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Technical Sheet:

Title:
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the
Areas between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Customer:
BP Angola, Av. 4 de Fevereiro, 197, Torres do Atlântico, Luanda
Sonangol P&P, Av. 4 de Fevereiro, 197, Torres do Atlântico, Luanda

Consultants:
Holísticos – Serviços, Estudos & Consultoria, Lda.
Rua 60, Casa 559, Urbanização Harmonia, Benfica, Luanda
Phone: 222 006938; Fax: 222 006435
E-mail: holisticos@gmail.com
www.holisticos.co.ao

Date:
May 2012
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 1

2. Objectives............................................................................................................................ 2

3. Methodology ....................................................................................................................... 2

4. Environmental and Social Characterisation ...................................................................... 11

4.1. Province of Cabinda ............................................................................... 13

 Site C1 – Massabi Lagoon .............................................................................................. 13

 Site C2 – Mpuela Lagoon ............................................................................................... 15

 Site C3 – Chiluango River............................................................................................... 16

 Site C4 – Lulondo River .................................................................................................. 17

 Site C5 – Bay of Cabinda Bay (Lucola Norte e Sul) ........................................................ 18

 Site C6 – Mbwa Nquisi River ......................................................................................... 20

 Site C7 – Lumbo River ................................................................................................... 21

4.2. Province of Zaire ...................................................................................... 24

 Site Z1 – Moita Seca Canal ............................................................................................ 25

 Site Z2 – Pululu Canal .................................................................................................... 27

 Site Z3 – Nzombo River ................................................................................................. 28

 Site Z4 – Matadi River ................................................................................................... 31

 Site Z5 – Zanga River ..................................................................................................... 32

 Site Z6 – Quipai River .................................................................................................... 34

 Site Z7 – Quimbriz Lagoon............................................................................................ 35

 Site Z8 – Luculo River .................................................................................................... 37

 Site Z9 – Sange River ..................................................................................................... 40

 Site Z10 – Macamena River ........................................................................................... 42


Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Site Z11 – Moanda or Nuapanga River ......................................................................... 44

 Site Z12 – Quintana River .............................................................................................. 45

 Site Z13 – Zangala River ................................................................................................ 47

 Site Z14 – Lucunga River ............................................................................................... 50

 Site Z15 – Quinguengue River ....................................................................................... 52

 Site Z16 – Ncoco Pequeno River ................................................................................... 54

 Site Z19 – Xingi River ..................................................................................................... 59

 Site Z20 – Pandi Lagoon ................................................................................................ 61

 Site Z22 – Sembo River .................................................................................................. 65

4.3. Province of Bengo .................................................................................... 69

 Site B1 – Loge River ...................................................................................................... 69

 Site B2 – Barra do Ambriz ............................................................................................ 71

 Site B3 – Quitungo River .............................................................................................. 73

 Site B4 – Uezo or Sangano River .................................................................................. 75

 Site B5 – Zize or River ................................................................................................... 77

 Site B6 – Quinzauamuana River ................................................................................... 79

 Site B7 – Quincacala River ............................................................................................ 79

 Site B8 - Onzo River ...................................................................................................... 82

 Site B9 – Lifune River.................................................................................................... 84

 Site B10 – Barra do Dande ........................................................................................... 86

 Site B11 – São Tiago Salina ........................................................................................... 89

4.4. Province of Luanda................................................................................. 93

 Site L1 – Bengo River .................................................................................................... 93

 Site L2 – Port of Luanda (Luanda Island) ...................................................................... 96

 Site L3 – Mussulo Island ............................................................................................... 98


Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Site L4 – Buraco .......................................................................................................... 101

 Site L5 – Barra do Kwanza .......................................................................................... 102

 Site L6 – Sobe e Desce ................................................................................................ 104

 Site L7 – Sangano ....................................................................................................... 105

 Site L8 – Cabo Ledo .................................................................................................... 107

 Site L9 – Sete irmãos .................................................................................................. 109

 Site L10 – São Brás Beach ........................................................................................... 110

 Site L11 – Kitoba ......................................................................................................... 112

4.5. Province of Kwanza Sul .................................................................... 115

 Site KS1 – Longa River ................................................................................................ 115

 Site KS2 – Três Pontas Cape ....................................................................................... 117

 Site KS3 – Bay of Porto Amboim ................................................................................ 120

 Site KS4 – Ponta do Morro do Quissonde .................................................................. 122

 Site KS5 – Mouth of the Keve River ........................................................................... 124

 Site KS6 – Ponta da Balela .......................................................................................... 126

 Site KS7 – Ngunza River (Sumbe) ............................................................................... 128

 Site KS8 – Quicombo River ......................................................................................... 129

5. Biological and Socioeconomic Resources ................................ 133

6. Bibliographical References ................................................................... 192


Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

List of Tables
Table 1: Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)........................................................................... 3
Table 2: Simplified Ranking of the Sensitivity of the Biological Resources (BIO) ...................... 5
Table 3: Simplified Ranking of the Sensitivity of the Anthropic Presence and Activities
(SOCECO).................................................................................................................... 5
Table 4: Environmental and Social Ranking ............................................................................... 6
Table 5: Sampling sites from Cabinda to Kwanza Sul ................................................................ 7
Table 6: Aspects evaluated during the surveys carried out ..................................................... 10
Table 7: Biological resources existing in the area under study. ............................................ 133
Table 8: Key for provincial tables. .......................................................................................... 154
Table 9: Summary of the main biological and socioeconomic aspects in the Cabinda
province. ................................................................................................................ 155
Table 10: Summary of the main biological and socioeconomic aspects in the Zaire
province. ................................................................................................................ 162
Table 11: Summary of the main biological and socioeconomic aspects in the Bengo
province. ................................................................................................................ 169
Table 12: Summary of the main biological and socioeconomic aspects in the Luanda
province. ................................................................................................................ 176
Table 13: Summary of the main biological and socioeconomic aspects in the Kwanza
Sul province. .......................................................................................................... 182
Table 14: Species found on the Angolan coast. ..................................................................... 188
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

List of Appendices
Appendix 1 – List of institutions contacted
Appendix 2 – List of people interviewed
Appendix 3 – Maps of the main fishing communities in Cabinda and in Zaire
Appendix 4 – Maps of the main fishing communities in Bengo and in Luanda
Appendix 5 – Maps of the main fishing communities in Kwanza Sul
Appendix 6 – Photos of the sites in the Cabinda province
Appendix 7 – Photos of the sites in the Zaire province
Appendix 8 – Photos of the sites in the Bengo province
Appendix 9 – Photos of the sites in the Luanda province
Appendix 10 – Photos of the sites in the Kwanza Sul province
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Abbreviations
ACEPA Angolan Association of the Oil Exploration and Production Companies
(Associação das Companhias de Exploração e Produção de Angola)
BCLME Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem
BIO Exposure of Biological Resources
CNIDAH Angolan National Intersectorial Commission for Demining and Humanitarian
Assistance (Comissão Nacional Intersectorial de Desminagem e Ajuda
Humanitária)
E2SI Environmental and Social Sensitivity Index
EN National Road (Estrada Nacional)
ESI Environmental Sensitivity Index
FAS Angolan Social Assistance Fund (Fundo de Apoio Social)
GCLME Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem
GIS Geographic Information System
GIWACAF Global Initiative for West and Central Africa Project
IDPAA Angolan Institute for the Development of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture
IHSMA Hydrographic and Maritime Signalling Institute of Angola
IMO International Maritime Organisation
IPIECA International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature
MINAMB Angolan Ministry of Environment (Ministério do Ambiente)
MINPET Angolan Ministry of Petroleum (Ministério dos Petróleos)
PESNORTE Development Program for Fishing Communities of Northern Angola
SeaWIFS Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor
SOCECO Presence of (Economic and Social) Anthropic Activities
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

1. Introduction

This environmental and social characterisation report is prepared as part of the Angolan
Coastal Sensitivity Mapping Project promoted by ACEPA. The Coastal Sensitivity Project is
split into different stages which are distributed into tasks allocated to different companies.
Details are provided below:

 Work Package 1: Mapping all potentially sensitive areas along the Angolan coast
from the Cabinda province to the Luanda province, based on an aerial survey carried
out in August 2011, and updating the existing information on coastal sensitivity. Total
E&P Angola is responsible for performing this task.

Updating the coastal sensitivity index, identifying the mined areas and developing
response strategies within the GIS. ESSO Angola is responsible for performing this
task.

 Work Package 2: Validating the data generated from the mapping task in order to
identify the generic types of coast and the sites sensitive to oil spills. This validation
took place from November 2011 to February 2012. This task also included a minefield
survey in areas identified as sensitive. BP Angola and Sonangol P&P were responsible
for performing this task and this report aims at presenting the respective results.

 Work Package 3: Developing oil spill response strategies for the sites identified as
sensitive. CABGOC is responsible for performing this task.

 Work Package 4: Organising disclosure seminars. ENI Angola is responsible for


performing this task.

Although the aerial survey has only included the provinces of Cabinda, Zaire, Bengo and
Luanda, at the request of BP and Sonangol P&P the Work Package 2 task was extended to

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

also include the Kwanza Sul province, from Barra do Kwanza up to the south of the town of
Sumbe (at the mouth of the Quicombo River).

This work was carried out with the support and approval of the MINPET and aims at
complying with the recommendations of the National Offshore Oil Spill Contingency Plan
approved by the Council of Ministers through Resolution no. 87-A/08 of 22 December.

2. Objectives

This work aims at describing the environmental and social status of priority sites identified as
potentially sensitive by the aerial survey (Work Package 1) which was initially carried out on
the coastal strip from Cabinda up to Luanda (Mussulo area) and then extended to cover part
of the Kwanza Sul province, located further south.

The environmental and social characterisation of the area covered by this study follows the
GIWACAF guidelines (GIWACAF, 2007) developed with the support of IMO and IPIECA. It is
prepared based on specific internationally-accepted criteria and indicators and a posteriori it
will make it possible to assess which Angolan coastal areas are most sensitive to potential
spills caused by the oil industry activities.

3. Methodology

In order to determine the priority sites and respective sensitivity, Polaris was contracted by
Total E&P Angola to carry out an aerial survey by taking photos and making videos of the
coast. Based on the images obtained, priority and potentially environmentally and socially
sensitive sites have been identified. The criteria used to identify those sites were as follows:

a) Presence or proximity of tourist infrastructures, moorings (i.e. landing stages,


piers, berths), industrial infrastructures;

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

b) Presence of fishing activities, fish salting, drying or trading activities, or fishing


and/or coastal communities;

c) Presence or proximity of river mouths, mangrove areas and/or areas of


importance for biodiversity conservation, and most importantly presence or
proximity of protected species and environmentally protected areas.

To rank the identified sites using the Environmental and Social Sensitivity Indices (E2SI), an
assessment was then made considering the following three criteria: a) Environmental
Sensitivity Index (ESI), b) exposure of biological resources (BIO) and c) presence of anthropic
activities (SOCECO).

a) Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)


The methodology used to assess the sensitivity having into consideration the different types
of coastline was based on the environmental sensitivity index definition ranking from 1 (low
sensitivity) to 10 (high sensitivity) and shown on Table 1. This index was prepared based on
the GIWACAF guidelines.

To simplify the assessment and make it easier, the environmental sensitivity indices (ESI) of
the identified sites were gathered into four sensitivity levels (see Table 1: Simplified ESI
Ranking).

Table 1: Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI).

ESI Ranking Simplified ESI Type of Shoreline Tipo da Linha de Costa


Ranking

1A Exposed rocky shore Costa com rochas expostas

Estruturas expostas
1B 1 Low Man-made exposed structures
construídas pelo Homem

Declives rochosos expostos


1C Exposed rocky slopes with boulder bases
com calhaus na base

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

ESI Ranking Simplified ESI Type of Shoreline Tipo da Linha de Costa


Ranking
Plataforma rochosa exposta
2A Exposed, wave-cut rocky platform sob influência da agitação
marinha
Escarpas expostas e declive
2B Clayish steep slope and exposed cliffs
pronunciado em argila

Praias de areia de granulação


3A Fine sand beaches
fina

Escarpas e declives
3B Sandy steep slopes and cliffs
pronunciados em areia

3C 2 Medium Cliffs Zona de escarpa

Praias de areia de granulação


4 Coarse sand beaches
grossa

Praias mistas de areia e


5 Beaches of sand and gravel
cascalho

6A Gravel beaches Praias com cascalho

6B Riprap Enrocamento

7 Exposed tidal beaches Praias de inundação expostas

Escarpas de rocha, lama ou


8A Sheltered rocky, muddy or clayish cliffs
argila protegidas
3 High
Estruturas de protecção
8B Man-made protection structures
construídas pelo Homem

8C Sheltered riprap Enrocamento protegido

Margens abrigadas com


8D Sheltered rubble shores
entulho

Linha costeita com matéria


8E Organic matter-enriched shore
orgânica

Praias de inundação
9A Sheltered tidal beaches
protegidas
4 Very High
Bancos de pouca
9B Vegetated low banks
profundidade vegetados

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

ESI Ranking Simplified ESI Type of Shoreline Tipo da Linha de Costa


Ranking

9C Salt marshes Salinas

10A Brackish water marshes Pântanos salobros

10B Freshwater marshes Pântano de água doce

10C Swamps Pântanos

10D Wetlands; mangroves Zonas húmidas; mangais

10E Low-lying flooded areas Zonas baixas inundadas

b) Sensitivity of the exposure of biological resources (BIO) and c) presence of


anthropic activities (SOCECO)
These rankings were also based on different criteria and divided into four levels of sensitivity
(tables 2 and 3).

Table 2: Simplified Ranking of the Sensitivity of the Biological Resources (BIO)

1 Low There are no sensitive species or habitats.

2 Medium Potentially sensitive species or habitats/ or site not exposed all year round.

3 High Presence of sensitive species or habitats and sites exposed all year round.

4 Very High Several sensitive species or habitats of high value and site exposed all year
round.

Table 3: Simplified Ranking of the Sensitivity of the Anthropic Presence and Activities (SOCECO)

1 Low There are no anthropic activities and communities.

2 Medium Fishing villages (10 inhabitants) and/or presence of coastal communities.

3 High Fishing villages (100 inhabitants or more), commercial port, tourism


activities.
4 Very High Infrastructures associated with tourism activities, aquaculture, salt works,
and water supply.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The Environmental and Social Sensitivity Index (E2SI) was calculated based on the following
formula:

E2SI = (ESI + BIO + 2 x SOCECO) / 4

Depending on the result obtained, the ranking may be low to medium, medium, medium to
high, high and very high, as represented in Table 4.

Table 4: Environmental and Social Ranking


Low to Medium Medium Medium to High High Very High
1.0 – 1.4 1.5 – 2.5 2.6 – 3.4 3.5 – 3.9 4.0

The comparison of the environmental and social sensitivity of the sites previously identified
by Polaris has taken into consideration the defined selection criteria and ranking indices. The
new sensitive sites identified during the additional surveys carried out from Luanda up to
Kwanza Sul (Quicombo River mouth), at the request of BP and Sonangol P&P, were also
ranked following the same approach criteria.

Overall, 59 sites located from Cabinda up to Kwanza Sul (Table 5) have been assessed and
characterised in environmental and social terms.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Table 5: Sampling sites from Cabinda to Kwanza Sul

Designation in English (and Coordinates


Site
Portuguese) Latitude Longitude

Cabinda province
0 0
C1 Massabi Lagoon (lagoa Massabi) 05 02’42’’ S 12 01’05’’E
0 0
C2 Mpuela Lagoon (lagoa Mpuela) 05 09’76’’ S 12 06’30’’E
0 0
C3 Chiluango River (rio Chiluango) 05 12’31’’ S 12 08’04’’ E
0 0
C4 Lulondo River (rio Lulondo) 05 27’58’’ S 12 13’22’’ E

Cabinda Bay (Lucola Norte and Sul) 0 0


C5 (Baía de Cabinda (Lucola Norte e 05 33’50’’ S 12 12’70’’ E
Sul))
Mbwa Nquissi River (rio Mbwa 0
05 37’26’’ S
0
12 09’32’’ E
C6
Nquissi)
0 0
C7 Lumbo River (rio Lumbo) 05 44’14’’ S 12 09’40’’ E

7 SITES

Zaire province
Moita Seca Channel (canal Moita 0
06 06’74’’ S
0
12 16’58’’ E
Z1
Seca)
0 0
Z2 Pululu Channel (canal Pululu) 06 10’22’’ S 12 17’56’’ E
0 0
Z3 Nzombo River (rio Nzombo) 06 23’70’’ S 12 25’70’’ E
0 0
Z4 Matadi River (rio Matadi) 06 26’74’’ S 12 27’15’’ E
0 0
Z5 Zanga River (rio Zanga) 06 35’30’’ S 12 31’76’’ E
0 0
Z6 Quipai River (rio Quipai) 06 39’56’’ S 12 33’75’’ E
0 0
Z7 Quimbriz Lagoon (lagoa Quimbriz) 06 40’07’’ S 12 34’67’’ E
0 0
Z8 Luculo River (rio Luculo) 06 41’17’’ S 12 34’74’’ E
0 0
Z9 Sange River (rio Sange) 06 43’10’’ S 12 36’71’’ E
0 0
Z10 Macamena River (rio Macamena) 06 47’66’’ S 12 40’90’’ E
0 0
Z11 Moanda River (rio Moanda) 06 50’29’’ S 12 43’06’’ E
0 0
Z12 Quintana River (rio Quintana) 06 52’76’’ S 12 45’33’’ E
0 0
Z13 Zangala River (rio Zangala) 06 54’56’’ S 12 46’35’’ E
0 0
Z14 Lucunga River (rio Lucunga) 06 55’78’’ S 12 46’99’’ E

Quinguengue River (rio 0


06 58’93’’ S
0
12 49’39’’ E
Z15
Quinguengue)

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Ncoco Pequeno River (rio Ncoco 0


07 05’11’’ S
0
12 50’52’’ E
Z16
Pequeno)
N’Zeto or Mbridge River (rio N’Zeto 0
07 12’21’’ S
0
12 51’16’’ E
Z17
ou Mbridge)
0 0
Z18 Cungulo River (rio Cungulo) 07 18’13’’ S 12 53’31’’ E
0 0
Z19 Xingi River (rio Xingi) 07 34’35’’ S 13 00’26’’ E
0 0
Z20 Pandi Lagoon (lagoa Pandi) 07 34’28’’ S 13 00’12’’ E
0 0
Z21 Gia River (rio Gia) 07 41’53’’ S 13 02’61’’ E
0 0
Z22 Sembo River (rio Sembo) 07 43’39’’ S 13 03’47’’ E

22 SITES

Bengo province
0 0
B1 Loge River (rio Loge) 07 48’89’’ S 13 06’00’’ E
0 0
B2 Barra do Ambriz 07 50’26’’ S 13 06’48’’ E
0 0
B3 Quitungo River (rio Quitungo) 07 55’55’’ S 13 08’90’’ E
0 0
B4 Uezo River (rio Uezo) 07 59’42’’ S 13 11’06’’ E
0 0
B5 Zize River (rio Zize) 08 02’01’’ S 13 12’01’’ E

Quinzauamuana River (rio 0


08 04’58’’ S
0
13 11’57’’E
B6
Quinzauamuana)
0 0
B7 Quincacala River (rio Quincacala) 08 08’11’’ S 13 15’48’’ E
0 0
B8 Onzo River (rio Onzo) 08 24’75’’ S 13 23’84’’ E
o o
B9 Lifune River (rio Lifune) 08 24’45’’ S 13 23’50’’ E

Dande River (rio Dande)/ Barra do o


08 28’20’’ S
o
13 22’28’’ E
B10
Dande
0 0
B11 São Tiago salt works 08 38’10’’ S 13 24’39’’ E

11 SITES

Luanda province

Bengo River mouth (foz do rio 0


08 42’02’’ S
0
13 23’43’’ E
L1
Bengo)
0 0
L2 Port of Luanda/ Ilha de Luanda 08 48’07’’ S 13 14’35’’ E

L3 Mussulo Various sites Various sites


o o
L4 Buraco 09 01’42’’ S 13 00’05’’ E
o o
L5 Barra do Kwanza 09 20’37’’ S 13 09’14’’ E

L6 o o
Sobe e Desce 09 49’12’’ S 13 16’51’’ E

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

L7 Sangano 09°31'52"S 13°12'24" E

L8 Cabo Ledo 09°40'39" S 13°12'10" E

L19 Sete Irmãos 09°52'5" S 13°18'49" E


o o
L10 Praia de São Brás 09 58’31" S 13 19’43’’ E

L11 Kitoba 10°10'24"S 13°27'35"E

11 SITES

Kwanza Sul province

Longa River mouth (foz do Rio o o


KS1 10 17’05’’ S 13 29’01’’ E
Longa)
o o
KS2 Cabo das Três Pontas 10 26’02’’ S 13 34’27’’ E

Porto Amboim Bay (Baía de Porto o o


KS3 10 42’31’’ S 13 46’32’’ E
Amboim)
o o
KS4 Ponta do Morro de Quissonde 10 45’27’’ S 13 43’13’’ E
o o
KS5 Keve River mouth (foz do rio Keve) 10 50’42’’ S 13 47’20’’ E
o o
KS6 Ponta da Balela 11 01’40’’ S 13 51’53’’ E

Ngunza River mouth (foz do rio o o


KS7 11 11’13’’ S 13 50’10’’ E
Ngunza)
Quicombo River mouth (foz do rio o o
KS8 11 19’11’’ S 13 48’38’’ E
Quicombo)

8 SITES

OVERALL: 59 SITES

To validate the environmental and social characterisation, different data collection activities
were performed by contacting Angolan institutions and visiting the sites. The field surveys
were carried out from 8 November 2011 to 20 March 2012. The most important actions that
took place to prepare this final report are described below:

 Bibliographic review of documentation related to the environmental and social


characterisation of the study area and surroundings, including environmental impact
studies and environmental audits. The documentation reviewed for this exercise is
listed in Chapter 6 on bibliographic references.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Interviews with officers from the municipal administrations of Cabinda, Soyo, N'zeto,
Ambriz, Dande, Quiçama, Porto Amboim and Sumbe, community members residing
within the study area and officers from institutions as well as members of
associations relevant to gather data for the study. The list of the institutions
contacted and people interviewed is presented in Appendices 1 and 2, respectively.

 Visits to the different sites to gather data in order to supplement the information on
the general characterisation of the study area in environmental and social terms.

 Meetings with technicians from CNIDAH to obtain information on whether there


were unexploded ordnances within the study area.

 Meetings with technicians from IHSMA to obtain information on the coastal area,
namely in what concerns bathymetry, navigation routes and maritime signalling.

All the information gathered, compiled and summarised in this report consists in an
overview of the sensitive environmental and socioeconomic characteristics that are relevant
to prepare coastal sensitivity maps with a view to assist in identifying response approaches
adequate to mitigate potential oil spills. For the environmental and social survey carried out
on the sites under assessment the aspects described in Table 6 have been evaluated.

Table 6: Aspects evaluated during the surveys carried out


ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEYS SOCIAL SURVEYS
 Physical space (physiography and biotype)  Population
 Type and predominance of biotic  Usage and occupation of soil
environment and species present  Way of life

 Protected areas or areas of special interest  Tourism activities


 Sites of cultural and historical interest
 Communications and accessibility
 Presence of land mines

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

4. Environmental and Social Characterisation

This section provides a brief environmental and socioeconomic summary on the sites
sampled in the coastal provinces from Cabinda up to Kwanza Sul. For each site assessed two
specific reports are presented: one reporting on the environmental components and the
other on the social ones.

The Angolan coastline is characterised by approximately 215 km2 of long sandy beaches,
which represent 0.02% of the national territory, interspersed with rocky shores and steep
cliffs. The latter are found mainly north of Luanda. There are also sheltered bays and
lagoons, often formed by sand spits (“restingas”), which are northward trending and occur at
regular intervals along the coast.

