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ITU Consultation on Conformance

Assessment and Interoperability Testing


(Geneva, 20-21 July 2009)

Electrical Safety
and
Electromagnetic Compatibility

Ahmed ZEDDAM,
ITU-T SG 5 Chairman
(France Telecom)

Claude MONEY
Rapporteur of Q6/5
(Swisscom)

International
Telecommunication
Union
Geneva, 20-21 July 2009
Outline of the presentation

ITU-T SG5 mandate and objectives

Protection & Safety issues :


Avoiding Damages and Injuries to people

EMC issue :
Limiting disturbances to and from telecommunication
systems

Human exposure to EMFs


Guidance for the telecommunication sector and
support to developing countries (Resolution 72)
International
Geneva, 20-21 July 2009 Telecommunication
Union 2
ITU-T SG 5
SG 5 Title:
“Environment & Climate Change”
SG 5 Mandate
Study Group 5 is responsible for :
Studies related to protection of telecommunication
networks and equipment from interference and lightning;

In this field, ITU-T SG 5 is the most experienced and competent


standardization body

Studies related to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC),


safety and health effects connected with electromagnetic
fields produced by telecommunication installations and
devices, including cellular phones;
Studies on the existing copper network outside plant and
related indoor installations.

Studies on ICT & Climate Change


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Meaning of the Mandate: Example
Study Electromagnetic Phenomena that can potentially cause
damages or disturbances to telecommunication
installations or injury to people (telecommunication
personnel and service users) as well as health effect to
population
Power line
Lightning
Telecommunication centre Subscriber premises

Remote site
Switching
equipment MDF

Radio
station Telecom line

Mobile phone
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Geneva, 20-21 July 2009 Telecommunication
Union 4
SG 5 structure
WP 1/5 WP 2/5 WP 3/5
(Resistibility) (EMC) Climate change
Equipment Human ICT & climate
Resistibility exposure to change
Lightning e.m. fields Methodology
protection EMC Power feeding
Earthing & Emission systems
Bonding Immunity Energy
Electromagnetic Electromagne efficiency
interference from tic security Environmental
power and protection,
traction systems recycling
Safety
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Objective
Study electromagnetic phenomena to define
PROTECTIVE MEASURES and/or INSTALLATION
TECHNIQUES by means :
Recommendations: K-series
Directives
Handbooks
Lightning Handbook
Earthing Handbook
Measuring Handbook
Mitigation Handbook

Recommendations for limiting the RISK of:


Damages to telecommunication installations and equipments
Disturbances to and from telecommunication systems
Injury to people

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Geneva, 20-21 July 2009 Telecommunication
Union 6
Outline of the presentation

ITU-T SG5 mandate and objectives

Protection & Safety issues :


Avoiding Damages and Injuries to people

EMC issue :
Limiting disturbances to and from telecommunication
systems

Human exposure to EMFs


Guidance for the telecommunication sector and
support to developing countries (Resolution 72)
International
Geneva, 20-21 July 2009 Telecommunication
Union 7
Damages

Sources of damages:
Lightning
Electric Power and Traction systems
Electrostatic discharge (ESD)
The damages can be reduced by:
Equipment resistibility
Installation rules
Protective measures

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Geneva, 20-21 July 2009 Telecommunication
Union 8
Resistibility and Protection

Preventing equipment damage may


require a combination of resistibility
and protection
Resistibility is
The ability of the equipment to withstand
an over-voltage or over-current
Protection is
The addition of protective measures to
prevent damages from larger surges

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Union 9
SG 5 role in the equipment protection

SG 5 is unique in over-voltage
protection
Defines equipment resistibility
requirements
Ensures coordination between
equipment and external protections
Evaluates installation practices and
their effect on resistibility

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Geneva, 20-21 July 2009 Telecommunication
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Equipment resistibility requirements
Equipments have to work in many different
operators’ environments. However, there’s a need
for a single environment requirement

Relevant Recommendations
Tests:
Telecom Access Customer’s
Impulse tests (Lightning)
centres Network premises
Induction tests at power
frequencies (16, 50 or 60 Hz) K.20 K.45 K.21
Power contact tests
Two protection levels:
K.44
Basic
Test methods
Enhanced

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Union 11
Resistibility tests
Conformance testing
Testing is performed with the equipment operational and
connected to any associated equipment.
Testing is performed for each normal mode of operation
e.g. “on hook” and “off hook”.
Testing is performed
Line to line (transverse)
Line to earth (longitudinal)
Port to external port
(e.g. Telecommunications
to mains port)

