Você está na página 1de 30



This document can be downloaded from the following

Technical Standards website:
Electronic files may be ordered by phone (510-242-7241),
e-mail (TechStds@Chevron.com),
or fax (510-242-2157).

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 1 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

1.0 INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................................3
2.0 REFERENCES .............................................................................................................3
2.1 ......Industry Standards ...........................................................................................3
2.2 ......Chevron Specifications .....................................................................................5
3.0 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ......................................................................................5
4.0 BENDS .........................................................................................................................6
5.0 WELDING ....................................................................................................................6
5.1 ......Welding Procedure Documentation (WPS and PQR) ......................................6
5.2 ......Welder and Welding Operator Qualification .....................................................6
5.3 ......Repair Procedures ...........................................................................................7
5.4 ......Welding Processes ...........................................................................................7
5.5 ......Production Welding ..........................................................................................8
6.0 FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY AND ERECTION ........................................................12
6.1 ......General Piping ................................................................................................12
6.2 ......Pipe Supports .................................................................................................13
6.3 ......Assembly ........................................................................................................14
7.0 POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT ............................................................................14
7.1 ......Thermocouples ...............................................................................................14
8.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE, TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROL ..............................15
8.1 ......General ...........................................................................................................15
8.2 ......Weld Inspections ............................................................................................15
8.3 ......Radiography ...................................................................................................15
9.0 FLUSHING .................................................................................................................16
9.1 ......General ...........................................................................................................16
9.2 ......Preparation for Leak Testing ..........................................................................17
10.0 HYDROSTATIC LEAK TESTING ..............................................................................18
10.1 ....Post-Test Requirements .................................................................................20
10.2 ....Pneumatic Testing ..........................................................................................20
10.3 ....Leak Repair and Re-Testing ..........................................................................21
11.1 ....General ...........................................................................................................21
11.2 ....Cleaning by Acid Pickling ...............................................................................22
12.0 HOT OIL FLUSHING .................................................................................................24
13.0 IDENTIFICATION AND MARKINGS .........................................................................25
14.0 PREPARATION FOR SHIPMENT AND STORAGE .................................................25
15.0 DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS .....................................................................26

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 2 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

1. This specification, in conjunction with the other technical requirements, defines the minimum
acceptable requirements for the fabrication, assembly, welding, erection, installation, inspec-
tion, testing, cleaning and documentation of piping systems used in upstream oil and gas pro-
duction facilities.
2. This specification applies to both shop and field fabricated piping.
3. This Specification governs piping systems provided in accordance with API Recommended
Practice 14E "Design and Installation of Offshore Production Piping Systems."
4. Piping systems designed for pressures in excess of that permitted by ASME B16.5 Class 2500
shall be designed and fabricated and installed in accordance with ASME B31.3, Chapter IX
"High Pressure Piping."
a. Pipelines are specifically excluded from the scope of this specification.
b. Instrumentation tubing is subject to the additional requirements of ICM-SU-11.01.
5. This specification shall also apply to the fabrication and attachment of pipe supports.
6. Piping systems in accordance with this specification shall comply with prevailing Government
Regulations and Statutes.
7. Any and all exceptions to the technical requirements shall be submitted in writing to Company
for approval prior to fabrication.

1. The most recent issue of the standards and codes listed below shall be considered as a part of
this Specification.
2. All Addenda issued through the date of the Purchase Order, Contract or Agreement, as appli-
cable, shall apply in full.

2.1 Industry Standards

American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)
Manual of Steel Construction
American Petroleum Institute (API)
5L Specification for Line Pipe
6A Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment
RP 14E Design and Installation of Offshore Production Piping Systems
15LR Specification for Low Pressure Fiberglass Line Pipe
686 Machinery Installation and Installation Design
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
B1.1 Unified Inch Screw Threads
B16.5 Flanges and Flanged Fittings
B16.25 Buttwelding Ends
B31.3 Process Piping

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 3 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

B1.20.1 Pipe Threads (Except Dry Seal) Specifications, Dimensions, and Gaging for
Taper and Straight Pipe Threads Including Certain Special Applications
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section V - Nondestructive Examination
Section IX - Welding and Brazing Qualifications
American Society of Nondestructive Testing (ASNT)
SNT-TC-1A Nondestructive Testing Qualification and Certification
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
A36 Specification for Structural Steel
A106 Specification for Carbon Steel Pipe
A193 Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-Temperature Ser-
A194 Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure or High Tempera-
ture Service, or Both
A320 Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for Low- Temperature
A370 Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel
A694 Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pipe
Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High-Pressure Transmission Service
A860 Wrought High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Butt-Welding Fittings
B117 Standard Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus
E562 Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic Manual Point Count
F1137 Phosphate/Oil and Phosphate/Organic Corrosion Protective Coatings for
F1470 Fastener Sampling for Specified Mechanical Properties and Performance
American Welding Society (AWS)
A4.3 Standard Methods for Determination of the Diffusible Hydrogen Content of
Martensitic, Bainitic and Ferritic Steel Weld Metal Produced by Arc Weld-
A5.5 Specification for Low Alloy Steel Covered Arc Welding Electrodes
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve Fittings Industry (MSS)
SP-44 Steel Pipe Line Flanges
SP-75 Specification for High Test Wrought Welding Fittings
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE)
MR-01-75/ISO 15156 Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries - Materials for use in H2S Containing
Environments in Oil and Gas Production

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 4 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

Pipe Fabrication Institute

ES-7 Minimum Length and Spacing for Welded Nozzles
Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC)
SP-6 Commercial Blast Finish
SP-8 Acid Pickling

2.2 Chevron Specifications

Safety in Designs Manual
COM-SU-2.02 Paint and Protective Coatings
ICM-SU-11.01 Instrument Installation
PIM-SU-3.00 Piping Service Classifications and Material Requirements
PIM-SU-3.04 Design and Layout of Offshore Piping Systems
PIM-SU-3.06 Installation of Fiber-Reinforced Pipe in Offshore Facilities


1. All materials shall be new, identifiable, and free of damage and defects.
2. The selection of pipe, piping components and valving shall be in accordance with General
Specification PIM-OU-3.00, and in particular, the appropriate Material Class Data Sheet for
the intended service. Substitution of alternate materials or components shall require prior writ-
ten approval by Company.
3. Piping material and material grade, wall thickness, ASME Class, heat treatment requirements,
inspection, heat tracing, insulation, and coating shall be as documented on the approved
project line lists.
4. Heating may be used by field fabricator/erector to correct piping misalignment in ferritic
materials, subject to Company approval. Contractor shall submit a written procedure for
review and approval by Company prior to implementation.
5. As a minimum, pipe supports shall be fabricated from carbon steels that meet the requirements
of ASTM A36 or ASTM A106 Grade B or API 5L Grade B unless specified otherwise.
6. Piping systems constructed of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) materials shall meet the
additional requirements of PIM-SU-3.06.
7. For non-metallic piping (other than FRP) and carbon steel piping lined with nonmetallic mate-
rials, Contractor shall be responsible for developing a written procedure for piping fabrication,
inspection and testing in accordance with ASME B31.3. Company shall approve the procedure
prior to the start of fabrication.
8. Piping systems constructed API 5L Grade X-60 materials shall meet the additional require-
ments specified in Appendix A of this specification.
9. All sour service hydrocarbon piping systems shall be in accordance with NACE MR0175/ISO
10. Hardness testing shall be performed for all non-sour service weld procedure qualifications.
The maximum hardness shall not exceed Vickers 300 using a load not exceeding 10 kilograms.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 5 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

11. Tack welds shall be of the same quality and material as the completed weld and shall be fully
fused with weld beads; otherwise the tack weld shall be removed during the welding opera-
12. Arc strikes on pipe and fitting surfaces shall be removed. See Section 5.5.8 item 3.
13. Contractor shall provide protective coatings in accordance with COM-SU-2.02.
14. Hot taps to previously operated piping systems shall not be permitted without prior written
approval by Company.
15. Orifice flange taps shall not be located at the top or bottom position.
16. Valves shall not be installed with their stems located below the horizontal.