With the exception of the coast of Cabinda, the entire Angolan coast together with the
Atlantic coast of South Africa and Namibia are part of the LME29 (Benguela Current Large
Marine Ecosystem or BCLME). This ecosystem is characterised by a temperate climate
determined by the Benguela Current influence. It is one of the most important ecosystems in
terms of marine biodiversity and one of the most productive areas in the world. It is
considered a Class I, highly productive (>300 gC/m2) ecosystem based on SeaWIFS global
primary productivity estimates. It is very rich in biomass of fish, crustaceans, sea birds and
marine mammals and presents favourable conditions for a rich production of small pelagic
species.

The coast of the Cabinda province is part of the LME28, which is another great marine
ecosystem (Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem). This ecosystem is characterised by a
totally tropical climate and it is also considered a Class I, highly productive (>300 gC/m2 per
year) ecosystem based on SeaWIFS global primary productivity estimates (Morais et al,
2006).

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Cabinda Province
(see Photos in Appendix 6)

C1 – Lagoa Massabi C2 – Lagoa Mpuela C3 – Rio Chiluango


C4 – Rio Lulondo C5 – Baía de Cabinda C6 – Mbwa Nquissi
C7 – Rio Lumbo

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

4.1. Province of Cabinda

The province of Cabinda is a potential area in terms of fishery resources. Fishing is the main
economic source of the coastal population, particularly artisanal fisheries (see a map with
the main fishing communities in Cabinda in Annex 3).

The province comprises 25 cooperatives of fishermen in full operation. The town of Lombo-
Lombo has served about 2,175 fishermen and about 1,000 fishmongers and fish processors.
In this village there is a newly built fish market to fishmongers and visited by consumers in
various parts of the province and beyond. The location of Cacongo has about 714 fishermen
serving more than 5,000 families in this municipality. In these places there are about 1,223
artisanal fishing boats composed of canoes, barges and catrongas.

There is a construction of two jetties planned for Cabinda, one in the town of Lombo-Lombo
and another in Cacongo, a fish market in Lombo-Lombo and a shipyard for the repair of
small vessels and strengthening of the fleet with new vessels in each of these locations.

 Site C1 – Massabi Lagoon

Access to the mouth of the Massabi Lagoon is done by the community Mandarin, via dirt
track, a hard to reach area covered by grass and access is only possible with motorized
traction (4x4). In the rainy season the access to this site is extremely difficult even for 4x4
vehicles.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant vegetation consists of mangroves and steppic formations with the
predominance of matebeiras (Hyphaene gossweileri). Mangroves are of shrub and tree type.
These species are characterised by their pneumatophores and fruits adapted to spread in
salty mud. The fact that they have arc-shaped roots causes the mangrove to play an
important role in the setting of the banks of the estuaries.

13
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

In steppic formations, characteristic of the coast, the grasses Eragrostis superba, Digitaria
milangiana, Dicanthium papilosum and Heteropogon contortus are predominant. In terms of
larger plants there is a predominance of the palmtree Hyphaene gossweileri with a
considerable population of the species.

The mouth of the Massabi Lagoon is permanent. The region has the presence of
herpetofauna, emphasis on olive ridley, leatherback turtle, boa constrictor and crocodile.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of African skimmer, which is an endangered
species according to the UICN red list, pied crow, herons, swallows and others.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the commercial: cassava croaker, grouper, sole, cacusso, pink
dentex, mullet.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin and Atlantic spotted dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

There is a village a few meters from the mouth. This village consists of 60 members (54
adults and 6 children). The main activity is fishing.

The mouth of the Massabi River lies between the border of Angola and Congo Brazzaville.
For this reason there is the presence of a post of the armed forces of Angola.

There were no mined areas near the mouth and access to it. The mobile network Unitel
works in reasonable conditions and Movicel does not have coverage.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Site C2 – Mpuela Lagoon

Access to the site is done by a dirt track shortcut of difficult access and unmarked through
the village of Mpuela. In the rainy season the road is impassable.

 Environmental Characterisation

The most representative soils are alluvial river soils. The alluvial river soils, in general,
crossing rivers and mountainous areas of crystalline rocks, only facilitates the occurrence of
narrow bands of marginal lands.

The predominant vegetation consists of mangroves and steppic formations with the
predominance of matebeiras (Hyphaene gossweileri). Mangroves are of shrub and tree type.
These species are characterised by their pneumatophores and fruits adapted to spread in
salty mud.

The mouth of the Mpuela Lagoon doesn’t flow into the sea. The region has the presence of
herpetofauna, emphasis on olive ridley, leatherback turtle and boa constrictor.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of pied crow, herons, swallows and others.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the commercial: cassava croaker, grouper, sole, cacusso, pink
dentex, mullet.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin and Atlantic spotted dolphin.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Social Characterisation

There are no people living in this site. The nearest village is more than 5 km from the lagoon.
There were no mined areas in the site and in the access. In terms of telecommunications in
the region, the mobile network Unitel operates under reasonable conditions and Movicel
does not have any coverage.

 Site C3 – Chiluango River

Access is made through the National Road EN100 (Cabinda - Cacongo) in good condition.
Access to the mouth should be done by the beach area and shall be subject to the state of
the tide. When this is high, the vehicle access is impossible.

 Environmental Characterisation

The most representative soils are alluvial river soils. The alluvial river soils, in general,
crossing rivers and mountainous areas of crystalline rocks, only facilitates the occurrence of
narrow bands of marginal lands. The beach area has little width and further south is
composed of rocks (cliffs), sandy soils are medium textured.

The predominant vegetation consists of mangroves and steppic formations with the
predominance of matebeiras (Hyphaene gossweileri). Mangroves are of shrub and tree type.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of pied crow, herons, swallows and others.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the commercial: cassava croaker, grouper, sole, cacusso, pink
dentex, mullet. The region has the presence of herpetofauna, emphasis on olive ridley,
leatherback turtle and boa constrictor.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin and Atlantic spotted dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

Near the mouth of the Chiluango River there is a community that is located in the commune
of Lândana. In that site a small jetty has been observed and this has not been used.

The fishing is a major means of subsistence, then trade that is most marked in the main
street and only a few meters from the beach, where there are some restaurants and a
pension, and fish vendors.

In terms of telecommunications in the region, mobile networks Unitel and Movicel work
under reasonable conditions.

 Site C4 – Lulondo River

The access point is via a dirt track, easily accessible in the dry season. In the rainy season the
road is only passable to motor vehicles with four whell drive.

 Environmental Characterisation

The most representative soils are soils that Psamo-ferrálicos generally have average
textures, colors Orange and darkened soil surface, with a small fraction of clay ferralítica
nature.

The vegetation at the mouth consists of steppic formations with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach, palm trees, coconut trees and grasses that make up the green
belt along the coastline. Mangroves are of tree and shrub type.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

As far as the herpetofauna is concerned one highlights the presence of turtles with emphasis
on olive ridley, which nests in the region. Concerning the class of invertebrates one register
the presence of shrimp, lobster and cuttlefish.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of cattle egret, pied crow, pied kingfisher, black
bishop and others.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the croaker, cacusso, silver fish, catfish, mullet, pink
dentex, grouper, scalloped hammerhead.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin and Atlantic spotted dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

There are no people living near the mouth, but there were floating fishermen in the area. In
terms of telecommunications, there is no signal of any mobile network, Unitel and Movicel.

 Site C5 – Bay of Cabinda (Lucola Norte e Sul)

This site is accessible by motor vehicles up to a certain point, and the rest of the way on foot.
This is because of the houses built haphazardly along the bay.

 Environmental Characterisation

The most representative soils are soils that Psamo-ferrálicos generally have average
textures, colors Orange and darkened soil surface, with a small fraction of clay ferralítica
nature.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The vegetation consists predominantly of mangroves and steppic matebeiras (Hyphaene


gossweileri). The mangroves are of tree and shrub type. In the southern part of Lucola the
mouth is open flowing into the bay of Cabinda while the northern part has no connection to
the sea.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of pied crow, herons, swallos, African bee-eater
and others.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the commercial: cassava croaker, grouper, sole, cacusso, pink
dentex, mullet and mackerel.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin and Atlantic spotted dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

According to data from the Provincial Government of Cabinda, the province's total
population estimated in 2011 was approximately 250,000, and in the city of Cabinda live
about de 190.000 inhabitants, more than 55% are female. Artisanal fisheries in the Bay of
Cabinda are not very common due to water quality since much of the city sewers are
discharged into the bay. For the same reason people do not do beach in this area,
particularly after the rains, and local authorities recommend the beaches of Cacongo, Fútila
and South Luvassa.

However, in the city of Cabinda there is an association of fishermen called by the Association
of Fishermen of Cabinda (APESCAB) that is organized and functional. APESCAB is an
association of 17 fishing cooperatives and is represented by eight fishermen communities:
Yabi, Luvassa, Tinheiro, Simulambuco, Mbuco, Chinga, Chiaze and Caio. According to
community representatives, APESCAB gathers 580 people, including 300 to 400 boat owners

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

and fishermen, and 180 fishmongers. The main species caught locally are croakers, pink
dentexs, seabreams, the bearded, sole and catfish.

In terms of telecommunications in the region, mobile networks Unitel and Movicel work
under reasonable conditions. There are no land mines near the river and the access route.

 Site C6 – Mbwa Nquissi River

Access to the mouth (this community and others), when it does not flow into the sea, is
made by the land area of the beach. During rainy season, when the mouth of the river
empties into the sea, access is via a small boat (canoe).

 Environmental Characterisation

The most representative soils are soils that Psamo-ferrálicos generally have average
textures, colors orange and darkened soil surface, with a small fraction of clay ferralítica
nature. The beach area is large with fine particles and dark in color due to the influence of
the Congo River and the first 50 meters of the seabed are composed of rocks.

The vegetation along the river's mouth is composed predominantly by mangroves and the
steppic formations with the predominance of matebeiras (Hyphaene gossweileri).
Mangroves are of tree and shrub type. In terms of larger plants there is a dominance of the
palm tree Hyphaene gossweileri with a considerable population of the species. The Mbwa
Nquissi River empties into the sea only in rainy season.

 Social Characterisation

Near the mouth there are some floating fishermen and traders. There are no land mines
near the mouth and the access. In terms of telecommunications in the region, the mobile
network Unitel works on reasonable conditions.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Site C7 – Lumbo River

The access point is through Avenida Duque de Chiazi where it makes a detour of about 7 km
to the beach area. Being on the beach, one should be directed towards the south to the
mouth. The vehicle access depends on the tide. When this is high, it is inaccessible.

 Environmental Characterisation

The most representative soils are soils that Psamo-ferrálicos generally have average
textures, colors orange and darkened soil surface, with a small fraction of clay ferralítica
nature.

The vegetation at the mouth is predominated by the steppic formations with the
predominance of matebeiras, beans-the-beach and coconut trees that make up the green
belt along the coastline. Mangroves are of tree and shrub type.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of turtles with emphasis on
olive ridley, which nests in the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the
presence of shrimp, lobster and cuttlefish.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of terns, ravens, herons, green herons, long-
tailed pigeons, spotted kingfisher and others.

In terms of ichthyofauna, we highlight the cassava croaker, cacusso, silver fish, bagre, mullet,
pink dentex, grouper, scalloped hammerhead.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin and Atlantic spotted dolphin.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Social Characterisation

There are no people living in the area, just floating fishermen. It should be noted the
presence of a military camp and prison. The mobile network Unitel operates in acceptable
condition. Near the mouth there are no mined areas.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Province of Zaire
(See photos in Annex 7)

Z1 – Moita Seca canal Z2 – Pululu Canal Z3 – Rio Nzombo


Z4 – Matadi River Z5 – Zanga River Z6 – Quipai River
Z7 – Lagoa Quimbriz Z8 – Luculo River Z9 – Sange River
Z10 – Macamena River Z11 – Moanda River Z12 – Quintana River
Z13 – Zangala River Z14 – Lucunga River Z15 – Quinguengue River
Z16 – Ncoco Pequeno Z17 –N’zeto River Z18 – Cungulo River
Z19 – Xingi River Z20 – Pandi Lagoon Z21 – Gia River
Z22 – Sembo River

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

4.2. Province of Zaire

It is the province south of the Congo River whose capital is M'Banza Congo. Zaire has a
surface of 40,130 km2. In this province there are three (3) centers to support small-scale
fishing, of which two are in full operation (one in the town of Maradeira in Soyo and another
in Nzeto, and third in the town of Kazai in the municipality of Tomboco, in a state of
completion. These infrastructures are equipped with complex supply of ice to the existing
vessels fishing in the province, in addition to other compartments with facilities to support
fishing activities in the province (training room, storage and freezing room, fish processing
room, fish drying bunks, naval space, gas station, etc..).

The economic situation of fishermen in the province of Zaire before 2003 was weakened by
not having enough boats to make the best catches. Since 2004 the province has a lot more
than 900 vessels, 50 of which recently distributed as part of the recovery of fishing. This is an
area, which is very rich in fishery resources, and large population of these three locations
has in the fish its economic source. The current production of the three sites reaches 10,000
tons per year. In addition to fish the region is very rich in crustaceans such as lobster, crab
and prawns.

All structures of the fisheries of this province operate in Soyo. The support infrastructures
located in Soyo, Nzeto and Kazai ensure the continuity of the fishing activity in that province.
In the town of Karzai the construction of a jetty is planned to allow fishing vessels of that
region and beyond, to make the necessary maintenance and technical assistance. Fishing
activity in these three locations tends to grow because of the country's stability and the
return of populations to areas of origin (see a map with the main fishing communities in
Zaire in Annex 3).

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Site Z1 – Moita Seca Canal

Access is primarily carried by sea, passing north of the Kwanda Base. In the months of June
through October, access may be done with motorized traction.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from river deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic). The
psamitic soils are generally of coarse texture, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation at the mouth is predominated by steppic formations with the predominance
of matebeiras, beans-the-beach and palm trees that make up the green belt along the
coastline. Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main species: Rhizophora
racemosa and R. harrisonni.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of python, green turtle, leather
turtle and olive ridley, which nest in the region. Concerning the class of invertebrates one
can register the presence of crabs, snail, mangrove conch, shrimp, prawns and oysters.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of royal tern, cattle egret, reed cormorant,
African cormorant and swallows.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially commercial ones, croaker, sardines, grouper, sawfish, pink
dentexs seabreams, scalloped hammerhead, halibut, skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex,
black-tipped sharks, menhaden, bigeye grunt, lily swordfish, mullet, guinea croaker.

In terms of terrestrial mammals one highlights the presence of species of monkey, jackal-of-
streaked flanks, and wildcat. There is the presence of marine mammals (cetaceans) across

25
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

the Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, humpback whale, spotted dolphin and common
dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

Most of the population settled in the village in 1982, coming from the municipality of Soyo in
search of better conditions for fishing. They are in total 68 people.

Fishing occupies a prominent place in the capture of fish of high commercial value in the
village of Moitaseca and other surrounding areas located on the island. In the
neighbourhood, there are 35 fishermen, 28 women fish traders, 13 barges (with 5 being with
the engine, 7 without engine and a catronga). The cooperative "Moitaseca" is the only one in
the community. The main fish species caught are cassava croaker, grouper, cacusso, skate,
mussels, oysters, crabs and shrimp. All fish products are sold in informal markets of Soyo.
Apart from fishing, stealth hunting is also a means of survival of the population, hunters
using traditional traps for hunting, the main species hunted are: Corsican, pacas, golungo,
warthog, boa constrictor and monkeys.

The population of the neighbourhood of Moitaseca has access to drinking water by boats
provided by Angola LNG for all communities living on the island.

The more than 10 canals consisting of mangroves, the area of conservation of sea turtles,
and the beautiful beaches, these attended by tourists, are the tourist areas of Moitaseca.
The Lighthouse (fully repaired) and the former headquarters of the Border Guard troops are
the historic sites of the highlighted area. In terms of telecommunication, the mobile
operator Unitel works in perfect conditions and Movicel with certain restrictions.

According to the report by CNIDAH there are two unexploded ordnances considered of low
impact at approximately 12.00 km of Moita Seca canal. The unexploded ordnance are
located nearest to the following geographical coordinates: S 6o09’56,04’’; E 12o22’04’’.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

On the site there’s a project for the conservation of sea turtles being developed by Angola
LNG.

 Site Z2 – Pululu Canal

There are two ways to get to the site under consideration. The first is by land through the
neighbourhood of Sereia and the second is by sea, passing northwest of the Kwanda Base.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic Soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation at the mouth is predominated by steppic formations with the predominance
of matebeiras, beans-the-beach and coconut trees, which are the green belt along the
coastline. Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main species: Rhizophora
racemosa and R. harrisonni. In the cliff, vegetation is graminous savannah with the
occurrence of matebeiras. The grassy layer is composed of several species.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of snakes, boa constrictor,
green turtle, leather turtle and olive ridley, which nest in the region. Regarding the class of
invertebrates one registers the presence of crab, snail, mangrove conch, shrimp and oysters.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, royal tern, cattle egret, reed
cormorant, stork and terns.

In terms of ichthyofauna one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of species to


commercial prominence: cassava croaker, sardinella, grouper, sawfish, pink dentex,
seabreams, scalloped hammerhead, halibut, skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex, black-

27
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

tipped shark, bigeye grunt, lily sword-fish lily, mullet, lombuda sardines (Sardinella aurita)
and guinea croaker.

In terms of terrestrial mammals one highlights the presence of species of monkey, jackal-of-
streaked flanks, and wildcat. There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the
Angolan coast, such as the presence of the fin whale, common dolphin and bottlenose
dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

According to the report by CNIDAH there are two unexploded ordnance considered of low
impact at approximately 8.50 km of the Pululu channel. The unexploded ordnances are
located nearest to the following geographical coordinates: S 6o09'56.04''; E 12o22'04''.

 Site Z3 – Nzombo River

The main access route used to reach the site is made by a dirt road that connects the
municipality of Tomboco to Soyo. Access to the beach and the mouth of the Nzombo River is
done through the shortcut of the tourist village Nsona Kifuma Offshore Ltd, via easy access
to motor vehicles.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic). The
psamitic soils are generally of coarse texture, generally very thick and loose because of the
redeposition of coarsed sediments and in the bottom portion luvisols of fine texture start to
emerge, which then keep to the mouth. These clay soils subject to tidal action are largely
saline.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formations with predominance of


matebeiras, beans-the-beach and grasses that make up the green belt along the coastline.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main species: Rhizophora racemosa and R.
harrisonni. In the cliff vegetation is the grass savannah with the occurrence of matebeiras.
The grassy layer is composed of several species.

The mouth of the Nzombo River is temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but when
open the estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which use the system as a
feeding point, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of boa constrictor and olive
ridley, which nests in the region. Concerning the class of invertebrates one registers the
presence of crab, oysters, lobster and shrimp.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of nar-crow-breasted white Heron, Royal Tern,
coconut-the-Vulture, African Cormorants and others.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of species,


especially the commercial: scalloped hammerhead, grouper, sawfish, sea bream, sea bass,
pink dentexs, seabreams, skate, catfish, mullet and barracuda.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
presence of the fin whale, common dolphin and bottlenose dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The village of Kifuma was founded in early 1900. The village population is estimated at about
612 inhabitants. The population is predominantly Bakongo of the ethnolinguistic
mussorongo subgroup, although there is also the group belonging to the Fiote etnic on a
smaller scale. The language spoken in the village is the Mussorongo.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The fishing is the main economic activity in the region. They are in total 185 fishermen, 83
women vendors, 23 barges (4 with engine, 17 without engine and two catrongas). The main
fish species caught are cassava croaker, pink dentex, skate, pungo, cod, lobster, grouper,
cacusso, catfish and mackerel. In addition to fishing, there is also farming, ranching and
hunting.

Farming is of subsistence type and the size of the lands varies from 1 to 4 hectares. The main
crops grown are cassava, maize, sweet potatoes, beans, sesame (rainy season), cabbage,
cauliflower, onions and tomatoes. They also produce fruit such as orange, banana, avocado,
papaya and lemon. Livestock is developed with the creation of small animals such as pigs,
goats and rabbits; the average per family is 4. For hunting traditional traps and burning are
used, the main species hunted are: facocheros, Corsican, pacas, Golungo hare nunce,
python, snake, porcupine and jackal-to-flank-streaked.

The population of the village of Kifuma does not have access to clean water, depending
essentially on the supply of water tankers from CMC and in some cases they remove the
water from the river.

The neighbourhood of Kifuma offers excellent conditions for the practice of tourism. There
on the sea coast along the mouth of the Nzombo River there is a major investment in
tourism. This is the recent construction of a resort called “Tourist Village of Nsona Kifuma
Offshore” belonging to the SOCHOT Ltd group. This project is comprised of restaurants,
ballrooms and guest services area. There is a bathing area and one highlights the practice of
sport fishing on Saturdays and Sundays.

According to the report by CNIDAH there is an unexploded ordnance considered of low


impact at approximately 1.55 km from the mouth of this river. The unexploded ordnance is
located in the following geographical coordinates: S 6o24'26,01''; E 12o26'05''.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Site Z4 – Matadi River

To arrive at the village of Tombe the access is via a dirt road in reasonable conditions, and to
arrive at the mouth of the Matadi or Muenje River, the access is via a road link with quite
high grass, which is only possible to move a motor vehicle with traction. Coordinates: S 06o
25.472’; E 12o 27.976'.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic). The
psamitic soils are generally of coarse texture, generally very thick and loose because of the
redeposition of coarse sediments and only in the bottom portion luvisols of fine texture
begin to emerge, which then continue to the mouth. These clay soils subject to tidal action,
are largely saline.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formations with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach, and grasses that make up the green belt along the coastline.
Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main species: Rhizophora racemosa and R.
harrisonni. In the cliff vegetation is the grass savannah with the occurrence of matebeiras.
The grassy layer is composed of several species. The mouth of the Matadi or Muenje River is
temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but when opened the estuarine system
houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which use the system as a feeding point, nesting and
development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of snakes, lizards and olive
ridleys which nest in the region. Concerning the class of invertebrates one registers the
presence of crab, shrimp, lobster and oysters.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.

31
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Among these one can mention the presence of nar-crow-breasted white gulls, cattle egret,
common tern, the torch-and-rock and persian bee-eater.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the commercial: croaker, halibut, sardines, grouper, sawfish,
scalloped hammerhead, skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex and mullet.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as
humpback dolphin and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The report by CNIDAH there is an unexploded ordnance considered of low impact at


approximately 1.55 km from the mouth of this river. The unexploded ordnance device is
located in the following geographical coordinates S 6o24’26,01’’; E 12o26’05’’.

 Site Z5 – Zanga River

To get to the site under study the acees is via a shortcut covered by grass, hard to reach via
the road vehicles. Location coordinates: S 060 35.308’; E 120 31.765’’.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic Soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formations with the predominance of
the bean-and-beach and grasses that constitute the long green belt of the seacoast. It was
also observed the presence of some dispersed species of matebeiras. In the cliff vegetation is
savannah of Hyparrhenia spp and Andropogon gayanus. The grassy layer is composed of
several species, emphasis on Hyparrhenia hirta.

32
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The mouth of the Zanga or Mbua River is temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but
when opened the estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which use the
system as a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of snakes and olive ridleys,
which nest in the region. Concerning the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of
crabs, lobsters and oysters.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of pied crow, Galician torch and sea common
swallow.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of species,


especially the commercial: croaker, halibut, skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex, pink
dentexs, seabreams, scalloped hammerhead and mullet.

In terms of terrestrial mammals one highlights the presence of species of Golungo and or the
common wild boar. There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan
coast, such as the fin whale, humpback dolphin and the Atlantic common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

There are no people living on site.

According to the report by CNIDAH there is an unexploded ordnance considered of low


impact at approximately 20 km from the mouth of this river. The unexploded ordnance is
located in the following geographical coordinates: S 6o43’22,42’’; E 12o39’16,23’’.

33
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Site Z6 – Quipai River

To reach the village the access is done through a shortcut road with reasonable conditions as
well as at the river mouth.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formations with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach, mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) and grasses that make up the
green belt along the coastline. In the cliff vegetation is savannah of Hyparrhenia spp and
Andropogon gayanus. The grassy layer is composed of several species, namely Hyparrhenia
hirta.

