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The Role of the Ligature Æ

in the European Creation Legend


Joannes Richter

Abstract
The Futhark alphabet seems to consist of the first three characters ᚠᚢᚦ (“Futh”) to be followed by a
fourth character ᚨ (“A”) which represents the initial character for the “alphabetical” (“A.C...I....Ω”)-
section.
There are plenty of reasons to define the ligature Æ as a locally defined sacred core of the Germanic
alphabet. On a local scale the word Æ still is being used as a symbol for eternity, law, matrimony
and the personal pronoun of the 1st person singular.
Although the ligature Æ has been introduced later the symbolism may have been represented earlier
by a simple character ᚨ (“A”), which unified the fundamentals for eternity, law, matrimony, the
personal pronoun and the creation legend.
Eventually the shape of the ligature Æ may be understood as the concentrated symbolism of the
creation legend for Ask & Embla in a singular letter Æ.
One of the most interesting traces for this symbolism may be delivered by the 4 additional letters of
kings Chilperic I, which includes Æ.
Historical Context
There are plenty of reasons to define the ligature Æ as the sacred core of the Germanic alphabet as
the word is being used as a symbol for eternity, law, matrimony and the personal pronoun Æ of the
1st person singular.
Unfortunately Æ is not found at the beginning of the alphabet but at the fourth position, in which it
obviously did not start from the beginning (Elder Futhark), but only at the beginning of the Futhorc-
era.
Since the futhorc runes are thought to have first been used in Frisia before the Anglo-
Saxon settlement of Britain, they have also been called Anglo-Frisian runes.[1] They
were likely used from the 5th century onward, recording Old English and Old Frisian.

They were gradually supplanted in Anglo-Saxon England by the Old English Latin
alphabet introduced by Irish missionaries. Futhorc runes were no longer in common use
by the eleventh century, though manuscripts show that fairly accurate understanding of
them persisted into at least the twelfth century.

For this reason the idea of a special character Æ as the sacred core of the Germanic alphabet may
have been restricted to an area “Frisia” and a period covering the 5th century onward to the twelfth
century.
The Merovingian king Chilperic I (c. 539 – 584) may have been involved in promoting the Æ-
symbol as one of his four additional letters in his proposal to extend the Latin alphabet. These extra
letters uui (as Δ or ᚹ1), ω (as Θ or ʘ), the (as Z) and æ (as Ψ) seem to be concentrated at the first
four letters of the Futhorc alphabet as the uui represents /w/, ω → /u/, the → ᚦ and æ → ᚨ (“A”).
Chilperic I may have been the last sovereign who understood the runic symbolism and may have
tried to save some of the symbolism in the core of the futhorc alphabet.

1: Frisia in Northwestern Europe


published by Ætoms as “Own work”, using [1]
(license : CC BY-SA 4.0)

1 Wynn (Ƿ ƿ) - representing the sound /w/. While the earliest Old English texts represent this phoneme with the
digraph ⟨uu⟩, scribes soon borrowed the rune wynn ᚹ for this purpose.
The Ligature Æ

