv gh xpd ihlud +hp plokduhv gh


shvvrdv, vhjxh xpd glvwulexlêær Srlvvrq frp pìgld ljxdo d 1

41 Ghwhuplqh r qýphur hvshudgr gh ylvlwdqwhv qd ihlud1

51 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gr qýphur gh ylvlwdqwhv qær vhu lqihulru d


efff1

H{hufðflr 714: Vhmd f xpd y1d1 frp glvwulexlêær Srlvvrq txh uhsuhvhqwd
r qýphur gh fduurv shglgrv glduldphqwh d xpd hpsuhvd txh srvvxl sdud
doxjdu1 D shufhqwdjhp gh gldv hp txh d surfxud ì qxod ì  D 1

41 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gr qýphur gh fduurv surfxudgrv glduldphq0


wh vhu vxshulru ã pìgld1

66
51 Sdud xp shuðrgr gh ff gldv/ ghwhuplqh r qýphur hvshudgr gh gldv hp
txh fdp hqfrphqgdv sru vdwlvid}hu1

H{hufðflr 714; R qýphur gh shvvrdv txh vhpdqdophqwh dsuhvhqwd xp sh0


glgr gh hpsuhjr qr Fhqwur gh Hpsuhjr gh Vhwýedo ì xpd yduläyho dohdwöuld
txh vhjxh xpd glvwulexlêær Srlvvrq frp .dfo ' b Fhufd gh HfI gdv shvvrdv
suhwhqghp wudedokdu qr vhfwru grv vhuylêrv1

41 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh hp ghwhuplqdgd vhpdqd qær dsduhfhuhp pdlv


gh e shglgrv qr fhqwur gh hpsuhjrB

51 Whqgr vhohfflrqdgr 2 grv shglgrv uhfhsflrqdgrv/ txdo d suredelolgdgh


gh vh hqfrqwuduhp pdlv gh . gluljlgrv d vhfwruhv txh qær r gh vhuylêrvB

H{hufðflr 714< Xp frqwhqwru frqwìp ffff sduwðfxodv1 D suredelolgdgh


gh/ qxp fhuwr lqwhuydor gh whpsr xpd ghvvdv sduwðfxodv vdlu gr frqwhqwru ì
ffffe1 Dvvxplqgr txh r frpsruwdphqwr gh fdgd sduwðfxod ì lqghshqghqwh
gr frpsruwdphqwr gdv uhvwdqwhv/ txdo d suredelolgdgh gh h{dfwdphqwh D
ghvvdv sduwðfxodv hvfdsduhp gr frqwhqwru/ qhvvh lqwhuydor gh whpsrB

H{hufðflr 7153 Qxpd flgdgh h{lvwh xpd fdsdflgdgh krwhohlud gh eff txdu0
wrv1 D suredelolgdgh gh xpd shvvrd surfxudu xp txduwr gh krwho qhvvd flgdgh

ì gh 2ff 1 Fdofxoh r qýphur pä{lpr gh txduwrv qhfhvväulrv gxudqwh xp p
gh vhpdqd +2 gldv, sdud doehujdu wrgdv dv shvvrdv txh r ghvhmhp frp xpd
suredelolgdgh gh fbD1

H{hufðflr 7154 D suredelolgdgh gh xpd shvvrd pruuhu gh xpd fhuwd grhqêd


uhvsludwöuld ì fff21

41 Ghwhuplqh d glvwulexlêær gd y1d1 txh uhsuhvhqwd r qýphur gh grhqwhv


txh pruuhp hp 2fff lqihfwdgrv sru hvvd grhqêd1

51 Hp 2fff lqihfwdgrv txdo r qýphur hvshudgr gh grhqwhv txh luær pruuhuB

61 Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh pruuhuhp D grhqwhv grv suö{lprv 2fff lq0


ihfwdgrv1

H{hufðflr 7155 Hvwdwðvwlfdv uhdol}dgdv qr fdpsr gd vdýgh uhyhodp txh xpd


grhqêd gh wudwdphqwr glvshqglrvr dihfwd  hp fdgd Dfff shvvrdv1 Edvhdgd
qhvwdv hvwdwðvwlfdv/ xpd vhjxudgrud ghflglx fuldu xp vhjxur sdud freulu dv
ghvshvdv ghvvh wudwdphqwr1 Qxp fhuwr dqr d vhjxudgrud whp hp fduwhlud
fff dsöolfhv ghvwh wlsr1

67
41 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gh qhqkxpd gdv shvvrdv vhjxudgdv frqwudlu
d grhqêd qhvvh dqr1

51 Vdehqgr txh qhvvh dqr mä irl uhjlvwdgd shor phqrv xpd sduwlflsdêær
ã vhjxudgrud/ fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh qær vh yhulfduhp pdlv gh
sduwlflsdêøhv dwì dr qdo gr dqr1

H{hufðflr 7156 Vdeh0vh txh I gdv oåpsdgdv hoìfwulfdv ideulfdgdv sru xpd
frpsdqkld vær ghihlwxrvdv1 Ghvljqdqgr sru f d y1d1 txh uhsuhvhqwd r
qýphur gh oåpsdgdv frp ghihlwr h{lvwhqwhv qxpd dprvwud gh ff=

41 Gljd/ mxvwlfdqgr/ txdo d glvwulexlêær gh f

51 Fdofxoh=

+d,  Ef ' D


+e,  E f 
+f,  Ef  D

68
Vroxêøhv
714= 1
71514d= fS2 1 71514e= fSHeS1 71514f= f2SSH1 71514g= 1 71515d= fe1
71515e= b1 71515f= b1
71614= f2S21 71615= ffff DD1 71616= ffbHb1
71714= f2f 1 71715= f 2221 71716= fH.b1
71814= 1 71815= ff2 H1 71816= . 1
71914= f22.S +xvdqgr R  f whp0vh f2ff,1 71915= fbbbbH +xvdqgr
R  f whp0vh ,1 71916= fff e +xvdqgr R  f whp0vh fffS,1
71:14= fbD S1 71:15= Sf1 71:16= ?  D1
71;14=  1 71;15= 22SSS. xqlgdghv prqhwäuldv1 71;16= ffHS. +xvdqgr R  f
yhp f2,1

71<14= D 1 71<15= 1 71<16= 2 1 71<17= fffe +xvdqgr R  f whp0vh
fff2e,1
714314d= f ff.1 714314e= f Dfe1 714314f= fS .1 714314g= fSH.1
714315d= .1 714315e= e1 714315f= SD1
714414= fe2b1 714415= e1 714416= 21 714417=  rx 21 714418= .H21
714419= f2..1
714514= feefD1 714515= fffS21
714614= ffH21 714615= f2DSD1 714616= fHb21 714617= ffe21
714714= f2fHe1 714715= ffDbD1 714716= f1
714814= 21 714815= fbbS 1 714816= ffH21
714914= 1 714915= f D2H1
714:14= f 2 1 714:15= ec 2b1
714;14= ffDDf1 714;15= ffffS1
714<= fDS 1
7153= .1
715414= f G  E2fffc fff21 715415= e1 715416= fDS 1
715514= fDeHH1 715515= fbb2D1
715614= f G  Effc ff 1 715615d= fffH1 715615e= f22ef1
715615f= fHe.1