The mouth of the Quipai River is temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but when
opened the estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which use the system as
a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of snakes and olive ridleys
which nest in the region. Concerning the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of
crab.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of pied crow and Galician torch.

In terms of ichthyofauna one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the commercial: croaker, skate, catfish, barracuda, pink
dentex, pink dentexs, seabreams, scalloped hammerhead, flounder and mullet.

34
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

In terms of land mammals one highlights the presence of species of golungo, monkey and
facochero or wild boar. There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the
Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humpbacked dolphin and the common
dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

According to the report by CNIDAH there is an unexploded ordnance considered of low


impact at approximately 14 km from the mouth of this river. The unexploded ordnance is
located in the following geographical coordinates: S 6o43’22,42’’; E 12o39’16,23’’.

 Site Z7 – Quimbriz Lagoon

The main access road is made by the main road linking Soyo to Nzeto and at a distance of
approximately 67 km from Soyo and 2 km from the river bridge over Luculo, this is in
reasonable condition. Access to the beach and the mouth is via a shortcut at the entrance of
the village of Quimbriz.The access is done with traction vehicles (4x4).

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formations with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach, and grasses. The grassy layer is composed of several species.
Mangroves are tree and and shrub type, the principal genus is: Rhizophora mangle. In the
cliff vegetation is grass savannah with the occurrence of matebeiras.

35
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The banks of the lagoon are yet profoundly transformed, being remarkable the human
impact on vegetation, including the presence of numerous fruit trees planted, such as
mango, papaya, banana, orange and various vegetables.

The mouth of the Quimriz lagoon lagis temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but
when opened the estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which use the
system as a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of snakes and olive ridleys
which nest in the region. Concerning the class of invertebrates one reregisters the presence
of crabs.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of pied crow, osprey, persian bee-eater and
tern-joint.

In terms of ichthyofauna one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the commercial: fish-silver, sardine, croaker, flounder,
scalloped hammerhead, skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex and mullet.

In terms of terrestrial mammals one highlights the presence of species of monkey, golungo
and facochero or the common wild boar. There is the presence of marine mammals
(cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humpbacked dolphin
and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The population is estimated at about 92 inhabitants. Much of the economically active


population is leaving the neighbourhood to the village of Quipai I due to the lack of boats for
fishing and on the other hand due to lack of rain in the region for agricultural development.

36
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The main activities in the village are summarized mainly on fishing and farming. The species
in the lagoon and the beaches of Quimbriz are: catfish, cacusso, pink dentex, grouper, sea
bass, skate, etc. The main crops grown are cassava and beans. Poaching is also a means of
livelihood of the population of Quimbriz, the principal species are: facochero, golungo,
jackal, hare, nunce, boa constrictor and porcupine, etc.

The village population has no access to drinking water, they remove the water from the
ponds and from the Quimbriz lagoon.

According to the report by CNIDAH there is an unexploded ordnance considered of low


impact at approximately 10 km from this site. The unexploded ordnance device is located in
the following geographical coordinates: S 6o43’22,42’’; E 12o39’16,23’’.

Being an area of difficult access, the beaches of Quimbriz are attended only by the
population of the village. In the study area and its surroundings there are no places of
cultural and/or historical significance. The signal from the mobile operators Unitel and
Movicel is unstable.

 Site Z8 – Luculo River

The access site is made by the main road linking Soyo to Nzeto and is distant about 73 km
from Soyo, this is in reasonable condition. Access to the beach and the mouth is done
through a shortcut near the bridge over the Luculo River, which is about 300 meters from
the river mouth.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

37
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formations with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach, palm trees and grasses. The grassy layer is composed of
several species. Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main species: Rhizophora
racemosa and R. harrisonni.

The mouth of the Luculo River is temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but when
opened it homes a diverse estuarine system of birds and fishes, which use the system as a
point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of olive ridley, which nests in
the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of crabs, oysters,
shrimps and lobsters.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of white heron, pied crow, vulture, common sea
swallow and metallic starling.

In terms of ichthyofauna one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially commercial ones: croaker, sardines, grouper, pink dentexs,
seabreams, sawfish, scalloped hammerhead-weevil, skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex
and mullet.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, the Atlantic humpbacked dolphin and the common dolphin. In terms of terrestrial
mammals one highlights the presence of warthog, golungo, jackal, hare, porcupine and
nunce.

38
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Social Characterisation

Most of the people of the neighbourhood of Kivanda is from that area, living here since
1922. The population is estimated at around 487 inhabitants.

The main activities are summarized mainly on fishing and street vending, where men are
practitioners and women are responsible for processing and marketing of fish. There are 55
fishermen in the village, 64 women fish traders and 21 barges (9 with engine, 11 without
engine and 1 catrongas). There is no cooperative. The main species caught are as follows:
lane, menhaden, pungo, pink dentex, sea bass, sword, lobster, grouper, mackerel, and
sardines. The months of May to November are the biggest catch of fish, while December to
April are considered the lowest months of capture.

Apart from fishing, traditional farming and poaching are also other means of livelihood of
the local population, although with a small number of practitioners. The main crops are
cassava, potato, reindeer, sweet potatoes, okra bush, the jimboa and beans. And the main
species hunted are: facochero, golungo, jackal, hare, nunce, boa constrictor and porcupine.

The village population has no access to clean water, taking water from the Luculo River for
consumption. There is no village infrastructure to supply electricity, only 10% of the
population has private generators, others use oil lamps for lighting. Sanitation is poor, six
families in the neighborhood use latrines, so others do it outdoors. Household garbage is
buried and burned and the resulting fish scaling is released into the river and the sea.

According to a report by CNIDAH there is an unexploded ordnance considered of low impact


at approximately 9 km from this site. The unexploded ordnance device is located in the
following geographical coordinates: S 6o43’22,42’’; E 12o39’16,23’’.

The beaches of Kivanda and at the mouth of the Luculo River are the places most frequented
by tourists, given the approach to the road and with the control of Police, because the area
offers better security. Another factor that contributes to the tourism is the existence of tents

39
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

where they make the marketing of food and drinks for the people of the neighbourhood and
for travellers. This site is an obligatory stop for passengers who want to enjoy fish from the
Luculo River or the sea. The signal from the mobile operators Unitel and Movicel is unstable.

 Site Z9 – Sange River

The main access road to get to the site is made by the National Road no. 100, which
connects Soyo to Nzeto, dirt road, which is in reasonable condition (access to cars).
Regarding the access to the beach and the mouth, the road is also reasonable via a shortcut
for any type of motorized vehicle. Coordinates of the turn in the neighbourhood of Kitonto: S
060 43.093´; E 120 36.635´.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formations with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach and grasses that make up the green belt along the coastline.
Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main species: Rhizophora racemosa and R.
harrisonni. In the cliff vegetation is of tree shrub type. The grassy layer is composed of
several species, emphasis on Hyparrhenia hirta.

The mouth of the Sange River is temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but when
opened the estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which use the system as
a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of olive ridley, which nests in
the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of crab.

40
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, white breasted crow, cattle
egret and common swallow (Sterna hirundo).

In terms of ichthyofauna one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the commercial: croaker, skate, catfish, barracuda, pink
dentex, grouper and mullet.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
humpback Atlantic dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

Historically the population of the two villages belongs to the ethnolinguistic group of
Bacongo. They settled in these places in late 1912 to demand better living conditions.They
are in total 787 inhabitants, 491 live in the village of Kitonto and 296 in Kinvingui. Most of
the community's age is around 25 to 45 years.

The main activities on the shoreline are summarized mainly on fishing and street vending,
where practitioners are men and women are responsible for processing and marketing of
fish. There are 225 fishermen in both villages, 253 are fish vendors and about 10 barges and
6 catrongas. There is no cooperative in both villages. Apart from fishing, traditional farming
and poaching are also other means of livelihood of the local population, although a small
number of practitioners. The main crops are cassava, potato, reindeer, sweet potatoes, okra
bush, the jimboa and beans. And the main species hunted are: facochero, golungo, jackal,
hare, nunce, boar constrictor and porcupine.

The main species caught are commercial fishing, including: Cabuenha, menhaden, pungo,
pink dentex, skate, sea bass, sword, lobster, grouper, mackerel and sardinella.The months of

41
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

April to November represent the highest catch of fish, and December to February the lowest
catch.

The population of the two villages has no access to clean water, taking the water from the
ponds and the Sange River and others have water tankers as the source of water.

According to the report by CNIDAH there is an unexploded ordnance considered of low


impact at approximately 4.50 km from this site. The unexploded ordnance is located in the
following geographical coordinates: S 6o43’22,42’’; E 12o39’16,23’’.

The beaches of Mangue Grande and the mouth of Sange are the places most frequented by
tourists, by presenting reasonable and easy access, on the other hand, by providing better
security. As for communication, the signal from the mobile operators Unitel and Movicel
works under reasonable conditions.

 Site Z10 – Macamena River

Access to this site is via a shortcut road, with very high grass, where you can only travel with
motorized traction. Area with difficult access especially in rainy season. The coordinates of
the turn before the bridge (Luanda / Soyo) are: S 06o 47.358’S; E 12o 41.256'.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formations with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach and grasses that make up the green belt along the coastline.
Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with a principal genus: Rhizophora racemosa. In the
cliff is of fossil cliff type and vegetation is grass savannah with the occurrence of matebeiras.
The grassy layer is composed of several species.

42
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The banks of the river are also deeply transformed, being remarkable the human impact on
vegetation, including the presence of its countless planted fruit trees such as mango,
papaya, bananas and various vegetables.

The mouth of the Macamena River or Ndimba Nkeny is temporary (the opening is in the
rainy season), but when opened the estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes,
which use the system as a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of olive ridley, which nests in
the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of crabs and
oysters.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of pied crow and the Persian bee-eater.

In terms of ichthyofauna one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of species,


especially the trade: fish-silver, sardine, croaker, flounder, scalloped hammerhead, skate,
catfish, barracuda, pink dentex and mullet.

Social Characterisation

The villagers are mostly from the village of Nkeny Ndimba, called mussorongo. They are in
total 376 people (83 men, 93 women and 200 children whose age is around 0-17). Most of
the population of the community is young and around 25 to 45 years.

The main activity of the region is essentially artisanal fisheries. There are five vessels (one
with the motor, four without and two barges). The months of most capture are from June to
December while from January to May are the months of lowest catch of fish. The main fish

43
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

species caught in the region are: sole, sea bass, grouper, pink dentexs, seabreams, ray and
lobster.

Apart from fishing, traditional agriculture is another means of subsistence, where women
are the leading practitioners, with cassava, beans, ground nuts, sweet potatoes the main
crop grown in the region. Subsistence farming begins to occupy a prominent place in the
region, due to poor catch of fish coupled with lack of infrastructure and materials and/or
equipment support to fishing.

The people have no access to clean water, depending essentially on the ponds and the water
of the Macamena River.

 Site Z11 – Moanda or Nuapanga River

The access site is made by the community of Nuapanga via dirt track covered with
vegetation and without access to motorized vehicles.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formations with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach and grasses that make up the green belt along the coastline.
Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main species: Rhizophora racemosa and R.
harrisonni. In the cliff the vegetation is grass savannah with the occurrence of matebeiras.
The grassy layer is composed of several species.

The mouth of the Moanda or Nuapanga River is temporary (the opening is in the rainy
season), but when opened the estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which
use the system as a point of feeding, nesting and development.

44
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of olive ridley, which nests in
the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one register the presence of crab.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, white breast and black tuta.

In terms of ichthyofauna one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the trade: fish-silver, sardine, croaker, flounder, scalloped
hammerhead, skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, etc..

In terms of terrestrial mammals in the region one registers the presence of species of
golungo, rabbit and facochero. There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across
the Angolan coast, with the most common being dolphins.

 Social Characterisation

The population of the place is quite fluctuating (artisanal fishermen). At the time of local
consultation they were not in the area.

 Site Z12 – Quintana River

The main access route used to reach the commune of Kinzau is made by the National Road
no. 100, which connects Nzeto to Tomboco, the section is being rehabilitated. The access to
the beach and the mouth is reasonable and via a shortcut near the new Communal
Administration. The track is passable to any motor vehicle. Coordinates of the turn are: S 060
52.327'; E 120 45.478'.

45
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formatons with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach and grasses that make up the green belt along the coastline. In
the cliff the vegetation is savannah Hyparrhenia ssp and Andropogon gayanus.The grassy
layer is composed of several species, emphasis on Hyparrhenia hirta.

The mouth of the Quimana River is temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but when
opened their estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which use the system
as a point of feeding, nesting and development.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for rest and
food. Among these one can mention the presence of Heron, tuta-and raven-black-breasted
white, but the species is abundant at the site. In terms of ichthyofauna one highlights the
presence of a huge diversity of species, especially the commercial: pungo, pink dentex,
skate, sea bass, pink dentexs, seabreams, grouper, mackerel, sardines, catfish, barracuda,
pink dentex, mullet, etc.

Concerning the herpetofauna the presence of olive ridley should be pointed out, which nests
in the region. Regarding the invertebrates the presence of crabs and lobsters is common.

 Social Characterisation

The first inhabitants of the municipality of Kinzau settled on the spot in the year 1900.
Currently the number of the population is estimated at about 830 inhabitants. Most of the
population´s age is around 20 to 45 years.

46
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The population of the commune is mainly engaged in fishing, where practitioners are men
and women responsible for the processing and marketing of fish. There are 55 fishermen, 53
women fish traders and 13 barges (3 with engine, 5 wirthout engine and 5 catrongas 5).
There is no communal cooperative headquarters. Regarding the capture of fish, the main
species are: pungo, pink dentex, skate, sea bass, pink dentexs, seabreams (in the cold
months), lobster, grouper, mackerel and sardines. The months of April to November are the
biggest catch of fish, while December to February are considered the lowest months of
capture.

Traditional agriculture is another source of livelihood of the local population, although a


small number of practitioners, the main crops grown are cassava, beat and beans. There is
also the formal trade with the existence of three shops where they sell some commodities
such as rice, vegetable oil, pasta, sugar, etc. There are other informal services, such as
retreads, the sale of lubricants and some stalls selling food and drinks.

The population has no access to clean water, taking the water from the ponds and other
sources such as water tankers.

According to the report by CNIDAH there is an unexploded ordnance considered of low


impact at approximately 20.50 km from this site. The unexploded ordnance is located in the
following geographical coordinates: S 6o43’22,42’’; E 12o39’16,23’’.

The beaches of Quimana and the mouth of Quimana are the places most frequented by
tourists. The municipal administration foresees meetings with interested parties to invest in
tourism in the coastal zone, with only a consultation of the municipal council to put into the
practice. The mobile operators Unitel and Movicel work in perfect listening conditions.

 Site Z13 – Zangala River

The main access route used to reach the site is made by the National Road no. 100, which
connects Nzeto to Tomboco, the section is being rehabilitated. The access to the beach and

47
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

the mouth is weak and it is through a shortcut that is bumpy and long grassy. You can only
travel with vehicles with traction. Location coordinates: S 060 54.568’; E 120 46.356'.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, generally very thick and loose because of
redeposition of coarse sediments and in the bottom portion luvisols of fine texture begin to
emerge, which then continues to the mouth. These clay soils subject to tides, are largely
saline.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formatons with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach and grasses that make up the green belt along the coastline.
There is also the presence of some species of palm trees, scattered along the coast. The
grassy layer is composed of several species.

The mouth of the Zangala River is temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but when
opened the estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which use the system as
a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of snakes, turtles and turtle
olive-face, which nest in the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the
presence of crab and lobster.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, pied crow, seagulls and Persian
bee-eater.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially commercial ones, croaker, flounder, scalloped hammerhead,

48
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

catfish, barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, pungo, pink dentex, skate, pink dentexs seabreams,
grouper, mackerel, and sardines.

In terms of terrestrial mammal one registers the presence of the species of golungo,
monkeys and facochero. There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the
Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humpbacked dolphin and the common
dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The population is predominantly of Bakongo. The village population is estimated at about


245 inhabitants. The economically active population is mainly engaged in fishing craft. Apart
from fishing, traditional farming and hunting are another means of livelihood of the local
population, although a very small number of practitioners in the village where cassava and
beans are the main crops grown. And the main species hunted are: corsican, pacas, golungo,
facochero, hare, nunce, boa constrictor and porcupine.

There are 65 fishermen in the village, 53 women fish traders and 13 barges (3 with engine, 5
without engine and 5 catrongas). There is no cooperative. Regarding the capture fishing, the
main species are: pungo, pink dentex, skate, sea bass, pink dentexs, seabreams (in the cold
months), lobster, grouper, mackerel, and sardines. The months of April to November, are the
biggest catch of fish, while December to February are considered the lowest months of
capture.

The village population has no access to clean water, taking the water from the ponds and the
Lucunga river at about 3 km.

According to the report by CNIDAH there is an unexploded ordnance considered of low


impact at approximately 24.50 km from this site. The unexploded ordnance is located in the
following geographical coordinates: S 6o43’22,42’’; E 12o39’16,23’’.

49
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The mobile operator Unitel works in perfect condition and Movicel does not work in the
region.

 Site Z14 – Lucunga River

The main access route used to reach the site is made by the National Road no. 100, which
connects Nzeto to Tomboco, the section is being rehabilitated. Access to beach and estuary
is poor and it is using a shortcut only possible for a motor vehicle with traction. In rainy
season the road condition will worsen. Coordinates of the turn: S 060 58.273’; E 120 50.150'.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic). The
psamitic soils are generally of coarse texture, generally very thick and loose because of
redeposition of coarse sediments and only in the bottom portion luvisols of fine texture
begin to emerge, which then continue to the mouth. These clay soils, subject to tidal action,
are largely saline.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formatons with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach and grasses that make up the green belt along the coastline.
There is also the presence of some species of palm trees, scattered along the coast.
Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main species: Rhizophora racemosa and R.
harrisonni. The grassy layer is composed of several species.

The mouth of the Lucunga River is temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but when
opened their estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which use the system
as a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of snakes, crocodile, olive
ridley and sea turtle in the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the
presence of crabs and oysters.

50
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, pied crow, seagulls, royal tern
and persian bee-eater.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially commercial ones, croaker, flounder, scalloped hammerhead,
skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, pungo, grouper, mackerel, pink dentexs
seabreams and sardines.

In terms of terrestrial mammals one registers the presence of species of golungo,


hippopotamus, common deer, the rat-rods, ass-eating fox, hare, nunce, porcupine and
facochero. There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast,
such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humpbacked dolphin and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

Most of the population settled in the village in 1932, from various sites as M'Banza Congo
and Soyo Nzeto. The population of the village is estimated at about 845 inhabitants.

The main activity of the region is essentially artisanal fisheries, which occupies a prominent
place in the capture of fish of high commercial value in the village of Mucula and other
neighbour places who attend the same beach. In the neighbourhood there are 285
fishermen, 193 women fish traders, 55 barges (15 with engine, 35 without engine and 5
catrongas). There is no cooperative. For capture, the principal species are: pungo, pink
dentex, skate, sea bass, pink dentexs, seabreams (in the cold months), lobster, grouper,
mackerel, and sardines. The months of April to November, are the biggest catch of fish,
while December to February are considered the lowest months of capture.

51
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Apart from fishing, traditional farming and poaching also are another means of livelihood of
the population, although a very small number of practitioners in the district under study. For
hunting, the hunters use traditional traps and the main species hunted are: corsican, pacas,
bushbuck, facochero, ass-eating fox, hare, nunce, python and porcupine.

The population of the district Macula has access to safe drinking water through the pipe
made from the Lucunga River for three fountains of the village.

According to the report by CNIDAH there is an unexploded ordnance considered of low


impact at approximately 26.00 km from this site. The unexploded ordnance is located in the
following geographical coordinates S 6o43’22,42’’; E 12o39’16,23’’.

The mouth of the Lucunga river and its surrounding area is good for the practice of tourism.
The meeting between the river with the sea is a source of attraction for lovers of tourism.
The mobile operator Unitel works in perfect condition and Movicel with some difficulties.
Currently there are no master plans for the planned development of the region.

 Site Z15 – Quinguengue River

The main access route used to reach the village of Mucula is made by the National Road no.
100, which connects N'Zeto to Tomboco, the section is being rehabilitated. The access to the
beach and the mouth is poor and it is through a road link that is only possible for a motor
vehicle with traction. In the rainy season there are some difficulties in the access road.
Coordinates of the deviation: S 060 58.273’; E 120 50.150'.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic). The
psamitic soils are generally of coarse texture, generally very thick and loose because of
redeposition of coarse sediments and only in the bottom portion luvisols of fine texture

52
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

begib to emerge, which then continues to the mouth. These clay soils, subject to the tides,
are largely saline.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formatons with the predominance of
matebeiras beans-the-beach and grasses that make up the green belt along the coastline.
There is also the presence of some species of palm trees in a dispersed along the coast.

The mouth of the Quinguengue and Lodiaquengue River is temporary (the opening is in the
rainy season), but when opened the estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes,
which use the system as a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one highlitghts the presence of boa constrictor and olive
ridley, which nest in the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the
presence of crab.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, pied crow, seagulls, royal tern
and Persian bee-eater.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially commercial ones, croaker, flounder, scalloped hammerhead,
skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, etc..

In terms of the focus falls terrestrial mammal for the presence of species of golungo and
facochero (warthog).

 Social Characterisation

There are no people living in this area.

53
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Site Z16 – Ncoco Pequeno River

The main access route used to reach the site in question is made by the former National
Road no. 100, which connected N'Zeto to Tomboco, the section is being rehabilitated. The
access to the beach and the mouth is poor and it is through a road link that is only possible
for a motor vehicle with traction. In the rainy season there are some difficulties in the access
road. Coordinates of the turn, neighbourhood of Mucula: S 060 58.385’, E 120 52.908’.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formatons with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach and grasses that make up the green belt along the coastline. In
the cliff vegetation is savannah Hyparrhenia and Andropogon gayanus ssp.The grassy layer is
composed of several species, emphasis on Hyparrhenia hirta.

The mouth of the Ncoco Small or Ncoco Ndiankete river is temporary (the opening is in the
rainy season), but when opened the estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes,
which use the system as a point of feeding, nesting and development. In terms of avifauna, it
is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including resident, visiting and
seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food. Among these one can
mention the presence of royal heron, pied crow, seagulls and metallic-starking.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a diversity of marine and freshwater
species, especially the commercial: skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, etc.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of olive ridley, which nests in
the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of crab.

54
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

In terms of terrestrial mammals one registers the presence of species of golungo and
facochero.

In terms of terrestrial mammals there is the presence of species of golungo and facochero.
There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, the Atlantic humpbacked dolphin and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The population of the place is quite fluctuating (artisanal fishermen). At the time of local
consultation they were not in place.

 Site Z17 – N'Zeto or Mbridge River

The main access route used to reach the headquarters commune of Nzeto is done through a
fair access road linking Luanda/M'Banza Congo. To reach the mouth of the river the access is
reasonable in dry season and difficult access particularly in times with some rainfall.
Coordinates of the deviation: S 070 13.306’; E 120 51.485'.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic). The
psamitic soils are generally of coarse texture, generally very thick and loose because of
redeposition of coarse sediments and in the bottom portion only luvisols of fine texture
begin to emerge, which then continue to the mouth. These clay soils, subject to tidal action,
are largely saline.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formatons with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach, palm trees and grasses that make up the green belt along the
coastline. The grassy layer is composed of several species.

55
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main species: Rhizophora racemosa and R.
harrisonni. In the cliff vegetation is grass savannah with the occurrence of matebeiras.

The mouth of the N'Zeto and Mbridge River is permanent, its estuarine system houses a
diversity of birds and fishes, which use the system as a point of feeding, nesting and
development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of olive tortoise, crocodiles and
boa constrictor. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of crab,
shrimp, and oysters.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, pied crow, seagulls and Persian
bee-eater.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the commercial: croaker, halibut, skate, catfish, barracuda,
pink dentex, mullet, enseguilhão, cacusso, rooster, grouper, etc.