Bends are not permitted without written approval of the Company.


5.1 Welding Procedure Documentation (WPS and PQR)

1. All Weld Procedure Specifications (WPS) and Procedure Qualification Records (PQR) shall
be submitted to Company for approval prior to any welding.
2. All welding procedures shall be in writing and shall contain the minimum information con-
tained on ASME Section IX Forms QW-482 and 483.
3. For P1 and S1 materials, each WPS shall include a statement indicating the Design Minimum
Temperature (DMT) for which the WPS is qualified (see paragraph 323.2.2 of ASME B31.3).
Qualification may be either by Charpy Impact testing or by exemption, as provided by Table
323.2.2 of ASME B31.3.
4. Welding procedures qualified on P-number materials may not be used for welding equivalent
S-number materials without specific Company approval.
5. The Contractor shall prepare a summary sheet, welding map or drawing indicating the WPSs
to be used for each Piping Class.
a. If a WPS is intended for only part of a Pipe Class, the extent of intended use must be
clearly defined.
b. This document must show that the WPS assignments are consistent with the Design Mini-
mum Temperature(s) for each Piping Class.
6. Hardness testing shall be performed as part of the weld procedure qualification for all sour ser-
vice carbon steel piping.
a. Vickers hardness traverses shall be performed in accordance with NACE MR0175/ISO
b. Maximum hardness shall not exceed values indicated in NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 Table

5.2 Welder and Welding Operator Qualification

All welder qualifications and certificates with picture identification shall be submitted to Company
for approval prior to any fabrication.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 6 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

5.3 Repair Procedures

1. Contractor shall prepare repair procedures that outline the steps necessary to make cap,
through-wall, and partial penetration repairs.
2. All weld repair procedures shall be submitted to Company for approval prior to start of repair

5.4 Welding Processes

5.4.1 General
1. All semi-automatic or fully-automatic welds shall be made utilizing a multi-pass tech-
2. Vertical downhill welding shall not be permitted.
3. Low hydrogen consumables shall be certified by the electrode manufacturer, or tested
by Contractor to comply with AWS A4.3 H8 or better.
4. An internal gas purge shall be provided for the root pass and the second layer of stain-
less steel welds for any gas shielded process.
5. Acceptable weld processes for welding of piping and supports shall include the fol-
a. Flux Core-Arc Welding (FCAW)
b. Gas Metal-Arc Welding (GMAW)
c. Gas Tungsten-Arc Welding (GTAW)
d. Shielded Metal-Arc Welding (SMAW)
e. Submerged-Arc Welding (SAW)

5.4.2 Flux Core-Arc Welding (FCAW)

1. For carbon steel piping, gas shielded electrodes shall be utilized, and the electrode
diameter shall not exceed 1/8".
2. Electrode diameter shall not exceed 3/32" for austenitic stainless steel.
3. Self-shielded FCAW is not permitted for process piping or attachments to process pip-
ing, but may be used for pipe support fabrication.

5.4.3 Gas Metal-Arc Welding (GMAW)

Short-arc GMAW shall be used only for root pass butt welding on piping.

5.4.4 Shielded Metal-Arc Welding (SMAW)

1. Low hydrogen electrodes shall be required, except cellulosic SMAW electrodes may
be used for the root and hot pass on single-sided butt welds.
2. Cellulosic SMAW electrodes shall not be permitted for welds on API flanges.

5.4.5 Submerged-Arc Welding (SAW)

1. Semi-automatic equipment is not permitted.
2. Weld passes shall not be greater than 3/8" thick.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 7 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

3. SAW procedure qualification test records shall show the name of the manufacturer
and the trade name of the wire and flux used to qualify the procedure. Flux manufac-
turer's trade name shall be an essential variable.
4. Addition of alloy agents through the flux shall not be acceptable.
5. SAW is not permitted for austenitic stainless steel.

5.4.6 Filler Metals, Electrodes, Wire and Flux

1. Electrodes, wires and fluxes shall be selected with specified minimum tensile strength
not less than the specified minimum tensile strength of the base metal.
a. Filler metal for welding similar materials shall be of the same nominal chemistry
as the base metal.
b. When welding two steels of unequal strengths, the welding wire or electrode shall
be matched to the higher strength material.
2. When impact testing of the base metal is required, the weld filler metal shall meet the
same impact test requirements as the base metal.
3. Carbon steel electrodes for welding P1 and S1 materials shall conform to the follow-
ing ASME specifications:


FCAW ASME SFA-5.20 Classes:
E70T-1, E70T-5, E71T-1,

4. Stainless steel electrodes shall be low carbon "L" grade, and shall conform to the fol-
lowing ASME specifications:



5. Electrodes, filler wires and fluxes shall be kept clean, dry and stored according to the
manufacturer's instructions.
a. Electrodes, filler wire or fluxes that are damp, greasy or oxidized shall not be
b. During welding, avoid contamination of fluxes. Reuse of flux is permitted in
accordance with manufacturer's instructions.
6. Filler metals for joining carbon steels to stainless steels shall be E309L, except in ser-
vices over 600°F (315°C) where ERNiCr-3 or ENiCrFe-3 shall be used.

5.5 Production Welding

1. Welding shall not be permitted in inclement weather (wind and/or rain) unless both the welder
and the work are well protected from the elements.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 8 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

2. Welding shall not be permitted when the wind velocity exceeds 5 miles per hour for gas
shielded processes and 10 miles per hour for flux shielded processes unless appropriate wind
screens are used
3. The use of backing rings or backup strips is not permitted.
4. Consumable inserts may be used only with written authorization from Company.
5. Peening of welds shall not be permitted.
6. Welds on branches or reinforcing pads shall merge smoothly with the surface of the pipe.
a. On integrally reinforced fittings, welds shall fill completely to the fitting's weld line.
b. Sharp corners on reinforcing pads shall be removed.
7. At the completion of welding and prior to inspection, all excess weld metal, slag, spatter, and
other foreign material shall be removed.
8. Stainless steel piping shall be kept free of surface contamination by ferritic materials or other
foreign material.
9. An inert gas arc welding process (GTAW or GMAW) shall be used on the root pass of welded
joints on compressor suction piping. The remaining passes may be welded by the Shielded
Metal-Arc Welding (SMAW) process.
10. Any weld not identified by the welder's identification stamp or mark shall be rejected. Com-
pany may, at its option, accept the weld if the weld can be shown to be of acceptable quality by
radiography, at the Contractor's expense.

