DOI 10.1002/suco.201600062
TECHNICAL PAPER
1
Mecánica de los Medios Continuos y Teoría de
Estructuras, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid The first step in the design of a structure is the definition of the geometry. This
Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de process includes the definition of the depth of slabs and beams. The depth of a
Caminos Canales y Puertos, Madrid, Spain
flexural member is often determined by control of deflections, which can only be
2
Research and Development, Fhecor Ingenieros
checked in detail at an advanced stage of the project. In order to optimize the
Consultores, Madrid, Spain
3
design process, it is therefore very important to choose well the span-to-depth ratio
Civil Works, FHECOR Consulting Engineers,
Madrid, Spain at the beginning. In order to achieve this task in an easy manner, a lower limit to
the slenderness of the beams in terms of span divided by the effective depth is
Correspondence
proposed in most major codes. However, current proposals are rather coarse and
Alejandro Pérez Caldentey, Mecánica de los
are not necessarily on the safe side. In this paper, a new formulation for the slen-
Medios Continuos y Teoría de Estructuras,
derness limits, based on the physics of the problem, is presented. This formulation
Universidad Politecnica de Madrid Escuela
includes the effect of the composition of the load (live load to total load ratio) as
Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos
well as the possibility of using different limits to maximum deflection and consid-
Canales y Puertos, Barquillo 23 2º, Madrid
ering different, more general, support conditions. It is therefore more complete
28004, Spain.
and has a larger application field than current proposals.
Email: apc@fhecor.es
KEYWORDS
118 © 2017 fib. International Federation for Structural Concrete wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/suco Structural Concrete. 2017;18:118–127.
CALDENTEY ET AL. 119
alternative formulation including also FRP reinforcement. of EN 1992-1-1. The lack of a physical basis for these
Other simplified methods were developed in Europe and expressions results in the impossibility of extrapolating to
synthesized in the 1985 CEB Manual on cracking and other situations (e.g., other live load to dead load ratios) and
deformations.12 These methods form the basis for the for- makes the adjustment to new or different rheological mod-
mulation adopted by Eurocode 211 and more recently by els, for example, very difficult.
Model Code 2010.13 Recently other simplified methods In this paper, a new formulation for the slenderness lim-
have been proposed, such as that of Marí et al.14 its based on the physics of the problem is presented. This
An alternative to complex calculation methods and the formulation includes the effect of the composition of the
application of simplified methods is the avoidance of calcula- load (live load to total load ratio) as well as the possibility
tion by providing a lower limit to the slenderness of the of using different limits of maximum deflection and a gen-
beams in terms of span divided by the effective depth. This eralization of factor K accounting for different support
concept of slenderness limit was already introduced, in a very conditions.
crude form, in CP 110-1 (1972)15 and incorporated into the Before introducing the new expression for the slender-
first Model Code (1978)16 and has also been studied by ness limits, more general and physical, a brief summary on
Rangan.17 This procedure is very popular with designers as it how the slenderness limits are determined by the general
allows fixing of the depth of flexural members from the method will first be given.
beginning and the omission of deflection verifications. For
this reason, it has been maintained in all major concrete
codes, including, of course, Eurocode 2. However, the deter- 2 | HOW SLENDERNESS LIMITS
mination of such slenderness limits necessarily involves a A R E D E T E R M IN E D
great deal of simplification and assumptions which have not
always been made explicit. In some cases, the values included The topic of how slenderness limits are determined is fully
in codes may be optimistic, resulting in excessive values of covered in Reference 19. However, a small reminder is in
deflections. This discussion is already apparent in the paper order. Figure 1 shows a flowchart that summarizes the pro-
by Gardner,18 which makes a comparison of values or the cedure which can be followed to obtain the slenderness
slenderness limits provided by different codes and authors. limit for a given reinforcement ratio. First, a simply sup-
With the exception of Eurocode 2, slenderness limits are ported beam is considered. Values are assumed for the rein-
given in table form and can only cover a very limited num- forcement ratio, for which the slenderness ratio is to be
ber of design situations. When the current version of Euro- determined, ρ, and an effective cross section depth, d, as
code 2 (EN 1992-1-1:2004) was drafted, a new formulation well as a value for the tensile strength of the reinforcement,
was included which permitted taking into account the rein- fyd. The section is assumed to be rectangular of arbitrary
forcement ratio as a continuous variable and the strength of width b. With the cross section data, the ultimate bending
concrete. This was already a step forward with respect to moment MRd, which the section can resist for the given ρ
the previous code formulations. However, this formulation, and d values can be determined. Assuming a trial value of
whose bases are detailed in Reference 19 did not take into the span, l, the ultimate factored load, qRd, can be obtained
account one very important variable, the live load to total by equilibrium conditions.
