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© IPA, 2006 - 11th Annual Convention Proceedings, 1982

PROCEEDINGS INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION


Eleventh Annual Convention, June 1982 ,

SEISMIC SEQUENCES INTERPRETATION, A CONTRIBUTION TO THE STRATIGRAPHlCAL


FRAMEWORK OF THE MAHAKAM AREA

B. LOIRET * J.F. MUGNIOT **

ABSTRACT Detrital series in the northern and central


areas are not favourable for planktonic fauna,
The Sepinggan Area t o the South was the and detailed correlations are mostly restricted
best place to define comprehensive seismic to a single oil or gas field.
sequences because it is located on the southern
In the South it is possible to distinguish
border of the Kutei Basin, the basin edge being
individual sedimentary cycles and an im-
the most favourable location to find the limits
portant unconformity.
of sedimentary cycles and consequently of
seismic sequences, due to the greater relative Numerous wells and seismic lines have been
changes of sea level and topography which exchanged between UNION, HUFFCO and
modify both geometry and types of sediments. TOTAL in order t o extend and correlate these
main geological events from South to North
Starting from this key area for the seismic throughout the entire Mahakam area.
interpretation, it is possible to distinguish
different deltaic cycles and a main tectonic
event at the end of Middle Miocene. A regional 1. DEFINITIONS OF MAIN SEISMIC
correlation from South to North Mahakam is SEQUENCES AND MARKERS
presented.
They can-be defined on a NW--SE seismic
section which passes through Sepinggan-1,
Mandu-1 and Sepatu Kuda-1 in the South Ma-
INTRODUCTION
hakam area; a schematic representation is given
The entire Mahakam Contract Area (Fig. 1) on figure 2.
presents important geological changes from Clear geometrical relationships allow the dis-
Attaka in the North to Maruat in the South. tinction of different seismic sequences separated
by characteristic markers.
The northern and central parts of the area are
dominated by the detrital deltaic sedimentation
of the Mahakam river depocenter which has THE SEPINGGAN DELTAIC SEQUENCE
been active since early Miocene time. This seismic sequence corresponds to the Se-
To the South, more marine influences occur pinggan Deltaic Series: alternations of sands,
and important WNW--ESE faulting marks the shales and lignites.
limit of the basin and the transition to the Its base, the "Co" marker, shows onlaps in
Pater Noster Carbonate Platform. some places and is well defined in Maruat,
* TOTAL - Compagnie Francaise des Petroles 3943, Quai Andre Citroen 75015, PARIS, FRANCE

** TOTAL INDONESIE - Tromolpos 10 Jkt Pusat, Jakarta - lndonesia


324
Tunan and Jumelai blocks by a strong marker The Y3'i mrker is a strong reflection at the
corresponding to a limestone bank. This lime- top of a carbonate horizon reached in several
stone does not extend very far to the North wells (Sepatu Kuda, Mandu, Telakai, Sepinggan)
East, and then the "Co" marker becomes very and overlain by a marine transgressive argilla-
difficult to pick.
/
ceous sequence.
The top of the Sepinggan deltaic sequence, On figure 2, the Sepinggan carbonate se-
the 90" marker, corresponds to a local erosi- quence is clearly transgressive on the "Bo"
onal unconformity which clearly appears in the erosional surface.
TOTAL Tunan Selatan - Tunan Utara area, The sequence is characterised by the presence
and in the UNION Yakin area. of thick shelf limestones, sometimes reefal,
The picking of the "Bo" is more difficult to which produce strong seismic reflections;
the North-East where the unconformity is not shales and sandstones are also present. This
visible, but the marker can be followed because seismic character contrast markedly with the
it is a relatively strong reflection corresponding overlying argillaceous sequence almost devoid
to the top of deltaic sequence. Thus, this of clear internal reflections.
marker appears as a very good sequence limit
from both geological and geophysical point The Bo-B interval shows a pinch-out and even
of view. a hiatus which marks the limit of the trans-
gression to the west of Sepinggan field.
THE SEPINGGAN CARBONATE SEQUENCE
As a reference, the depths of occurrence of
This sequence lies between the Bo at the base B, Bo and Co markers in the most important
and the "B" marker at the top. wells are indicated in the following table:

SEPINGGAN S.1 SEPINGGAN V.l

"B" Marker 967 m 1527 m 1465 m 1449 m


"Bo" Marker 1050 m 2362 m * 2884 m
"Co" Marker 1277 m not reached 3365 m not reached

(depths BRT)

2. SEISMIC CORRLEATIONS BETWEEN CENTRAL MAHAKAM AREA : HANDIL


SOUTH, CENTRAL AND NORTH MAHA- - BEKAPAI - DIAN (fig. 3. part 2).
KAM AREA
Following the Bo, B and Co markers, using Co Marker
onsh&e and offshore seismic lines exchanged The Co marker has been followed onshor
with UNION and HUFFCO, it is possible to between south Mahakam and Hand field.
establish the correlation between the South, The Co is roughly equivalent to the R27
Central and North Mahakam Area (Fig. 3). log marker, which corresponds to a thin but

* "Bo" markers is not present in Sepinggan V.l because of an important fault which cut the series withis the
Sepinggan deltaic sequence. A synthetic representation of the differen sequences o f the outhern Mahakam
area is given in f i r e 3 part 1.
325
continuous limestone level identified in Handd marker is well d e f i e d as the top of strong
wells. reflections with progradational features inter-
preted as the delta front / prodelta limit com-
The Co has never been reached in the Beka-
parable with those described on figure 5.
pai or Dian area because prodelta no prospec-
tive series are expected at this depth. The deep limestone reached by UNION in
Bo Marker Attaka 12 and 14 seems also to correspond
to a marine transgressive even corresponding
The Bo marker is roughly correlative with the to the Bo marker.
R5 Handil marker, which is the top of the main
pay zone. B marker
So the deltaic Sepinggan sequence corre- In the north, the B marker is the top of the
ponds to the main pay zone of Handil field.
"Fresh water sands" which produce in the Atta-
The sequence has also been drilled recently ka field.
(1981) in the Bekapai-11 deep well (T.D.
4602 m), in a more distal position where the
Bo marker (3873 m BRT) corresponds to a 3. STRATIGRAPHICAL DATA
slight increase of the sand content in the upper
part of the sequence. The lower part becomes From the comparison between the outcrops
shalier and more calcareous due to the delta of the seismic markers onshore and the geologi-
front environment as seen in figure 4 where cal map (fig. 1) it appears that :
the delta front/prodelta limit of the equivalent
Sepinggan deltaic sequence lies on the western - The B Marker is intra Kampung Baru.
flank of the Bekapai field. - The Bo Marker seems to be equivalent to the
boundary of the Balikpapan Beds and the
B marker
Karnpung Baru Beds.
The B marker here corresponds to the top of
the fresh water sands of Bekapai which are The Co Marker is difficult to correlate with
overlain by a marine transgression proven by onshore formations it has been dated by Lemi-
microfauna. gas Robertson in Maruat and Tunan wells as
Middle Miocene (N12-N13).
NORTH MAHAKAM : BADAK - NILAM -
Furthermore, in the Southern area in Maruat
ATTAKA - SANTAN - LANTANG (fig. 3
part 3). and Tunan wells, Lemigas Robertson assume
a Middle to Upper Miocene age for the Bo
Co marker Marker (N15--N16) and an Upper Miocene
This horizon has been followed onshore age for the B marker (N16-17). Correlations
between Handil and Nilam where it corresponds between onshore formations, seismic sequences
roughly to the Nilam N22 log marker at the and stratigraphy are summarized on figure 6 .
top of a thin limestone representing a minor
marine transgression. 4. PALEOGEOGRAPHICAL COMMENTS