In terms of terrestrial mammals there is the presence of the following species: facochero,
deer common-rods of rats, and golungo and nunce. There is the presence of marine
mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humpback
dolphin and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

Historically the population of the villages in the headquarters commune of Nzeto belongs to
the ethnolinguistic of Bakongo and settled in late 1879, from the interior of province of Zaire
and other parts of the coast in search of better living conditions. At the headquarters of the
Commune the number of inhabitants is estimated at approximately 19,287.

56
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The fishing is one of the main activities of the local population, resulting from the proximity
of the sea and many rivers. There are five cooperatives in the region. Overall, the number of
fishermen is estimated at 623 and 875 women fishmongers. There are two major salines in a
state of abandonment in the region. In total there are 106 vessels (85 with engine, 15
without engine and 6 catrongas). The Nzeto or Mbridge River has significant potential for the
volume and variety of fish species. The main species caught are cassava croaker, pink
dentex, enseguilhão, skate, catfish, cacusso, rooster, grouper. The months of May to
November are the biggest catch of fish, while December to April are considered the lowest
months of capture.

Apart from fishing, traditional agriculture, poaching and livestock also are another means of
livelihood of local populations. The main crops grown are: cassava, sweet potato, and
reindeer, beans and jinguba. For hunting, the hunters use traps and traditional main species
are: facochero, corsican, pacas, golungo and nunce. As for livestock, there is the creation of
cattle goats, pigs, chickens, and sheep. There is also a small-scale informal trade, living
mainly in imports of consumer goods, with bordera linking to the Democratic Republic of
Congo. It is usually done mostly by nationals who have small shops, grocery stores and repair
shops.

The houses are located about 3.5 km from the mouth of the river, and less than 1000 meters
from the beach, and are supplied by water from the water capture and treatment station
from the Nzeto River.

According to report by CNIDAH there is an unexploded ordnance considered of low impact at


approximately 2.50 km from this site. The unexploded ordnance is located in the following
geographical coordinates: S 7o13’25,73’’; E 12o51’56,54’’.

Given its geographical position, the region hosts each year hundreds of tourists from various
parts of the country and the world, the resort and the hotel Mbridge Lodge, the bathing area
and fishing and recreation are points of attraction in the region. The lighthouse in operation

57
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

around the deployment of border police, the old Catholic church, are the most important
cultural and historical places of the municipality.

The municipality benefits from the mobile phone owned mobile operators Unitel and
Movicel. A bridge that will connect the municipalities of Nzeto and Tomboco will be built
near the mouth.

 Site Z18 – Cungulo River

The access site is made by a dirt shortcut, via easy access to motor vehicles, mined area
(indicating that the mined areas in the surroundings). Coordinates of the deviation, before
the bridge: S 070 17.886’; E 120 53.601’.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formatons with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach and grasses that make up the green belt along the coastline.
The grassy layer is composed of several species.

The mouth of the river Cungulo is temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but when
opened their estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which use the system
as a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of olive ridley, which nests in
the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates the presence of crabs is registered.

58
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron and royal tern.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a diversity of marine and freshwater
species, especially the commercial: skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex, sardinella,
croaker, scalloped hammerhead and mullet.

In terms of terrestrial mammals one highlights the presence of species of golungo, facochero
or common warthog and monkeys. There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean)
across the Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and the
common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

There are no people living in the place.

 Site Z19 – Xingi River

Access to this point is via a road link, with high grass, you can only travel with motorized
traction. Area of difficult access, the former acess no longer exists or there seems to be no
trace of it, the grass grew too much. There is no access during the rainy season. Coordinates
of the turn, village of Kivungo: S 070 25.942’; E 120 58.566’.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

59
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formatons with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach and grasses that make up the green belt along the
coastline.The grassy layer is composed of several species.

The mouth of the Xingi river is temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but when
opened the estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which use the system as
a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of olive ridley, which nests in
the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence ça crab and
lobster.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of swallows, royal tern and persian bee-eater.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the commercial: skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex,
sardinella, croaker, scalloped hammerhead, mullet, etc.

In terms of terrestrial mammals there is the presence of species of golungo, facochero and
monkeys. There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast,
such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humpbacked dolphin and common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The native population settled in the late 1900s, from the interior of the municipalities of
Nzeto and Tomboco.Currently the number of population is estimated at 127 inhabitants (21
men, 36 women and 70 children whose age is around 0-17 years).

60
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The main activity of the region is fishing. There are 48 fishermen in the district, of which 11
are in active, and four paddle barges. No fishermen's cooperative, the principal species are:
red pink dentex, croaker, catfish, cacusso, etc. streak. The months of May to December are
the biggest catch of fish, while from January to April are considered the lowest months of
capture. In addition to fishing, traditional farming, ranching and poaching are other means of
subsistence of local populations.

The agriculture is developed mainly by women, the main crops grown are cassava, sweet
potato, potato, reindeer, beans, and corn. For livestock, the main livestock raised in the
region are pigs and goats on a small scale, there is also the creation of birds. For hunting, the
hunters of the region use traditional traps, the principal species are: facochero, duiker,
holochilus, golungo and nunce.

The population of the neighbourhood of Malonga has no access to clean water, depending
essentially on the ponds near the houses of the village. There is no functioning system of
rubbish collection and people often burn or bury it. In relation to electricity, only two
families have private generators and all other use diesel fuel and oil for lighting and firewood
for cooking. Homes do not have latrines, so the people do it outdoors. Household garbage is
buried in holes a few meters of residences and is burned elsewhere.

Tourism in the region is not strong, because it is an area of difficult access to road vehicles.
At 2 km from the mouth, there is a lagoon called Pandi, where communities nearby take
people to practice rituals and cure certain diseases. Next the location of the mouth (800
meters), there is the headquarters of the Border Police.

 Site Z20 – Pandi Lagoon

The access to the village is via a dirt road, partially degraded, the access to the lagoon mouth
is made by a shortcut in the community of Mulonga, poor access, the area is covered by
grass and there is a path to the motor vehicle traction. Coordinates of the turn, community
of Mulonga: S 070 33.964’; E 130 00.988’.

61
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formatons with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach and grasses that make up the green belt along the coastline.
The grassy layer is composed of several species.

The mouth of the Pandi lagoon is temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but when
opened their estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which use the system
as a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of olive ridley, which nests in
the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of crab.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large specific diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a place for rest and food.
Among these one can mention the presence of swallows, pied crows, seagulls and royal
heron.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a diversity of marine and freshwater
species, especially the commercial: skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, etc.

In terms of terrestrial mammals there is the presence of species of golungo and facochero.
There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and the common dolphin.

62
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Social Characterisation

The population of the village of Mulonga is estimated at 170 inhabitants of which 79 adults
(32 men and 47 women) and 91 children (0-17 years) between boys and girls. The houses are
situated about 2,000 meters from the beach and the same distance from the lagoon. There
are no land mines and no cattle near the river mouth.

There are many wild animals in this area with more emphasis on the fox, worthog, nunce,
pacas, monkeys and boa constrictor.

Today agriculture is seen as the main subsistence activity, with fishing as an alternative
source, due to lack of boats and materials for the use of fishing. The main products produced
in the village are: cassava, sweet potatoes, beans and corn.

The district has 48 fishermen including 11 in service, four paddle barges. There is no
cooperative of fishermen; the only one was extincted for more than 20 years, because many
of the members are no longer in the village. The main species caught are pink dentex,
croaker, catfish, cacusso, skate, etc. The biggest catch of fish occurs in the months of May
through December.

At 1 km from the mouth, there is another lagoon called Phandi where nearby communities
bring people to practice rituals and cure certain diseases. Next the location of the mouth
(800 meters), there are the headquarters of the Border Police.

The two mobile networks (Unitel and Movicel) do not work in the area. There were no areas
with landmines at the proposed access.

 Site Z21 – Gia River

Access to the mouth of the Gia river is a shortcut made by General Borges' farm, covered
with high grass, the area of access to motor vehicles with traction. The access to the villages

63
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

near the mouth (the village of Quissembo and Quibire) is via a dirt road to reasonable access
(road of the Loge Pequeno river). Coordinates of the turn: S 070 37.943’; E 130 03.902’.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by steppic formatons with the predominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach and palm trees that make up the green belt along the
coastline. Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main species: Rhizophora
racemosa and R. harrisonni. In the cliff vegetation is grass savannah with the occurrence of
matebeiras. The grassy layer is composed of several species.

The mouth of the Gia river is temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but when you
open your home to a diverse estuarine system of birds and fishes, which use the system as a
point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of snakes-the-Nile crocodile,
turtle olive. Regarding the class of invertebrates there is the presence of crab.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large species diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for rest and
food. Among these one can mention the presence of royal tern, persian bee-eater and
rollers.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the commercial: croaker, halibut, skate, catfish, barracuda,
pink dentex, mullet, etc.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, the Atlantic humpbacked dolphin and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

There are no people living in the are nor in the surroundings.

 Site Z22 – Sembo River

The access to the mouth of the Sembo or Lué river through a shortcut in a route covered
with high grass, the area of access to motor vehicles with traction. The access to the villages
near the mouth (the village of Quissembo and Quibire) is via a dirt road of reasonable access
(road to the Loge Pequeno river). Coordinates of the deviation: S 070 37.943’; E 130 03.902’.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are immature soils, from fluvial deposits, sandy soils (Psamitic).
Psamitic soils are generally coarse-textured, usually very thick and loose.

The vegetation is predominated by the mouth formations Steppic with pre dominance of
matebeiras, beans-the-beach and palm trees that make up the green belt along the
coastline. Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main species: Rhizophora
racemosa and R. harrisonni. In the cliff vegetation is grass savannah with the occurrence of
matebeiras. The grassy layer is composed of several species.

The mouth of the Sembo river is temporary (the opening is in the rainy season), but when
opened the estuarine system houses a diversity of birds and fishes, which use the system as
a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of snakes, nile crocodile, oliva
turtle. Regarding the class of invertebrates there is the presence of crab.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large species diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for rest and
food. Among these one can mention the presence of royal tern, persian bee-eater, herons
and others.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the commercial: croaker, halibut, skate, catfish, barracuda,
pink dentex, mullet, etc.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The people settled in villages of Quibire and Quissembo in the late 1960s, searching for
demand for better living conditions. There are in total 287 inhabitants, 193 of which belong
to the village of Quibiri and 94 to Quissembo.

The main activity in the studied area is mainly traditional agriculture. The main crops
cultivated in the region are: cassava, beans, sweet potatoes and potatoes, clearly the
dominant cultures because they adapt better to the climate of that region. The trading of
agricultural surplus is made for the areas of Nzeto and Luanda.

The fishing is the second activity practiced by the population of the villages. The Sembo river
has a significant potential in terms of volume and variety of fish species. This activity is
carried out mainly by young people, there are 36 fishermen, 12 barges (2 with engine, 5
without engine and 5 catrongas). The fishermen are not organized by a cooperative or
association. The main fish species caught are cassava croaker, pink dentex, catfish streak,
cacusso, rooster, groupers. The months of May to November are the biggest catch of fish,
while December to April are considered the lowest capture.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Apart from traditional agriculture and fishing, poaching is also another means of livelihood
of local populations. The main species caught in the region are: facochero, holochilus,
golungo and nunce.

The population of the villages of Quibiri and Quissembo has no access to clean water,
depending essentially on the Sembo river and the ponds near the houses of the village. The
household waste produced is often burned or buried. In relation to electricity, only four (4)
households own private generator and all other use diesel fuel and oil for lighting and
firewood for cooking. The houses have no latrines, so the population do it outdoors.

The mouth of the Sembo river and the beautiful beaches are the main attraction of that
area. Dozens of tourist among foreign nationals, members of churches and other scientific
organizations come to the area for tourism and scientific study. A conservation project of
marine turtles is being developed by the School of Sciences in partnership with the Ministry
of Environment.

Currently there are no plans for the development of this area. The village has a school of
three classrooms and a health clinic funded by the PESNORTE project.

The district benefits from the mobile operator owned by Unitel that works with restrictions
in some areas.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Province of Bengo
(See photos in Annex 8)

B1 – Loge River B2 – Barra do Ambriz B3 – Rio Quitungo


B4 – Uezo River B5 – Zize River B6 – Quinzauamuana River
B7 – Quincacala River B8 – Rio Onzo B9 – Lifune Rio
B10 – Barra do Dande B11 – Salina de São Tiago

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

4.3. Province of Bengo

The province of Bengo has an area of 33,016 km2 and a population estimated at 198,000
inhabitants. Its main activities lie in fisheries and agriculture. In its coast, especially in Barra
do Dande and Ambriz, large quantities of crustaceans (shrimp and lobster) and cacusso are
caught. There are approximately 400 fishing vessels in the province, consisting of canoes,
barges and catrongas. In Barra do Dande as in Ambriz, there is a considerable number of
fishermen organized in cooperatives, the area is potentially rich in biological resources.

The support centers for artisanal fisheries in two locations provide daily fishing activity in the
province to the representative body of the Institute for Development of Artisanal Fisheries
and Aquaculture (IDPAA), but at the moment they are not active because there are no
samplers for the daily collecting of fishing activity data (see the main fishing communities in
Bengo in Annex 4).

 Site B1 – Loge River

To get to the mouth of the Loge river the access is primarily carried out by sea from barra do
Ambriz (Port of Ambriz).

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are alluvial river soils and sandy soils (Psamo-fersiálicos).The river
alluvial soils are generally of medium and fine textures occurring in large areas subject to
prolonged flooding, or even permanent, which are influenced by hydromorphism. Near the
mouth, under the influence of marine water tables, there is the incidence of halomorfismo
and salt alluvials. Sandy soils have their origin in the Pleistocene quartz sediments and they
are also of medium and fine textures. Due to the configuration of the mouth and tongue
made of sand, the ground is quite susceptible to erosion.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The vegetation is predominated by steppic formations with the predominance of


matebeiras, beans-the-beach, palm trees and grasses of various species that constitute the
green belt along the coastline. Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main species:
Rhizophora racemosa and R. harrisonni. The cliff is of fossil cliff type and vegetation consists
predominantly of steppic formations with the ocorrence of some dispersed palm tree
species. Apart from these, there is the formation along the mouth of the river of grasslands,
with an emphasis on Eichinochloa spp.

The mouth of the Loge river is permanent, its estuarine system houses a diversity of birds
and fishes, which use the system as a point of feeding, nesting and development.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large species diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for rest and
food. Among these may be mentioned the presence of royal heron, royal tern, Persian bee-
eater, pied crow and seagulls.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater fish species, especially falls to the commercial: croaker, halibut, skate, catfish,
barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, pink dentexs seabreams, hammerhead shark, etc.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of snakes, crocodile-of-estuary,
olive ridley, which nests in the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the
presence of crab and shrimp.

 Social Characterisation

There are no people living in the area. At the time of local consultation there were only
found small groups of fishermen who use the place for rest and maintenance of their nets.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Site B2 – Barra do Ambriz

The main access route used to reach to Port of Ambriz (beach of the fishermen) is a paved
road in the town.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are alluvial river soils and sandy soils (Psamo-fersiálicos).The river
alluvial soils are generally of medium and fine textures occurring in large areas subject to
prolonged flooding, or even permanent, which are influenced by hydromorphism. Near the
mouth, under the influence of marine water tables, there is the incidence of halomorfismo
and salt alluvials. Sandy soils have their origin in the Pleistocene quartz sediments and are
also of medium and fine textures. Due to the configuration of the mouth and tongue made
of sand, the ground is quite susceptible to erosion.

The vegetation in the barra do Ambriz is predominated by steppic formations with the
predominance of matebeiras, palm trees, coconut trees, and grasses of various species that
constitute the green belt along the coastline. Mangroves in the west are primarily arboreal
and shrubby, with two main kinds: Rhizophora racemosa and R. harrisonni. The cliff is of
fossil cliff type and vegetation consists predominantly of steppic formations with the
occurrence of palm trees. The grassy stratum of the area is composed of several species,
with emphasis on Eichinochloa spp, the most abundant.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of snakes, crocodiles, turtles
olive, which nests in the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the
presence of crab and shrimp.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large species diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for rest and
food. Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, royal tern, persian bee-
eater, pied crow and seagulls.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater fish species, especially falls to the commercial: croaker, halibut, skate, catfish,
barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, pink dentexs, seabreams, hammerhead, etc.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The inhabitants of the beach are mostly fishermen from the province of Zaire, including
Nzeto and Soyo and a minority from the provinces of Luanda, Benguela, Huila and Kwanza
South. The beach was founded in early 1980 by fishermen from Porto Amboim in demand
for better conditions for fishing. At present the number of the population is estimated at
681 population (of which 189 men, 137 women and 355 children whose age is around 0-15).
Most of the population of the community is young, aged around 25 to 40 years.

The main activity of the region is essentially artisanal fisheries, which occupies a prominent
place with the capture of fish of high commercial value in the fishing town of Ambriz. In the
neighbourhood of the beach, there are 185 fishermen, 193 women fish traders and 75
barges (70 with engine, 3 without engine and 3 catrongas). Boa Esperança and Mfinda Moyo
are the only fishing cooperatives in the area.

The average biomass estimated for the capture of the main fishery resources is about 2609
kg/month and the main species are: pungo, tuna, sea bass, skate, pink dentexs, seabreams
(in the cold months), lobster, grouper, mackerel and sardines. The months of April to
November are the biggest catch of fish, while December to February are considered the
lowest capture.

Less than half the population of the neighborhood depends on the beach drinking water,
with some irregularity, the Municipal Administration of Ambriz. The distribution of water is

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

made of two days in the morning, which has encouraged the population to build tanks in the
backyards of homes. There are some in the neighborhood fountains and pools / ponds, and
water wells that supply most of the population does not have any treatment.

The hotel business is one of the main activities of the coastal city of Ambriz but there are
two restaurants in particular Lucombo and Isabel Sango hosting a large number of tourists
from various parts of the country who enjoy the beaches of the municipality. In terms of
mobile telecommunications, the population of the fishermen's village now benefits from the
services provided by operators Unitel and Movicel both in good conditions.

The sites of cultural and historical importance of prominence in the study area are: the
blockhouse (in good condition), the Kifuca beach, barra do Loge, the bay and the
historical/cultural "houses of the former slaves" (now headquarters of the Navy).

In the study area there are concentrated some industrial complexes, especially the oil
company's shipyard PETROMAR and port terminal of Ambriz.

 Site B3 – Quitungo River

The access site is made by a dirt shortcut, difficult to access via a road covered with tall
grass, old national road Luanda, Ambriz and Soyo, via access to motor vehicles with traction
(4x4).

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are alluvial river soils and sandy soils (Psamo-fersiálicos).The river
alluvial soils are generally of medium and fine textures occurring in large areas subject to
prolonged flooding, or even permanent, which are influenced by hydromorphism. Near the
mouth, under the influence of marine water tables, there is the incidence of halomorfismo
and salt alluvials. Sandy soils have their origin in the Pleistocene quartz sediments and are

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

also of medium and fine textures. Due to the sandy configuration of the mouth and tongue,
the ground is quite susceptible to erosion.

The vegetation at the Quitungo river is predominated by steppic formations with the
predominance of matebeiras, palm trees, beans-the-beach, palm trees and grasses of
various species. The cliff is of alive type and the vegetation is the grassy savannah with the
occurrence of matebeiras. The grassy stratum of the area is composed of several species,
with emphasis on Eichinochloa spp, the most abundant.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of lizards and olive ridleys,
which nests in the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of
crab and shrimp.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large species diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for rest and
food. Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, royal tern, persian bee-
eater, white breast and seagulls.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater fish species, especially falls to the commercial: croaker, halibut, skate, catfish,
barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, pink dentexs, seabreams, hammerhead, etc.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

There are no people living in the are. However, the potential for tourism in the region should
be highlighted, as there are beautiful beaches and the wonderful cliffs which are attractive
to many tourists who travel to the region in search of rest and recreation.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Site B4 – Uezo or Sangano River

The access to the mouth of the Uezo river is deficient, and it is made through the former
main road of Soyo/Luanda in an advanced state of degradation where the journey is only
possible with motorized traction. Near the mouth, there is a concrete bridge built in the 70s
and when it rains it floods, which makes the area impassable. When this happens, the
alternative is to use the beach area.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are alluvial river soils and sandy soils (Psamo-fersiálicos).The river
alluvial soils are generally of medium and fine textures occurring in large areas subject to
prolonged flooding, or even permanent, which are influenced by hydromorphism. Near the
mouth, under the influence of marine water tables, there is the incidence of halomorfismo
and salt alluvials. Sandy soils have their origin in the Pleistocene quartz sediments are also of
medium and fine textures. Due to the sandy configuration of the mouth and tongue, the
ground is quite susceptible to erosion.

The vegetation at the mouth of the Uezo river is predominated by the formation of several
species of grasses, one highlights the predominance of species of Hyparrhenia hirta and
Eichinochloa spp. The cliff is of alive type and cliff vegetation is the grass savannah with the
occurrence of woody vegetation and shrubs.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of lizards and olive ridleys that
nests in the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of crab
and shrimp.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large species diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for rest and
food. Among these may be mentioned the presence of white heron, royal tern, persian bee-
eater, pied crow, black tuta and metallic starlling.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater fish species, especially falls to the commercial: croaker, halibut, skate, catfish,
barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, pink dentexs, seabreams, hammerhead, etc.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The neighbourhood of Povo Alto is composed of 235 inhabitants. Ethnically the majority of
the population is predominantly of Bakongo, although there are also small groups from the
Ovimbundu ethnic group. Currently the population is migrating to other areas, such as the
municipality of Ambriz, in search of better living conditions.

Most of the population is mainly engaged in traditional agriculture. According to


explanations of a community member, agriculture in the last 15 years took the place of
fishing, due to the lack of boats and fishing equipment in the village. The cassava, beans,
sweet potato and peanuts are the products most commonly grown in the village and taken
to the headquarters of the city for their trading. While fishing does not constitute the
principal activity of the region, the village youth, minority, put nets along the mouth of the
Uezo river to catch the fish of several species, namely catfish, cacusso, pink dentex. Poaching
through traps also completes the diet of the inhabitants of the village of Povo Alto.

The ponds near the houses and the Uezo river are the main sources of water supply in the
village.

There are beautiful beaches for tourism, but these are not exploited due to poor condition
of the road, and the fact that there are still land mines and areas demarcated on site and
near the Marine and police headquarters respectively. The mobile operator Unitel works
with in the area with some restrictions, and Movicel does not work.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

 Site B5 – Zize or Quizize River

The access to the site is made through a dirt shortcut, of difficult access via a road covered
with tall grass, old national road Ambriz/Caxito, via access to motor vehicles with traction
(4x4). Coordinates of the turn to the mouth (village of Quiyombe): S 080 02.106’; E 130
12.720’.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are alluvial river soils and sandy soils (Psamo-fersiálicos).The river
alluvial soils are generally of medium and fine textures occurring in large areas subject to
prolonged flooding, or even permanent, which are influenced by hydromorphism. Near the
mouth, under the influence of marine water tables, there is the incidence of halomorfismo
and salt alluvials. Sandy soils have their origin in the Pleistocene quartz sediments and are
also of medium and fine textures. Due to the sandy configuration of the mouth and tongue,
the ground is quite susceptible to erosion.

The vegetation at the mouth of the Zize river is predominated by grass formation of several
species, one highlights the predominance of species of Hyparrhenia hirta and Eichinochloa
spp. The cliff is of alive type and cliff vegetation is the grass savannah with the occurrence of
tree vegetation.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of lizards and olive ridleys,
which nests in the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of
crab.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large species diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for rest and
food. Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, royal tern, persian bee-
eater, pied crow and white- browed seedeater.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater fish species, especially falls to the commercial: cassava croaker, grouper,
mackerel, macoa, halibut, skate, catfish, barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, seabream,
scalloped hammerhead, etc.

In terms of terrestrial mammals one highlights the presence of species of golungo,


facochero, zebra, monkey, nunce, hocholilus and the porcupine. There is the presence of
marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic
humpbacked dolphin and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

Most of the population settled in the village of Quiyombe in the late 1920s in search of
better conditions. Currently the number of the population is estimated at 370 inhabitants
(84 men, 99 women and 188 children whose age is around 0-17). It was well known in the
village that there are few young people, as much left the village in search of work in major
urban centers and other locations.