5.5.1 Buttwelds
1. When seam-welded pipes are joined by butt welding, longitudinal weld seams should
be positioned at least 1 in. (25 mm) or 30 degrees apart, whichever is larger.
2. For horizontal pipe runs, all longitudinal weld seams shall be positioned in the upper
half of the pipe run.

5.5.2 Fillet Welds

Fillet welds must be deposited in a minimum of two passes.

5.5.3 Socket Welds

1. Socket welds shall be installed using techniques to ensure a 1/16-inch (1.6 mm) gap
prior to welding.
2. Fit-up spacers may be used with prior Company approval.

5.5.4 Valves
1. Welding shall not be permitted on valves without prior Company approval of Contrac-
tor's written procedure. This includes the attachment of flanges to non-flanged valves.
2. Buttweld end or socket weld end valves that have PTFE or other heat-sensitive parts
shall be protected from the heat of welding, or Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT), in
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 9 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

5.5.5 Joint Preparation and Fit-up

1. Weld bevels shall be made by machining, grinding or thermal cutting, and shall be rea-
sonably smooth and true.
a. Thermally cut bevels shall be ground to bright metal.
b. Materials that require preheat for welding shall be preheated in the same manner
for thermal cutting or gouging.
2. Prior to welding, all laminations, split ends and other defects shall be cropped,
repaired or removed.
3. Line-up clamps shall be used when necessary to ensure that fit-up is within Code tol-
a. Welded strong backs or lugs shall not be permitted.
b. For internal line-up clamps, the clamps shall not be removed until a continuous
stringer bead equal to 100% of the circumference of the pipe has been completed.
c. For external line-up clamps, the clamps shall not be removed until a continuous
stringer bead equal to one-quarter of the circumference of the pipe has been com-
pleted, in equally spaced segments, on both sides of the pipe.
4. For buttwelded joints of unequal thickness, the weld ends shall be prepared in accor-
dance with ASME B16.25.
5. If the required taper in accordance with API 14E Appendix B would result in a
trimmed wall thickness less than the required wall thickness (tm), Contractor shall
fabricate a transition spool.
a. This spool shall be fabricated from material equal in grade to the highest grade
material to be welded, and shall have a wall thickness equal to the thicker pipe or
fitting to be welded.
b. The transition spool length shall be at least one and one half times the nominal
pipe diameter, but no less than 12" (300 mm) in length.
c. The transition spool shall be internally tapered at one end to match the thickness
of the thinner walled pipe or fitting, and beveled for welding.
d. Contractor shall stencil all transition spools with the pipe size, grade and wall
6. Visible defects shall be removed by grinding or other acceptable method before pro-
ceeding with welding.

5.5.6 Preheating
1. Recommended preheat temperatures per ASME B31.3 Table 330.1.1 shall be required
and shall be maintained during all multi-pass welding.
2. Preheating shall be required if the base metal is damp, or if the surrounding air or
metal surface temperature is less than 50°F (10°C).
3. All API flanges and other API 6A components to be welded shall be preheated to a
minimum of 400°F (204°C) before welding. Preheat shall be maintained throughout
the welding process.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 10 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

5.5.7 Specific Welding Requirements

1. Seal welds shall be made as follows:
a. Both male and female threads shall be thoroughly cleaned of oil, grease or other
contaminants with a suitable solvent.
b. The joint shall be made up dry, without thread sealant, and shall be securely tight-
c. A seal bead shall be welded around the joint, with all threads covered by weld
metal, using a low-penetration electrode.
d. Galvanized pipe shall not be seal welded.
2. Buttwelds
a. When seam-welded pipes are joined by butt welding, longitudinal weld seams
should be positioned at least 1 in. (25 mm) or 30 degrees apart, whichever is
b. For horizontal pipe runs, all longitudinal weld seams shall be positioned in the
upper half of the pipe run.
3. Slip-on Flanges
a. Slip-on flanges shall be welded inside and outside as shown in ASME B31.3, Fig.
b. The toe of the inside fillet weld shall be 1/16 to 3/16 in. (1.6 to 5 mm) back from
the face of the flange.
c. The flange face shall be protected from weld spatter.
4. Fillet Welds
Fillet welds must be deposited in a minimum of two passes.

5.5.8 Weld Repairs

1. Defective welds shall be plainly marked, cut out and repaired, or replaced. Contractor
shall advise Company in writing of all required repairs prior to the start of repair work.
2. External undercut shall be repaired by grinding off the weld cap in the undercut loca-
tion and recapping.
3. Arc burn defects shall be removed by grinding.
a. If grinding reduces the wall thickness to less than tmin plus any specified corrosion
allowance, the affected pipe shall be cut out and replaced by a section of pipe no
less than 2 ft. (610 mm) in length (including fittings).
b. Removal of the arc burn defect shall be verified by ammonium persulfate etch.
4. No more than two repair attempts may be made for any individual defect. If the sec-
ond repair is found to be defective, then a section of the pipe no less than 2 ft.
(610 mm) in length (including fittings) shall be removed and replaced.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 11 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03


6.1 General Piping

1. Prefabricated pipe spools shall have a sufficient number of properly located field welds to
allow flanged connections to be installed without imposing excessive loads, moments, or
strain into the system.
2. Minimum spacing between circumferential weld joints shall be 2" (50 mm) or 6 times the wall
thickness of the pipe, whichever is greater, unless otherwise approved by Company.
3. Minimum spacing of branch connections on piping runs shall comply with the requirements of
the Pipe Fabrication Institute (PFI) standard ES-7.
4. Couplings or other weld-on type branch connections and fittings shall not be located on a weld
5. Flange bolt holes shall straddle normal vertical center lines.
6. Miter welds are not permitted.
7. A valved drain connection shall be provided by Contractor at all piping low points regardless
of whether or not a drain connection is indicated on the drawings.
a. Piping drain valves shall be a minimum of 3/4" NPS for piping NPS 10 and smaller and a
minimum of NPS 1 for piping NPS 12 and larger.
b. Drain valves shall comply with the requirements of the applicable Piping Class and shall
be provided with plugs or blinds unless specified otherwise.
8. A vent connection shall be provided by Contractor at all piping high points where gas may be
trapped, regardless of whether or not a vent connection is indicated on the drawings.
a. Vent connections shall be a minimum of NPS 3/4".
b. Vent valves shall comply with the requirements of the applicable Piping Class and shall be
provided with plugs or blinds unless specified otherwise.
9. Threads on threaded pipe and fittings shall be cut to ASME B1.20.1.
10. Bolts shall have a minimum thread projection of 1.5 threads past the flat face of the nut.
11. Thread sealant shall be used on all threaded pipe joints, except for those joints that are to be
a. Thread sealant shall only be applied to the male thread of the joint.
b. Teflon tape shall not be used for service temperatures exceeding 200°F (90°C).
12. Piping "as-built" dimensional tolerance with regard to final end-to-end dimensions (across the
facility) and location of branches or appurtenances shall be plus or minus 1/8" (3 mm) linearly
and plus or minus 2 degree angularly.
13. Lines that are designated as "sloped lines" shall maintain a minimum slope of 2.5 inches per
100 feet (64 mm per 30 m) in the direction specified., unless a greater slope has been specified
in the design.
a. The total slope shall be as uniformly distributed as practicable throughout the entire length
of the line by field adjusting the support shoes or shimming the pipe where necessary.
b. After installation, shims shall be seal welded to structural supports to prevent displace-
ment and loss.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 12 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