load ratio, which was fixed at a typical value. Moreover, the In order to continue the process, some values must be
formulations given were only a mathematical fitting of the assumed for the ratio between dead load and total load
curves computed using the general method in section 7.4.3 (qDL/qTOT), and between superimposed dead load and total
load (qSDL/qTOT). The ratio between live load and total load parameter, instead of two, considering only the ratio between
(qLL/qTOT) follows from qDL + qSDL + qLL = qTOT. If the the live load and total load: qLL/qTOT.
values of two of these ratios are fixed, it is possible to deter-
mine the values of each individual load. Once this is done,
the calculation of the deflection can be carried out with any 3 | S IM P L I F I E D F O R M U L A T I O N
valid method, which considers both instantaneous and time-
dependent effects. For the derivation of the current EN 1992- The deflection of a simply supported beam can be expressed
1-1 formulation, this was done for the quasi-permanent load as shown in Equation (1). This deflection should be limited
combination assuming a quasi-permanent combination factor to a maximum value given by the ratio l/a.
ψ 2 = 0.3, and assuming the following load ratios: 5 qqp l4 S e l2 l
f= + εcs αe ≤ ; ð1Þ
qDL =qTOT = 0:36 384 Ec, eff Ie Ie 8 a
qSDL =qTOT = 0:24 where qqp is the quasi-permanent load, l is the span of the
beam, and Ec,eff is the effective modulus of elasticity which
qLL =qTOT = 0:40 can be determined from Equation (2) as follows:
Ec
Furthermore, as explained in Reference 19 the deflection Ec, eff = ; ð2Þ
was determined assuming a certain load history, in which dead 1 + φmean
load was applied at 10 days, the superimposed dead load at where φmean is a mean value of the creep coefficient. If it is
60 days, and the quasi-permanent live load at 365 days. As assumed that the dead load (qDL) is applied at age t0, the
pointed out in Reference 20, this procedure does not take into superimposed dead load (qSDL) is applied at age t1, and the
account the early application of the characteristic load which quasi-permanent live load (ψ 2 × qLL) is applied at age t2,
can happen during building stages when the scaffolding is φmean can be estimated from Equation (3).