The core ”æ” for Eternity


The first male man may have been created as an image "ash" (rune ᚫ) of “Creator god” (rune ᚪ). The
name of the rune however is Æsc, in which the ligature raised my eyebrow.
Curiosity already had motivated me earlier to search for correlations between Adam & Eve, Ask &
Emblu and the ligature Æ.
Locally the creation legend may have symbolized the unified the dual (androgynous) “Man” as Æ,
in which A = Ask and E = Embla,
This theory would explain why the western, northern and southwestern Norwegian dialects and the
western Danish dialects of Thy and Southern Jutland, use æ as a significant first person singular
pronoun I.
In Germanic languages the word Æ is used as a symbol of eternity and the “ego”-pronoun I, which
indicates a fundamental or even religious core-word:
• æ is documented as I (first-person singular pronoun) (In dialectal, Fjolde, Denmark) and in
“æ” in Anders Bjerrum and Marie Bjerrum (1974), Ordbog over Fjoldemålet, Copenhagen:
Akademisk Forlag. (Denmark)
• æ is documented as I (first-person singular personal pronoun) (dialectal, mostly found in
Trøndelag, northern Norway, and parts of western and southern Norway).
• æ is documented as always, forever in Middle English and Icelandic
• æ is documented in Old English as law, scripture ; ceremony, custom, marriage (Cognate
with Old Saxon êo, Old Frisian ewa, êwe, ê, â, Old High German êwa, êha, êa, ê (German
Ehe).
• æ is documented in Old Norse as ever, at any time ; From Proto-Germanic *aiwi
(“forever”). Cognate with Old English ā, āwa, ǣ, Old Saxon eo, io, ia, Old High German eo,
io.
As a keyword æ however also may belong to the general core of the vowel compositions, which
symbolize eternity in a globally spread area, including the languages Sumerian, Basque, Sami, etc.
The cores “ai” and ”ayaya” for Eternity
Studying language we may be struck by the idea of a backbone as a basic structure to keep the
linguistic body upright.
In the course of time I concentrated on some fundamental keywords and discovered “ay” as a great-
grandfather in the Futhark alphabet, which I remembered to have met in the Sumerian water-codes
“a → aya → ayaya”.
I remember the one-vowel word “a” had been chosen to define “seed-water”, to be followed by
“aya” (“father”) and “ayaya” (“grandfather”). These words had been dated ~5000 years ago at
~3000 BCE.
I did not remember the code-word for great-grandfather but I guess any Sumerian citizen may have
understood the imaginary expression “ayayaya” (for great-grandfather).
The Germanic runic alphabet has been founded on a central “ai”-, respectively “ia”-core, including
the words ai (great-grandfather), æ (I, eternal) and “aye” (“always, ever”). The word ai (great-
grandfather) seemed to have been inherited from Sumerian “aya”, but the definition had been
shifted a few generations and lost the repetitive mode.
The Sumerian word ama (“mother”) matches the Basque's word “ama” for “mother”. The Sumerian
root aya (“father”) matches the Basque's word “aita” for “father”. Both correlations indicate 5000
years of age for these Basque words.
In the Sami languages the words for Grandfather such as aajja and áddjá also correlate to the
Sumerian words aya and adda for “father”.
In the archaic Futhark, Greek and Latin alphabets the vowel pillars (for supporting the sky) seem to
be centered around the letters H and I, which represent the vowels H (Æ) and I. Generally the
corresponding keywords are iæ (“each”, “every”), respectively æi (“eternal”).
In Sumerian, Basque, Sami, Germanic, Greek and Latin vocabularies these vowel-words a, aya,
ayaya, ai, æ, iæ, æi, aye, ama, aita, aajja, adda, áddjá seem to represent the backbone for
“carrying the sky”.2

2 The Backbones of the Alphabets


Chilperic's additional letters
Chilperic I (c. 539 – 584) was the Merovingian king of Neustria (or Soissons) from 561 to his
death.
Most of what is known of Chilperic comes from The History of the Franks by Gregory of Tours.
Chilperic's education involved religious and cultural themes. One of his studies concentrated on the
reformation of the Latin alphabet, which had been in use in the Merovingian court.
The extension of the alphabet has been specified as: uui (as a symbol Δ), ω (as a symbol Θ), the (as
a symbol Z), and æ (as a symbol Ψ).
Incidentally the additional four symbols uui (as Δ or ᚹ), ω (as Θ or ʘ), the (as Z) and æ (as Ψ)
match the initial four characters of the runic alphabet ᚠᚢᚦᚫᚱᚳ respectively ᚠᚢᚦᚬᚱᚳ (Younger
Futhark).
1st Rune 2nd Rune 3rd Rune 4th Rune
Runic symbol ᚠ (“F” or “W”) ᚢ (“U”) ᚦ (“Th”) ᚫ (“A” → “æ”)
Meaning uui ω the æ
Chilperic's symbol Δ or ᚹ Θ or ʘ Z Ψ

In this comparison I assume the initial rune ᚠ (the “F” in “Futhark”) represents a universal symbol
digamma (Ϝ, respectively in undercase: ϝ) which represents /w/ and also covers the phonemes /v/,
/f/, /u/, /y/. This may be the first letter of Chilperic's additional letters.
In the archaic religion the first 3 initial runes (“Futh” of “Wuth”), ᚠ (the digamma “ϝ”), “ᚢ”, “ᚦ”
represent a keyword consisting the personal pronoun (“wut” or “wit” = “we two”) and the key for
the word “wutan” (“Wodan”, “to wit”, “witness” → “insight”).