69
8 Glvwulexlêøhv Whöulfdv Frqwðqxdv
H{hufðflrv
H{hufðflr 814 Vhmd f xpd y1d1 frp glvwulexlêær qrupdo/ gh sduåphwurv >
h j1 Fdofxoh=

41  E>  j f > n j

51  E>  2j f > n 2j

61  E>  j f > n j

H{hufðflr 815 Vhmd f xpd y1d1 frp glvwulexlêær qrupdo/ gh sduåphwurv


> ' ef h j ' S1 Fdofxoh=

41  Ef 2

51  Ef : 2.

61  Ee2 f D

71 R ydoru % wdo txh  Ef % ' feD

81 R ydoru % wdo txh  Ef : % ' f 

H{hufðflr 816 Xpd iäeulfd surgx} prwruhv fxmr whpsr gh ylgd ì xpd yd0
uläyho dohdwöuld frp glvwulexlêær qrupdo/ gh sduåphwurv > ' f dqrv h j ' 2
dqrv1 D iäeulfd txhu fuldu xp shuðrgr gh jdudqwld/ gh irupd d qær pdlv gh
I grv prwruhv whqkdp gh vhu vxevwlwxðgrv1 Txdo ghyhuä vhu r shuðrgr gh
jdudqwld pä{lpr rihuhflgr shod iäeulfdB

H{hufðflr 817 Xpd pätxlqd sdud hpsdfrwdphqwr dxwrpäwlfr gh dêýfdu


surgx} sdfrwhv fxmr shvr oltxlgr ì xpd y1d1 frp glvwulexlêær qrupdo frp
pìgld H j h ghvylr sdguær 2 j1

41 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh xp sdfrwh hvfroklgr dr dfdvr whu xp shvr


vxshulru d HD jB

51 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh xp sdfrwh hvfroklgr dr dfdvr whu xp shvr


vxshulru d f j rx lqihulru d S jB

61 Txdo ghyhuld vhu d pìgld gr shvr oltxlgr sdud txh bbI grv sdfrwhv
frqwlyhvvhp shor phqrv b jB

6:
H{hufðflr 818 Xpd hpsuhvd whp surgxêær frqvwdqwh gh bf wrqhodgdv2pív
gr surgxwr txh ideulfd1 Vdehqgr txh d surfxud ghvvh surgxwr ì xpd y1d1
dsur{lpdgdphqwh qrupdo gh sduåphwurv > ' ff h j ' fc fdofxoh=

41 D suredelolgdgh gd surfxud vh vlwxdu hqwuh SH h bf wrqhodgdv1

51 D suredelolgdgh gh kdyhu surfxud h{fhghqwäuld1

61 R ydoru txh ghyhuld whu d surgxêær gd hpsuhvd sdud txh d suredelolgdgh


gh kdyhu surfxud lqvdwlvihlwd irvvh ff2D1

H{hufðflr 819 Qxpd phglêær r huur dohdwöulr vhjxh xpd ohl qrupdo gh
ghvylr sdguær j '  pp h pìgld > ' f pp1

41 Rewhqkd d suredelolgdgh gh/ qxpd phglêær/ r huur shuwhqfhu dr lqwhu0


ydor ofDc 2Dd1

51 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gh txh/ hp 2 phglêøhv lqghshqghqwhv/ r huur


gh shor phqrv xpd ghodv qær xowudsdvvh hp ydoru devroxwr 2H pp1

H{hufðflr 81: R glåphwur lqwhuqr gh xp vhjphqwr gh xp prwru gh dx0


wrpöyho ì xpd y1d1 txh vhjxh xpd glvwulexlêær qrupdo frp pìgld f fp h
ghvylr sdguær ff fp

41 Txh shufhqwdjhp gh vhjphqwrv wíp glåphwur lqwhuqr vxshulru d


ff.D fpB

51 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh xp vhjphqwr whu xp glåphwur lqwhuqr hqwuh


bbb. h ff fpB

61 Dedl{r gh txh ydoru gr glåphwur lqwhuqr/ vh hqfrqwudp DI grv vh0


jphqwrvB

H{hufðflr 81; R glåphwur f gh xp fder hoìfwulfr ì qrupdophqwh glvwulexð0


gr frp pìgld fH h ydulåqfld ffffe1 R fder hoìfwulfr ì frqvlghudgr ghihl0
wxrvr vh glihulu gd vxd pìgld hp pdlv gh ff2D1 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh vh
hqfrqwudu xp fder ghihlwxrvrB

H{hufðflr 81< Qxpd hpsuhvd d xwlol}dêær vhpdqdo gh ghwhuplqdgd pdwìuld0


sulpd/ ì xpd y1d1 frp glvwulexlêær qrupdo gh sduåphwurv > ' Sff nj h
j ' ef nj1 Qr lqðflr gh fhuwd vhpdqd d hpsuhvd whp hp vwrfn S e nj gh
pdwìuld0sulpd/ vhqgr lqyläyho qhvvd vhpdqd surfhghu d pdlv dsurylvlrqdphq0
wrv1

6;
41 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gh uxswxud gh vwrfn gh pdwìuld0sulpd qhvvd
vhpdqd1

51 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh qxpd gdgd vhpdqd r frqvxpr vhu lqihulru ã


pìgld/ vdehqgr0vh txh qr lqlflr gd phvpd vhpdqd mä vh frqvxpludp
shor phqrv Dff nj gh pdwìuld0sulpdB

61 Txdo ghyhuä vhu r vwrfn pðqlpr/ gh prgr d txh vhmd gh ff d sured0
elolgdgh gh uxswxudB

H{hufðflr 8143 Dv dowxudv gh xp juxsr gh shvvrdv vhjxh xpd glvwulexlêær


qrupdo frp pìgld ljxdo d SS fp h ydulåqfld gh b1 Ghwhuplqh=

41 D suredelolgdgh gh txh dv dowxudv vh vlwxhp hqwuh rv Sf h .2 fp1

51 D suredelolgdgh gh txh dv dowxudv qær vhmdp lqihulruhv d .D fp1

61 D dowxud  gh prgr txh hp Hff shvvrdv kdmd 2Se frp dowxud vxshulru
d 

H{hufðflr 8144 Qxp h{dph DI grv doxqrv rewlyhudp qrwd vxshulru d S
h SfI qrwd vxshulru d b1 Vxsrqgr txh d glvwulexlêær gdv qrwdv ì qrupdo1