Currently, traditional agriculture is the main activity of the region. The main products
produced in the village are: cassava, sweet potatoes, beans, corn etc. In addition to
traditional farming, fishing and poaching are other means of subsistence of the population.

Artisanal fishing is practiced on a small scale due to lack of material support the artisanal
fisheries sector. The main species caught are cassava croaker, grouper, mackerel, macoa and
streak. The months of May to December are the biggest catch of fish, while from January to
April are considered the lowest months of capture. For hunting, the hunters use traditional
traps and the principal species in the region are: facochero, hocholilus, golungo and nunce.

The population of the neighbourhood of Kiombe has no access to clean water, depending
essentially on the ponds near the houses of the village.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The beautiful beaches of Kiombe and João Samba, as Povo Alto now are not frequented by
tourists due to the poor condition of the road. The district benefits from the mobile operator
owned by Unitel that works with restrictions in some areas.

 Site B6 – Quinzauamuana River

This site was not characterized because of the difficulty of access. It is an area without access
to motorized vehicles. According to the locals, the area near the mouth is of cultural and
traditional practice.

 Site B7 – Quincacala River

The access site is made through a dirt shortcut, difficult to access via a road covered with tall
grass, old national road Ambriz/Caxito, via access to motor vehicles with traction (4x4).
Coordinates to the village of Quincacala: S 08 0 07.627 ', E 130 15.640'.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are alluvial river soils and sandy soils (Psamo-fersiálicos). The river
alluvial soils are generally of medium and fine textures occurring in large areas subject to
prolonged flooding, or even permanent, which are influenced by hydromorphism. Near the
mouth, under the influence of marine water tables, there is the incidence of halomorfismo
and salt alluvials. Sandy soils have their origin in the Pleistocene quartz sediments and are
also of medium and fine textures. Due to the sandy configuration of the mouth and tongue,
the ground is quite susceptible to erosion.

The vegetation at the mouth of the Quincacala river is predominated by steppic formations
of matebeiras, beans-the-beach and grasses of various species, one highlights the
predominance of species of Hyparrhenia hirta and Eichinochloa spp. The cliff is of alive type
and its vegetation is grass savannah with the occurrence of matebeira.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of lizards and olive ridleys,
which nests in the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of
crab and lobster.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large species diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for rest and
food. Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, royal tern, Persian bee-
eater and white-breasted crow.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater fish species, especially falls to the commercial: croaker, halibut, skate, catfish,
barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, bearded pungo, tuna, grouper, pink dentexs and seabreams .

In terms of terrestrial mammals one highlights the presence of species of golungo,


facochero, zebra, monkey and porcupine. There is the presence of marine mammals
(whales) across the Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and
the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The villagers are mostly natives of Quincacala from the north of the country, including Nzeto
and Soyo in the years 1910 and others who reside in houses of straw, that is at the mouth of
the river, come from the province of Kwanza Sul, who installed in that location in 1998 for
fishing.

The neighbourhood was founded in the year 1913 by the ancient inhabitants of the village.
Currently the population of the neighbourhood of Quincacala is estimated at 689 inhabitants
(145 men, 189 women and 355 children whose age is around 0-15 years). In the new
Quincacala (the fishermen's quarter), the resident population is estimated at about 107

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

inhabitants (101 men, 3 women and 3 children aging 0-2 years). Most of the people in the
communities studied are young people whose age is around 25 to 45.

The population of two villages, mainly from new Quincacala, live essencially of artisanal
fisheries.In the neighbourhood of Quincacala there are 289 fishermen, 101 are from the
Kwanza Sul, 63 are women fish traders and 109 barges (95 with engine, 11 without engine
and 3 catrongas).The Cooperative "Havemos de voltar" was the one that existed in the
neighbourhood studied, due to the lack of support it stopped working more than five years.

Regarding the capture of fish, no data are available, but local fishermen revealed that the
estimated biomass for the main fish stocks is 4,500 kg/month. The main species are: streak,
bearded, red pink dentex, pungo, tuna, sea bass, pink dentexs, seabreams (in the cold
months), lobster, grouper. The months of May to November are the biggest catch of fish,
while December to April are considered the lowest months of capture.

The neighbourhood is located on a high spot and less than 500 meters from the sea and the
mouth of the Quincacala river, elements that the fisherman consider to be very important
for the control and decision for fishing. The population has no access to clean water
depending essentially on the water of the ponds and the Nxixi river, which is distant about 6
km from the village. Women are forced to go to the river very early, because after 10 hours
the river dries.

Quincacala has lots of beaches in the vicinity of a long strip of white sand that makes it a
breathtaking place, and also conducive to the practice of fishing and bathing. The
neighbourhood benefits from the mobile operator Unitel that communicates perfect
conditions.

There are no local sites of cultural significance. At the highest point of the village, there is a
camp belonging to the Border Police.

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Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

At the time of local consultation, the consultant team verified the existence of the opening
of bore holesfor obtaining water and according to the responsible of the project it started in
October 2011 and until the day of interview, none of the seven open water holes had water.

 Site B8 - Onzo River

The access site is made by a dirt shortcut, difficult to access via a road covered with tall
grass, old national road Ambriz/Caxito, via access to motor vehicles with traction (4x4).
Coordinates of the neighbourhood of Yembe: S 08 0 15.503 ', E 13 0 20.487'.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are alluvial river soils and sandy soils (Psamo-fersiálicos).The river
alluvial soils are generally of of medium and fine textures occurring in large areas subject to
prolonged flooding, or even permanent, which are influenced by hydromorphism. Near the
mouth, under the influence of marine water tables, there is the incidence of halomorfismo
and salt alluvials. Sandy soils have their origin in the Pleistocene quartz sediments and are
also of medium and fine textures. Due to the sandy configuration of the mouth and tongue,
the ground is quite susceptible to erosion.

The vegetation at the mouth is predominated by steppic formations with the predominance
of matebeiras, beans-the-beach, palm trees and grasses of various species that constitute
the green belt along the coastline. Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main
kinds: Rhizophora racemosa and R. harrisonni. The cliff is of fossil cliff type and vegetation is
grass savannah with the occurrence of dispersed matebeiras. Apart from these, and along
the mouth of the river there is the ocorrence of grassland formations, with an emphasis on
Eichinochloa spp.

The mouth of the Onzo river is temporary, but when opened the estuarine system houses a
diversity of birds and fishes, which use the system as a point of feeding, nesting and
development.

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Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of olive ridley, which nests in
the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one highlights the presence of crab and
shrimp.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large species diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for rest and
food. Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, royal tern, persian bee-
eater, white-breasted crow, white-browed seedeater and seagulls.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater fish species, especially falls to the commercial: croaker, halibut, skate, catfish,
barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, pink dentexs, seabreams, hammerhead, etc.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, common dolphin, humpback whale and Atlantic common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The first inhabitants of the neighbourhood of Yembe are mostly from the city of Nzeto who
settled in that region in the 1920s in search of better living conditions. Currently the
population is estimated at about 457 inhabitants (73 men, 92 women and 292 children
whose age is around 0-17 years). The population is mostly young community whose age is
around 30 to 45 years old and most are native.

The main activity is essentially artisanal fisheries. There are four barges in the village (which,
with one engine and three non-powered). It is unknown the exact number of fishermen
found in the village, but information collected in the vicinity realize that the number exceeds
half the population, of which 20% are inactive due to lack of boats and other materials for
the practice of fishing. The main fish species caught in the river are catfish, bearded skate,

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flounder, menhaden, croaker, pink dentex, lobster and Sofia. The months of April to June
represent the months of highest capture.

As for water supply, families depend on water stemmed from an artesian well, located 100
meters from the village, which has no treatment.

The beach of Yembe or Bingue serves as a tourism area to the community of Yembe and
Tabi. The mouth of the Onzo river and the beach of Bingue are frequented occasionally by
tourists. In terms of telecommunications, the population of the neighbourhood benefits
from the coverage of mobile operator Unitel, which works in good listening conditions.

 Site B9 – Lifune River

The main route used to have access to the neighbourhood of Catumbo is made by a dirt road
with small slopes which is approximately 15 km away from the main road (National Road no.
100) that connects the municipality of Barra do Dande.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are alluvial river soils and sandy soils (Psamo-fersiálicos).The river
alluvial soils are generally of medium and fine textures occurring in large areas subject to
prolonged flooding, or even permanent, which are influenced by hydromorphism. Near the
mouth, under the influence of marine water tables, there is the incidence of halomorfismo
and salt alluvials. Sandy soils have their origin in the Pleistocene quartz sediments and are
also of medium and fine textures. Due to the sandy configuration of the mouth and tongue,
the ground is quite susceptible to erosion.

The vegetation at the mouth is predominated by steppic formations with the predominance
of matebeiras, beans-the-beach, palm trees and grasses of various species that constitute
the green belt along the coastline. Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main
species: Rhizophora racemosa and R. harrisonni. The cliff is of fossil cliff type and vegetation

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is grass savannah with the occurrence of dispersed matebeiras. Apart from these, there are
along the mouth of the river grassland formations, with an emphasis on Eichinochloa spp.

The mouth of the Lifune river is permanent and the estuarine system houses a diversity of
birds and fishes, which use the system as a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of olive ridley, which nests in
the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of crab and
shrimp.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large species diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for rest and
food. Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, royal tern, little egret,
Persian bee-eater, white-breasted crow and seagulls.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater fish species, especially falls to the commercial: croaker, halibut, skate, catfish,
barracuda, pink dentex, mullet, seabreams, etc.

 Social Characterisation

Most of the people of the neighbourhood of Catumbo is native, living in a place for more
than 30 years. The population is estimated at about 1077 inhabitants, 569 were adults (347
men and 222 women) and 508 children (boys and girls). Most of the neighbouhood's
residents are children whose age ranges from 0 to 13.

The neighbouhood of Catumbo consists mostly of adobe houses (some in bad state of repair)
and some cement (final) located 3 km near the mouth of the Lifune river. Agricultural areas
(mines) in the neighbourhood are quite low due to the lack of technical means for the
cultivation and development of activities, the main crops produced in its mines are cassava,

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maize and beans. Some mines are located within the neighbourhood and the other 2 km of
the river.

Fishing occupies a prominent place in the capture of fish of high commercial value for the
livelihood of families. Currently there are 48 fishermen in the neighbourhood, each with one
or two individual barges, some with engines. The main species are: sardines, menhaden,
pungo, sole, mutamba (also known as small shark), oysters, and quiteta Mabanga, the latter
three captured only by order.

Regarding the hotel business there are some restaurants at the beach of Pambala near the
Lifune river (the beach of Pambala is one of the main tourist spots that has attracted more
and more domestic and foreign tourists) for leisure tourists coming from other localities.

The population of the neighbourhood of Catumbo has no access to drinking water, i.e. they
use water from a stream (lotic system associated with the Lifune river) which is located at 1
km of the neighbourhood.

The Lifune river is one of major historical references existing in the province of Bengo. The
same was called the southern border of the "Kingdom of Nambuangongo" in 60s. In terms of
mobile communication, the population of the neighbourhood of Catumbo benefits the
services provided by operators Unitel (though disabled signal) and Movicel (with good signal
quality). The neighbourhood has no Internet access. There are no areas demarcated for land
mine clearance because they have been cleared a few years ago, but there is in the area a
demining center.

 Site B10 – Barra do Dande

The main access route used to reach the neighbourhood of Pesacdores is a main road
passing through the bridge, properly tarred and in perfect driving conditions.

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 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are alluvial river soils, sandy soils (psamofersiálicos) and brown
limestone. The river luvisols are generally of medium and fine texture. There are large areas
subject to prolonged flooding, or even permanent, where the soils are influenced by
hydromorphism. Near the mouth, under the influence of marine water tables, there is the
incidence of halomorfismo and salt alluvials. The brown calcareous soils, which generally
have a yellowish colour, are of fine textures. The sandy soils typical of the coastline have
medium textures.

The vegetation at the mouth is highly modified by anthropogenic activities but originally
dominated by the predominance of steppic formations of mainly matebeiras. In the cliff
vegetation is savannah with the occurrence of Setaria welwitschii welwitchi Acacia, Aloe
zebrina and Sterculia setigera. The grassy layer is composed of several species.

In relation to fisheries resources caught in the Dande river is to consider the presence of red
pink dentex, halibut, catfish, menhaden, pink dentex and others being captured mainly in
the months April to June whose main purpose is trading.

The presence of turtles in the river mouth and along the beach of Pambala is credible as two
(2) dead turtles at the bank of the river were seen, possibly trapped in fishing nets or killed
by local people.

In terms of birdlife the main species are herons, swallows, crows and seagulls.

In Rio Dande is important to consider the presence of manatees that occasionally visit the
river mouth.

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 Social Characterisation

The population of the neighbourhood including the one living in the headquarters (the
commercial and administrative) Dande, is estimated at 1,540 inhabitants, 1,033 adults (409
men and 624 women) and 507 non-active children aged 0 to 17 years (412 boys and 400
girls). Most of the population of the community is young, whose age is around 25 to 40 years
and about 80% comes from the Kwanza Sul.

The main activity on the shoreline is fishing by fishermen living in the neighbourhood
although in some seasons there are also fishermen from other areas. Apart from fishing, the
hotel business is one of the main activities of the coastal Barra do Dande, but there are three
hostels namely the Pôr-do-Sol, Paradísio and Pasárgada, hosting a large number of tourists
from various parts of the country who enjoy the beaches in Dande (beach of Pambala).

There are also some inns on the left bank (i.e. the south) of the river and small inns for the
visitors from other places. The beaches of "Kambwá" and Barra do Dande complete the
tourist activity in the area.

The fortress (in bad condition), the lighthouse, the Catholic Church of Dande and the Praia
Pequena (where the first port was installed) are the sites of cultural and historical
importance.

In terms of mobile communications, the population of the fishermen's village now benefits
from the services provided by operators Unitel and Movicel both in good condition. There
are no areas demarcated for demining or with land mines.

There are currently programmed plans for the development of the coastline including the
future port of Barra do Dande to be built in mid-2012 as well as a hotel and a hospital in the
same place.

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 Site B11 – São Tiago Salina

The access to the site under study is rather poor, dirt track that only allow access during the
dry season. By contrast, its crossing is only possible with motorized traction (4x4).
Coordinates of the deviation "ref. Padaria Bom Pão": S 080 42.460'; E 130 26.424'.

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are alluvial river soils and sandy soils (Psamo-fersiálicos). The river
alluvial soils are generally of medium and fine textures occurring in large areas subject to
prolonged flooding, or even permanent, which are influenced by hydromorphism. Near the
mouth or the coast, under the influence of marine water tables, there is the incidence of
halomorfismo and salt alluvials. Sandy soils have their origin in the Pleistocene quartz
sediments and are also of medium and fine textures. Due to the sandy configuration of the
mouth and tongue, the ground is quite susceptible to erosion.

The vegetation along the coast of the São Tiafo Salina is predominated by steppic formations
of Hyphaene guineensis, Coco nucifera, Canavalia sp., and several species of grasses,
highlighting the predominance of species of Hyparrhenia hirta and Eichinochloa spp. The cliff
is of live type and its vegetation is grass savannah with the occurrence of Hyphaene
guineensis.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of olive ridley, which nests in
the region. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of crab, oyster,
shellfish, squid, cuttlefish and lobster.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large species diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for rest and
food. Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, persian-bee-eater, white-
breasted or common domestic pigeon and galician torch.

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In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater fish species, especially the commercial: croaker, flounder, mackerel, sardines,
macoa, barracuda, pink dentex, pungo, gala, grouper, pink dentexs seabreams, etc.

There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The first inhabitants of the neighbourhood of the São Tiago Salina settled in that area in the
early 60s, from the province of Bengo and the coast of the municipalities of Kwanza Sul, such
as Sumbe and Porto Amboim, aiming at working in the construction of the salinas and others
to carry out the activity of fishing. The population is currently estimated at 249 inhabitants.

The main activity of the region is essentially artisanal fisheries. Women as well as engaging in
the trading of the fish also are engaged in the extraction of salt. The area has 83 fishermen
and 15 barges (5 with engine, 10 without engine), and 81 women fish traders. There is no
cooperative in the area.

The main fish species caught are: croakers, pink dentexs, seabreams, gala, grouper,
mackerel, sardines and macoa. The months of May to December are the biggest catch of
fish, while from January to April are considered the lowest capture.

The houses are situated 80 meters from shore.The neighbourhood has some colonial houses
built in an advanced state of deterioration that formerly belonged to workers of the salinas.
There are some houses in the neighbourhood made of straw and other made and covered
with plates simultaneously. The population of the salinas seeks drinking water in the
neighbourhood Panguila, which is distant about 4 km by motorcycle taxi.

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For household use, the population uses water from the ponds. Household garbage will be
buried in holes a few meters of the residences and the other part is placed in the vicinity of
the residences. The housing does not have toilets, so people do it outoors.

The beach of the salinas, although considered as the "graveyard of ships", is quite a tourist
spot frequented by swimmers from the city of Luanda. On the other hand by its geographical
position (isolation), it is attended by several couples who seek peace and privacy on the site.
There is a tourist resort "Sol Mar" in a state of abandonment. The neighbourhood benefits
from two mobile phone networks owned by Unitel and Movicel that work in perfect listening
conditions. The neighbourhood of the salinas in colonial times was considered to be one of
the largest farming areas of salt and fishing in the province of Luanda.

Currently there are plans of the Provincial Government for the construction of major tourism
infrastructures, including restaurants and inns.

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Province of Luanda
(See photos in Annex 9)

L1 – Bengo River L2 – Port of Luanda L3 – Mussulo Island


L4 – Buraco L5 – Barra do Kwanza L6 – Sobe e Desce
L7 – Sangano L8 – Cabo Ledo L9 – Sete irmãos
L10 - São Brás Beach L11 - Kitoba

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4.4. Province of Luanda

As the fishing political and economic center of the country, it is served by two artisanal
fishing infrastructures, one located on Cape Island in the rehabilitation phase and another
nearing completion in the community of Buraco. There are other infrastructures for small
scale fishing in the area of Sarico and Barra do Bengo, in the municipality of Cacuaco, which
are directly managed by cooperatives of artisanal fisheries.

Luanda has more than 10,000 fishermen and a fleet of about 1,600 vessels of all kinds. There
are 38 artisinal fisheries cooperatives registered at the Institute for Development of
Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture (IDPAA). Luanda employs the largest number of people
in processes related to fishing and fish trading.

Luanda is still considered the area of the largest trade of fishery product,s giving it to you,
and its inhabitants economic potential and family income that is dedicated to fishing
activities (see the main fishing communities in Luanda in Annex 4.)

Luanda is currently the center of the political and administrative activities of artisanal
fishing, so the related institutions and fishermen in isolation or organized in cooperatives are
in full operation.

 Site L1 – Bengo River

The L1 site is located in the municipality of Cacuaco. The access is from the police station of
Cacuaco, across the road, dirt road partially degraded. In dry season access can be made by
any vehicle, in the rainy season access it is only possible with motorized-wheel drive (4x4).

 Environmental Characterisation

The predominant soils are alluvial river soils and sandy soils (Psamo-fersiálicos). The river
alluvial soils are generally of of medium and fine textures occurring in large areas subject to

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prolonged flooding, or even permanent, which are influenced by hydromorphism. Near the
mouth or the coast, under the influence of marine water tables, there is the incidence of
halomorfismo and salt alluvials. Sandy soils have their origin in the Pleistocene quartz
sediments and are also of medium and fine textures. Due to the sandy configuration of the
mouth and tongue, the ground is quite susceptible to erosion.

Along the river and the beach, the soil is green coloured, and this is due to the presence of
water hyacinths plants (floating plants), which influence the colour change of the soil.

The vegetation along the shore of the Bengo river is predominated by the formations of
mangroves, savanna trees, shrubs and grassy. The main plant species were identified:
Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophora racemosa, Hyphaene guineensis, Coco nucifera, Canavalia
sp. and grasses of various species, highlighting the predominance of species of Eichinochloa
spp.

The mouth of the Bengo river is permanent, the estuarine system houses a diversity of birds
and fishes, which use the system as a point of feeding, nesting and development.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of the olive ridley and boa
constrictors. Regarding the class of invertebrates one registers the presence of crab, shrimp,
lobster, squid, cuttlefish and oysters.

In terms of avifauna, it is noted that a large species diversity can be pointed, including
resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for rest and
food. Among these one can mention the presence of royal heron, small heron , cattle egret,
seagulls, royal tern.

In terms of ichthyofauna, one highlights the presence of a huge diversity of marine and
freshwater species, especially the commercial: croaker, halibut, skate, catfish, barracuda,
pink dentex, mullet, mackerel, sardines, grouper, pungo, tuna, pink dentexs seabreams (in
the cold months), lobster, etc.

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The presence of marine mammals is noteworthy since cetaceans are present throughout the
Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and the common
dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The inhabitants of the beach of the fishermen are mostly from the provinces of Bengo and
Zaire, and a minority from the Kwanza Sul. The beach was founded in early 1985 by
fishermen from Ambriz who settled in that place in search of better conditions for fishing.
Currently there are no concrete data about the region's population, but the estimated
number is about 1,500 inhabitants. The population of the fishermen's village is dedicated
mainly to artisanal fisheries, where practitioners are men and women responsible for
processing and trading of fish.

Traditional agriculture is another source of livelihood, though little practiced by the local
population. In the neighbourhood there are some popular employees who work in public
and private institutions in Luanda.

The artisanal fishing occupies a prominent place to catch fish. There are 287 fishermen, 403
women fish traders and 105 barges (99 with engine, 3 without engine and 3 catrongas).
Zenza and Bengo are the only fishing cooperatives existing in the studied area. Regarding the
quantities of catches, respondents estimate that the monthly biomass of catching the fish
varies between 1,000 to 3,000 kg/month and the principal species are: pungo, tuna, sea
bass, skate, pink dentexs, eabreams (in the cold months), lobster, grouper, mackerel and
sardines. The months of April to November are the biggest catch of fish, while December to
February are considered the lowest months of capture.

The population of the neighbouhood of the beach depends on the tapped water distributed
by the Municipal Administration of Cacuaco. The irregularity in the distribution of water in
the neighbourhood of the fishing causes the majority of the population to resort to water

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tankers or to the construction of underground deposits. Some people use the river water as
a source for consumption, agricultural irrigation, cloth washing and cars.

The study area is frequented by tourists and swimmers from other neighbouring districts
that use the place for rest, recreation and sport such as football, competition swimming and
fishing.

There are currently programmed master plans for the development of the shoreline as the
construction of hotels and restaurants and some infrastructure for the practice of tourism.
On the other side of the Bengo river, a few houses up to the 3 rd floor are being erected at
the mouth and the beach; these are to be used as beach houses, owned by individuals.

In terms of telecommunications, the population of the district benefits from the services
currently provided by the mobile operators Unitel and Movicel, both in good signalling
condition.

 Site L2 – Port of Luanda (Luanda Island)

This site lies in the district of Ingombota in downtown Luanda and its access is made by
Avenida 4 de Fevereiro.The access conditions are being improved with the implementation
of the restoration project of the Bay of Luanda. The port can be accessed by all types of
vehicles and is located in deep waters so as to provide docking and anchoring of vessels of all
sizes.

 Environmental Characterisation

The Port of Luanda is located in the northern part of the Bay of Luanda with pollution levels
resulted from the various industrial activities and disposal of sewage and stormwater runoff.
The main activities that contribute to the pollution of waters of the Bay of Luanda include
hydrocarbon contamination of the vessels, waste pollution carried by stormwater runoff,
discharges resulting from fishing activity and the wreckage of sunken ships.

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The area of the Port of Luanda is influenced by deep water canals which are usually
composed of sandy sediments and used by different species. The Bay of Luanda, which
includes the Port, covers various aspects of organisms, from plankton, as well as fish that use
it during the spawning and fish-eating birds, as their feeding area.