removed from the lower floors to build upper floors. Early char-
φð ∞ , t0 ÞqDL + φð ∞ ,t1 ÞqSDL + φð ∞ ,t2 Þψ 2 qLL
acteristic load application increases deflections, especially for φmean = ;
qDL + qSDL + ψ 2 qLL
low reinforcement ratios, due to reduction in tension-stiffening
effects. The premises for the drafting of EN 1992-1-1 (values of ð3Þ
load ratios, no consideration of characteristic load application) where Ie is the equivalent moment of inertia to allow for
were adopted in order to avoid providing more strict slenderness cracking and tension-stiffening effects. This variable will be
ratios than were given by ENV 1992-1-1 or Model Code expressed as the product of an adjustment function depend-
1990.21 In this paper, however, given that the live load to total ing on the mechanical reinforcement ratio kI and the inertia
load ratio is treated as an important explicit parameter, this of the gross concrete cross section (Ig): Ie = kIIg; kI consid-
assumption is not necessary. For this reason, the slenderness ers both the difference between the long-term homogenized
curves have been recalculated assuming that the full characteris- cross section and the gross concrete section and cracking
tic load is applied—for a short time period—when the scaffold- and tension stiffening effects. kI will be obtained by fitting
ing is removed, that is, at the time the dead load is applied, so the simplified expression to the curves calculated by com-
that the sections are fully cracked from the beginning. plete analysis according to section 7.4.3 of EN 1992-1-1
Regarding the nonlinear analysis that was implemented (see paragraph 2); εcs is the shrinkage strain; αe is the long-
for the iterative procedure, full details are given in the Back- term modular ratio of steel with respect to reinforcement
ground Document to paragraph 7.4 of EN1992-1-1,19 which
αe = EEc,seff ; and Se is the equivalent first-order moment of the
is available on-line at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/
reinforcement with respect to the center of gravity of the
Alejandro_Caldentey/publication/269464827_Pr_EN_1992-1-
1_CHAPTER_7_-_SERVICEABILITY_LIMIT_STATES_-_ cross section, which should allow for cracking and tension-
DEFLECTIONS_Background_to_the_EN_1992-1-1_formula stiffening effects. As with the equivalent moment of inertia,
tion/links/548c913e0cf214269f1e95b0.pdf. The procedure this variable will be the product of an adjustment function
consists of the application of the ζ-method in its full gener- depending on the geometrical reinforcement ratio kS and the
ality by integrating curvatures and considering the load first-order moment of the reinforcement with respect to the
history. center of gravity of the gross concrete cross section (Sg):
Given the fact that the influence of load history (in terms of Se = kSSg. kS considers both the difference between the cen-
the times of application of dead load, superimposed dead load, ter of gravity of the gross cross section and that of the
and quasi-permanent live load—not in terms of early application cracked cross section as well as tension stiffening effects. kS
of the characteristic load) was found to be moderate on the will be obtained by fitting the simplified expression to the
values of the slenderness ratio in Reference 19 it is proposed to curved calculated by complete analysis according to
take into account the load distribution by using a single section 7.4.3 of EN 1992-1-1 (see paragraph 2).
CALDENTEY ET AL. 121
ð10Þ
kI has been fitted to allow a good approximation
between the simplified formula and the curves determined
according to the general method in section 7.4.3 of EN
1992-1-1. The resulting expressions are given in
Equation (11). The expression is broken into four zones
which correspond to physical phenomena: a first zone,
where the section will not crack under the characteristic
combination of action (ω < ωcr), a zone where tension stiff-
ening effects are significant, (ωcr < ω < ω0 = 1.5ωcr), a
zone where tension-stiffening effects are less significant and FIGURE 4 Comparison between nonlinear analysis and simplified
no compression reinforcement is needed (ω0 < ω < 0.5), formulation for C60/75 and a = 250. It is assumed that φmean = 1.4 and
εcs = 0.25 mm/m.
and finally, a zone where compression reinforcement is nec-
essary (ω > 0.5).
fyd
ω ≤ ωcr = ρcr ! kI = 1:00,
fcd
1 −kI, ω0
ωcr ≤ ω ≤ ω0 = 1:5ωcr ! kI = kI, ω0 + ðω0 − ωÞ,
ðω0 −ωcr Þ
5 | GE NE RA LIZING FA C TOR K Taking factor K into account, the expression for slender-
ness limits due to total deflection can be expressed as:
In the EN 1992-1-1 formulation, factor K allows for support
conditions in a very coarse way, only providing values of l Ec, eff kI h 3
≤K