c. Pipe shall be removed or lifted in place to permit surface preparation and coating of the
14. Piping for compressor and pump installations shall comply with API RP 686 where applicable.
15. Modification or alteration of standard approved fittings is not permitted.
16. Manufactured components such as Y-laterals shall not be permitted without prior written
approval by Company. Approval, if granted, will require full compliance with ASME B31.3.
17. Cold formed fittings shall not be permitted in sour service.

6.2 Pipe Supports

1. Pipe support structures shall be of welded steel construction and fabricated in accordance with
AISC "Manual of Steel Construction."
2. Pipe supports shall be installed such that no piping butt welds rest on the support or can move
onto the support as a result of thermal expansion or contraction.
3. Pipe supports shall be welded to main structural beams of the platform, deck, module or skid.
4. Beams shall be fabricated so that after erection, any minor camber as a result of rolling or shop
assembly will be upward.
5. Holes for bolted connections shall be 1/16" (1.5 mm) larger diameter than the bolts. All holes
shall be drilled prior to the application of any protective coatings. Torch cut holes are not per-
6. When "U" bolts are used, pipe shall be clamped to pipe supports using Teflon coated or chro-
mated/cadmium plated "U" bolts complete with rubber sleeves.
a. Teflon coating shall meet the requirements in Appendix B of this specification.
b. Neoprene rubber or Teflon pads, a minimum of 3/8" (10 mm) thick, shall be provided
between the pipe and support for all pipe. Pad shall be sized to ensure that the U-bolt pen-
etrates through the pad.
c. All "U" bolts shall be double-nutted with Teflon coated or chromated/cadmium plated
heavy hex nuts to match "U" bolt surface protection.
d. U" bolt threads shall extend at least ¼" (6 mm) beyond the lock nut.
e. Company shall not accept galvanized bolting.
7. Where Company has granted approval to weld supports directly to piping, the following
requirements shall apply:
a. The pipe support shall be welded to the pipe in a manner that will minimize penetration
into the pipe and will minimize local stresses induced in the piping.
b. Acceptable processes are SMAW with low hydrogen electrodes, GMAW, or FCAW.
c. Preheating, welding and heat treatment of the support to pipe attachment weld shall be in
accordance with the welding requirements for the pipe.
8. Pipe supports shall be installed so that bolted spool pieces can be removed for maintenance,
without cutting.
9. All pipe support welding shall be full seal welds as a minimum.
a. Seal welds shall be placed at all contact edges of plate and on the supporting flanges of
beams, tees, etc., and the flat legs of angles.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 13 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

b. Surfaces inaccessible for coating shall be sealed by boxing-in with plate.

c. Skip or stitch welding shall not be acceptable under any circumstances.
10. Splices in structural shapes and pipe shall be full penetration welds to provide 100% joint effi-
11. Splicing tolerances shall comply with the AISC Manual of Steel Construction.
12. Splices in structural pipe shall not be closer together than one pipe diameter, or 3'
(915 mm), whichever is greater.
13. For beams, splices shall not be closer together than twice the depth of the beam, or 3'- 0"
(915 mm), whichever is greater.
14. If a beam spans a support, the beam shall not be spliced in the middle quarter of the span, in
the eighth of the span nearest the support, or over the support.
15. Cantilevered beams shall not be spliced.
16. As a minimum, pipe supports fabricated as "ship loose" for installation by Contractor, Com-
pany, or others shall be test-fitted to confirm fit-up. Parts shall be clearly identified by paint
marks or by tagging to facilitate field assembly.

6.3 Assembly
1. The cap or seal of an opening shall not be broken until ready for final assembly.
2. Minor surface defects may be removed by grinding, provided the remaining wall thickness is
not reduced below the allowable tolerances. The Company Inspector shall be informed of any
repairs, to permit the checking and approval of wall thickness tolerances.


7.1 Thermocouples
1. For furnace postweld heat treatments, sufficient thermocouples to monitor postweld heat treat-
ment temperatures shall be attached to representative welds by direct spot or resistance weld-
ing, peening, bolting, or welding of a thermocouple pad.
2. For local postweld heat treatments, thermocouples to monitor postweld heat treatment temper-
atures shall be attached to all welds by direct spot or resistance welding, peening, bolting, or
welding of a thermocouple pad.
3. Two or more thermocouples shall be used to measure and record the entire heat treating cycle.
a. A sufficient number shall be distributed on the thicker parts of weldments and pipe to
assure uniformity of temperature throughout the heat treatment batch.
b. For pipe to flange welds, at least one thermocouple shall be placed on the flange side of
the weld.
4. For Temperature Uniformity, the differential between any two thermocouples shall not exceed
100°F (56°C) for the heating period, 25°F (14°C) for the hold period, and 100°F (56°C) for the
cooling period.
5. Controlling thermocouples shall be attached to the pipe.
6. Flames shall not impinge on the metal surface. The furnace atmosphere shall be controlled to
minimize surface oxidation.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 14 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

7. During heat treatment, all piping shall be properly supported, to prevent warping or deteriora-
8. Welding shall not be allowed on piping after post weld heat treatment, unless specifically
authorized in writing by Company.
9. Exothermic post weld heat treatment is not permitted without prior written Company approval.


8.1 General
1. A preliminary schedule for inspection and testing shall be submitted with Contractor's work
plan, and updated periodically during fabrication.
a. The schedule shall list proposed inspection hold points and test dates and shall note dead-
lines for the submittal and approval of detailed inspection and test procedures for each pip-
ing system.
b. Hydrostatic pressure test procedures shall be submitted for Company review and approval
a minimum of two weeks prior to hydrostatic testing.
2. Contractor shall be responsible for all aspects of quality assurance and quality control (QA/
QC) during all phases of the work.
3. Should the work of a fitter, welder or welding operator be judged unsatisfactory by Company,
the fitter, welder or welding operator shall be removed from the work by Contractor. The fitter,
welder or welding operator may be reassigned only after the completion of satisfactory re
qualification tests and approval of Company.

8.2 Weld Inspections

All pressure boundary welds shall be 100% visually inspected after the work is complete.