Runes interpreted as “Wodan”


The initial keyword “Wutha” (respectively “Futha”), which may be formed by concatenating
Chilperik's additional characters (ΔΘZΨ) more or less results in the word “Wioothæ” or
“Wodan”.3

Runes interpreted as “vitha” by the West Slavs


The initial 4-letter keyword ᚠᚢᚦᚫ of the Futharc alphabet may also be interpreted as “fuþa”. Runes
were called vitha by the West Slavs, which is a genetive of *vid or *vit meaning "image" or "side",
"facet" (referring to the multifaceted essence of the supreme God)4.
These alternatives “Wutha” respectively “Vitha” for the initial 4-letter keyword ᚠ ᚢ ᚦ ᚨ of the
Futharc alphabet may have developed at different locations and various eras.
The first three character ᚠᚢᚦ may be considered as a unity “Futh”, whereas the fourth character ᚫ
behaves as a special keyword which evolved and developed itself in its own historical context.

3 The Keywords of the Futhark Alphabet and King Chilperic's 4 Letters...


4 Hanuš 1842, p. 381 - Die Wissenschaft des Slawischen Mythus im weitesten, den altpreussisch-lithauischen Mythus
mitumfassenden Sinne. Nach Quellen bearbeitet, sammt der Literatur der slawisch-preussisch-lithauischen
Archäologie und Mythologie (in German). J. Millikowski. - quoted in Deities of Slavic religion (Woda)
The *Ansuz (rune)

Plurality (or duality?)


In Old Norse, ǫǫss (or áss, ás, plural æsir; feminine ásynja, plural ásynjur) is a member of
the principal pantheon in Norse religion. This pantheon includes Odin, Frigg, Thor, Baldr
and Týr.[1]
The ansuz rune, ᚫ, was named after the Æsir, which is a plural for ǫǫss (or áss, ás). Symbolized by
the dual ligature Æ the plural may represent two individual (a male “A” and a female “E”) in one
body, which results in a singular couple consisting of two elements.
The *Ansuz (rune) is the principal symbol of the runic alphabet as it represents the Creator Odin
and human Creature æ (“I”) simultaneously. The “Æ” rune "ash" named Æsc represents the letter
“Æ” and the “A”-rune represents "god" or the highest god “Odin”.
In this symbolism the Germanic tradition follows the same guideline which is identifiable in the
correlation between the Provencal's sky-god Diéu and the corresponding personal pronoun iéu.
Unlike the Old English word god (and Old Norse goð), the term ōs (áss) was never adopted into
Christian use.5

Proto-Germanic Old English Old Norse


Name *Ansuz Ōs Āc Æsc Óss
"god" "god" "oak" "ash" "god"
Elder Futhark Futhorc Younger Futhark
Shape

Unicode ᚨ ᚩ ᚪ ᚫ ᚬ ᚭ
Transliteration a o a æ o
Transcription a o a æ ą, o
Position in row 4 4 25 26 4
Table 1 The split of the Elder Futhark “a”- rune into three independent runes
(from Wikipedia's *Ansuz (rune)