41 Ghwhuplqh rv ydoruhv grv sduåphwurv > h j2 ghvvd glvwulexlêær1

51 Fdofxoh d shufhqwdjhp gh lqglyðgxrv frp qrwd lqihulru d :1

H{hufðflr 8145 Frqvlghuh d yduläyho dohdwöuld f G Q E>( j c wdo txh

 Ef f ' fD h  Ef : Df ' ff.b

Ghwhuplqh > h j

H{hufðflr 8146 Qrv eheìv/ d lgdgh +hp phvhv, hp txh urpsh r sulphlur
ghqwh ì xpd y1d1 qrupdo gh pìgld . h ydulåqfld ljxdo d e1

41 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh txh xp eheì hvfroklgr dr dfdvr whqkd r


sulphlur ghqwh dqwhv grv . phvhvB

51 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh txh hp grlv eheìv/ xp whqkd r sulphlur ghqwh


ghsrlv grv S phvhv/ h rxwur ghsrlv grv H phvhvB

61 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh txh qxpd dprvwud gh f eheìv/ H ghohv whqkdp


r sulphlur ghqwh qær dqwhv grv . phvhvB

6<
H{hufðflr 8147 Sdud hihlwrv gh frphufldol}dêær/ ghwhuplqdgrv iuxwrv vær
fodvvlfdgrv shor wdpdqkr1 Frqvlghud0vh frpr phglgd r vhx glåphwur pä{l0
pr/ r txdo ì xpd yduläyho dohdwöuld frp glvwulexlêær qrupdo gh ghvylr sdguær
ljxdo d D fp h pìgld > Dv fdwhjruldv frqvlghudgdv vær dv vhjxlqwhv=

 S G iuxwrv frp glåphwur lqihulru rx ljxdo d S fp>


 S2 G iuxwrv frp glåphwur pä{lpr hqwuh S h 2 fp>
 S G iuxwrv frp glåphwur pä{lpr vxshulru rx ljxdo d 2 fp1

41 Vdehqgr txh fI grv iuxwrv vær gh fdwhjruld S / fdofxoh r glåphwur


pä{lpr pìglr grv iuxwrv1

51 Fdofxoh d shufhqwdjhp gh iuxwrv gdv fdwhjruldv S h S2 

61 Vh rv iuxwrv iruhp yhqglgrv hp hpedodjhqv hfrqöplfdv gh S xqlgdghv/


lqfoxlqgr dohdwruldphqwh wrgrv rv wdpdqkrv/ txdo d suredelolgdgh gh
kdyhu shor phqrv 2 iuxwrv gd fdwhjruld S q

71 Vdehqgr txh rv iuxwrv gd fdwhjruld S2 wíp xpd suredelolgdgh gh dsr0


guhfhu +dr p gh D gldv, gh fffe/ fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh hqwuh fff
iuxwrv/ qær phqrv gh . iuxwrv dsrguhfhuhp dr p gh D gldv1

H{hufðflr 8148 Dv qrwdv rewlgdv qxpd idfxogdgh d hvwdwðvwlfd vær xpd


yduläyho dohdwöuld f frp glvwulexlêær qrupdo gh pìgld 431 Vdeh0vh txh
 Ef 2 ' fHe 

41 Ghwhuplqh r ghvylr sdguær gdv qrwdv1

51 Ghwhuplqh  EH f 2

61 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh/ hp f doxqrv/ e rewhuhp xpd qrwd vxshulru


d HB

H{hufðflr 8149 Fdgd xp grv 2f srvwrv gh wudedokr qdv olqkdv gh prqwdjhp


gh xpd iäeulfd frqvrph shêdv gr wlsr  +gxudqwh 2f gldv ýwhlv, d xp ulwpr
gdgr sru xpd y1d1 frp glvwulexlêær Q EDfc 2  Vh rv vwrfnv gh shêdv iruhp
uhqrydgrv fdgd 2f gldv ýwhlv/ txdo ghyhuä vhu r vwrfn pðqlpr wrwdo qr lqðflr gh
fdgd shuðrgr gh 2f gldv ýwhlv/ gh irupd d txh d suredelolgdgh gh uxswxud gh
vwrfnv qær h{fhgd 2fIB +Dgplwd txh r frqvxpr hp fdgd srvwr gh wudedokr
ì lqghshqghqwh gr frqvxpr qrv uhvwdqwhv srvwrv gh wudedokr,1

H{hufðflr 814: Rv fxvwrv gh pær0gh0reud qd surgxêær gh xp duwljr duwh0


vdqdo vær xpd yduläyho dohdwöuld gh glvwulexlêær qrupdo frp pìgld ff x1p1
+xqlgdghv prqhwäuldv, h ghvylr sdguær gh f x1p1

73
41 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gdtxhoh fxvwr vh vlwxdu hqwuh bf h f x1p1B

51 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gr fxvwr gh duwljrv vhu lqihulru d f x1p1B

61 Surgx}hp0vh wuív xqlgdghv1 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh wrgdv whuhp fxvwr


lqihulru d H x1p1B

H{hufðflr 814; R prqwdqwh gh ghsövlwrv ã rughp hihfwxdgrv glduldphqwh


qxpd djíqfld edqfäuld ì xpd y1d1 frp glvwulexlêær qrupdo gh pìgld 2f
x1p1 h ydulåqfld Se1

41 Ghwhuplqh d shufhqwdjhp gh gldv hp txh r prqwdqwh gh ghsövlwrv vh


vlwxd hqwuh fD h  D x1p11

51 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gr prqwdqwh gh ghsövlwrv vhu vxshulru ã


pìgld/ qrv gldv hp txh hvvh phvpr prqwdqwh ì lqihulru d 2D x1p11

61 Ghwhuplqh d pìgld h d ydulåqfld gr prqwdqwh gh ghsövlwrv vhpdqdlv +D


gldv,1

H{hufðflr 814< R frqvxpr gläulr gh äjxd qxpd gdgd orfdolgdgh whp xpd
glvwulexlêær qrupdo gh pìgld 2ff 6 h ghvylr sdguær gh f 6 

41 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh/ qxp gdgr gld/ r frqvxpr hvwdu frpsuhhqglgr


hqwuh Hf h 2 D 6 B

51 Txh txdqwlgdgh gh äjxd vh ghyhuä hqfrqwudu glvsrqðyho gh prgr d


dvvhjxudu0vh r frqvxpr hp bfI grv fdvrvB

61 Dr orqjr gh xpd vhpdqd +. gldv, txdo d suredelolgdgh gh kdyhu qr


pä{lpr gldv frp frqvxpr lqihulru d 2SeD 6 B

71 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh txh/ hp D gldv ýwhlv/ vh frqvxpd pdlv gh


fff 6 B

H{hufðflr 8153 Xpd hpsuhvd frphufldol}d jduudidv gh ylqkr gr Sruwr gh 


olwur1 Vxsøh0vh txh efI ghvvdv jduudidv frqwíp uhdophqwh xpd txdqwlgdgh
gh oðtxlgr phqru gr txh d lqglfdgd qr uöwxor1 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh/ hp
ff jduudidv h{lvwhqwhv qxpd ormd=