8.3 Radiography
1. Radiographic inspection shall be performed by a qualified third party Subcontractor. Self-
examination by Contractor shall not be acceptable to Company.
a. Technicians shall be qualified to American Society of Nondestructive Testing (ASNT)
Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A.
b. Inspectors responsible for grading and interpretation of radiographs shall be Technician
Level II, minimum, certified by ASNT SNT-TC-1A, and helpers shall be SNT-TC-1A
Level I certified, as a minimum.
2. Unless specified otherwise, the following percentages of welds in each pipe class as shown in
Table 1 shall be radiographically inspected:

Table 1: Percentage of Welds Radiographically Inspected

Association Pipe Class Rating Radiograph Inspection Level

ANSI 150 10%

ANSI 300 10%
ANSI 600 10%

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 15 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

Table 1: Percentage of Welds Radiographically Inspected (Continued)

Association Pipe Class Rating Radiograph Inspection Level

ANSI 900 20%

ANSI 1500 20%
ANSI 2500 100%
API 3000 100%
API 5000 100%
API 10000 100%

3. In addition to the above requirements, 100% of the butt welds in hydrocarbon services shall be
radiographically inspected.
4. In addition to the above requirements, 100% of all welds in hydrogen sulfide H2S services
shall be radiographically inspected, including welds other than girth butt welds if weld geome-
try permits. Where weld geometry precludes radiographic examination, the weld shall be
examined by the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method as outlined in ASME B31.3.
5. Where radiography is specified to be less than 100%, the radiography shall be a "random
examination" as opposed to a "spot examination".
a. Welds selected to be examined shall be evenly distributed between all pipe spools and
welders in so much as reasonably possible.
b. Concurrence of Company shall be obtained on the selection of welds to be examined.
6. Company reserves the right to require additional radiographs.
7. If random examination is specified, progressive sampling is required.
8. Normal Fluid Service criteria shall be used unless Severe Cyclic Conditions are specified on
the piping isometrics.


9.1 General
1. Contractor shall provide Company a minimum of one week notice for all cleaning and hydro-
static testing. The piping system to be cleaned and tested shall be detailed in the notice, includ-
ing the specific lines and equipment.
2. Contractor shall prepare detailed hydrostatic test procedures for each hydrostatic test, includ-
ing a pressure test flow diagram to define and record the extent of each test.
a. The diagrams shall clearly detail the extent of the systems to be tested, the valves to be
opened, and the equipment and instrumentation to be removed, isolated by blanking with
blind flanges, or otherwise protected.
b. Piping classification breaks shall be clearly marked on all pressure test diagrams.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 16 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

3. The application of coatings, insulation or any other pipe coverings prior to leak testing shall
conform to the following.
a. All joints, including welds, bonds and connections, shall be unpainted, uncoated, uninsu-
lated and exposed for all specified visual, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiographic
and ultrasonic examination prior to leak testing.
b. All joints, including welds, bonds and connections, shall be uninsulated and exposed for
examination during leak testing, except that joints previously leak tested may be insulated
or covered.
c. All joints, including welds, bonds and connections, may be coated with the specified
primer prior to leak testing unless a sensitive leak test in accordance with ASME B31.3,
paragraph 345.8 is required.
4. Equipment and in-line instrumentation that may be damaged by cleaning or flushing opera-
tions shall be isolated by blinds or plugs, or shall be disconnected from the piping system.
a. This shall include, but not be limited to turbines, pumps, compressors, safety valves, tur-
bine flowmeters and rupture discs.
b. Mounted instrumentation shall be removed or isolated from the system during flushing
and testing.
5. Restrictions that interfere with flushing, filling, venting or draining, such as orifice plates and
flow nozzles shall not be installed until the completion of leak testing.
6. Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that pressure tests do not result in damage to any
piping or system components.
7. The flushing and test fluids shall be clean, fresh potable water with less than 100 ppm chlo-
8. The temperature of the hydrotest fluid shall not be less than 60°F (15°C).

9.2 Preparation for Leak Testing

1. After erection and prior to hydrostatic testing, all piping shall be thoroughly flushed to remove
weld slag, blast grit, dirt, sand, trash and other debris.
2. Contractor shall submit a detailed flushing procedure for approval by Company, which shall
be in accordance with the following:
a. Required flushing flowrates shall be determined based on pipe diameter and flow veloci-
(1) Velocities from 8-12 feet per second shall be required for lines up to NPS 10.
(2) Larger diameter lines shall use the highest velocity reasonably possible, which shall
be approved by Company.
b. Compressed air may be injected into the water while flushing, to increase turbulence and
c. Drop flushing (the filling and draining of a piping system) does not constitute flushing and
shall not be accepted.
d. Piping and piping systems which cannot be flushed with water (because the presence of
water is unacceptable) shall be blown out with high pressure, high velocity air. This shall
include instrument and utility air lines as a minimum.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 17 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

3. Control valves, positive displacement meters, turbine meters, rotameters, and relief devices
shall be removed from the piping system prior to flushing.
4. Hydrotesting against closed block valves is not permitted without prior written permission
from Company. Permission will be granted only where Contractor can demonstrate the reli-
ability of the block valves to be used.


1. A relief valve shall be installed on the test pump discharge (no relief valve is required for hand
test pumps).
a. The relief pressure shall be set at approximately 105% of the maximum hydrostatic test
pressure (adjusted for hydrostatic head).
b. The size of the valve shall be sufficient to discharge the maximum capacity of the pump at
the test pressure.
c. Any valves between the relief valve and the system being tested shall be locked open.
2. Valves, including ball, gate, globe, plug and butterfly valves, shall be in the fully open position
during hydrotesting, with the following exceptions.
a. Valves that are normally closed shall be opened for hydrotesting.
b. With the exception of pressure control valves with internal passages between the process
fluid and the diaphragm, control valves shall remain in the line for hydrotesting and shall
be in the fully open position.
c. Pressure control valves with internal passages between the process fluid and the dia-
phragm shall be isolated from hydrotesting. External connections shall be disconnected or
blocked during hydrotesting, and the diaphragm pressure shall be bled off.
d. Lines containing check valves shall have the pressure source located on the upstream side,
or the check valves shall be removed from the line or blocked open for hydrotesting.
e. Valves shall not be jacked or forced open by Contractor.
f. Blanks or blinds designed to meet the maximum test pressure shall be installed to protect
valves that must remain in the closed position.
3. Expansion joints shall be hydrotested with the piping system, to check the restraining devices.
4. Hydrostatic testing shall be performed with the "in service" type of gaskets, and shall not uti-
lize any gasket sealing compounds.
5. New gaskets shall be installed on all connections that are broken after completion of the
hydrotesting, or that must be reassembled after testing.
6. If Company has approved, in writing, an exception to paragraph 16.1 item 11 of PIM-SU-3.04,
temporary supports shall be installed as necessary to prevent sagging or excessive stress on the
piping system.
a. Special consideration shall be given to supporting partially liquid packed or gas piping
systems during flushing and hydrostatic testing.
b. Particular attention shall be given to systems having spring or counterweight supports, and
to systems containing expansion joints or loops.
7. Large diameter lines that are grouped together on common supports shall not be simulta-
neously hydrotested if the weight of the test medium might overstress the supports.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 18 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