K for a limited number of cases with no distinction regard- d 12a d
ing, for instance, the ratio between end span length and inte- " #
1
rior span length. The value of K can actually be easily 5 εcs
: ð16Þ
48 kDL fcd f ðω, ω Þ + Es 8 kS ρ 1 − 2d + ρ 2d −1
0 h 0 h
determined for any particular case by assuming in a simpli-
fied manner that the deflection due to shrinkage is affected A more precise conversion to other support condition is
in the same way as the deflection due to loads and creep. possible by taking into account that the deflection due to a
This is a reasonable assumption because in normal cases the constant curvature (shrinkage) is proportional to the second
deflection from shrinkage is a minor part of the total deflec- power of the span, instead of the fourth power. By introdu-
tion. For this, it is sufficient to determine the deflection for cing this condition in Equation (15), a different value, Kcs,
the real support conditions by means of an elastic calcula- can be obtained to correct deflections due to shrinkage for
tion, f2[L], and then determine the deflection for the same other support conditions:
load and the same span, assuming a simply supported ele-
f2, cs ½l l* αl2 l* l l*
ment, f1[L]. a12, cs = a12, cs *2 = a12, cs * = 1:00 ! = a12, cs
The ratio between these two values is referred to as a12 f2, cs ½l l
* αl l l l
l*
(Equation 12). ! Kcs = d
= a12, cs :
l
d
f1 ½l
a12 = ! f1 ½l = a12 f2 ½l: ð12Þ ð17Þ
f2 ½l
In Equation (17), a12,cs is the ratio of the deflections due
The value of K can be defined as the coefficient by
to a constant curvature in a simply supported span and in the
which the slenderness limit l/d obtained for a simply sup-
structure with the same span but different support conditions,
ported beam should be multiplied in order to obtain the
f2,cs is the deflection due to a constant curvature in a structure
same deflection for other support conditions. This will occur
having support conditions different from simply supported.
for another span length, which is termed l*. This condition
From this reasoning, Equation (16) can be generalized
is expressed in Equation (13) as follows:
to the expression of Equation (18).
*
l l " #
K= = : ð13Þ l Ec, eff kI h 3 1
d d ≤ :
5 kDL fcd f ðω, ω0 Þ
d 12a d
48 K + Es εcs k ρ 1 − h + ρ0 h −1
Kcs 8 S 2d 2d
The relationship between l* and l should be such that
the same ratio between deflection and span is achieved for ð18Þ
both support conditions (Equation 14).
f1 ½l
f2 ½l l*
l
= 1:00 ! a12 = 1:00: ð14Þ 6 | C O NC L U S IO N S
f2 ½l* f2 ½l* l
g
Eq: ð12Þ
l*
Equation (14) can be further developed by introducing From the above considerations, the following conclusions
the condition that the deflection for distributed loading is can be drawn:
proportional to the fourth power of the span
(Equation 15). • A new expression has been proposed for a much more
general formulation of slenderness limits than those cur-
f2 ½l l* αl4 l* l3 l*
a12 = a12 = a12 = 1:00 ! rently available.
f2 ½l* l αl*4 l l*3 l • The new expression has a clear physical basis and takes
* into account all the significant variables, which affect
pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ l
pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
= 3 a12 ! K = dl = 3 a12 : ð15Þ the deflection calculations, including the live load to
d total load ratio.
Therefore, the value of K can be determined by linear • The new formulation allows the use of any deflection
elastic analysis of any structure as the cubic root of the ratio limit and any rheological model.
between the deflection of the element considering a simply • As illustrated by the example, included in the Appendix,
supported beam and that considering the actual boundary this formulation allows a significant reduction in calcula-
conditions. When carrying out this analysis, care must be tion effort, even when compared to the simplified
taken to position the live load only on the spans where its method of EN 1992-1-1. Furthermore, Equation (16) can
effect is unfavorable. be applied to obtain very general and detailed tables from
124 CALDENTEY ET AL.
which to choose an initial value of the required depth of 16. CEB-FIP. Model Code 1978 for Concrete Structures. CEB-FIP, Lausanne; 1976.
17. Rangan BV. Control of beam deflections by allowable span-depth ratios.
flexural members, adapted to particular applications
ACI Struct J. 1982;79(5):372-377.
where limited ranges of the variables are applicable. 18. Gardner NJ. Span/Thickness limitations for deflection control. ACI Struct J.
• A proposal regarding the generalization of factor K has 2001;203(1):95-114.
19. Corres Peiretti H, Pérez Caldentey A, López Agüí JC, Erdtbauer J. PrEN
been described.
Chapter 7—Serviceability Limit States. Deflections: Supporting Document.