According to some surveys conducted by the local fishing community, it was possible to
identify the fish of the Carangidae family (mackerel, macoa), Clupeidae (sardines),
Scombridae (tuna), Serranidae (grouper), Muraenidae (moray eel), Sparidae (pink dentexs
seabreams) Sciaenidae (croakers), Diodontidae (balloon fish), Cynoglossidae (sole), and was
fish from the Aemulidae family were also registered, including species of Ethmalosa
fimbriata, Albula vulpes, Trichiurus lepturus. The species mentioned above will be of greater
frequency in the northern Bay (area with greater depths).

The following bird species have been reported: Egretta intermedia; Phalacrocarax lucidus,
Larus cirrocephalus, Ardea cinerea and occasionally Pelecamus onocratalus, although the
number of these species has declined considerably in recent years. Pluvialis lapponica and
Limosa squatarola are found along the shores of the bay. There is also to highlight the
presence of Sterna sandvicensis, Sterna hirundo and Larus vitula. However, there has been a
descent in the number of domestic doves (Columbia livia).

 Social Characterisation

The Port of Luanda is located within an infrastructure with various commercial activities,
tourism and services. According to the Municipal Administration of Ingombota the
population of this municipality at the end of 2010 (now district) was about 570,263
inhabitants. The district population is quite heterogeneous, from various areas of the
country, and its structure is similar to an inverted pyramid, where most of the population is
young, as in the rest of the country. The study area falls within the commune of Patrice
Lumumba, which has an area of 3.20 km2 and at the end of 2010 it had a population of
approximately 229,219 inhabitants spread over five districts: Miramar, Cruzeiro, Nazaré,

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Bungo and Mucesse (Boavista).The total population of the commune tends to decrease as a
re-settlement programs are relocating populations of areas of risk to other areas in the
province of Luanda.

Near the Port one stands out important infrastructures such as the Hotel President, Hotel
Diamante, the headquarters of Angola Telecom, Luanda Railway, Railway Club as well as the
Ministries of Trade, Hotels and Tourism, Environment, Transport and the Secretary of State
for Fisheries.

Today, despite plans developed to build terminals for roll-on/roll-off containers in Luanda,
these have not yet been implemented. There are four terminals in Luanda, which are
Intertransit, Unicargas, SGEP and a conventional pier. The port of Luanda, which operates 24
hours a day, has a dock about 2738 meters divided into seven terminals and a logistics
platform to support the oil industry and it is managed by the Empresa Portuária de Luanda
E.P. It has three tugs with 750 and 2,500 HP. The port has a movement of 1.5 million
tons/year, of which 1.2 million tons/year are imported. The main companies operating in
Angola are Cabotang, Empromar, Sécil Marítima and NDS.

The population of Luanda Island has some fishing and bait collecting (worms) during low
tide. The main areas in the Island are Areia Branca, Salga, Lello and Ponta.

 Site L3 – Mussulo Island

Access to the Mussulo island can be done by sea or land by EN100 deviating in the area of
Ramiros, through the so-called "buraco do Mussulo." This access depends on the state of the
tides and is only used by motor vehicles with 4x4 passing with some difficulty.

 Environmental Characterisation

The Mussulo Lagoon extends over roughly 30 km of the coastline from Barra da Corimba to
Saco dos Flamingos (on the mainland), and throughout the Restinga of Palmeirinhas (coastal

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cord/island barrier), i.e. from Saco dos Flamingos until Ponta do Mussulo. It is a
physiographic complex in constant evolving, from extensive coastal strands and parallel
orientation to the coastline.

The Mussulo lagoon is composed of several dominant geological structures that are
distributed in an alternating fashion: hills, cliffs, dune systems (small dunes), beach area and
shallows (Cassende and Saco dos Flamingos). It is also possible to identify three lines of
intermittent water that flow within the Mussulo Lagoon. These have an important role
because, in addition to being responsible for the transport of sediments, organic material
and fresh water, also function as informal effluents with high potential risk to the Mussulo
Lagoon.

The vegetation of the Isthmus of Mussulo can be characterized into four predominant types:
saltwater wetlands, recognizing important sub-systems like mangrove, steppe, with seagrass
meadows, mud-substrate communities of sandy intertidal areas; dominance of grassy
savanna with Hyphaene gossweileri (matebeira) and scattered shrubs. Plant species that
make up the mangroves are common to this type of habitat, with particular Rhizophora
mangle, Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa.

This system houses a ichthyofaunal diversity, with species of economic interest and
recreational fisheries, which use the system as a point of feeding, spawning and
development. We identified species such as menhaden, sardines, pink dentex, skate,
squatina shark, among others.

Concerning the herpetofauna one can highlight the presence of the olive and green turtle.
Concerning the crustaceans one highlights the presence of the mangrove snail and some
species of crab.

Concerning avifauna, one can observe open beak stork, white pelican, white-faced
cormorants, black-headed herons, royal herons, sacred ibises, among others, using the
system as a point of breeding and feeding, and raptors, insectivorous and granivorous birds.

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There is the presence of marine mammals (cetacean) across the Angolan coast, such as the
fin whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The peninsula under review consists of residential, tertiary facilities in the hotel industry,
fisheries and beaches. The peninsula has an area of approximately 31,169 m2, of which about
half is uninhabited or with low human occupancy. The inhabited areas are primarily
composed of residential areas of low, medium and high income, occupation having been
made in the inside lane of the Bay. The counter-coast, by exposure to currents and winds,
has low occupancy rates. A rough count of residences from the existing satellite image
allowed an estimated number of 8,600 homes in the Peninsula of Mussulo. There are six
hotel establishments located in the northern part of the Peninsula of Mussulo.

There are several fishing communities along the peninsula. The fishing activity is affected by
the high loss of productive assets, mainly caused by sharks, trawlers and ocean currents. This
loss of production occurs mainly from October to March The lack of means of production
does not allow fishermen to move further. Fishing is done with three techniques: mesh,
band-band and angling. The main species caught are cacusso, cod, macoa, small sardines,
sea bass, lobster (from November), mackerel, bearded and streak.

In the area there is the Integral Natural Reserve of the Islet of Birds, however, it is important
to note that part of the Island of Cazanga, including the extreme south, due to its high
ecological value, was proposed by the Center of the School of Environmental Sciences in
2006 to be part of the system of protected areas of the Mussulo Lagoon. Despite prevailing
in the country by law, all islands are considered as reserves.

The networks Unitel and Movicel work in good condition. There is no evidence of mines in
the peninsula.

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 Site L4 – Buraco

Access to the area of Buraco on the island of Mussulo is done through the EN100, having to
divertin the area of Ramiros. To this end, the journey must be done with motor vehicles with
4x4. It is a difficult to access area even for such vehicles.

 Environmental Characterisation

The Buraco is inserted in the Peninsula of Mussulo that belongs to a very complex
physiographic system, supplied with sediment from the Kwanza river (the most important of
Angola). Its extension is approximately 35 m and a width ranging between 100 and 1500 m.

The sandy soils typical of the coastline have medium textures. The vegetation is highly
modified by anthropogenic activities but originally dominated by steppe with dominance of
matebeiras (Hyphaene gossweileri).

The biotic means of Buraco does not differ from those found on the peninsula once it is
inserted therein, except for the plant which has a dominance of matebeiras. In a
summarized way the area of Buraco houses many wildlife species such as terns, gulls,
herons, raptors, fish trade (cacusso, cod, macoa, small sardines, cassava croaker), whales
and many more.

 Social Characterisation

The population in the neighbourhood of Buraco, which is a little further south of the site, is
estimated at 886 inhabitants of which 51.4% of the population are men and 48.6% are
women. The resident population settled there more than 10 years ago in search of better
living conditions along the coast with the aim of practicing the fishing industry. The main
activities on the shoreline are summarized in artisanal fisheries and street vending. There is
also some tents with food for fishermen or visitors. There are 80 fishermen in the district

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and approximately 35 motorized barges. This group of fishermen belongs to four (4)
cooperatives.

The main species caught are as follows: cacusso, macoa, cod, sardines, small croaker,
lobster, mackerel, bearded and streak. The months of May to September are the most catch.
All families in the neighbourhood of Buraco depend primarily on fishing to meet their basic
needs. The population of the district has no access to drinking water or electricity.

In terms of mobile communications, the population of Buraco benefits from the services
currently provided by the operators Unitel and Movicel. There is no place in the area of
cultural and/or historical significance. There are no land mines.

 Site L5 – Barra do Kwanza

Access to the beach at Barra do Kwanza through the north side is via a paved road of 3 km
connected to National Road no. 100, which although passable, is currently in an advanced
state of degradation. Access to the south of that site is made by a 2 km way, which in the
rainy season presents some difficulty of access.

 Environmental Characterisation

Physiographically, Barra do Kwanza presents itself under a flatness in the vicinity of the river
mouth, which is influenced by the sedimentary basin of the Kwanza. One highlights the
existence of cliffs quite pronounced in the extreme north and south with a drop to the sea,
with the presence in some points of a narrow coastal strip.

The predominant soils are alluvial river soils and sandy soils (psamofersiálicos). The river
alluvial soils are generally of of medium and fine textures occurring in large areas subject to
prolonged flooding, or even permanent, which are influenced by hydromorphism. Near the
mouth, under the influence of marine water tables, there is the incidence of halomorfismo
and salt alluvials. Sandy soils have their origin in the Pleistocene quartz sediments and are

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also of medium and fine textures. Due to the sandy configuration of the mouth and tongue,
the ground is quite susceptible to erosion.

The vegetation at the mouth is dominated by mangroves and the predominance of steppic
formations of matebeiras (Hyphaene gossweileri). Mangroves are of tree and shrub type,
with two main species: Rhizophora and Avicennia. These species are characterized by their
pneumatophores and fruits adapted to spread in salty mud. In steppic formations,
characteristics of the coast are the grasses Eragrostis superba, Digitaria milangiana,
Dicanthium papilosum and Heteropogon contortus.

The estuarine system houses an ichthyofaunal diversity, with species of economic interest
and recreational fisheries, which use the system as a point of feeding, spawning and
development.

Concerning the herpetofauna, although sporadic, one can highlight the presence of
crocodiles and in greater number the presence of many green turtles that feed in the
estuary, olive ridleys and leatherbacks that nest on the beaches adjoining the estuary.

In terms of avifauna, it is important to note that a large species diversity can be pointed,
including resident, visiting and seasonal migratory birds, where they find a resting place for
rest and food. Among these one can mention the presence of some waders and terns, with
particular focus on the royal tern and the damara tern which are endangered species and
listed at the red list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (UICN).

The presence of marine mammals highlights the manatees, residents of the Kwanza river,
and with some regularity these can observed at the mouth of that river. Importantly, there is
the presence of cetaceans throughout the Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic
humpback dolphin and the common dolphin.

The Barra do Kwanza is the most northern limit of the Quiçama National Park, which had its
recognition in 1957, and its area covers approximately 960,000 hectares. The boundaries of

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the park considering the coastal zone are defined by the northern mouth of the Kwanza river
in the south by the mouth of the Longa river, and west by the Atlantic Ocean.

 Social Characterisation

The inhabitants of Barra do Kwanza are mostly from the island of Luanda, who settled in that
place in the early 50s. Currently the number of the population is estimated at 213
inhabitants who live mainly from fishing and trade.

The houses of fishermen, totaling 49, are located about 150 meters from the beach and
others along the road linking the diversion to the mouth of the Kwanza river. There are no
land mines in the area.

 Site L6 – Sobe e Desce

Access to the Sobe e Desce beach is via a dirt road that in rainy season becomes necessary to
use 4x4 vehicles. Access by sea may be an option, unless the sea conditions are calm.

 Environmental Characterisation

The Sobe e Desce beach ends in a pronounced cliff that is from gently rolling slopes that
characterize the landscape. The soils of the area are brown calcareous soils in the highlands
and hillsides and some spread of slum orange soil. The calcareous soils in the area have
yellowish tones and textures averages. Sandy soils typical of the coastline with medium to
fine textures are also found in the area.

The predominant vegetation in the area is savannah with the presence of Euphorbia
conspicua. There are Acacia welwitchi and Aloe zebrina. The grassy layer is composed of
several species with a predominance of Eragrotis superb. The beaches in the Sobe e Desce
area are potential fishing grounds, where the seasonal presence of fish and shellfish should
be considered.

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In terms of avifauna, most of the birdlife are casual visitors who use the beach as feeding
and resting grounds. The common tern (Sterna hirundo) is very common. In terms of
herpetofauna, the most common species are the olive Ridley and leatherback turtle, which
use the beach as nesting ground.

Whales can often be observed, with emphasis on different species of dolphins that come
remarkably close to the coast. Note that this site is within the limits of Quiçama National
Park.

 Social Characterisation

The inhabitants of the Sobe e Desce beach are mostly from the Sumbe municipality
specifically from the Kicombo and Ngangula communes who settled on the area in 1992
looking for better areas for fishing. Currently the population is estimated in 360 inhabitants,
of which about 93 are artisanal fishermen.

The main activity of the region is essentially artisanal fisheries, the catch of biomass is
estimated at 27,500 kg/month and the principal species are: pungo, black and white sea
bass, grouper, hake, lobster etc. The months of May through December are the biggest for
fish catch, while from January to April are considered the lowest months for fishing.

In terms of telecommunications, the village benefits from mobile phone networks from
Unitel and Movicel operators which work in perfect condition. There are no land mines in
the region or mined fields.

 Site L7 – Sangano

Access to the Sangano beach is extremely easy and is made from the National Road no. 100
which allows traffic to all types of vehicles to the beach.

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 Environmental Characterisation

The Sangano beach is inserted into a large pocket beach, finished at the end by rocky cliffs
exposed to coastal dynamics. It is possible to note a gently rolling topography with several
water lines pending towards the ocean.

The soils of the area are brown calcareous soils in the highlands and hillsides and some
spread of slum orange soil. The calcareous soils in the area have yellowish tones and
textures averages. Sandy soils typical of the coastline with medium to fine textures are also
present.

The predominant vegetation in the area is savannah with the presence of Euphorbia
conspicuous and Sterculia sp. Along the beach exotic vegetation influenced by anthropogenic
changes can be found.

The beaches in the Sangano area are potential fishing grounds, where the seasonal presence
of fish and seafood as pungos, sole and lobster is common. In terms of avifauna, most are
casual visitors who use the beach as feeding and resting grounds. The common tern (Sterna
hirundo) is very common.

Cetacean can often be observed, with emphasis on different species of dolphins that come
remarkably close to the coast. Note that this site is within the limits of Quiçama National
Park.

 Social Characterisation

The inhabitants of Sangano come mainly from the municipalities of Porto Amboim and
Sumbe who settled in the late 80's looking for the best locations for fishing. Currently the
number of the population is estimated of 317 inhabitants. Most of the population of the
community is young with ages ranging from 25 to 40 years.

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The main activity of the region is essentially artisanal fishing developed by 122 fishermen,
whose fish catches is estimated at 6,400 kg/month and the main species are: pungo, black
and white sea bass, grouper, hake and mackerel. The months of May through December are
the biggest catch of fish, while from January to April are considered the lowest months for
fishing.

In relation to tourism, the main highlights are the presence of the Dolphin resort, with
restaurant and bungalows, and the complex Pirate, places most frequented by tourists from
different regions.

In terms of telecommunications, the area benefits from mobile phone networks owned from
Unitel and Movicel operating in perfect conditions. There are no land mines in the study
area or mined fields.

 Site L8 – Cabo Ledo

This site is easily accessible. Although this is done by a dirt road (unpaved road) it is passable
throughout the year and does not require 4x4 vehicles.

 Environmental Characterisation

The beach of Cabo Ledo is set within a bay that is extended from the southern part of the
region Sangano until it ends in the rocky cliffs exposed to the coastal dynamics. The soils of
the area are brown calcareous soils in the highlands and hillsides and some spread of slum
orange soil. The calcareous soils in the area have yellowish tones and textures averages.
Sandy soils typical of the coastline with medium to fine textures are also present in the area.

The predominant vegetation in the area is savannah with the presence of Euphorbia
conspicuous and Sterculia sp. Along the beach exotic vegetation influenced by anthropogenic
changes can be found.

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The beaches in the Sangano area are potential fishing grounds, where the seasonal presence
of fish and seafood as pungos, sole and lobster is common. In terms of avifauna, most are
casual visitors who use the beach as feeding and resting grounds. The common tern (Sterna
hirundo) is very common.

Cetacean can often be observed, with emphasis on different species of dolphins that come
remarkably close to the coast. Note that this site is within the limits of Quiçama National
Park.

 Social Characterisation

The beach of Cabo Ledo was founded in 1985 by three (3) fishermen from Kwanza Sul.
Currently, the population in the area is estimated at 681 inhabitants. Most of the population
of this area is young with their ages ranging from 25 to 40 years and about 85% comes from
the Kwanza Sul.

The main activity of the region is essentially artisanal fisheries developed by 189 fishermen
and 293 women fish sellers. The monthly biomass capture in this area is estimated at around
122,609 kg/month and the main species are: pungo, tuna, sea bass, snappers seabreams (in
the cold months), grouper, mackerel, sardines and lobster. The months of May to November
are the biggest catch, while December to April are considered the lowest months for fishing.

The region of Cabo Ledo has a priceless historical value as in it landed in 1648 fleet from to
that recovered Angola for the Portuguese ruling, after seven years under Dutch ruling.

The Lighthouse (old) and the quarry are as important and historical points of this area. Cabo
Ledo was defined by the Angolan Executive as a reserved area to promote tourism.

In relation to telecommunications, in the area both Unitel and Movicel networks are
operating in perfect conditions. There are no land mines in the study area or mined fields.

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 Site L9 – Sete irmãos

Access to the Sete Irmãos beach is only possible with 4X4 vehicles and access during the
rainy extremely difficult.

 Environmental Characterisation

The beach of Sete Irmãos has an extensive coastline that stretches 22 kilometres to the Cape
Cabo Ledo. The coastal strip is quite wide, flanked by areas of great difference in level, and is
almost parallel to the shoreline. In the coastal foothills, the characteristics of sandy beach
are clear, and are influenced by coastal systems, which constantly promotes an increase or
regression of the shoreline.

The predominant vegetation on the beach is usually rhizomatous, creeping or prostrate,


fixing the soil sandy, unstable, highly resistant to salinity. Formations Canavalia maritime,
often associated formations Ipomoea pes-caprae - Cyperus maritimus, Scaevola plumieri,
Ipomoea stalonifera. In drier parts of beach sand is observed the presence of: Zoleya
(Trianthema) pentandra, Tribulos terrestris, and others. A little farther inland in finer sands,
especies found include especially GRAMINAE and CYPERACEAE, and Sporobolus robustus,
Eragostis fascicularis, Juncellus laevigatus, Jardinia congolensis, etc. On the Fringe ecotone
adjacent to the land-sea formations are observed and include Hyphaene gossweileri,
commonly known as matebeiras that characterize the landscape.

The beach of Sete Irmãos has a fishing potential, where the seasonal presence of fish and
seafood as well as pungos and lobster should be considered.

In terms of avifauna, most are casual visitors who use the beach as feeding and resting
grounds. The gulls, common terns and some waders are very common.

In terms of herpetofauna, the most common species are the olive Ridley and leatherback
turtle, which during the reproductive season are present in considerable densities. The

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presence of small cetaceans is also common, including the common dolphins. Note that this
site is located within the limits of the Quiçama National Park.

 Social Characterisation

There is a small village consisting of fishermen and their immediate families. The beach is
often visited by tourists and fishing enthusiasts. The telecommunications are covered by
Unitel, but only in certain areas. There are no land mines in the area.

 Site L10 – São Brás Beach

The access road to the beach of São Brás is through the National Road 100 with a length of
approximately 15 km. In the dry season the road is passable, but in the rainy season access
becomes more difficult.

 Environmental Characterisation

The São Brás Cape is evidenced by a steep cliff pending into the ocean in the far North and
South. Access from the National Road divert features a rolling terrain, with several lines that
drain the rainwater runoff through the cliff. In the coastal foothills, a sandy strip features the
São Brás beach, the area is influenced by coastal systems, which from time to time form a
large pond, the pond is known as São Brás.

Generally speaking, direction north of the marked coordinated, part of the slope of the cliff
is very exposed to erosion while southbound the slope is more protected by the presence of
vegetation.

The soils of the area are brown calcareous soils in the highlands and sandy soils. The
calcareous soils in the area have yellowish tones and average textures. The sandy soils
typical of the coastline have medium to fine textures.

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The predominant vegetation in area is the savannah with the presence of Euphorbia
conspicua. There are also Acacia welwitchi and Aloe zebrina. The grassy layer is composed of
several species.

The beaches of São Brás are potential fishing grounds, where the seasonal presence of fish
and seafood as southern meagres, lobsters, shrimps and crabs may be considered. In terms
of avifauna, these are mostly casual visitors, that use the beaches for feeding and resting. A
large presence of common stern is usual.

Concerning the presence of turtles, it is notorious the nesting of olive turtles and
leatherbacks along the adjacent beaches. Note that this site is within the limits of the
Quiçama National Park.

The presence of marine mammals is noteworthy since cetaceans are present throughout the
Angolan coast, such as the whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and the common dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The inhabitants of the São Brás beach are mostly from the province of Kwanza Sul, including
Porto Amboim, Sumbe and Quicombo areas. Currently the population is estimated at 773
inhabitants, about 203 are residents and 33 occasional fishers.

Regarding the fish caught in the area: cod, southern meagre, tuna, cassava croaker, white
and black skate, barnard dentex (in the cold months), lobster, white grouper, malesso,
among others.

The Bay of São Brás features beaches frequented by tourists and the village benefits from
the mobile operator Unitel. There are no land mines in the area.

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 Site L11 – Kitoba

Access to the beach of Kitoba is possible only on foot or by sea. The access with vehicles is
only possible to reach the fishing village that lies just over 200 meters from the beach. To
the village, and from the National Road no. 100 is approximately 7 km in a dirt road.

 Environmental Characterisation

The Kitoba beach includes a short stretch of sand bordered by a cliff drop into the interior.
At the extremes are notorious steeps. In the central part, the terrain is moderately
undulating, cut by lines of natural drainage.

The soils of the area are brown calcareous soils in the highlands and sandy soils in coastal
areas.

The predominant vegetation in the savannah area is the presence of Euphorbia conspicua.
There are also Acacia welwitchi and Aloe zebrina. The Kitoba beach is has an important
fishing potential, where the seasonal presence of fish and seafood as well as pungos,
croakers and lobster should be considered.

In terms of avifauna, these are mostly casual visitors, that use the beaches for feeding and
resting. A large presence of common stern is usual. Concerning the presence of turtles, it is
notorious the nesting of olive turtles and leatherbacks along the adjacent beaches. Note that
this site is within the limits of the Quiçama National Park.

 Social Characterisation

The inhabitants of the Kitoba beach are mostly from the Sumbe who arrived in 1989 looking
for better fishing locations. There are in total 301 people. Most of the population of this area
is young whose age is around 20 to 35 years.

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The main activity of the region is essentially artisanal fisheries developed by 164 fishermen
and 71 women fish traders. The fish catch of the region is estimated to be at about 36,000
kg/month and the main species are: white croaker, halibut, skate, grouper, mackerel and
snappers seabreams. The months of June to December, are the biggest catch of fish, while
from January to May are considered the lowest months for fishing.

The region has a beautiful bay with beautiful beaches and it is visited by few tourists.

The village benefits from the mobile network coverage from Unitel, but the signal is weak.
There are no land mines in the area.

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Province of Kwanza Sul


(See photos in Annex 8)

KS1 – Longa River KS2 – Três Pontas Cape


KS3 – Bay of Porto Amboim KS4 – Ponta do Morro do Quissonde
KS5 – Keve River KS6 – Ponta da Balela
KS7 – Ngunza River KS8 – Quicombo River

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4.5. Province of Kwanza Sul

The capital of the province of Kwanza Sul is the city of Sumbe. It has an area estimated at
about 58,698 km² which constitutes 4.7% of the national territory. The province is made
administratively by twelve (12) municipalities namely: the municipalities of Amboim,
Cassongue, Cela, Conda, Ebo, Libolo, Mussende, Porto Amboim, Quilenda, Quibala, Seles and
Sumbe.