8. All vents shall be open during filling to ensure proper venting of all air or gases.
9. Contractor shall take precautions to avoid excessive pressure due to thermal expansion. Pre-
cautions such as surveillance throughout the test period by a suitably qualified person may be
10. Hydrostatic test pressures are for the new and cold condition.
a. Test pressures shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 for Normal Service piping.
b. Test pressures exceeding 90% of the specified minimum yield strength of a component, or
greater than 175% of the maximum rating within the applicable component standard, may
result in rejection by Company of the affected components.
c. Test temperature shall be 100°F (38°C) or less.
d. For higher test temperatures, Contractor shall be responsible for determining the appropri-
ate test pressure.
11. Hydrostatic testing shall be maintained for a minimum of 2 hours after stabilization of pres-
sure and temperature. The specified test pressure shall be maintained for at least 30 minutes
prior to examination of all joints, including welds, bonds and connections, for leaks.
12. All hydrostatic tests shall be maintained for a sufficient period of time to check for small seep-
age leaks.
13. Hydrostatic testing shall be performed with two separate pressure gauges and a dual-pen (pres-
sure and temperature) chart recorder. Pressure gauges and recorders shall have a pressure
range of approximately twice the required test pressure.
14. All gauges and recorders shall have been dead-weight tested and certified within 6 months
prior to the start of hydrostatic testing. The certifications shall be available for Company
review during all hydrostatic testing.
15. Recorder charts shall depict one system test only. Charts shall be signed and dated by Contrac-
tor and Company upon completion of the test to certify that the test was performed.
16. Contractor shall collect, record and maintain all information required for complete test
records. As a minimum, test records shall include the following information:
a. Test date with start and finish times.
b. Piping line and equipment numbers (or pressure test flow diagram number).
c. Design pressure and temperature.
d. Minimum test pressure and hold time.
e. Test pressure and temperature recording chart.
f. Water chloride content (stainless steel piping).
g. Test medium (if not water).
h. Applicable remarks concerning defects.
i. Contractor and Company approval signatures.
17. Leaks found during testing shall be repaired and the piping system retested.
18. Company reserves the right to require alternate pressure tests should a piping system fail the
standard pressure test.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 19 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

10.1 Post-Test Requirements

1. All piping systems, including equipment and instrumentation included in the testing, shall be
thoroughly drained, cleaned and dried upon completion of testing.
2. After completion of hydrostatic testing and Company release, the system shall be de-pressur-
ized by slowly opening the de-pressuring valve on the test rig.
3. The system shall be completely vented and then drained of the hydrotest fluid.
a. Particular attention shall be paid to venting during draining to avoid producing a vacuum
in the system and to allow complete drainage.
b. Special attention shall be given to equipment, instrumentation and piping system low
points where water may be trapped, such as valve bodies or control valve stations, to
ensure complete drainage.
4. Lines and equipment shall be cleared of all debris after drainage, and then shall be dried by
blowing warm air through the system. The Fabricator shall use a dehumidified air dryer to
show that the outlet relative humidity is the same as the inlet relative humidity.
5. Alternate drying methods may be employed by Contractor if approved by Company, such as
vacuum drying.
6. Strainers shall be emptied and cleaned.
7. Soft seated valves, particularly ball valves, shall not be operated until the lines have been thor-
oughly cleaned and dried.
8. All vent and drain valves shall be blinded or plugged after completion of hydrotest, cleaning
and drying.

10.2 Pneumatic Testing

10.2.1 General
1. Pneumatic testing may be substituted for hydrostatic testing only with prior written
approval by Company, and if any of the following is determined:
a. Hydrostatic testing is totally impractical, or
b. Piping or attached equipment might be damaged by water and no alternative exists
to avoid damage, or
c. Even a small amount of water left in a system could contaminate or injure the sys-
tem, such as in a refrigerant or aviation fuel system.
2. Unless otherwise specified, pneumatic tests shall utilize clean, dry air or nitrogen as
the test medium.
3. If air is utilized to test instrument air lines, it shall also be oil-free.
4. If a test requires a closure joint (flanged, screwed, or welded) for blocking purposes,
the integrity of the repaired or reworked joint shall be tested as applicable.
5. Access to pneumatic test areas shall be restricted to personnel absolutely required to
conduct the tests.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 20 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

6. If both hydrostatic and pneumatic pressure testing may damage the piping system,
alternate testing methods may be performed with prior written approval of Company.
Alternate testing methods shall include the following:
a. Butt welds shall be 100% radiographed in accordance with ASME B31.3.
b. Welds, other than butt welds, shall be liquid penetrant and magnetic particle tested
in accordance with the ASME "Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code" - Section V,
"Nondestructive Examination" - Article 6 and Article 7, respectively.
c. If heat treating is required, the above examinations shall be performed after com-
pletion of heat treating.

10.2.2 Pneumatic Leak Testing

1. Pneumatic test pressures shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 for Normal Service
2. Contractor shall be responsible for developing appropriate procedures for pneumatic
leak testing. Procedures shall be submitted for Company review and approval, and
shall incorporate the following as a minimum:
a. The pneumatic test pressure shall start at 25 psig.
b. The test pressure shall be increased gradually in increments of 15 psig to provide
time for stress in the piping to equalize and to provide sufficient time to check for
c. After the full test pressure has been reached and the temperature has stabilized, all
piping welds and connections shall be inspected for leaks. The pressure shall be
maintained for a minimum of one hour, and the piping welds and connections
inspected for leaks again to complete the test.
3. All welds and threaded connections shall be inspected, with a soap suds test, for leaks.
4. All flanged connections shall be masked with tape and a small pinhole punched in the
tape to facilitate the identification of leaks.

10.3 Leak Repair and Re-Testing

1. Contractor shall advise Company of all defects in writing.
2. Welds or portions of welds that leak during hydrostatic testing and that have not been radio-
graphed previously shall be radiographed at the affected areas before being cut out and
rewelded (see Section 5.3).
3. After repair, the welds or portions of welds shall be radiographed again. The hydrostatic test
shall be performed again to verify the repairs, unless specifically approved otherwise by Com-
pany in writing.


11.1 General
1. As a minimum, all carbon steel piping in the following services shall be cleaned, descaled and
a. Compressor Suction Piping (from the Scrubber, Filter or K.O. Drum).
b. Compressor Interstage Coolers, and Suction and Bypass Piping.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 21 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

c. Compressor Suction Pulsation Dampeners.

d. Lube Oil Piping.
e. Seal Oil Piping.
f. Control Oil Piping.
g. Hydraulic Oil Piping.
h. Fuel Gas Piping to Equipment Drivers.
i. Diesel Fuel Piping to Equipment Drivers.
2. Cleaning and descaling may be done by either chemical methods or by abrasive blasting.
3. Contractor shall propose the cleaning, descaling and passivation procedure, unless otherwise
specified by Company. However, the procedure shall be approved, in writing, by Company
prior to the start of work.