5 Æsir
The Völuspá
As a prophecy of the Völva (Seeress) the Völuspá is the first and best known poem of the
Poetic Edda. It tells the story of the creation of the world and its coming end, related to the
audience by a völva addressing Odin.[1] It is one of the most important primary sources for
the study of Norse mythology.
The poem Völuspá is found in the Codex Regius manuscript (ca. 1270) and in Haukr
Erlendsson's Hauksbók Codex (ca. 1334), and many of its stanzas are quoted or paraphrased
in Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda (composed ca. 1220, oldest extant manuscript dates from
ca. 1300).
In the creation legend of the Völuspá the Æsir (the gods) establish order in the cosmos by finding
places for the sun, the moon and the stars, thereby starting the cycle of day and night.
In the Wikisource of the Völuspá poem we may identify the joined matrimonial couple Ask and
Emblu which – in analogy to Adam and Eve – also composed the dual core “AE” in the name
“AEsir” for the gods.
Compared to Chilperic's letters (c. 539 – 584) the documentation of the Völuspá (ca. 1270) is
relatively new.
The ligature “Æ” in Æsir may symbolize the matrimonial link between both partners A and E. In
the old-time religion the individuals A and E were considered as halved Man, which may be
understood in reading Plato's Symposium. The ligature “Æ” may be identified as an androgynous
couple named Man.

Stanzas from the Wikisource of the Völuspá poem


From the Völuspá I decided to illustrate the relevant quotations of the names Aesir, Ask (“A”),
Emblu and Ash (representing the tree), in which the name “Emblu” simply seems to represent the
element “E” in “Æ” for “Aesir”. The initial characters “E” in “Emblu” and “Eve” suggest that the
creation legend may have been copied, but the evidence of the earliest sources is unsecure.
The relevant stanzas from the Völuspá are:
17. To three there came
from the land
this high and mighty
Aesir to the house,
found they on land,
less mighty,
Ask and Emblu
void of destiny.

19. Ash I know standing,


named Yggdrasill,
a lofty tree, laved
with limpid water:
thence comes dew
that in dales fell;
stands always over
the green Urd’s well.
20. Thence comes maidens,
much knowing,
three, from the hall
under tree stands;
Urd hight the first,
the second Verdandi,
they ash-tablets graved,
Skuld hight the third;
they laws made,
they life selected;
all the children
they destiny say. 6

6 Völuspá
The rune Ψ (M = “Madr”, “Man”) in the Younger Futhark

2 The (Younger) Futhark alphabet in the Runen-Sprach-Schatz (1844) by Udo Waldemar Dieterich

In the Younger Futhark the rune ᛘ represents “M” and is defined as the symbol for “Man” (“Madr”
→ “Man”). The runic shape ᛘ is equivalent to the character Ψ in Chilperic I's proposal for the “æ”
in the extension (ΔΘZΨ) of the Latin alphabet.
The most accurate definition of the 4 characters in Chilperic I's proposal is problematic. Therefore I
prefer to copy a primary source of this source in full length (in German):

3: Footnote at page 72 in “Die Runenschrift;(1887)by the author Wimmer, Ludvig Frands Adalbert

• For the uui-representation Chilperic obviously chose a genuine ᚹ (Wynn rune) or a Δ-shape.
• For the æ-representation Chilperic did choose a Greek psi (Ψ) or a runic Ψ-shape.
• For the the-representation Chilperic obviously chose a Greek Zeta (or Latin) Z-shape.
• For the ω-representation Chilperic obviously chose a dotted O- or Θ shape.
Comparison of the Younger to the Elder Futhark
Usage of the Younger Futhark is found in Scandinavia and Viking Age settlements abroad, probably
in use from the 9th century onward, after a "transitional period" during the 7th and 8th centuries.
While the Migration Period Elder Futhark had been an actual "secret" known to only a literate elite,
with only some 350 surviving inscriptions, literacy in the Younger Futhark became widespread in
Scandinavia.
Originally the runic Ψ-shape (in the Younger Futhark representing “M”=”Man”) may have been
related to the ᛉ (z) in the Elder Futhark which later turned into the Stup-madr ᛦ (→ “reversed”
“Man”).
For his additional letters king Chilperic may have chosen two runic symbols and two Greek letters:
• the genuine ᚹ (Wynn rune) for the uui-representation
• the Ψ-shaped rune for the æ-representation. Chilperic may have dedicated the runic Ψ-shape
to the æ-representation as a symbol for “M” (“Man”) in the sense of the creation legend with
Ask and Emblu.
• The Greek Zeta (or Latin) in the Z-form to represent the Thorn ᚦ. This may have influenced
or been influenced by the Alemannic name Ziu (Old High German) for Tyr.
• A Greek ω- or Ω-representation as a dotted O- or Θ-shape to represent the long O: Ω.
Chilperic probably had to be careful to avoid suspicion in the the transfer of runic symbolism into
the Latin alphabet. The Church may have shared the political power for the Merovingian courts and
any pagan influence had to be hidden by careful strategies.
As a rune æ represented the first Man in the sense of the primordial “Adam & Eve”. This could be
transferred to the Latin alphabet.