Based on the above presented correlations,


Bo marker two paleogeographical maps are shown ;
The Bo corresponds roughly to the Nilam one at the top of Middle Miocene, Bo Mar-
N7-8 log marker which is also affected by a ker (fig. 7)
minor marine transgression. one at the top of Upper Miocene, B Marker
In the Attaka and Marangkayu areas, the Bo (fig. 8)
326
Cornparisons between the two maps show The Middle to Upper Miocene tectonic
that in Middle Miocene time deltaic facies were phase created N-S structural axes which acted
more developed to the South than at Upper as barriers to former Middle Miocene Paleo-
Miocene time where marine influence restricted rivers.
the deltaic facies to the periphery of the Above the unconformity detrital influence
present IvZdtakam delta. still exists in the South but within a more
The Bo unconformity is contemproaneous to marine environment with frequent limestone
the Mddle to Upper Miocene tectonic com- deposits. On the contrary, deltaic sedimen-
pressive {hase which was responsible for the tation in the central and northern areas is pre-
Meratus 'Jplift. dominant and progrades eastward compared
Thi:; tectonic compressive phase was also to the previous deltaic cycle. It corresponds
responsible for the NE-SW folding in this to the Handil shallow and very shallow produc-
Mahakam area which initiated the anticlinal tive zones, to the Bekapai "Fresh Water"
axes of Balikpapan-SambodjaSanga Sanga, productive sands and to the Attaka "Fresh
Handil-Ni'lam-Badak,and Bekapai-Attaka. Water" productive sands.
These NNE--SW axes may have acted as
barriers fLothe E-W paleorivers which furnished
the detrital material in the Middle Miocene and LIST O F FIGURES
have limited the earlier linear delta front (fig.7) FIGURE 1 LOCATION MAP
to fcrm the more lobate delta of the Upper
Miocene (fig. 8). FIGURE 2 GEOMETRICAL RELATION-
The paleo Mahakam river becomes at this SHIPS BETWEEN SEISMIC SE-
time the main agent for detrital material QUENCES
transport. FIGURE 3 MAHAKAM AREA GENERAL
CORRELATIONS
5. CONCLUSIONS FUGURE 4 HANDIL - BEKAPAI - DIAN
CORRELATIONS
This geophysical correlation from the South
to the North of the Mahakam Contract area FIGURE 5 DELTA FRONT/PRODELTA
enables the establishment of a parastratigraphi- SEISMIC EXPRESSIONS
cal relationship between the main sedimentary FIGURE 6 GENERAL STRATIGRAPHY
productive units of the area. PALEOGEOGRAPHIC MAP AT
FIGURE 7
The most interesting fact is the evidence of TOP MIDDLE MIOCENE (Eo
the Middle to Upper Miocene unconformity MARKER)
which limited an important deltaic sequence
FIGURE 8 PALEOGEOGRAPHIC MAP AT
corresponding to the Sepinggan productive
TOP UPPER MIOCENE (B
area, Handil main pay zone and Ndam-Badak
MARKER)
pay zone.
327

I Figure 1
118OE
I
GEOMETRICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEISMIC SEQUENCES
SEISMIC LINES

om

I s

2s

3s

I 4rL I
I t 1

MARKERS "rd' r A R K E R
UELATIOISHllS

Figure 2
MAHAHAM AREA GENERAL CORRELATIONS

N O R T H w~~~~~~~
sw a

A A

A * : LOCMAlIt1
i 01 HAlDll flilD

Figure 3
W
W
0

I
HAN DI1- BEK APAl - 0IA N CO R R E 1AT1ONS
SEISMIC LINES 1230-1001-1310-W602-KM 127

W E
BEKAPAI DlAN
I H-8 b i r 8-17 DIAN-I
DELTA FRONT/ PRODELTA
SEISMIC EXPRESSIONS
NW I LINE 135 I SE

w
w
figurr 5 c
332

GENERAL STRATIGRAPHY
ONSHORE SEISMIC SEISMIC
AGE MARKERS
FORMATIONS SEQUENCE S

UAMPUNG BARU
BEDS

- “6“-
MARKER
SEPINGGAN
CARBONATE
SEQUENCE
w h “85--
MARKER
SEPINGGA N
2 BAL IK PA P A N
DELTAIC
BEDS
w SEQUENCE
I “CO-
0 MARKER

0 BEBULU MARUAT
I
BEDS SEQUENCE

2
P A MALUAN
BEDS

- Figure 6
333

AT TOP MIDDLE MIOCENE


( 6 , MARKER)

I 117.E
1

Figure 7
334

Figure 8