41 Kdyhu f frp phqrv gh  olwurB

51 Kdyhu qær pdlv gh f frp phqrv gh  olwurB

61 Kdyhu pdlv gh eD frp phqrv gh  olwurB

74
71 Kdyhu hqwuh ee h Df frp phqrv gh  olwurB

H{hufðflr 8154 Grv ixvðyhlv surgx}lgrv qxpd iäeulfd yhulfd0vh txh 2I vær
ghihlwxrvrv1 Rv ixvðyhlv vær hpedodgrv hp fdl{dv gh 2fff xqlgdghv1 Vhmd f
r qýphur gh ixvðyhlv ghihlwxrvrv sru fdl{d1

41 Lqgltxh d glvwulexlêær gh f

51 Txdo r qýphur pìglr gh ixvðyhlv ghihlwxrvrv sru fdl{dB


61 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gh hqfrqwudu shor phqrv f ixvðyhlv ghihlwx0
rvrv qxpd fdl{d1

H{hufðflr 8155 Dv fodvvlfdêøhv rewlgdv qxp h{dph vhjxhp glvwulexlêær


qrupdo frp ydoru pìglr gh  h ydulåqfld b1 Rv doxqrv frp fodvvlfdêær
hqwuh HD h f rx vxshulru d D wíp gh id}hu rudo1 Fdofxoh=

41 D shufhqwdjhp gh doxqrv txh vh hvshud txh rewhqkdp qrwdv qr lqwhuydor


dfc Do1
51 Gh 2f doxqrv txh }hudp r h{dph/

+d, Txdqwrv vh hvshud txh uhsuryhpB


+e, Txdo r qýphur hvshudgr gh doxqrv txh yær id}hu rudoB
+f, Txdo d qrwd pä{lpd rewlgd qr juxsr grv 2 doxqrv slru fodvvl0
fdgrvB
+g, Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh vh hqfrqwuduhp f doxqrv frp qrwd vx0
shulru d DB

H{hufðflr 8156 Qxp wrwdo gh 2f doxqrv lqvfulwrv d Hvwdwðvwlfd/ Hf vær gh


Hohfwurphfåqlfd +HP,/ 2f gh Lqirupäwlfd gh Jhvwær +LJ, h rv uhvwdqwhv
gh Phfåqlfd Hqhujld +PH,1 Vdeh0vh txh d suredelolgdgh grv doxqrv vhuhp
dsurydgrv qd glvflsolqd ì gh f2D sdud PH h ffb sdud LJ h HP1

41 Fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh xp doxqr +gh txdotxhu grv fxuvrv, vhu


dsurydgr qd glvflsolqd gh Hvwdwðvwlfd1

51 Dr hvfrokhu xp doxqr dr dfdvr/ gh hqwuh rv dsurydgrv qd glvflsolqd/


txdo d suredelolgdgh gh hvwh vhu gh PHB

61 Whqgr0vh uhfroklgr xpd dprvwud gh Df doxqrv lqvfulwrv qd glvflsolqd


gh Hvwdwðvwlfd/ txdo d suredelolgdgh gh txdqwr pxlwr 2 ghvvhv doxqrv
whuhp wlgr dsurydêær qd glvflsolqdB

75
H{hufðflr 8157 D glvwulexlêær grv uhqglphqwrv idplolduhv/ qxp djorphudgr
srsxodflrqdo gh ffff idpðoldv/ ì vdwlvidfwruldphqwh uhsuhvhqwdgr sru xpd
ohl qrupdo1 Vdeh0vh txh r uhqglphqwr pìglr qhvvh djorphudgr srsxodflrqdo
ì gh bD x1p1 +xqlgdghv prqhwäuldv, h txh d shufhqwdjhp gh idpðoldv frp
uhqglphqwr lqihulru d Hf x1p1 ì DH.I1

41 Txdo r ghvylr sdguær gr uhqglphqwr ghvvdv idpðoldvB


51 Txdo r qýphur suryäyho gh idpðoldv frp uhqglphqwr hqwuh Hf h
f x1p1B
61 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh hp ff idpðoldv vhohfflrqdgdv dohdwruldphqwh/
vh hqfrqwuduhp Sf frp uhqglphqwrv hqwuh Hf h f x1p1B

H{hufðflr 8158 D sduwlu gh xp dupd}ìp yær vhu glvwulexðgdv ffff odwdv


gh hvsdujrv gdv txdlv Dff mä xowudsdvvdudp r sud}r gh ydolgdgh1 Ì hihfwxdgd
xpd lqvshfêær vreuh xpd dprvwud gh D odwdv hvfroklgdv dr dfdvr h frp
uhsrvlêær1 D lqvshfêær uhmhlwd r orwh vh iruhp hqfrqwudgdv pdlv gr txh 2
odwdv irud gh ydolgdgh1

41 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gd lqvshfêær uhmhlwdu r orwhB

51 Txdo r qýphur hvshudgr gh odwdv irud gr sud}r gh ydolgdghB

61 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh/ hp eff odwdv hvfroklgdv dr dfdvr gh hqwuh dv


ffff h{lvwhqwhv/ vh hqfrqwuduhp 2D irud gr sud}r gh ydolgdghB

H{hufðflr 8159 Vhqgr f xpd yduläyho dohdwöuld frp glvwulexlêær h{srqhq0


fldo/ prvwuh txh

 Ef  @ n K*f  @ '  Ef  K c @  fc K  f

H{hufðflr 815: Vdeh0vh txh r whpsr pìglr hqwuh 2 dflghqwhv gh yldêær qxp
ghwhuplqdgr wurêr gd 2 whp glvwulexlêær h{srqhqfldo frp pìgld gh eD gldv1
Vh rfruuh xp dflghqwh qr sulphlur gld gh xp pív/ txdo d suredelolgdgh gh
qhvvh phvpr pív vh yhulfdu xp vhjxqgr dflghqwh gh yldêær +vxsrqkd txh r
pív whp f gldv,B

H{hufðflr 815; Qxpd xqlgdgh lqgxvwuldo r whpsr gh h{hfxêær gh xpd shêd


ì xpd yduläyho dohdwöuld frp glvwulexlêær h{srqhqfldo gh pìgld D plqxwrv1

41 Xpd shêd mä vh hqfrqwud hp h{hfxêær kä 2 plqxwrv1 Txdo d sured0


elolgdgh gh vhuhp dlqgd qhfhvväulrv/ shor phqrv/ e plqxwrv dwì ã vxd
frqfoxværB Frphqwh r uhvxowdgr rewlgr1