Elder ᚠ ᚢ ᚦ ᚨ ᚱᚲ ᚷ ᚹ ᚺ ᚾ ᛁ ᛃ ᛇ ᛈ ᛉ ᛊ ᛏ ᛒ ᛖ ᛗ ᛚ ᛜ ᛟ ᛞ
Futhark f u þ a r k g w h n i j æ p z s t b e m l ŋ o d

ᚠ u/w ᚦ ᚬ ᚴ ᛁ ᛅ ᛏ ᛒ
Younger ᚱ ᚼ ᚾ ᛦ ᛋ ᛘ ᛚ
f/ , þ, ą, o, k, — — i, a, — — t, b, — — — —
Futhark r h n ʀ s m l
v y, ð æ g e æ, e d p
o, ø
Table 2 Elder Futhark and Younger Futhark (from Wikipedia's Younger Futhark)
Conclusion
The Futhark alphabet seems to consist of the first three characters ᚠᚢᚦ (“Futh”) to be followed by a
fourth character ᚨ (“A”) which represents the initial character for the “alphabetical” (“A.C...I....Ω”)-
section.
There are plenty of reasons to define the ligature Æ as a locally defined sacred core of the Germanic
alphabet. On a local scale the word Æ still is being used as a symbol for eternity, law, matrimony
and the personal pronoun of the 1st person singular.
Although the ligature Æ has been introduced later the symbolism may have been represented earlier
by a simple character ᚨ (“A”), which unified the fundamentals for eternity, law, matrimony, the
personal pronoun and the creation legend.
Eventually the shape of the ligature Æ may be understood as the concentrated symbolism of the
creation legend for Ask & Embla in a singular letter Æ.
One of the most interesting traces for this symbolism may be delivered by the 4 additional letters of
kings Chilperic I, which includes Æ as an equivalent symbol for the first “Man”.
As a rune æ represented the first Man in the sense of the primordial “Adam & Eve”. This could be
transferred to the Latin alphabet.
Additionally to the suitable rune for the fundamental symbol æ Chilperic may have tried to add the
rest of the header ᚠᚢᚦ (“Futh”) to the Latin alphabet.
For his additional letters king Chilperic may have chosen two runic symbols and two Greek letters:
• the genuine ᚹ (Wynn rune) for the uui-representation
• the Ψ-shaped rune for the æ-representation. Chilperic may have dedicated the runic Ψ-shape
to the æ-representation as a symbol for “M” (“Man”) in the sense of the creation legend with
Ask and Emblu.
• The Greek Zeta (or Latin) in the Z-form to represent the Thorn ᚦ. This may have influenced
or been influenced by the Alemannic name Ziu (Old High German) for Tyr.
• A Greek ω- or Ω-representation as a dotted O- or Θ-shape to represent the long O: Ω.
In the creation legend of the Völuspá the Æsir (the gods) created Ask and Emblu, who (accidentally
or on purpose) share the same initial letters A and E as Adam and Eve.
Contents
Abstract.................................................................................................................................................1
Historical Context.................................................................................................................................2
The Ligature Æ.....................................................................................................................................3
The core ”æ” for Eternity.................................................................................................................3
The cores “ai” and ”ayaya” for Eternity..........................................................................................4
Chilperic's additional letters.................................................................................................................5
Runes interpreted as “Wodan” ........................................................................................................5
Runes interpreted as “vitha” by the West Slavs...............................................................................5
The *Ansuz (rune)................................................................................................................................6
Plurality (or duality?).......................................................................................................................6