11.2 Cleaning by Acid Pickling

11.2.1 General
1. Contractor shall propose the acid cleaning agent(s), including inhibitors.
2. Contractor shall control the pickling solution in order to avoid excessive corrosion of
metal by the pickling solution.
a. Contractor shall include test coupons in the piping to be pickled and shall ensure
that these coupons are representative of all the materials in the piping system to be
exposed to the pickling solution.
b. Exposure of the test coupons shall be for the entire duration, to accurately monitor
the corrosive effect of the solution on the piping system.
c. A typical pickling procedure shall be as outlined in the following sections.
d. Pickling solutions shall not be allowed to contact any parts of process equipment,
valves, check valves, relief valves, meters, instrumentation, instrument tubing,
strainers, or other piping components that contain elastomer seals, chrome or
nickel plating, or galvanized coatings.

11.2.2 Precleaning and Rinsing

1. Contractor shall circulate a 2% (by weight) trisodium phosphate solution with wetting
agent (surfactant) to remove grease and oil films from the pipe before pickling. The
solution shall be mixed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and the
pipe treated for 2 hours at 140°F (60°C) to 160°F (71°C).
2. After removing the precleaning solution, the system shall be rinsed with clean, potable
water until the pH of the effluent rinse is within one (1.0) pH unit of the fresh rinse
water. The piping system shall be visually inspected to ensure that all oil and grease
has been removed before the start of pickling.

11.2.3 Acid Pickling (Descaling)

1. The following descaling solutions and procedures are typical.
a. Sulfuric acid (10%) for 4 to 6 hours at 150°F (66°C). When mixing acid with
water, ensure that the acid is added to the water, not water added to acid.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 22 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

b. Hydrochloric acid (7%) for 4 to 6 hours at 150°F (66°C).

(1) Note that all alloy trim valves must be temporarily removed to avoid pitting of
the trim.
(2) Hydrochloric acid is an acceptable alternative only when valves can be tem-
porarily removed.
(3) Inhibited ammoniated citric acid (3% to 5%) for 6 hours at 180°F (82°C) to
200°F (93°C).
a. Citric acid and inhibitor are mixed into the water first, and the ammonia
added to adjust the pH to between 4 and 5.
b. Use of ammoniated citric acid allows both pickling and passivating with
the same solution, eliminating the steps required in Neutralization,
2. The system shall be agitated as necessary during circulation to flush out all loose
3. An inhibitor shall be used during pickling, in accordance with the manufacturer's
4. Acceptable inhibitors include:
a. Armohib 31 for sulfuric or citric acid.
b. Rodine #213 or #214 for hydrochloric acid.
5. After pickling for the required time period, the acid solution shall be drained under a
nitrogen purge.
6. The system shall then be rinsed again in accordance with Precleaning and Rinsing,
above. After removing the precleaning solution, the system shall be rinsed with clean
potable water.
a. The rinse shall be removed under a nitrogen purge.
b. When using an ammoniated citric acid, the rinse step may be deleted.

11.2.4 Neutralization
1. A neutralizing solution of 2% (by weight) soda ash (sodium carbonate) shall be circu-
lated to remove all traces of acid from the system.
a. The solution shall be circulated for a minimum of one hour at 120°F (48°C) and
then drained under a nitrogen purge.
b. When using an ammoniated citric acid, this step may be deleted.
2. After neutralizing, the system shall be rinsed with water until all traces of acid and
neutralizing solution have been removed, and then drained under a nitrogen purge.
When using an ammoniated citric acid, this step may be deleted.
3. The acid-cleaned and neutralized pipe shall be equivalent to a SSPC-SP-8 "Acid Pick-
ling" surface.
4. The acid-cleaned and neutralized pipe shall be passivated, dried and sealed.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 23 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

11.2.5 Cleaning by Abrasive Blasting

1. Blasting shall remove all scale, grease, debris, etc., resulting in a SSPC-SP-6 "Com-
mercial Blast Finish" surface.
2. After blasting the piping shall be cleaned of all abrasives, dust and foreign material.
3. The abrasive shall be new, clean and dry.
a. Grit or slag abrasives shall be preferred over sand.
b. If sand is utilized, it shall be washed and clay-free.
4. The abrasive blasted pipe shall be passivated, dried and sealed.

11.2.6 Passivation
1. The descaled pipe shall be passivated to minimize further corrosion by applying a
phosphate coating.
2. Acid cleaned pipe may be passivated directly after neutralization and rinsing, without
3. The passivation solution shall be circulated for one hour at 130°F (54°C) to 150°F
(65°C), and shall consist of the following:
a. 0.25% (by weight) monosodium phosphate.
b. 0.25% (by weight) disodium phosphate.
c. 0.50% (by weight) sodium nitrite.
4. If an ammoniated citric acid was used for descaling, the steel surfaces shall be passi-
vated by raising the pH to between 9 and 10 through addition of ammonia, and then
adding 0.5 % sodium nitrite and circulating for 1 to 2 hours.
5. After passivation, the system shall be drained and dried thoroughly with warm dry air
or nitrogen.
a. The system shall not be flushed with water after passivation.
b. After drying, the pipe shall be closed tightly, blanketed with an inert gas or filled
with oil to minimize corrosion.

11.2.7 Safety and Environmental Concerns

1. All of the above acids and most of the other treating solutions are harmful in the event
of skin contact, if swallowed, or if fumes are inhaled.
2. All personnel shall be properly educated and protected against exposure.
3. Contractor shall develop a detailed contingency plan and shall have equipment avail-
able to contain and clean up any chemical spills or leaks.


1. Contractor shall hot oil flush all lube, seal, and control oil piping systems, including those for
drivers, pumps, compressors, and generators, prior to the first fill of oil.
2. Contractor shall submit a detailed hot oil flushing procedure for approval by Company. The
procedure shall be in accordance with API 686.
3. After flushing, Contractor shall drain and properly dispose of all flushing oil.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 24 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03


1. All piping systems shall be color coded and labeled in accordance with Company's Safety In
Designs manual.
2. Spacing of identification markings shall not exceed 40 feet (12m).
3. Flow direction arrows shall be provided with all labels.


1. Contractor shall be responsible for preparation for shipment and storage in accordance with
2. All unpainted finished surfaces, e.g., flange gasket faces, threads, weld bevels, blinds, etc.,
shall be protected against corrosion by applying a suitable rust preventive or grease (Chevron
Rust Preventive or Texaco Rust Proof Oil).
3. All exposed piping connections, e.g., flanges, couplings, beveled weld joints, etc., shall be
protected against mechanical damage during storage, transit and installation. Protection mea-
sures shall include, but not be limited to the following:
a. All threaded connections shall be protected by metal thread protectors.
b. All exposed flange faces shall be protected by bolting on a steel plate or wood cover, com-
plete with a gasket.
4. Wood covers shall be constructed from marine grade plywood with a 1/2" (12.5 mm) mini-
mum thickness.
5. A polyethylene sheet shall be placed between the flanges and wooden cover plate.
6. Flange covers shall be secured with a minimum of four (4) bolts, but in no case less than 50%
of the total bolting.
7. Plastic snap-on end covers shall not be acceptable.
8. All beveled ends shall be protected by snug fitting bevel protectors.
9. Prefabricated piping shipped for field assembly shall be marked with the spool piece number,
drawing number and an arrow, in white paint, indicating the direction of flow.
10. Pipe pieces shall be numbered consecutively in the direction of flow.
11. Flanged pipe spools shall have the spool identification number stenciled on the flange. Spool
numbers shall correspond to codes on spool sheets and assembly drawings.
12. Two complete sets of "as-built" spool drawings shall be shipped with pipe to be assembled or
installed by Company. The drawings shall contain all information necessary for assembly and
installation of the component parts.
13. For items to be shipped overseas by either Company or Contractor, a complete list of all items
shall be submitted to Company at least 3 weeks in advance of shipment.
a. This list shall contain a detailed description of all items, and shall reference drawings or
spool sheets as applicable.
b. Each item shall be listed separately, and an approximate weight and dimension for each
shall be provided.
c. The material packing method shall be identified, e.g., crated, palletized, bundled, skid
mounted, boxed, etc. as applicable.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 25 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