According to the report of the Institute for Development of Artisanal Fisheries and
Aquaculture (IDPAA) December 2011, there are four (4) infrastructures of artisanal fisheries
in this province, two located in the fishing community of Quicombo, one in Carimba and
another one in the area of the beach of Frimar. But only the infrastructures of Quicombo are
fully operational and the others in a stopped state.

The province is potentially rich in biological resources and hence the existence of a strong
commercial fishing. The community of Quicombo and Karimba are the main fish landing
centers in the province and as a result of this, fish and seafood markets are quite strong.

Coastal residents of this province live primarily from fish. The region of Porto Amboim has
about 750 fishermen and an equal number in Quicombo. Currently the province has 24
fishing cooperatives duly organized and fully functioning. The fishing fleet of the province
consists of 450 vessels including 10 cabinadas of 9.60 meters in length received from the
Recovery Program for Local Fishing sea (see the main fishing communities in Kwanza Sul in
Annex 5).

 Site KS1 – Longa River

Access is poor. To reach the site there is a deviation from the National Road 100 after the
bridge of the Longa river by a long dirt road. Deviation in EN100 to the mouth of the river is
about 1.3 km. It requires the use of traction cars, being however very difficult in the rainy
season. To access the isthmus of Longa it is necessary to resort to a vessel.

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 Environmental Characterisation

The region of the mouth of the Longa river is inserted into the long coastal peneplain
without any expression on the relief. However the extreme north and south areas come
from reliefs outlined by wavy lines that serve as drainage for the bat of Longa and to the
Ocean.

The predominant soils are alluvial rain and also of brown limestone. The alluvial soils are
associated with low plains that border the river on the coast and are formed by recent
sediments. They have medium textures interspersed with layers of sand. The soils are
affected by downstream hydromorphism, and there are extensive wetlands. Nearest the
mouth, under the influence of groundwater, it is a marine environment affected by
halomorphism.

The predominant vegetation in the area is welwitschii Setaria savannah and mangrove. In
the savannah there is the predominance of Euphorbia conspícua, Acacia welwitchi, Aloe
zebrina and Hyphaene gossweileri (matebeiras). The grassy layer is composed of several
species. At the mouth of the river there is the development of mangroves of tree and shrub
type, with two main species: Rhizophora and Avicennia. These species are characterized by
their pneumatophores and fruits adapted to spread in salty mud. The fact that they have
arc-shaped roots means it causes the mangrove to play an important role in the setting of
margins estuaries. On the beach there is occasionally the presence of the succulent
Sesuvium portulacastrum.

Concerning fish resources, one should mention the presence of crustaceans, with emphasis
on lobster, and fish species with high commercial value, especially pink dentex and southern
meagre in cold weather.

Regarding birds, the isthmus at the mouth of Longa provides condition and houses many
waders, seagulls, fish eagles, palm nut vultures, herons, terns and others.

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One should note that the Longa beach is extremely important since there is the presence of
sea turtles nesting at high densities, especially the olive Ridley and it is the southern
boundary of the Quiçama National Park.

 Social Characterisation

The population of this area is quite buoyant. There are seven saw houses of the fishermen
and cattle herders. The beach is usually frequented by 28 anglers owning 10 vessels, of
which 3 have engine and 6 have no engine. There are two tourist centers, Longa Lodge and
Último Horizonte, the latter is not in operation.

The Longa beach has a conservation project of sea turtles developed by the Faculty of
Sciences of the University Agostinho Neto and in partnership with the Ministry of
Environment. One can note in the place two other projects under consideration that have to
do with the identification/preparation of the area for farming purposes and in medium term
it will be implemented for the cultivation of fruit trees and raising cattle. According to the
information obtained in interviews there is a local lobster vivarium being developed for sale
in hotels and restaurants in Luanda.

There is place of cultural importance in the study area and the mobile operators Unitel and
Movicel work in perfect condition. There are no land mines in the area of the study.

 Site KS2 – Três Pontas Cape

The beach analysed is approximately 15 km from the National Road 100. Access to the Três
Pontas Cape is via a dirt road in poor storage conditions and difficult orientation due to the
numerous paths between the National Road and the beach.

The social survey was done to the north and south where some people were found. The
access to neighbourhoods is through the interiorof the farms that have access gates. Due to
the poor state of the roads, it is only possible to reach the beach with 4x4.

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 Environmental Characterisation

The relief between the road and the beach is gently undulating with steep slopes with
numerous lines of drainage runoff to the ocean. Most of these lines ends in pronounced
cliffs along the coastline. At the foot of these cliffs one can see the presence of a narrow
coastal strip bordering the ecotone land-sea.

The soils of the area are brown and red calcareous and sandy soils. The calcareous soils in
the area have red colours and average textures. The sandy soils typical of the coastline have
medium textures. The soils of the cliff have vegetation in great parte of the hillside, which
means they are not very exposed to erosion. However, despite the width of the beach at
high agitated tides (calemas) or very high, the sea can reach the hill.

The predominant vegetation in the area is savannah with the presence of Acacia welwitchi.
There is also the Euphorbia conspicua and Aloe zebrina associated with a grassy savannah.
There are spaced trees of considerable size as the baobab (Andansonia digitata).On the
beach there is occasionally the succulent Sesuvium portulacastrum.

Concerning fisheries resources, one should note the ones with commercial value with the
presence of lobster and white grouper.

The presence of turtles increases the rate of biological diversity, the area being considered
as potential for spawning, primarily of the olive turtle.

The presence of birds is based on those associated with marine and coastal environments,
with emphasis on some waders, terns and seagulls.

The presence of marine mammals is noteworthy since cetaceans are present throughout the
Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humpack dolphin and the common
dolphin.

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 Social Characterisation

The social survey was carried out on the beaches north and south of Três Pontas Cape, and
inhabitants were found. One should highlight that there are no communities in the cape
near the coast, that because of the farms that surround it. The communities found were
those of the Ngola beach (north) and the Calele beach (south).

The first inhabitants of the Ngola Lombo beach come mainly from Sumbe that arrived in
1989 in search of the best places for fishing. They are in total 127 people. Fishing activities
are carried out very near the coast and there is a total of 62 fishermen.

The Calele beach has borders with the southern area of the tourist area of Bambwa and the
north borders with the Ngola Lombo beach. Near the Três Pontas beach, three years ago,
the beach was very crowded by more than 500 fishermen. This number has decreased
considerably because of the farms near the site giving access to the beach. We identified 13
people who live only from fishing. There are 8 fishermen on the beach and 5 women fish
traders.

The Ngola beach houses are made of wood and clay and are located roughly 100 meters
from the coast. The mines are far from the coast, more than 10 km and on the other hand
there are areas of grassland in the study area.

There is no place of historical or cultural importance. There are no tourist activities due to
difficult access to the beaches, although the beaches are conducive to such.

The area benefits from the mobile operator Unitel, which operates in perfect conditions.
There are no land mines or mined fields in the study area.

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 Site KS3 – Bay of Porto Amboim

To reach the site, the access has acceptable conditions, using a paved road.

 Environmental Characterisation

Physiographically the bay of Porto Amboim is in a flat valley on the east, north and south
slope, wrapped by wavy relieves at shares exceeding 50 m, with pending eastward. Thus,
there is a drainage river through the relief towards the coastal zone.

The soils that characterize the region are predominantly clay (brown limestone) going almost
to the sea in the extreme north and south, with the general dar-grey colour to olive and fine
textures. These soils are considered easy and with good crop management, with a
reasonable level of fertility and able to regulate the water usable. The clay fraction is
essentially siallitcs with a high proportion of the 2:1 minerals. The sandy soils typical of the
coastline have medium textures. The width of the beach is small and in some areas the sea is
already eroding the line of clay soils.

The predominant vegetation in the area is the savannah with the predominance of the grass
Setaria welwitschii, and some matebeiras Hyphaene gossweileri. It is also common the
presence of Aloe zebrina in the area. Closer to the beach there are some trailing plants such
as the succulent Sesuvium portulacastrum and the cactus Opuntia s p.

In terms of fishery resources there is a relative variety in the area, especially the cassava
croaker, the senegale tonguesole, the cod, the white grouper, sardines, lobsters and more.

In terms of avifauna, we highlight the presence of some waders, terns, seagulls and
cormorants, with a particular emphasis on the the common tern.

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The presence of marine mammals is noteworthy since cetaceans are present throughout the
Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and the common
dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

In the area of the bay of Porto Amboim we identified three communities: Gilco, União and
Torre do Tombo.

The inhabitants of the Gilco community, as the community of Union, mainly come from the
neighbouring districts located in the town, including Lembrança, Tango, 4 de Fevereiro,
Cavila, Parque and others come from the communes of Ngangula, the municipality of
Sumbe. Currently the number of population of the community of Gilco is estimated at 423
inhabitants and the one of the community of Union is 39 inhabitants. The inhabitants of the
community of Torre do Tombo are mostly from the neighbourhoods located in the
headquarters of the Municipality, namely, Km 40 and Km 70, Capolo and others are from
Gabela, the municipality of Amboim, and a very small number comes from Namibe.
Currently the population is estimated at 634 inhabitants.

Gilco and União share the same beaches, the same fishing routes and the same sites of sale.
This beach is frequented by about 750 fishermen including the hosts, which can be
considered as the point of convergence between the fishermen of the bay and others from
the coast of Porto Amboim.

There are no land mines and no grazing area near the coast, although there is in the town
population practicing agriculture and livestock. The main activity in the area is essentially
artisanal fisheries.

Most inhabitants of the communities use individual latrines. Household waste is buried in
holes a few meters of residences and is burned elsewhere. Waste resulting from cleaning
and preparing fish is thrown onto the beach and/or sea.

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The Palace of the administration of the municipality of Porto Amboim is located in the
neighbourhood of Gilco. Beyond the palace the jetties of the fishing companies of Peskuanza
and of Cassongue represent places of cultural importance in the city of Porto Amboim and
the community of Gilco in particular. Near the community of União there are the fishing
ruins of Senhores Jamba and Magalhães Pedro and the former salinas of Senhora Maria
Falcão in an inoperable state; the important places in that area.

Tourism has great influence in this city. In addition to the beaches it is notorious the
affluence of boating. In the area near the beach of the community of União, the best
restaurants are located in the city of Porto Amboim. The beach of Bambwa is the highest
point of tourism and is frequented by many bathers.

The community of the beach of Torre do Tombo is little frequented by swimmers because of
the depth at that location. The municipal administration of Porto Amboim places prohibition
signs for bathers. The lighthouse of Torre do Tombo is the highest point and of vital
importance to the cultural history of the people of Porto Amboim and in particular to the
population of Torre do Tombo. The provincial command of the Fiscal Police is located a few
meters from the beach of Torre do Tombo.

There is the possibility of building a fishing port in the coming years. From the information
obtained, social and topographical survey has already been done.

The mobile operators Unitel and Movicel work in perfect conditions and there are no land
mines or mined fields in this area.

 Site KS4 – Ponta do Morro do Quissonde

The access part is considered to be reasonable. There is a dirt road in good condition until
we reach the vicinity of Morro. To get to Ponta do Quissonde, access becomes less
favourable, through a shortcut.

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 Environmental Characterisation

The Quissonde Hill encompasses a relatively undulating plateau, which ends with a fairly
sharp cliff into the sea. In the north an environment anthropically modified by the dredging
process is notorious, which includes a broad sandy area. The presence of a water line in
periods of high rainfall runoff, channels the water to the sea. In the south part of the
Quissonde Hill, adjacent to this cliff, there is an extensive range of nature with a sandy
beach.

The predominant soils are calcareous and reddish brown, which generally have a yellowish
to reddish colour with fine textures. The sandy soils typical of the coastline have medium
textures. The edge of the cliff goes down to the sea and is naturally subject to erosion.

The predominant vegetation in the area is the savannah with the predominance of the
Euphorbia conspicua. Larger trees exist as the Andansonia digitata and Sterculia setigera,
and shrubs such as the Balanites angolensis and the Acacia welwitchi. The grassy layer is
composed of several species of Aloe zebrina although this is not abundant. The bushes grow
along the slope and propagate up to the level of the sea, there is also development of the
grassy stratum at the beach.

In terms of common birds there is the presence of migratory marine birds such as the
common tern. Species are cape glossy starlings, seagulls and herons along the coastline.

 Social Characterisation

This area is uninhabited by presenting a very rugged terrain that leads directly into the sea.
The beach was once frequented by 329 fishermen, but due to the construction of
infrastructures by the companies Paenal and Hereema, people stopped to fish at that
location and were moved to the bay of Porto Amboim and the Keve river.

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The mines are very distant from the site, i.e. about 5 km from the beach of Quissonde. There
is no farm, despite the neighbouring population of cattle to be creative, corrals and pasture
area are about 6 km from the study area.

There is no tourism due to location and access, but we highlight the tourism potential of the
area, especially the beaches south of the ponta de Quissonde.

The Lighthouse of Quissonde is an historical-cultural component of Ponta do Quissonde. The


mobile operators Unitel and Movicel work in perfect condition and there are no land mines
in the study area.

 Site KS5 – Mouth of the Keve River

Access to this area is done through two routes namely: a dirt road in good condition by
entering the complex of Baião Carrapicho, through Kiassala (12 km of National Road 100)
and another (alternative) is the entrance to the neighbourhood of Pinda, across a road
(shortcut) in poor condition (impassable when it rains), past the old port of Pinda.

 Environmental Characterisation

The mouth of the Keve river is inserted into a floodplain, with large areas of riverine
flooding. The north and south extremes characterize the rough wavy reliefs, with lines drawn
by rainfall and wind erosion with pending to the Keve river basin. The coastal strip is
influenced by the deposition of sediments originated either from the river and the coastal
dynamics.

The predominant soils are brown calcareous soils that generally have a yellowish colour and
fine textures. The sandy soils typical of the coastline have medium textures.

The vegetation along the river to the vicinity of the mouth consists of grassy savannahs with
the presence of Euphorbia conspicua, the prairies and the mangroves. The meadows are

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dominated by Cyperus papyrus. Mangroves are of tree and shrub type, with two main
species: Rhizophora and Avicennia and are already degraded in many places.

The most important fishery resources in this area are oysters, lobster, white groupers,
swords, croakers, cacussos, among others.

In terms of bird species one observes the heron, but the presence of mangroves admits the
existence of a large associated biodiversity, such as terns, herons, raptors among others.

The presence of marine mammals is noteworthy since cetaceans are present throughout the
Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humbacked dolphin and the common
dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

Near the mouth of the Keve river there are two neighbourhoods: the neighbourhood of the
Keve river and the neighbourhood of Chicucula These have 187 and 169 people respectively,
with a total of 98 fishermen. The inhabitants of the neighbourhood of the Keve river come
from the interior of Porto Amboim particular Kiassala, Cambulo, Pinda and Camulo that in
30s settled in that place in search of better conditions for fishing. The inhabitants of
Chicucula come from the surrounding neighbourhoods of Nhengo, Puto and Panda, who
settled in the 60s to also engage in fishing.

The houses are located very close to the estuary and the coastline, i.e. roughly 100 meters.
Livestock is the second activity after fishing, while subsistence farming is practiced mostly by
women, near the mouth of the Keve river where they grow corn, sweet potato, and
reindeer.

Household waste is buried in holes a few meters from the houses and another part is
burned. Waste resulting from cleaning and preparing fish is thrown onto the beach and/or
sea.

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The beaches near the mouth of the river are frequented by many tourists especially at
weekends and holidays. It is here where people hold their traditional festivals, called
"Kitutas."

Near the mouth there is the ancient port of Pinda that in past centuries served as a landing
spot for the Portuguese and the departure of slaves of Kwanza Sul to Europe and America.
Currently, it is still visible at the site of the ruins, and many times the municipal
administration of Porto Amboim uses the site to celebrate the holiday of November 11, the
day of Independence of Angola.

Unitel is the only mobile operator that provides a communication signal in perfect listening
conditions. Movicel works with some irregularities. There are no land mines in the study
area or mined fields.

 Site KS6 – Ponta da Balela

To get to the beach, access is via a dirt road in poor condition. This allows access only to
reach the top of the hill about 100 meters. The ascent to the coastline is only possible on
foot.

 Environmental Characterisation

Between the National Road 100 and Ponta da Balela the relief is very expressive and wavy
shape, with the presence of numerous valleys which show the irregularity of the
physiographic region. The slope has a small tendency for the sea, along the coastline where
it ends in a cliff with evidence of erosion. At the foot of the cliff there is a sandy beach, low
spread between high tide and the cliff, influenced by coastal dynamics.

The predominant soils are brown calcareous soils, which generally have a yellowish to olive
colour and fine textures. The sandy soils typical of the coastline have medium textures. The

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width of the beach is small while the slope of the cliff is subject to erosion, although most of
it is protected by vegetation.

The predominant vegetation in the area is the savannah with the presence of Acacia
welwitchi and Aloe zenbrina, disseminated in a grassy stratum composed of several species.

In terms of avifauna there is the presence of occasional visiting birds using the beach as a
feeding point or to rest. They are commonly observed species: swallows, seagulls, herons,
crows and others.

The presence of marine mammals is noteworthy since cetaceans are present throughout the
Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humback dolphin and the common
dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

In this site there are two communities, one in Ponta da Balela and another further south.
The community of Ponta da Balela is dedicated to just fishing. They are in total 60 people of
which 20 are fishermen. The inhabitants of the community to the south called Pepe are in
total 284, where about 65% are not permanent residents. Most of the inhabitants of this
town comes from the neighbourhoods located along the road Sumbe Porto Amboim, such as
Nhengo, Balela, Puto and Panda. The first inhabitants settled in this place in 1986 with the
aim of engaging fishing. Pepe's population is mainly fishing, it does not practice agriculture
or livestock. Fishing is practiced by 48 fishermen.

Household waste is buried in holes a few meters of residences and is burned elsewhere.
Waste resulting from cleaning and preparing fish is thrown onto the beach and/or sea.

The area with its natural beauty is conducive to the practice of tourism, but unfortunately it
is not frequented by tourists due to poor access conditions.

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There are no places with historical or cultural significance. Communications are totally
disabled for two telephone operators. In general one can say that there is no telephone
network coverage within the neighbourhood. To communicate with Unitel, the population
has to move about 1.5 km away from the neighbourhood. There are no land mines in the
study area or mined fields.

 Site KS7 – Ngunza River (Sumbe)

The access to the neighbourhood is via a dirt road in acceptable condition.

 Environmental Characterisation

The mouth of the Ngunza River has two coastlines that make up the sandy beach from
shore, influencing water movement in the extreme north and south of the mouth. The area
is part of the mouth and thus influenced by the hydrodynamics of the river, with the
potential surface flooding over the banks and the creation of floodplain areas. An extensive
flattening horizon is observed.

The predominant soils are lithosols or xero-lithosols and are related to some areas of the
coastline and rugged surfaces that surround the alluvial plains. The sandy soils typical of the
coastline have medium textures.

The predominant vegetation in the area of the river mouth is meadows, subject to flooding,
with the abundant occorrence of Cyperus papyrus. The area has a high incidence of
anthropogenic cultures, the most obvious being the palm (Elaeis guineensis), banana (Musa
sp.) and sugarcane (Saccharum sp.).

In terms of avifauna there is the presence of birds associated with wet environments such as
gray heron, little egret, black-headed heron, among others. It is also common to observe sea
birds that use the coastal strip as a point of rest or food, and among them the common tern.

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The presence of marine mammals is noteworthy since cetaceans are present throughout the
Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and the common
dolphin.

 Social Characterisation

The first inhabitants of the neighbourhood of the salinas of Ngunza settled in that area in the
early 60s, coming from the interior of of the municipalities of Benguela and Kwanza Sul, as
Cassongue, Seles and Cela, aiming to work in construction of the salinas and others to carry
out the activity of fishing. Most of the current population is native in the neighbourhood and
is estimated at 3,803 people.

The houses are situated 200 meters from shore and less than 100 meters from the river. In
the 70s, the neighbourhood of the salinas of Ngunza was regarded as one of the largest
areas of production/extraction of salt, due to favourable soil for the practice of salt
exploitation. Regarding agriculture, the soils are not suitable for the practice, which makes
the population mostly resorted to fishing and salt. Currently, no salina works due to its
advanced state of degradation and the neighbourhood has a 40 fishermen.

The neighbourhood benefits from two mobile telephone systems owned by Unitel and
Movicel in perfect listening conditions. There are no land mines in the study area or mined
fields.

 Site KS8 – Quicombo River

Access to this site is made by the National Road 100 (EN100), following a detour dirt. This
detour in rainy season, due to the type of clay soil, becomes deficient. EN100 to the beach
area is about 2 km.

 Environmental Characterisation

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The mouth of the Quicombo river is connected to a terminal section of this river, which
spreads over an area of potential flooding, being a notorious the influence on the
physiography of the base present in the sandy section of the mouth to the sea. Here, the
influence of the river and the coastal dynamics allow the presence of a beach that stretches
north approximately 4.5 kilometers.

Regarding the predominant soils in Ponta de Quicombo are lithosols or xero-lithosols that
are related to some areas of the coastline and rugged surfaces that surround the alluvial
plains. The sandy soils typical of the coastline have medium textures.

The predominant soils in the bay of Quicombo are brown and red calcareous soils, which
generally have a yellowish to reddish colour and fine textures.The sandy soils typical of the
coastline have medium textures. The cliff goes down to the sea and is naturally subject to
erosion. In large part of the hillside, vegetation develops. On the beach, there are some
rocks.

The vegetation in the area of the mouth of the Quicombo river is formed by meadows
subject to flooding, with the predominance of Cyperus papyrus. The area has a high
incidence of anthropogenic cultures, the most obvious being palms Elaeis guineensis.

The predominant vegetation in Ponta de Quicombois the grassy savannah with the
predominance of Setaria welwitschii, because this smal it forms a kind of carpet. There are
some bushes and Aloe zebrina. There are some plants such as the succulent Sesuvium
portulacastrum that develop closer to the beach.

In terms of common birds there is the presence of birds associated with wet environments
such as gray heron, little egret, black-headed heron, pied kingfisher, among others.

The presence of marine mammals is noteworthy since cetaceans are present throughout the
Angolan coast, such as the fin whale, the Atlantic humpback dolphin and the common
dolphin.

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 Social Characterisation

In the area of Quicombo three communities were identified, namely: Ponta de Quicombo,
the headquarters of the Quicombo commune and the neighbourhood of Wembele.

Currently the number of population of the commune of Quicombo is estimated at 11,774


inhabitants. These communities are mainly dedicated to fishing and agriculture. The
dominant soils present fertility that increases as we move into the mouth of the Quicombo
river, where much of the area's inhabitants practice agriculture. Some of the homes are
between 200 and 300 meters.

In the neighbourhood of Wembele there are areas of pasture (3 pens) for cattle, goat and
pig. In this neighbourhood, fishing ranks second after the agriculture. There are in total 28
fishermen and 93 women who dedicate themselves to treatment (drying) and selling fish;
agriculture is practiced mainly at the banks of the Quicombo river and up to the mouth.
During the fieldwork one observed no mining near the coast, with the exception of the
mouth of the Quicombo river.

The communities of the headquarters of the commune and of Ponta do Quicombo devote
mainly to artisanal fishing. The bay of Quicombo is attended by over 500 fishermen from
Lobito and Sumbe. Apart from fishing, a few people dedicate to the sale of food and
beverages in tents near the place of sale of fish.

Household waste is buried in holes a few meters of residences and is burned elsewhere.
Waste resulting from cleaning and preparing fish is thrown onto the beach and/or sea.

The beach of Quicombo and the mouth of the Quicombo river are sites with potential to
attract tourism. Next to the neighbourhood of Wembele there is a pension/restaurant with
the name "Wembele." The pension has about two acres along the sea coast, only to
accommodate bathers/tourists.

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The Fort and Fortress (recently rehabilitated) are the two historical sites located near the
coast (300 meters) that attract tourists to that area.

In terms of mobile communications, the community of Quicombo benefits from the services
currently provided by the operator Unitel with an antenna installed. The services of Movicel
have poor signalling. There are no land mines in the study area or mined fields.