For all tests,


performance
criteria are defined
Damages
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Union 12
Protection measures
Installation practices
Multiservice Surge Protective Device
(MSPD) if required. Depends on risk
assessment
Earthing and bonding
A new Home Network Special Group has
recently been established to investigate
damages and provide installation
guidelines
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Union 13
Safety

SG 5 is not the lead working group. This


role is held by IEC
However, SG 5 shall be involved when
safety and resistibility are linked e.g. insulation
is used as a protection measure
the IEC assumes that the network operator will
install protection in lightning prone areas
network operators’ special needs have to be
taken into account
Relevant Recommendations
K.50, K.51, K.64, K.75

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Example: Recommendation K.57
Protection measures for radio base stations sited
on power line towers

RBS cabinet between the legs of the tower


Recommendation K.57 (09/2003, Geneva):
www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-K/e
The CIGRE Technical Brochure N° 266
www.e-cigre.org RBS antenna and the elevated cabinet
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Union 15
Outline of the presentation

ITU-T SG5 mandate and objectives

Protection & Safety issues: Avoiding


Damages and Injuries to people

EMC issue :
Limiting disturbances to and from telecommunication
systems

Human exposure to EMFs


Guidance for the telecommunication sector and
support to developing countries (Resolution 72)
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Geneva, 20-21 July 2009 Telecommunication
Union 16
Electromagnetic Compatibility

EMC Recommendations of K. series


cover:
Definition of environment K.34
Equipment test/conformance K.43, K.48,
K.49, K.63, K.75
Test/conformance of the network
Emission of networks K.60
ITU-T SG5 normally refers to basic
documents produced by IEC and
develops Recommendations on How
to apply them in the Telecom
environment International
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Example: Recommendation K.63
Maintaining the suitability of production
telecommunications equipment to its intended
electromagnetic environment
Recommendation K.63 defines rules on how to execute tests on
normal production for checking the compliance with the EMC
requirements.
Stability of the product
Support both operator and manufacturer
Rec. K.63 suggests that only 3 tests, performed on a small
number of equipments selected at random from a batch, are
sufficient to give a good confidence on EMC performance:

1. Radiated emission 2. ESD 3. EFT

Classification based on these 3 tests:


Class I: Equipment “suitable”
Class II: Equipment “Acceptable”
Class III: Equipment “Not suitable”

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Union 18
Radiation: why to deal with?

Risk: reduced revenue if the


deployment of broad band services is
restricted to some areas due to
interference to other services
How does interference occur
How to manage this interference
problem

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Radiation
Risk: restricted deployment of broad band services
due to interference to other “radio” services
How does interference occur
How to manage this interference problem

Example: recommendation K.60


To be used only in case of radio interference
Gives advice how to solve the interference
case:
Defines border between network operator and
Authority responsibility
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Union 20
Outline of the presentation

ITU-T SG5 mandate and objectives

Protection & Safety issues: Avoiding


Damages and Injuries to people

EMC issue :
Limiting disturbances to and from telecommunication
systems

Human exposure to EMFs


Guidance for the telecommunication sector and
support to developing countries (Resolution 72)
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Union 21
Human exposure to electromagnetic
fields (EMF)
Question 3/5: Human exposure to
electromagnetic fields (EMF) due to
radio systems and mobile equipment

Guidance for the telecommunication


sector
Collaboration with other
standardization bodies (IEC,
CENELEC, WHO) in order to avoid
duplication of work
Support to developing countries –
Resolution 72

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Relevant ITU-T Recommendations on EMF:
K.52 (2000/2004) Guidance on complying
with limits for human exposure to
electromagnetic fields
K.61 (2003/2008) Guidance to
measurement and numerical prediction of
electromagnetic fields for compliance with
human exposure limits for telecommunication
installations
K.70 (2007) Mitigation techniques to limit
human exposure to EMF's in the vicinity of
radiocommunication base stations
K. guide (under development) Guide to
the Management of Human Exposure to
Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)
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Example :Recommendation ITU-T K.70
Mitigation techniques to limit human exposure to EMFs
in the vicinity of radiocommunication stations
Modeling of the
transmitting antennas
Importance of the
Vertical Radiation
Pattern (VRP)
Identification of the
main source of radiation
Mitigation techniques in
order to reduce
radiation level – if
required
EMF-estimator –
software with the library
of examples of the
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Conclusion

Only an incomplete picture of the ITU-T SG5


activities has been presented

SG 5 hasn’t produced recommendations for


conformance and interoperability testing. However,
resistibility recommendations (K.20, K.21, K.44
and K.45) minimize equipment down time
(reduction in damages to equipment from lightning
and power induction surges) and might be seen as
conformance criteria

Furthermore, minimising downtime could be


considered a subset of interoperability.
• The Recommendations dealing with resistibility conformance
would be useful to consider for an ITU mark program

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