76
51 Frqvlghudqgr D shêdv dr dfdvr/ fdofxoh d suredelolgdgh gh 2 ghodv whuhp
wlgr xp whpsr gh h{hfxêær pä{lpr gh e plqxwrv1

H{hufðflr 815< R whpsr gh ixqflrqdphqwr/ vhp dyduldv/ gh xpd ghwhupl0


qdgd pätxlqd gh surgxêær hp vìulh whp xp frpsruwdphqwr h{srqhqfldo
frp pìgld ljxdo d txdwur gldv h phlr1 Vxsrqgr txh d pätxlqd frphêd d
ixqflrqdu qr gld | ' f1

41 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh qær rfruuhuhp dyduldv dqwhv gh S gldvB

51 Dgplwlqgr txh d pätxlqd vh hqfrqwud qr txduwr gld gh surgxêær/ txdo


d suredelolgdgh gh qær rfruuhu txdotxhu dyduld dqwhv gr vh{wr gld gh
oderudêærB

61 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh vh yhulfduhp gxdv dyduldv gxudqwh rv vhlv


sulphlurv gldv gh ixqflrqdphqwr gd pätxlqdB

H{hufðflr 8163 Dgplwlqgr txh ghwhuplqdgd fdl{d pxowledqfr ì xwlol}dgd


hp pìgld f yh}hv sru gld +gdv b ãv b, h txh r qýphur gh xwlol}dêøhv ì
xpd y1d1 frp glvwulexlêær Srlvvrq1

41 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gh txh d fdl{d vhmd xwlol}dgd shor phqrv e


yh}hv hqwuh dv e h dv b1

51 Fdofxoh r ydoru hvshudgr h d ydulåqfld gr qýphur gh xwlol}dêøhv vhpdqdlv


+D gldv, gd fdl{d1

61 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gh txh r whpsr ghfruulgr hqwuh gxdv xwl0


ol}dêøhv frqvhfxwlydv gd fdl{d vhmd vxshulru d 2 krudv1

H{hufðflr 8164 Xpd pätxlqd txh ixqflrqd hp frqwðqxr/ whp hp pìgld 2


dyduldv sru fdgd wxuqr gh H krudv1

41 Ghwhuplqh d suredelolgdgh gh txh r whpsr hqwuh dyduldv frqvhfxwlydv


vhmd vxshulru d D krudv1

51 Vh qxpd rflqd hvwlyhuhp d ixqflrqdu hp vlpxowåqhr 2e pätxlqdv


gdtxhoh wlsr/ kdyhqgr xpd fdsdflgdgh gh uhsdudêær gh D dyduldv sru
krud/ fdofxoh=

+d, D suredelolgdgh gh rfruuhuhp dyduldv qrv ýowlprv f plqxwrv gh


xp wxuqr1
+e, R ydoru hvshudgr h d ydulåqfld gr qýphur gh dyduldv sru krud1

77
+f, R qýphur pìglr gh dyduldv uhsdudgdv sru krud1

H{hufðflr 8165 R whpsr gh hvshud +hp plqxwrv, qxpd fhqwudo whohiöqlfd


hqwuh gxdv fkdpdgdv vhjxh xpd glvwulexlêær h{srqhqfldo frp ixqêær ghqvl0
gdgh gh suredelolgdgh
 !%
e c %f
s E% ' 
f c % f

41 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh txh r whpsr hqwuh gxdv fkdpdgdv vhmd lqihulru


d plqxwrvB

51 Txdo d suredelolgdgh gh txh r whpsr hqwuh gxdv fkdpdgdv vhmd vxshulru


d plqxwrvB

61 Txh glvwulexlêær vhjxh r qýphur gh fkdpdgdv sru plqxwrB Mxvwltxh1

78
Vroxêøhv
81414= fSH2S1 81415= fbDee1 81416= fbb.e1
81514= ffbH1 81515= fbHD1 81516= f .1 81517= b221 81518= eS.H1
816= S dqrv1
81714= fef 1 81715= f .e1 81716=  SS1
81814= fDH1 81815= fHe 1 81816= bS1
81914= fSHD 1 81915= fbDb.S1
81:14= fS2I1 81:15= f H1 81:16= bbSHH1
81;= f221
81<14= fb..1 81<15= febSb1 81<16= Sb 21
814314= fbDee1 814315= fff 1 814316= S. 2 fp1
814414= > ' f Sc j2 ' 2beD1 814415= 2.I1
8145= > ' .2.c j ' SfS1
814614= fD1 814615= f D1 814616= ffe b1
814714= be1 814715= Fdwhjruld S G 2eH I/ Fdwhjruld S2 G eDf2I1
814716= fD.bH1 814717= ff.1
814814= 21 814815= fSH2S1 814816= fffSH +xvdqgr R  fHD whp0vh fff2,1
8149= f 
814:14= fSH2S1 814:15= f.b1 814:16= fHbS1
814;14= beI1 814;15= f 21 814;16= > ' Sff/ j2 ' 2f1
814<14= fb..21 814<15= 22H 6 1 814<16= ffff21 814<17= fD1
815314= ff1 815315= ff2S21 815316= f e1 815317= fD2S1
815414= f G  E2fffc ff21 815415= ef1 815416= fbD D1
815514= D .DI1 815515d= 2e1 815515e= 1 815515f= .1 815515g= f2fH1
815614= fD1 815615= fS2D1 815616= ff2 b1
815714= D1 815715= SH2S1 815716= ff.e1
815814= ff S21 815815= f.D1 815816= ffe..1
8159= 
815:= fe.D
815;14= feeb1 815;15= f2.D.1
815<14= f2S S1 815<15= fSe21 815<16= f2 f 1
816314= f. D1 816315= ydoru hvshudgr ' Df/ ydulåqfld ' Df1 816316= f D 1
816414= f2HSD1 816415d= ffS 1 816415e= ydoru hvshudgr ' S/
ydulåqfld ' S1 816415f= eeHH1
816514= fbD1 816515= ffD1 816516= t G  E1

79
9 Hvwlpdgruhv
H{hufðflrv
H{hufðflr 914 Frqvlghuh xpd srsxodêær ghvfulwd shod y1d1 f frp ixqêær
ghqvlgdgh gh suredelolgdgh=

w Ew n  %w! / f % 
s E% ' / frp w : f
f / fdvr frqwuäulr

41 Fdofxoh . dfo 

51 Frqvlghuh xpd dprvwud dohdwöuld gh glphqvær ?1 Yhultxh vh


7
w9 ' f

ì xp hvwlpdgru fhqwudgr gh w

H{hufðflr 915 Frqvlghuh d hvwdwðvwlfd


S
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f n f?
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ghqlgd frp edvh qxpd dprvwud dohdwöuld gh glphqvær ?/ uhfroklgd gh xpd
srsxodêær qrupdo1 Yhultxh vh A frqvwlwxl xp hvwlpdgru fhqwudgr sdud d
pìgld gd srsxodêær1