14. Related materials shall be bundled, palletized, or crated together.

a. Loose items shall be carefully inventoried and crated or palletized.
b. A copy of the inventory shall be included in each crate or attached to each pallet.
15. When stainless steel (or high alloy) and carbon steel piping are fabricated at the same location,
they shall be shipped separately or securely isolated, to prevent contamination.
16. Stainless steel (or high alloy) piping shall not be tied down with carbon steel chains, cables or
otherwise secured against carbon steel decks without load softeners or blocking.


1. During the course of fabrication, Contractor shall maintain and make available to Company,
for review, the following documentation:
a. "As-built" dimensional data on all piping.
b. Mill test reports and other similar certifications for all materials of construction.
c. Spool drawings documenting heat numbers and other similar component identification
numbers, to provide full material traceability.
d. Weld procedure specifications, procedure qualification records and welder qualification
e. Weld records shall be coded to correspond with spool drawings, so that the location of
each weld is clearly identified.
f. Examiners certifications, non-destructive examination, postweld heat treatment, and other
inspection records and charts.
g. Pressure test procedures, reports, test certificates and results.
h. Other documentation required by project specifications.
2. At completion of testing, and prior to shipment of the applicable piping, Contractor shall pro-
vide to company a complete quality control package for the piping, to include both hard copy
and electronic copy of all the aforementioned documentation.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 26 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03



This Appendix defines additional or modified requirements for fabrication, installation, inspection
and testing of API 5L Grade X-60 carbon steel piping systems provided in accordance with ASME
B31.3. All other requirements of this specification shall apply.
1. Root pass and hot pass welding shall be performed using the Gas Tungsten-Arc Welding
(GTAW) process.
2. The remainder of the weld shall be made using the gas-shielded Flux Core-Arc Welding
(FCAW-G), the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) or Submerged-Arc Welding (SAW)
3. Preheat temperature shall be 212°F(100°C) minimum for all thicknesses.
4. nterruption of welding is permitted if 3/8 inch or 25% of the pipe wall thickness, whichever is
greater, has been welded, and the weld has been insulated with an insulating blanket to slow
the cooling rate. The joint shall be heated to the preheat temperature before resumption of
5. Welds selected for inspection shall be representative of each welder and welding procedure,
and shall be taken shortly after completion of the weld, but not within 24 hours.
6. All consumables shall have a nickel content of less than 1%.
1. Charpy V-notch impact testing, if required by ASME B31.3 or other technical requirement,
shall be performed as part of the weld procedure qualification. Testing shall be in accordance
with ASTM A370 using longitudinal V-notch specimens with the notch located in each of the
following three locations: weld metal, fusion line (FL), fusion line (FL) plus 2 millimeters into
the base metal. The test temperature shall be the same as that used to qualify the parent pipe
2. Three specimens shall be required at each location for a total of nine specimens per weld.
Unless revised by other technical requirements such as ASME B31.3, the absorbed energy
shall equal or exceed the values required of the parent pipe material.
3. Separate weld procedure qualifications shall be performed for welding Grade X-60 to Grade
X-60, Grade X-60 to fittings (MSS SP-75, ASTM A860), and Grade X-60 to flanges (MSS
SP-44, ASTM A694).
4. The following additional essential variables shall apply for all Grade X-60 welding proce-
dures. A change in an essential variable beyond the limit specified shall require a new qualifi-
a. Any change in the brand name of electrode, flux, or electrode/flux combination used for
procedure qualification.
b. Any decrease in preheat from the minimum recorded during procedure qualification.
c. Any increase in post weld heat treatment temperature greater than 50°F (10°C).
d. Any increase in post weld heat treatment duration time greater than 25% of that used dur-
ing procedure qualification.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 27 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

e. Any increase in carbon equivalent (IIW) by more than 0.03 above the material used for
procedure qualification.
f. A change in the process of manufacture for the base material, outside the following
(1) Quenched and tempered steels
(2) TMCP or controlled-rolled steels
(3) Normalized or as-rolled steels

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 28 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03



Coating Type PTFE Fluoropolymer or "Teflon" coated

Surface Cleaning • Degrease - Solvent clean to SSPC-SP1

Followed by
• Acid Cleaning to SSPC-SP8:
• Grit or Tumble Blast w/ Aluminum Oxide SSPC-SPS
Surface Pre-treatment • Zinc Electroplate 0.3-0.5 mil (18 - 13 microns)
For Carbon Steel Bolts Only!

Tie Coat • Zinc Phosphate @ 5-7 g/m2

Protective Coating • Whitford Xylan 1424
Thickness: 1-1.5 mil (25 - 38 microns)

Thread Class •Stud/bolt: ASME B1.1 Class 2A

• Nut: ASME B1.1 Class 2B
Oversize nuts a sufficient amount to retain a class 2 fit after

Testing Coating Thickness

• ASTM F1137 microscopic exam of the cross-section taken per-
pendicular to the significant surface. Total coating thickness
shall be 1.3-2.0 mils (32-51 microns) in all areas.

Thread fit after Coating.

• Bolt: Assemble a test nut with a 2B class thread down the full
length of the thread.
• Nut: Assemble a test bolt or screw with a 2A class thread for a
minimum of one diameter through the nut.
• Acceptance: The test nut or bolt must run freely for the total
length without binding.

Sample size for all tests: ASTM F1470 Sample Size B

Acceptance criteria and disposition of nonconformance:
ASTM F1470

Color Coding • ASTM A193/A194 Grade B7 - Light Blue

• ASTM A193/A194 Grade B7M - Green
• ASTM A193/A194 Grade B16 - Red Brown
• ASTM A193/A194 Grade B8M - Orange
• ASTM A193/A194 Grade L7 - Black
• ASTM A193/A194 Grade L7M - Red

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 29 of 30

General Piping Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing PIM-SU-3.03

Documentation • Supplier shall provice lot number of coating used on each lot of
fasteners with material certification.
• Supplier shall provide a certificate of compliance stating that
the coated fasteners satisfy the requirements of this specifica-
• Supplier shall provide documented corrosion resistance perfor-
mance. Testing shall be by Salt Spray cabinet following ASTM
B117. Acceptance criteria will be that leass that 15% of the
sufrace shows red rust after 1500 hours.
• Supplier shall provide documentation that Whitford has quali-
fied the coating applicator.

November 2005 © Chevron Corporation 30 of 30