• All the results have been compared with nonlinear cal- The European Concrete Platform ASBL; 2003. Eurocode 2 Commentary.
culation, taking into account the load history based on European Concrete Platform, Brussels. doi:10.13140/2.1.4146.0804.
the general procedure in section 7.4.3 of EN 1992-1-1, 20. Vollum RL. Comparison of deflection calculations and span-to-depth ratios
in BS 8110 and Eurocode 2. Mag Concr Res. 2009;61(6):465-476.
as documented in Reference 18, but allowing for crack- 21. CEB-FIP. Model Code 1990: Design Code. Thomas Telford. Thomas Tel-
ing due to characteristic loading, obtaining a very good ford, London; 1993. doi:9780727735430.
fit in all cases. This good fit has been validated in the
worked example in the Appendix. AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHIES
The method presented in this paper is a valuable tool for Alejandro Pérez Caldentey,
structural optimization and should promote maximization of corresponding author
useful spaces as well as more sustainable structures. Head of R&D Department at FHECOR
Consulting Engineers,
REFERENC ES Professor at the Technical University of
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Madrid;
three dimensional reinforced and prestressed concrete frames. Report UCB- Barquillo, 23, 28004 Madrid, Spain.
SESM-84/12. Berkeley: University of California; 1984 apc@fhecor.es
2. Ghali A, Elbadry M. User’s manual and computer program CPF: cracked
plane frames in prestressed concrete. Res. Report CE85-2. Alberta, Canada:
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3. Ulm FJ, Clement JL, Guggenberger J. Recent advances in 3-D nonlinear Project Engineer at FHECOR
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shear on the deflection of RC beams in service. Mag Concr Res.
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5. Branson DE. Deformations of Concrete Structures. New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill; 1977.
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(ACI 318-08) and Commentary (318R-08). Farmington Hills, MI: American Hugo Corres Peiretti,
Concrete Institute; 2008:430. Professor at the Technical University of
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proyecto y ejecución de obras de Hormigón en Masa y Armado. BOE n
Madrid.
180, July 28, 1988.
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we sometimes get it wrong. ACI Struct J. 1999;96(6):1027-1032.
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Decreto 1247/2008, July 18, 2008.
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General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Comité Europeén de Normalisation,
Peiretti HC. Slenderness limits for deflection control: A new for-
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ISBN: 978-2-88394-105-2; 978-2-88394-106-9.
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CALDENTEY ET AL. 125
In order to illustrate the method and compare the results and work involved in using the proposed formulation for slender-
ness limits against actually calculating the deflection using the method from section 7.4.3 of EN 1992-1-1 , an example will
be fully worked. For this, a simply supported beam having a span of 7.75 m, corresponding to a solid slab, and composed of
C25 concrete and 500 MPa steel, is considered. The superimposed dead load is 1 kN/m2 and the live load is 7 kN/m2. It will
be assumed that 30% of the live load is quasi-permanent. A first rough estimate of the depth can be obtained by using a table
based on Equation (16), or directly from Figure 3, which is close enough to this case, for lightly reinforced simply supported
structures, which would provide a value of l/d of about 20, so that the effective depth would be around 0.40 m.
Independent of how the problem is solved, it is necessary to predimension the reinforcement and to estimate the rheologi-
cal parameters.