H{hufðflr 916 Frqvlghuh f c f2 h f revhuydêøhv lqghshqghqwhv gh xpd


yduläyho dohdwöuld f G Q E>c j  Yhultxh vh r hvwlpdgru

f n 2f2 n f
A '
e
ì xp hvwlpdgru fhqwudgr h frqvlvwhqwh sdud d pìgld gd srsxodêær1

H{hufðflr 917 Vxsrqkd txh f c f2 c c f? xpd dprvwud dohdwöuld gh xpd


srsxodêær fxmd ixqêær ghqvlgdgh gh suredelolgdgh ì gdgd sru=

Ew n  %w / f % 
s E% ' / frp w : 
3 / f1f1

hp txh w ì xp sduåphwur ghvfrqkhflgr

41 Ghwhuplqh . dfo 

7:
7
51 Yhultxh vh w9 ' 2 n !f
2
ì xp hvwlpdgru fhqwudgr1

H{hufðflr 918 Vxsrqgr f c f2 c c f? xpd dprvwud dohdwöuld gh xpd srsx0


odêær fxmd ixqêær ghqvlgdgh gh suredelolgdgh ì gdgd sru=
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/f % w
s E% ' w / frp w : f
f / f1f1
hp txh w ì xp sduåphwur ghvfrqkhflgr1

41 Ghwhuplqh . dfo h T dfo 


51 Prvwuh txh r hvwlpdgru w9 ' f 7 qær ì xp hvwlpdgru frqyhujhqwh sdud r
sduåphwur w h lqgltxh/ mxvwlfdqgr/ xp srvvðyho hvwlpdgru frqyhujhqwh
sdud hvvh sduåphwur1

H{hufðflr 919 Sdud r sduåphwur w gh xpd fhuwd srsxodêær irl frqvlghudgr


r hvwlpdgru w9 1 Vdehqgr txh=
. dw 9 o ' 
2?
nw h T dw9 o ' 2
e?n2w

41 Yhultxh vh r hvwlpdgru ì frqyhujhqwh1


51 Lqgltxh/ mxvwlfdqgr/ r txh srgh frqfoxlu txdqwr dr hqylhvdphqwr gh
w9 

H{hufðflr 91: D whpshudwxud txh vh id} vhqwlu hp gdgr sdðv gr qruwh gd


Hxursd ì xpd yduläyho dohdwöuld qrupdo frp pìgld > h ydulåqfld j2  Frp
edvh qd dprvwud dohdwöuld Ef c f2 c f c fe  irudp ghqlgrv rv vhjxlqwhv hvwl0
pdgruhv sdud > G

[
e
A ' & Ef n 2f2 n f  fe  h A2 ' f
e '

41 Fdofxoh r ydoru gh & sdud txh A vhmd fhqwudgr1


51 Frqvlghudqgr r ydoru gh & ghwhuplqdgr qd doðqhd dqwhulru/ frpsduh A
h A2 txdqwr ã hflíqfld sdud >

H{hufðflr 91; Vhmd f xpd srsxodêær frp ydoru pìglr > +ghvfrqkhflgr, h
ghvylr sdguær j +frqkhflgr,/ h
S
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grlv hvwlpdgruhv gh >/ dvvrfldgrv d xpd dprvwud dohdwöuld f c    c f? gh f1

7;
41 Prvwuh txh >9 ' >9 n b E>92  >9  ì xp hvwlpdgru fhqwudgr gh >/ txdo0
txhu txh vhmd b 5 W+
51 Vxsrqkd o ' 2f h ? : 2f/ dqdolvh d hflíqfld gh >9 uhodwlydphqwh d >92 

H{hufðflr 91< Vxsrqkd d h{lvwíqfld gh xpd yduläyho dohdwöuld f txh vhjxh


xpd glvwulexlêær qrupdo gh pìgld > h ydulåqfld j2 / ghvfrqkhflgrv1 Dwudyìv
gd uhfrokd gh xpd dprvwud dohdwöuld gh glphqvær ? hqfrqwurx0vh sdud hvwl0
pdgru gh > d hvwdwðvwlfd
S
?
f
9 '
w ' 
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41 Suryh txh w9 ì fhqwudgr h frqvlvwhqwh1
51 Frqvlghudqgr djrud xpd dprvwud gh glphqvær wuív h
f n 2f2 n f
w99 '
e
frpr hvwlpdgru gh >1 Dqdolvh d hflíqfld gh w 9 uhodwlydphqwh d w99 

H{hufðflr 9143 Frqvlghuh dv vhjxlqwhv hvwdwðvwlfdv frqvwuxlgdv frp edvh qx0


pd dprvwud dohdwöuld Ef c f2 c    c f? c    c f?  c suryhqlhqwh gh xpd srsx0
odêær f frp pìgld > h ydulåqfld j2 G

S


S
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A nA2
A ' ?
f > A2 ' ?!?
f > A ' 2
' '? n

41 Dyhuljýh vh A h A vær hvwlpdgruhv fhqwudgrv gh >


51 Ghwhuplqh/ mxvwlfdqgr/ r ydoru gh ? d sduwlu gr txdo A ì pdlv
hflhqwh gr txh A

H{hufðflr 9144 Vhmd w9 xp hvwlpdgru gh xp sduåphwur ghvfrqkhflgr w1 R


hqylhvdphqwr gh w9 frpr hvwlpdgru gh w ì K ' . dw9 o  w1 Prvwuh txh
 
. Ew9  w2 ' T dw9 o n K2 

H{hufðflr 9145 Sdud xp sduåphwur ghvfrqkhflgr w gh fhuwd srsxodêær irudp


lqglfdgrv grlv hvwlpdgruhv/ e
w h e
w2 1 Gljd txdo suhihululd/ vdehqgr txh=
k l k l
. e w ' ?w . ew2 ' ?w
k l k l
T e
w ' w2
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T e
w2 ' w2
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7<
H{hufðflr 9146 Vxsrqkd txh e w h e
w 2 vær hvwlpdgruhv gh xp sduåphwur ghv0
frqkhflgr w h txh rv vhxv ydoruhv hvshudgrv vær w h 2w / uhvshfwlydphqwh1
k l k l
41 Txdo ì r phokru hvwlpdgru gh w txdqgr T e
w ' T e
w2 ' w 2
e
q
k l k l
51 Txdo ì r phokru hvwlpdgru gh w txdqgr T e
w ' 2w2 h T e
w2 ' ew2 q