The Völuspá..........................................................................................................................................7
Stanzas from the Wikisource of the Völuspá poem.........................................................................7
The rune Ψ (M = “Madr”, “Man”) in the Younger Futhark................................................................9
Comparison of the Younger to the Elder Futhark..........................................................................10
Conclusion..........................................................................................................................................11
Appendix – Overview of the Publications of Joannes Richter at Academia......................................13
Appendix – Overview of the Publications of Joannes Richter at Academia
1. The Role of the Ligature Æ in the European Creation Legend
2. A Concept for a Runic Dictionary
3. Concentrating the Runes in the Runic Alphabets
4. Traces of Vit, Rod and Chrodo
5. De sleutelwoorden van het Futhark alfabet
6. The Keywords of the Futhark Alphabet
7. Het runenboek met het unieke woord Tiw
8. A short Essay about the Evolution of European Personal Pronouns
9. The Evolution of the European Personal Pronouns
10. De miraculeuze transformatie van de Europese samenleving
11. The Miraculous Transformation of European Civilization
12. The Duality in Greek and Germanic Philosophy
13. Bericht van de altaarschellist over de Lof der Zotheid
14. De bronnen van Brabant (de Helleputten aan de Brabantse breuklijnen)
15. De fundamenten van de samenleving
16. De rol van de waterbronnen bij de kerstening van Nederland
17. De etymologie van "wijst" en "wijstgrond"
18. The Antipodes Miᚦ and Wiᚦ
19. The Role of the Dual Form in the Evolution of European Languages
20. De rol van de dualis in de ontwikkeling der Europese talen
21. The Search for Traces of a Dual Form in Quebec French
22. Synthese van de Germanistische & Griekse mythologie en etymologie
23. De restanten van de dualis in het Nederlands, Engels en Duits
24. Notes to the Corner Wedge in the Ugaritic Alphabet
25. The Origin of the long IJ-symbol in the Dutch alphabet
26. Over de oorsprong van de „lange IJ“ in het Nederlandse alfabet
27. The Backbones of the Alphabets
28. The Alphabet and and the Symbolic Structure of Europe
29. The Unseen Words in the Runic Alphabet
30. De ongelezen woorden in het runenalfabet
31. The Role of the Vowels in Personal Pronouns of the 1st Person Singular
32. Over de volgorde van de klinkers in woorden en in godennamen
33. The Creation Legends of Hesiod and Ovid
34. De taal van Adam en Eva (published: ca. 2.2.2019)
35. King Chilperic's 4 Letters and the Alphabet's Adaptation
36. De 4 letters van koning Chilperik I en de aanpassing van het Frankenalfabet
37. The Symbolism of Hair Braids and Bonnets in Magical Powers
38. The Antipodes in PIE-Languages
39. In het Nederlands, Duits en Engels is de dualis nog lang niet uitgestorven
40. In English, Dutch and German the dual form is still alive
41. The Descendants of the Dual Form " Wit "
42. A Structured Etymology for Germanic, Slavic and Romance Languages
43. The “Rod”-Core in Slavic Etymology (published: ca. 27.11.2018)
44. Encoding and decoding the runic alphabet
45. Über die Evolution der Sprachen
46. Over het ontwerpen van talen
47. The Art of Designing Languages
48. Notes to the usage of the Spanish words Nos and Vos, Nosotros and Vosotros
49. Notes to the Dual Form and the Nous-Concept in the Inari Sami language
50. Over het filosofische Nous-concept
51. Notes to the Philosophical Nous-Concept
52. The Common Root for European Religions (published: ca. 27.10.2018)
53. A Scenario for the Medieval Christianization of a Pagan Culture
54. Een scenario voor de middeleeuwse kerstening van een heidens volk
55. The Role of the Slavic gods Rod and Vid in the Futhorc-alphabet