With the estimated value of the depth, the section can be predimensioned in order to determine the steel ratio necessary
for Ultimate Limit State (ULS):
qDL ≈0:45 × 25 = 11:25 kN=m2 ,
7:752
MEd = ð1:35 × 12:25 + 1:50 × 7:0Þ = 203:0 kNm=m,
8
203:0 1:15
As ≈
= 13 cm2 =m,
0:9 × 0:40 50
13
ρ= = 0:325%,
40 × 100
500 1:5
ω = 0:325 = 8:46%:
1:15 25
In order to show the versatility of the proposed formulation, the rheological parameters will be calculated according to
the MC 2010 instead of EN 1992-1-1, as it appears to be a more consistent model. Assuming that the dead load is applied at
an age of 7 days, that the superimposed dead load is applied at an age of 60 days, and that the quasi-permanent live load is
applied at 365 days, MC 2010 provides the following values, assuming a notional depth of 450 mm, a cement class of
type N, and a relative humidity of 50%:
φð ∞,7Þ = 3:04,
φð ∞,60Þ = 2:03,
φð ∞,365Þ = 1:43,
3:04 × 11:25 + 2:03 × 1 + 1:43 × 0:3 × 7
φmean = = 2:73,
11:25 + 1 + 0:3 × 7
εcs = 0:40 mm=m:
The effective modulus of elasticity (also taken from MC 2010 for consistency—see section 5.1.7.2 of MC 2010) can then
be determined from the following equation:
1
21:5 2510+ 8 3
Ec, eff = = 8:57 GPa:
1 + 2:73
S O LU TI O N B Y T HE PR OP OS E D FO RM U LA TI ON
The value of the model adjustment parameters kS and kI can be determined from Equations (10) and (11).
2 vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
ﬃ
u p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 #
u 1:05 7 45 25 1:15
ρcr = 41 − t1 −
3
0:30 252 1:5 × 1:35− ð1:5 −1:35Þ × = 0:17; %; < ρ;
3 25 11:25 + 1 + 7 40 1:5 500
500 1:5
ωcr = ρcr = 0:17% × 26:09 = 4:52%,
1:15 25
kS = 455 × 0:00332 − 35 × 0:0033 + 1:6 = 1:49,
1 − ð1 −ψ 2 Þ qqTOT
LL
1− ð1 −0:3Þ 19:25
7
kDL = qLL = 7 = 0:53:
γ G + γ Q − γ G qTOT 1:35 + ð1:5 −1:35Þ 1925
With these values, Equation (16) can now be applied:
2 3
3
l 8570 × 0:46 45 66 1 7
≤ 7
d 12 × 250 40 4 5 25 0:0004 45 5
0:53 × × 8:46% × ð1 − 0:5 × 8:46%Þ + 200000 1:49 × 0:325% 1 −
48 1:5 8 2 × 40
1
= 1:87 × = 19:5 ! d ≥ 7:75=19:5 = 0:398 ! o:k:
0:075 + 0:021
S O LU TI O N O F T HE PR O BLE M AC CO R DI NG T O TH E S I M PL IF IE D D EF LEC TI O N
C AL C U L AT IO N AC CO R DI NG T O S E C T I ON 7 . 4 .3 O F E N 1 99 2 - 1 - 1
The problem can also be solved by assuming, in a simplified manner, that parameter α of expression (7.18) of EN 1992-1-1
is the deflection, instead of the more rigorous assumption that it is the curvature.
In order to solve the problem, the long-term mechanical properties of the uncracked (State I) and cracked (State II) cross
sections must be determined.
Next, factor ζ has to be determined. This factor is to be determined considering the characteristic combination of actions:
7:752
Mk = ð11:25 + 1 + 7Þ = 144:5 kNm,
8
p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ II p3
ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 8:46 × 10 − 3
Mcr = 0:30 3 fck2 × 1000 = 0:30 252 × 1000 = 101:44 kNm,
h −xI 0:45− 0:236
2
Mcr 101:44 2
ζ = 1 −0:5 = 1 −0:5 = 0:75:
Mk 144:5
The long-term deflection due to external loads can now be determined as follows:
SI l2 2:13 × 10 − 4 7:752
δI, cs = αe εcs = 23:33 × 0:4 = 1:8 mm,
II 8 8:46 × 10 − 3 8
SII l2 3:52 × 10 − 4 7:752
δI, cs = αe εcs = 23:33 × 0:4 = 8:4 mm,
III 8 2:94 × 10 − 3 8
δcs = ð1 −ζ Þ × δI, cs + ζ × δII, cs = 0:25 × 1:8 + 0:75 × 8:4 = 6:8 mm:
The total long-term deflection would therefore be 22.4 + 6.8=29.2 mm, which corresponds to a span to deflection ratio,
l/δ, of 7,750/29.2 = 265, very close to the established limit of 250. This example therefore constitutes a validation of the pro-
posed approach.