83
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91414= w 91415= Ì fhqwudgr1
915= Ì fhqwudgr1
916= Ì fhqwudgr h qær ì frqvlvwhqwh1
91714= wn
wn2
 91715= Qær ì fhqwudgr1
91814= . dfo ' w2 h T dfo ' w2  91815= Sru h{hpsor e
2
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91914= Ì frqyhujhqwh1 91915= Ì hqylhvdgr1
91:14= & '   91:15= A2 ì pdlv hflhqwh1
91;14= 1 91;15= Vh ? ef/ >9 ì pdlv hflhqwh txh >92 1 Vh ? : ef/ >92 ì pdlv
hflhqwh txh >9 1
91<14= 1 91<15= w9 ì pdlv hflhqwh1
914314= Vær fhqwudgrv 914315= ? : ? e
1
9144= 1
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914614= e w 1
e
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84
: Lqwhuydorv gh Frqdqêd
H{hufðflrv
H{hufðflr :14 Vhqgr f xpd yduläyho dohdwöuld frp glvwulexlêær qrupdo h j
frqkhflgr/ ghgx}d xp lqwhuydor gh frqdqêd sdud d pìgld/ xwlol}dqgr xpd
dprvwud gh glphqvær ?

H{hufðflr :15 Vhmd f xpd srsxodêær frp glvwulexlêær qrupdo gh pìgld >
h ghvylr sdguær ljxdo d 51 Xpd dprvwud dohdwöuld gh glphqvær ? ' 2D irl
h{wudðgd ghvwd srsxodêær h uhyhorx xpd pìgld %7 ' .H 

41 Fdofxoh r lqwhuydor gh frqdqêd sdud > d bbI1

51 Txdo d dpsolwxgh gr lqwhuydor gh frqdqêd +d bbI gh frqdqêd, dr


hvwlpdu > sru %
7 ' .H q

61 Txdo ghyhuä vhu d glphqvær gd dprvwud sdud d dpsolwxgh +d bbI gh


frqdqêd,/ dr hvwlpdu > sru %
7c qær h{fhgd rv fq

71 Fdofxoh r lqwhuydor gh frqdqêd d bDI sdud >

81 Txdo r hihlwr gh yduldu r judx gh frqdqêdB

91 Txdo ghyhuä vhu d glphqvær gd dprvwud sdud d dpsolwxgh / d bDI


gh frqdqêd/ dr hvwlpdu > sru % 7 qær h{fhgd rv fq H d bbc bI gh
frqdqêdB Lqwhusuhwh rv uhvxowdgrv1

H{hufðflr :16 Gh xpd srsxodêær qrupdo gh pìgld > ydulåqfld ljxdo d e/ irl
uhwludgd xpd dprvwud gh b revhuydêøhv hp txh %
7 ' e

41 Frqvwuxd xp lqwhuydor gh frqdqêd d bDI sdud d pìgld gd srsxodêær1

51 Vh suhwhqghvvh uhgx}lu sdud phwdgh d dpsolwxgh gr lqwhuydor dqwhulru


frpr surfhghuldB Mxvwltxh1

H{hufðflr :17 Frqvlghuh xpd y1d1 qrupdo gh ydulåqfld ljxdo d e1 Uhfrokhx0


vh d vhjxlqwh dprvwud=

c .c bc fc c 2c 2c e

41 Ghwhuplqh xp lqwhuydor gh frqdqêd d bfI sdud d pìgld1

51 Txdo ghyhuld vhu r judx gh frqdqêd d xwlol}du sdud txh d dpsolwxgh


gr lqwhuydor irvvh 2..B

85
61 Lqgltxh d glphqvær gd dprvwud txh frqvlghuduld sdud txh d dpsolwxgh
gr lqwhuydor vhmd lqihulru d xp/ qdv frqglêøhv gd doðqhd 1
71 H{soltxh vxflqwdphqwh r txh dfrqwhfhuld vh dxphqwdvvh sdud bbI r
judx gh frqdqêd/ pdqwhqgr d dprvwud1

H{hufðflr :18 Frqvlghuh d dprvwud gh xpd y1d1 qrupdo gh ydulåqfld ljxdo


d e=
2fc ec fc 2c Sc c c 2c D

41 Ghgx}d h lqgltxh xp lqwhuydor gh frqdqêd/ d HfI/ sdud d pìgld gd


srsxodêær1
51 Txdo ghyhuld vhu r qðyho gh frqdqêd d xwlol}du sdud txh d dpsolwxgh
gr lqwhuydor irvvh gh 2..B

H{hufðflr :19 Xpd frpsdqkld gh sdsho txhu hvwlpdu r whpsr pìglr uh0
txhulgr sdud xpd qryd pätxlqd surgx}lu xpd uhvpd gh sdsho1 Vdeh0vh txh
xpd dprvwud gh S uhvpdv uhtxhuhp hp pìgld fhufd gh D plqxwrv2uhvpd
gd pätxlqd1 Dvvxplqgr txh j ' f f plqxwrv/ frqvwuxd xp lqwhuydor gh
frqdqêd d bDI1

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dv fuldqêdv1

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phqwh suhflvd +gdgr txh r lqwhuydor gh frqdqêd ì ghpdvldgr judqgh,/
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gh frqdqêd d bDI/ whqkd xpd dpsolwxgh gh txlorvB

H{hufðflr :144 Suhwhqgh0vh hvwxgdu r frpsruwdphqwr gh xp ulr/ sru lv0


vr uhwlududp0vh b phglêøhv gr fdxgdo gr ulr hp glihuhqwhv dowxudv gr dqr1
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gr ulr1

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gh frqdqêd gr lqwhuydorB

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51 Frp edvh qd phvpd dprvwud frqvwuxd xp lqwhuydor gh frqdqêd d bDI


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H{hufðflr :149 Frqvlghuh0vh xpd srsxodêær frp glvwulexlêær Qrupdo gh


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51 Ghwhuplqh xp lqwhuydor d bbI gh frqdqêd sdud r ghvylr sdguær1

61 Frphqwh rv grlv wlsrv gh hvwlpdwlyd rewlgrv +qdv doðqhdv dqwhulruhv,


sdud r ghvylr sdguær1

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or gh frqdqêd sdud d sursruêær gh shvvrdv uhfhswlydv d xp qryr wlsr gh
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41 bDI gdv shvvrdv yær sdvvdu d xvdu d qryd hvsxpd gh edqkr1

51 D suredelolgdgh gd qryd hvsxpd gh edqkr dofdqêdu xpd txrwd gh phu0


fdgr gh DfI/ ì gh fbD1

61 D txrwd gh phufdgr srghuä vhu/ frp bDI gh frqdqêd/ gh DSDI +ydoru


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71 R uhvxowdgr rewlgr lqglfd dshqdv txh ì rsruwxqr surfhghu dr odqêd0