56. The Unification of Medieval Europe
57. The Divergence of Germanic Religions
58. De correlatie tussen de dualis, Vut, Svantevit en de Sint-Vituskerken
59. The Correlation between Dual Forms, Vut, Svantevit and the Saint Vitus Churches
60. Die Rekonstruktion der Lage des Drususkanals (published: ca. 27.9.2018)
61. Die Entzifferung der Symbolik einer Runenreihe
62. Deciphering the Symbolism in Runic Alphabets
63. The Sky-God, Adam and the Personal Pronouns
64. Notities rond het boek Tiw (Published ca. 6.2.2018)
65. Notes to the book TIW
66. Von den Völkern, die nach dem Futhark benannt worden sind
67. Designing an Alphabet for the Runes
68. Die Wörter innerhalb der „Futhark“-Reihe
69. The hidden Symbolism of European Alphabets
70. Etymology, Religions and Myths
71. The Symbolism of the Yampoos and Wampoos in Poe's “Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym from Nantucket”
72. Notizen zu " Über den Dualis " und " Gesammelte sprachwissenschaftliche Schriften "
73. Ϝut - Het Nederlandse sleutelwoord
74. Concepts for the Dual Forms
75. The etymology of the Greek dual form νώ (νῶϊ)
76. Proceedings in the Ego-pronouns' Etymology
77. Notities bij „De godsdiensten der volken“
78. The Role of *Teiwaz and *Dyeus in Filosofy
79. A Linguistic Control of Egotism
80. The Design of the Futhark Alphabet
81. An Architecture for the Runic Alphabets
82. The Celtic Hair Bonnets (Published Jun 24, 2018)
83. Die keltische Haarhauben
84. De sculpturen van de Walterich-kapel te Murrhardt
85. The rediscovery of a lost symbolism
86. Het herontdekken van een vergeten symbolisme
87. De god met de twee gezichten
88. The 3-faced sculpture at Michael's Church in Forchtenberg
89. Over de woorden en namen, die eeuwenlang bewaard gebleven zijn
90. De zeven Planeten in zeven Brabantse plaatsnamen
91. Analysis of the Futhorc-Header
92. The Gods in the Days of the Week and inside the Futhor-alphabet
93. Een reconstructie van de Nederlandse scheppingslegende
94. The Symbolism in Roman Numerals
95. The Keywords in the Alphabets Notes to the Futharc's Symbolism
96. The Mechanisms for Depositing Loess in the Netherlands
97. Over het ontstaan van de Halserug, de Heelwegen en Heilwegen in de windschaduw van de Veluwe
98. Investigations of the Rue d'Enfer-Markers in France
99. Die Entwicklung des französischen Hellwegs ( " Rue d'Enfer "
100. De oorsprong van de Heelwegen op de Halserug, bij Dinxperlo en Beltrum
101. The Reconstruction of the Gothic Alphabet's Design
102. Von der Entstehungsphase eines Hellwegs in Dinxperlo-Bocholt
103. Over de etymologie van de Hel-namen (Heelweg, Hellweg, Helle..) in Nederland
104. Recapitulatie van de projecten Ego-Pronomina, Futhark en Hellweg
105. Over het ontstaan en de ondergang van het Futhark-alfabet
106. Die Etymologie der Wörter Hellweg, Heelweg, Rue d'Enfer, Rue de l'Enfer und Santerre
107. The Etymology of the Words Hellweg, Rue d'Enfer and Santerre
108. The Decoding of the Kylver Stone' Runes
109. The Digamma-Joker of the Futhark
110. The Kernel of the Futhorc Languages
111. De kern van de Futhark-talen
112. Der Kern der Futhark-Sprachen
113. De symboolkern IE van het Nederlands
114. Notes to Guy Deutscher's "Through the Language Glass"
115. Another Sight on the Unfolding of Language (Published 1 maart, 2018)
116. Notes to the Finnish linguistic symbolism of the sky-god's name and the days of the week
117. A modified Swadesh List (Published 12 / 17 / 2017)
118. A Paradise Made of Words
119. The Sky-God Names and the Correlating Personal Pronouns
120. The Nuclear Pillars of Symbolism (Published 10 / 28 / 2017)
121. The Role of the Dual Form in Symbolism and Linguistics (Oct 17, 2017)
122. The Correlation between the Central European Loess Belt, the Hellweg-Markers and the Main
Isoglosses
123. The Central Symbolic Core of Provencal Language (Oct 7, 2017)