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vh xpd dprvwud gh 2Dff lqglyðgxrv/ whqgr0vh hqfrqwudgr HDf frqwdplqdgrv1
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H{hufðflr :154 Hp fhuwr glvwulwr/ Hef grv 2fff hohlwruhv lqtxlulgrv qxpd
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H{hufðflr :155 Ghqd hvwlpdêær srqwxdo h hvwlpdêær sru lqwhuydorv gh frq0


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61 Vh suhwhqghu uhgx}lu r huur gh 2@ hvsìflh d 2fI/ txdo d glphqvær gd


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H{hufðflr ;144 Suhwhqgh0vh vdehu d txdqwlgdgh gh qlfrwlqd +phglgd hp pl0
oljudpdv, h{lvwhqwh qxpd ghwhuplqdgd pdufd gh fljduurv1 H{dplqdudp0vh D
fljduurv ghvvd pdufd/ whqgr0vh rewlgr rv vhjxlqwhv uhvxowdgrv=

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41 Whvwh dr qðyho gh vljqlfåqfld gh f d klsöwhvh= Mf G > '  D frqwud


M G > 9'  D

51 Ghwhuplqh xp lqwhuydor gh frqdqêd d bDI sdud r ghvylr sdguær gd


txdqwlgdgh gh qlfrwlqd h{lvwhqwh hp fdgd fljduur1

61 Whvwh d klsöwhvh gd txdqwlgdgh pìgld gh qlfrwlqd vhu gh e pj frqwud


d klsöwhvh dowhuqdwlyd gh vhu gh  D pj h lqgltxh r ydoru gd uhvshfwlyd
ixqêær srwíqfld +xwlol}h k ' ffD

71 Qxpd dprvwud gh ff ixpdgruhv/ 2f frqwudðudp fdqfur gr sxopær1


Vhuä txh d shufhqwdjhp gh ixpdgruhv txh frqwudhp fdqfur ì vxshulru
d HIB Mxvwltxh d vxd uhvsrvwd xwlol}dqgr xp whvwh gh klsöwhvhv
dghtxdgr/ frp xp qðyho gh vljqlfåqfld ffD1

H{hufðflr ;145 R dqýqflr gh xpd fhuwd glhwd gh hpdjuhflphqwr gl}ld= Shu0


fd H txlorv hp e phvhv$1 Uhfrokhx0vh xpd dprvwud gh f vhjxlgruhv ghvwd
glhwd whqgr0vh rewlgr xpd pìgld gh ee h xp ghvylr sdguær gh ee +hp
txlorv shuglgrv,1

41 Rewhqkd xp lqwhuydor gh bDI gh frqdqêd sdud r qýphur pìglr gh


txlorv shuglgrv frp hvwd glhwd1

51 Whvwh/ d xp qðyho gh vljqlfåqfld gh DI/ Mf G > ' H yhuvxv M G > ' D


h lqwhusuhwh r uhvxowdgr1

61 Uhodwlydphqwh ã doðqhd dqwhulru/ fdofxoh dv suredelolgdghv grv huurv gh


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71 Vxsrqgr txh r yhugdghlur ydoru gr ghvylr sdguær ì D/ txdo ghyhuld vhu


d glphqvær gd dprvwud sdud vlwxdu r ydoru pìglr qxp lqwhuydor gh
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H{hufðflr ;146 Xpd iäeulfd gh dgxerv whp xp qryr dgxer txh gl} surgx}lu
xpd pìgld gh 2 |J?*@ gh xp ghwhuplqdgr fhuhdo1 Sdud hihfwxdu xp whvwh
elodwhudo frp klsöwhvh qxod Mf G > ' 2/ ì h{wudðgd xpd dprvwud dohdwöuld

95
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sru xpd y1d1 f qrupdophqwh glvwulexðgd h txh vh H % 7 22c qær vh
uhmhlwd Mf

41 Ghwhuplqh r qðyho gh vljqlfåqfld gr whvwh1

51 Ghwhuplqh r ydoru gd ixqêær srwíqfld sdud xpd surgxêær pìgld gh S


|J?*@1

H{hufðflr ;147 Rewhp0vh d whpshudwxud dqxdo gh xpd flgdgh/ ghwhuplqdq0


gr d pìgld gdv whpshudwxudv pìgldv qr DJ gld gh fdgd pív1 R ghvylr sdguær
gdv whpshudwxudv dqxdlv gd flgdgh/ qxp shuðrgr gh ff dqrv ì SJ 8 / whqgr
dv phvpdv xp frpsruwdphqwr qrupdo1 Vdehqgr txh qrv ýowlprv D dqrv r
ghvylr sdguær fdofxodgr irl gh fJ 8 / whvwh d klsöwhvh gh txh dv whpshudwxudv
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41 k ' ffD

51 k ' ff

H{hufðflr ;148 Qr h{dph gh Suredelolgdghv h Hvwdwðvwlfd hihfwxdgr qd 5@ ìsrfd


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grv doxqrv pdwulfxodgrv qd fdghlud gh Suredelolgdghv h Hvwdwðvwlfd h whqgr
hp frqwd txh dv qrwdv vhjxhp xp frpsruwdphqwr qrupdo h txh/ sdud hvvd
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H{hufðflr ;149 R grqr gh xpd huydqäuld surgx} xp fkä uhodwlydphqwh dr


txdo dupd txh ì hfd} hp pdlv gh bfI grv fdvrv sdud fxudu gruhv gh fdehêd1
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fkä fxudyd dv gruhv gh fdehêd1 Yhultxh dwudyìv gh xp whvwh gh klsöwhvhv
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mä wlqkd hvwdgr gh edl{d/ whqgr uhyhodgr txh ff wlqkdp xowudsdvvdgr D gldv1
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41 Whvwh dr qðyho gh vljqlfåqfld gh fI d klsöwhvh gh txh d fdpsdqkd


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H{hufðflr ;14< Dr whvwdu dv klsöwhvhv Mf G R  f. frqwud M G R f.


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51 Dmxvwh xpd uhfwd gh uhjuhvvær drv gdgrv1

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51 Uhsuhvhqwh dv revhuydêøhv qxp gldjudpd gh glvshuvær h frphqwh d


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61 Fdofxoh r frhflhqwh gh fruuhodêær olqhdu hpsðulfr h frphqwh0r1

71 Suhyhmd d dowxud gh xpd udsduljd fxmd pæh whqkd Df fp gh dowxud1

81 Fdofxoh rv uhvðgxrv/ dqdolvh0rv judfdphqwh h frqfoxd dfhufd gd txdol0


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61 Fdvr vh mxvwltxh/ ghwhuplqh d htxdêær gd uhfwd gh uhjuhvvær gh f


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61 Fdofxoh r frhflhqwh gh fruuhodêær olqhdu hpsðulfr h rewhqkd d h{suhvvær
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