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5. Biological and Socioeconomic Resources

Table 7 below presents data on the biological resources that exist in the study area (all sites analysed) where the predominance of these is detailed.
We also present those whose species are recorded in the IUCN Red Data List.

Table 7: Biological resources existing in the area under study.


Mouth
Point situation Biological Description (predominance) Examples
Resources
(1)
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rizophora racemosa, grasses
(A) - Potential area of
C1 – Massabi Lagoon

Invertebrates Crustaceans, Cephalopods Shrimp, common cuttlefish


reproduction

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish White grouper, cassava croacker, mullet, pink dentex, senegale
tonguesole
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles Olive turtle, leatherback, nile crocodile, boa constrictor
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, swallows, coastal African skimmers, terns, pied kingfisher, pied crow, African hoope
birds, birds of prey, sea birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin, spotted dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree and shrub savannah Rizophora racemosa, grasses
C2 – Massabi Lagoon

Invertebrates Crustaceans Shrimp, common cuttlefish


- Potential area of
reproduction

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish African moonfish, white grouper, cacusso, malevo, senegale
tonguesole
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles (boa constrictor) Olive turtle and leatherback, boa constrictor
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, swallows, coastal Reed Cormorant, terns, pied kingfisher, African hoope
birds, birds of prey, sea birds,
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin, spotted dolphin

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Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Vegetation Mangroves, tree and shrub savannah Rizophora Racemosa;
(A) - Potential area of
C3 - Chiluango River

reproduction

Invertebrates Crustaceans, Cephalopods Shrimp, common cuttlefish


Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish African moonfish, senegale tonguesole, cacusso, malevo, swordfish
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles (boa constrictor) Olive turtle, leatherback, nile crocodile, boa constrictor

Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, swallows, coastal Reed Cormorant, terns, pied kingfisher, African fish eagle
birds, birds of prey,
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin, spotted dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree and shrub savannah Rizophora racemosa, grass and papiro
C4 – Lulondo River

Invertebrates Crustaceans, Cephalopods Shrimp, common cuttlefish


Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish White grouper, sawfish, pink dentex, cacusso, malevo, sardines
(A) Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles (boa constrictor) Olive turtle and leatherback, boa constrictor

Birds Terns, Passerine birds, coastal birds, wading Royal tern, royal heron, Palm nut vulture, reed cormorant
birds, birds of prey,
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, common dolphin, bottlenose dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree and shrub savannah Rizophora Racemosa
C5 – Bay of Cabinda

North
Invertebrates Crustaceans, Cephalopods Shrimp, common cuttlefish
Lucola
(AS); Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Senegale tonguesole, African moonfish, swordfish, cacusso, white
South grouper, malevo
Lucola Reptiles Turtles Olive turtle and leatherback
(A) Birds Passerine birds, terns, wading birds, coastal Royal tern, sandwich tern, blue cheeked bee eater, palm nut
birds, sea birds, birds of prey vulture

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Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, Tree and shrub savannah Rhizophora racemosa, Hyphaene guineensis, gramínea
C6 – Mbwa Nquissi river

Invertebrates Crustaceans Shrimp,


Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish White grouper, sole fish
(AS) Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles Olive turtle and boa constrictor
Birds Passerine birds, terns, wading birds, coastal Pied crow, Common sandpiper, Grey heron
birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Tree– shrub and grassy savannah Hyphaene guineensis; Grass
Invertebrates Crustaceans Shrimp
C7 – Lumbo River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Senegale tonguesole, cacusso


(AS) Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, terns, coastal birds, wading Yellow-mantled whydah, striated heron, royal heron, common tern
birds, sea birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Little mangroves, grassy savannah Rizophora racemosa and grass
Z1 – Moitaseca Canal

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crabs


Fish Demersal and Commercial Fish Scalloped hammerhead, senegale tonguesole
-
Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, terns, coastal birds Whimbrel, common tern, pied crow
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin, spotted dolphin

135
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Vegetation Mangroves, tree and shrub savannah Rizophora Racemosa and R. harissonii; Hyphaene guineensis
Invertebrates Bivalves, gastropods, crustaceans Oyster, dogwhelk, snail, shrimp
- Potential area of
Z1 – Pululu Canal

reproduction

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Scalloped hammerhead, white grouper, west African ilisha, round
sardinella
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles (boa constrictor) Olive turtle, green turtles, leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea)
(CR), Nile crocodile, boa constrictor
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, swallows, coastal Reed Cormorant, terns, pied kingfisher, African fish eagle
birds, birds of prey,
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin, spotted dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree and shrub savannah Rizophora Racemosa and Hyphaene guineensis
Invertebrates Bivalves, crustaceans Oyster, crab, lobster, shrimp
Z3 – Nzombo River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Scalloped hammerhead, white grouper, saw fish, pink dentex
(AS) Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles (boa constrictor) Olive turtles, boa constrictor
Birds Terns, Passerine birds, coastal birds, wading Royal tern, royal heron, Palm nut vulture, reed cormorant
birds, birds of prey,
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, common dolphin, bottlenose dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rizophora Racemosa and Hyphaene quineensi, grass
(AS) Potential area of

Invertebrates Bivalves, crustaceans Oyster, shrimp, crab, lobster


Z4 – Matadi River

reproduction

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Scalloped hammerhead, saw fish


Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles (boa constrictor) Olive turtles, boa constrictor
Birds Passerine birds, herns, wading birds, coastal Royal tern, sandwich tern, blue cheeked bee eater
birds, birds of prey
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin

136
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Vegetation Tree– shrub and grassy savannah Hyphaene guineensis; Grass
Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab
Z5 – Zanga River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Scalloped hammerhead, senegale tonguesole, pink dentex
(AS)
Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, terns, coastal birds Royal tern, common tern, whimbrel
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Little mangroves, grassy savannah Rizophora racemosa and grass
Z6 – Quipai River

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crabs


Fish Demersal and Commercial Fish Scalloped hammerhead, senegale tonguesole
(AS)
Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, terns, coastal birds Whimbrel, common tern, pied crow
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rizophora mangle, Hyphaene guineensis, grass
Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab
Z7 – Quimbriz Lagoon

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Skate, mullet, sardinella

F Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles


Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, sea birds, terns, Fish eagle, blue cheeked bee eater, common tern
coastal birds, birds of prey
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin

137
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rizophora mangle, Hyphaene guineensis, grass
(AS) -Potential area of

Invertebrates Bivalves, crustaceans Oyster, shrimp, crab, lobster


Z8 – Luculo River

reproduction

Fish Area of reproduction. Demersal and Pelagic Fish. Scalloped hammerhead, milk shark, white grouper, skate,
sardinella
Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, swallows, coastal Palm nut vulture, common tern, cape glossy starling
birds, birds of prey
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rizophora racemosa, Hyphaene guineensis, grass
Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab
Z9 – Sange River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Pink dentex, white grouper


(AS)
Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, terns, coastal birds Common tern, common sandpiper, cattle egret
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Little mangroves, tree, shrub and grassy Rizophora racemosa, Hyphaene guineensis, grass
Z10 – Macamena River

savannah
Invertebrates Bivalves, crustaceans Oysters, crab
Fish Demersal and pelagic fish Skate, pink dentex
(AS)
Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, terns, coastal birds Common tern, blue cheeked bee eater
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin

138
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Vegetation Little mangroves, tree, shrub and grassy Rizophora racemosa, Hyphaene guineensis, grass
savannah
Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab
Z11 – Monda River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Scalloped hammerhead, sardine, senegale tonguesole, skate
(AS) Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, terns, coastal birds Common tern, pied crow, dark-capped bulbul
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin

Vegetation Tree– shrub and grassy savannah Hyphaene guineensis; Grass


Z12 – Quintana River

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, lobster


Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish White grouper, pink dentex, sardinella, skate and mullet
(AS)
Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, terns, coastal birds Common tern, pied crow, dark-capped bulbul
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Tree– shrub and grassy savannah Hyphaene guineensis; Grass
Z13 – Zanga River

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, lobster

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Scalloped hammerhead, cassava croacker, senegale tonguesole,
(AS)
pink dentex, mullet, southern meagre, round scad
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles (boa constrictor) Olive turtle, loggerhead

Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns, coastal Pied crow, royal tern, blue cheeked bee eater, gull, fish eagle
birds, birds of prey

139
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rhizophora racemosa and R. harrisonii, Hyphaene guineensis,
Grass
(AS) Potential area of

Invertebrates Bivalves, crustaceans Oyster, shrimp, crab, lobster


Z14 – Lunga River

reproduction

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Scalloped hammerhead, white grouper, senegale tonguesole,
skate, sardinella
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles (nile crocodile, boa Olive turtle, loggerhead, nile crocodile, boa constrictor
constrictor)
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns, coastal Palm nut vulture, common tern, pied crow, seagulls, royal tern,
birds, birds of prey blue cheeked bee eater
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Tree– shrub and grassy savannah Hyphaene guineensis, Grass
Z15 – Quinguengue River

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab


Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Scalloped hammerhead, senegale tonguesole, pink dentex
(AS) Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns, coastal Pied crow, seagulls, royal tern, blue cheeked bee eater
birds
Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Tree– shrub and grassy savannah Hyphaene guineensis and grass
Pequeno River

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab


Z16 - Ncoco

(AS) Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Skate, pink dentex


Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns, coastal Pied crow, seagulls, royal tern, cape glossy starling, cattle egret

140
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rhizophora racemosa and R. harrisonii, Hyphaene guineensis and
Potential area of reproduction
Z17 - Nzeto or Mbridge River

Grass
Invertebrates Bivalves, crustaceans Oyster, shrimp, crab, lobster
Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Skate, pink dentex, mullet
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles (nile crocodile, boa Olive Ridley, nile crocodile, boa constrictor, sengue
constrictor, sengue)
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, birds of prey, Seagulls, cape glossy starling
diving birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins), merrows Fin whale, humpbacked whale, common dolphin, Atlantic
(Manatee) humpbacked dolphin, manatee
Vegetation Little tree, shrub and grassy savannah Hyphaene guineensis; Grass
Z18 – Cungulo River

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab


Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Scalloped hammerhead, skate, white grouper, sardinella
(AS) Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns, coastal Royal heron, royal tern, common tern
birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Grassy Savannah Grass
Z19 – Xingi

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, lobster


River

(AS)
Fish Demersal and Commercial Fish Scalloped hammerhead, skate, white grouper, sardinella
Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles

141
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns, coastal Royal heron, blue cheeked bee eater, common tern
birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Little tree, shrub and grassy savannah Hyphaene guineensis; Grass
Z20 – Quimbriz Lagoon

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, shrimp


Potential area of
reproduction

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Skate, pink dentex, mullet


(AS)

Reptiles Olive turtles Olive turtles


Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, aquatic terns, Pied crow, seagulls, royal tern, royal heron
coastal birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rhizophora racemosa and R. harrisonii, Hyphaene guineensis and
Grass
Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab
Z21 – Gia River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Senegale tonguesole, skate, pink dentex
(AS)
Reptiles Turtles. Other reptiles (crocodile, snakes) Olive turtle, nile crocodile, snakes
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns, coastal Royal heron, blue cheeked bee eater, roller
birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rhizophora racemosa and harrisonii, Hyphaene guineensis and
reproduction
Z22 – Sembo

Grass
(A) Potential
area of

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, shrimp


River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish. White grouper, skate, bagre, white grouper, moonfish
Reptiles Turtles. Other Reptiles (nile crocodile, sengue) Olive turtle, nile crocodile, boa constrictor, sengue

142
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, aquatic terns, African fish eagle, royal heron, blue cheeked bee eater, roller
coastal birds, birds of prey
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rhizophora racemosa and harrisonii, Hyphaene guineensis and
Grass
(A) Potential area of reproduction

Invertebrates Crustaceans, gastropods Crab, shrimp, flying squid, common cuttlefish


B1 – Loge River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Scalloped hammerhead, skate, white grouper, sardinella, common
guitarfish
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles (nile crocodile, boa Olive turtle, nile crocodile, boa constrictor, sengue
constrictor, sengue)
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns and birds of Royal tern, blue cheeked bee eater, pied crow and seagull,
prey sandwich tern, African fish eagle

Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins), merrows Fin whale, Atlantic humpbacked dolphin, common dolphin,
(Manatee) manatee
Vegetation Tree– shrub and grassy savannah Hyphaene gossweileri, Hyphaene guineensis, grass
B2 - Barra do Ambriz

Invertebrates Crustaceans, Cephalopods Crab, shrimp, flying squid, common cuttlefish


Potential area of
reproduction

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Scalloped hammerhead, skate, white grouper, sardinella
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles Olive turtle, nile crocodile, boa constrictor, sengue
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns and birds of Palm nut vulture, common tern, blue cheeked bee eater, pied
prey crow, seagulls, royal tern
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Tree– shrub and grassy savannah Hyphaene gossweileri and grass
Quiun

River
B3 –

(AS)
go

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, shrimp

143
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Scalloped hammerhead, skate, white grouper, sardinella
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles (sengue) Olive turtles, sengue
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, coastal birds, Little egret (Egretta garzetta), royal tern, blue cheeked bee eater,
terns pied crow and seagulls
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Tree– shrub and grassy savannah Hyphaene gossweileri and grass

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, shrimp


B4 – Uezo River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Scalloped hammerhead, skate, white grouper, sardinella
(AS)
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles (sengue) Olive turtles, sengue
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, coastal birds, Little egret, royal tern, blue cheeked bee eater, pied crow, dark-
terns capped bulbul and cape glossy starling
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Grassy Savannah Grass
Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab
B5 – Zize River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Cassava croaker, white grouper, barracuda, pink dentex, scalloped
hammerhead
(AS)
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles Olive ridley, lizard
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, coastal birds, Royal tern, blue cheeked bee eater, pied crow, seedeater
terns
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation - -
Quinz
auam

River
uana
B6 –

-
Invertebrates - -

144
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Fish - -
Reptiles - -
Birds - -
Mammals - -
Vegetation Grassy Savannah Hyphaene guineensis, Grass
B7 – Quincala River

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, lobster


Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Cassava croaker, skate, bagre, mullet, royal threadfin, white
(AS) grouper, barnard dentex
Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, coastal birds, Grey heron, royal tern, blue cheeked bee eater, pied crow
terns
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rhizophora racemosa e harrisonni, grass
Invertebrates Crustaceans, Cephalopods, Bivalves Crab, shrimp, common cuttlefish
B8 – Onzo River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Cassava croaker, senegale tonguesole, bagre, barnard dentex, pink
dentex
(AS)
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles Olive Ridley, boa constrictor, crocodile, sengue
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, coastal birds, Grey heron, royal tern, blue cheeked bee eater, pied crow,
birds of prey seedeater, seagulls
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rhizophora racemosa e harrisonni, grass
en

ea

uc
Lifune

pr
ot

re
of
ar
al
ti

ti
o

o
d

n
(A) P

River
B9 –

Invertebrates Crustaceans, Cephalopods Crab, shrimp, flying squid, common cuttlefish

145
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Cassava croaker, senegale tonguesole, skate, bagre, barracuda,
pink dentex, mullet, barnard dentex
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles Olive Ridley, boa constrictor, crocodile, sengue
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, coastal birds, Pied crow, seagulls, seedeater
terns
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Grassy Savannah Acacia weliwítschia, Aloe zebrina, grass, Hyphaene guineensis
Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, shrimp
B10 – Dande River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Cassava croaker, senegale tonguesole, bagre, pink dentex, mullet,
barnard dentex
(A)
Reptiles - -
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, sea birds, terns, Common tern, seagulls, royal tern, little egret, pied crow and cattle
coastal birds, birds of prey egret
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Grassy Savannah Hyphaene guineensis, Grass
Invertebrates Crustaceans, Cephalopods, Bivalves Crab, lobster, oysters
B11 - S. Tiago Salina

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Senegale tonguesole, cassava croaker, pink dentex

- Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles Olive ridley, lizards


Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, coastal birds, Seagulls, pied crows, royal tern, cattle egret, blue cheeked bee
terns eater
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin

146
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rizophora mangle, Hyphaene guineensis, grass
and floating plants
L1 – Bengo River (mouth)

Invertebrates Crustaceans, gastropods Crab, squid, common cuttlefish

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Cassava croaker, bagre, sardines, round scad
(A)
Reptiles Turtles, other Reptiles Olive turtles, boa constrictor

Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, coastal birds, Grey heron, royal tern, pied crow, seagulls
terns
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin

Vegetation - -
L2 – Port of Luanda

Invertebrates Crustaceans, gastropods Common cuttlefish, mabangas


Fish Demersal fish Round scad, crevalle Jack, white grouper, barnard dentex, cassava
- croaker, globe fish and senegale tonguesole
Reptiles - -
Birds Sea birds Seagulls, doves, storks
Mammals - -
Vegetation Mangroves, tree savannah – shrub and grassy Rhizophora mangle, Sesuvium sp, Hyphaene gossweileri, Hyphaene
Potential area of
reproduction

guineensis
L3 - Mussulo

Invertebrates Crustaceans, gastropods Crab, dogwhelk, flying squid, common cuttlefish


Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish White grouper, cassava croacker, pink dentex, cacusso, skate
Reptiles Turtles Olive turtle and leatherback

147
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns and birds of Gull, Phalacrocorax capensis, Pelecanus onocrotalus, grey heron,
prey green-backed heron, openbill, royal tern, African fish eagle,
collared sunbird, lesses masked weaver
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Mangrove and grassy savannah Rhizophora mangle and grass
Invertebrates Crustaceans, gastropods Crab, dogwhelk, flying squid, common cuttlefish
Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish White grouper, cassava croacker, pink dentex, cacusso, skate
L4 - Buraco

Reptiles Turtles Olive turtle and leatherback


-
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns and birds of Gull, Phalacrocorax capensis, Pelecanus onocrotalus, grey heron,
prey green-backed heron, openbill, royal tern, African fish eagle,
collared sunbird, lesses masked weaver

Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Mangroves, tree and shrub savannah Rhizophora, Avicennia and grass
(A) Potential area of reproduction

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, lobster, shrimp


L5 – Barra do Kwanza

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Southern meager, cod, cassava croaker, white grouper
Reptiles Turtles. Other Reptiles (nile crocodile, sengue) Olive turtle, leatherback, nile crocodile, sengue
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns, coastal Grey heron, royal tern, pied crow, damara tern
birds, diving birds, sea birds,

Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins), merrows Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
(Manatee) Manatee

148
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Vegetation Grassy savannah Euphorbia conspicua, Acacia welwicthi, Aloe zebrina e a Eragrotis
suberba
Invertebrates Crustaceans Lobster
L6 – Sobe e Desce

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Southern meager, white grouper


- Reptiles Turtles Olive turtle, leatherback,
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns, coastal Common tern, royal tern
birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins), Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Manatee
Vegetation Grassy savannah Euphorbia conspicua, Acacia welwicthi, Aloe zebrina e a Eragrotis
suberba
Invertebrates Crustaceans Lobster
L7 - Sangano

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Southern meager, white grouper, Cassava croaker
- Reptiles Turtles Olive turtle, leatherback,
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns, coastal Common tern, royal tern
birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins), Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Manatee
Vegetation Grassy savannah Savannah (Sterculia sp)
L8 - Cabo Ledo

Invertebrates Crustaceans Lobster


-
Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Southern meager, white grouper, Cassava croaker
Reptiles Turtles Olive turtle, leatherback,

149
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns, coastal Common tern, royal tern
birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Manatee
Vegetation Grassy savannah Savannah (Sterculia sp)
Invertebrates Crustaceans Lobster, Crab, shrimp
L9 - Sete Irmãos

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Southern meager, white grouper, Cassava croaker

- Reptiles Turtles Olive turtle, leatherback


Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns, coastal Common tern, royal tern
birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Manatee
Vegetation Grassy Savannah Savannah (Euphorbia conspicua)
L10 – São Brás Beach

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, lobster, shrimp


Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Pink dentex, white grouper, skate
- Reptiles - -
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, coastal birds, Common tern, pied crow, seagulls.
terns
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin

Vegetation Grassy Savannah Savannah (Euphorbia conspicua, Acacia welwitchi e Aloe zebrina)
Kitoba
L11 –

- Invertebrates Crustaceans Lobster, shrimp


Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Pink dentex, white grouper, skate

150
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Reptiles - -
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, coastal birds, Common tern, pied crow, seagulls.
terns
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin

Vegetation Mangrove and grassy savannah Rhizophora and Avicennia, Hyphaene gossweileri, Euphorbia
conspicua
KS1 – Mouth of the Longa

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, lobster


(A) Potential area of
reproduction

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Pink dentex, southern meager, white grouper
River

Reptiles Turtles. Other reptiles (nile crocodile, boa Olive turtle, green turtle, leatherback, nile crocodile, boa
constrictor, sengue) constrictor, sengue

Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, terns, birds of African fish eagle, Palm nut vulture, herons, caspian tern
prey, diving birds, sea birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Grassy Savannah Savannah (Acacia welwitchi, Euphorbia conspicua)
KS2 - Três Pontas Cape

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab


Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Southern meagres, pink dentex
- Reptiles Turtles Olive ridley
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, coastal birds, Common tern, pied crow and seagulls.
terns
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Grassy Savannah Hyphaene gossweileri, Setaria welwitschii
Bay of

Ambo
KS3 –

Port
the

im

-
of

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, lobster, shrimp

151
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish. Cassava croaker, cod, white grouper, sardine
Reptiles - -
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, coastal birds, Seagulls and cormorants, common tern
birds of prey
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation - -
KS4 - Ponta do Morro de

Invertebrates - -
Quissonde

Fish - -
-
Reptiles - -
Birds - -
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Mangrove and grassy savannah Rhizophora and Avicennia, Euphorbia conspícua
KS1 – Mouth of the Kenve

(A) Potential area of

Invertebrates Bivalves, crustaceans Oyster, shrimp, crab, lobster


reproduction

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish


River

Reptiles Turtles. Other reptiles (nile crocodile, boa Olive turtle, nile crocodile, boa constrictor, rock monitor
constrictor, sengue)
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, sea birds, coastal Grey heron, African fish eagle, royal tern, common tern
birds, terns, birds of prey, diving birds
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation - -
Balela
Ponta
KS6 -

da

-
Invertebrates - -

152
Environmental and Social Characterization for the Development of Coastal Sensitivity Mapping from Cabinda to the Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Mouth
Point Biological Description (predominance)
situation Examples
Resources
(1)
Fish - -
Reptiles - -
Birds - -
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Tree– shrub and grassy savannah Cyperus papyrus, Elaeis guineensis, Saccharum sp.
KS1 – Mouth of the

Invertebrates - -
Ngunza River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Southern meagre, pink dentex, white grouper, cassava croaker
(AS) Reptiles - -
Birds Passerine birds, terns, wading birds, coastal Grey heron, blackheaded heron, great white egret, common tern,
birds pied crow
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Vegetation Tree– shrub and grassy savannah Cyperus papyrus, Elaeis guineensis, Setaria welwitschii
KS8 – Mouth of the

Invertebrates Crustaceans Crab, lobster


Quicombo River

Fish Demersal and Pelagic Fish Cacusso, senegale tonguesole, sardine, bagre
(AS) Reptiles Turtles Olive turtles
Birds Passerine birds, wading birds, sea birds, terns, Pied kingfisher, herons, common tern, pied crow
coastal birds, birds of prey.
Mammals Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) Fin whale, humpback whale, common dolphin
Key (1) Situation of the mouth: (A) Open the whole year; (F) Closed the whole year; (AS) Seasonally open*
*(AS) This type of mouth remains closed in the dry season which usually occurs from June to September, turning the flow into the sea as soon as the rainy season
begins.

153
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity
of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

The information presented throughout this document, by province are summarized in the tables
that follow in order to present succinctly all the biological and socio-economic aspects for each
province. The tables also show the classification of the environmental sensitivity of each of the
sampled sites according to the methodology described in Section 3 of this report. Below is a table
with the major captions used in the tables by province.

Table 8: Key for provincial tables.


1
Protected areas International (I), National (N), Local (L)
2
Access (road) Good (G), Reasonable (R), Poorly (P), Inaccessible to vehicle until the
mouth (I), Inaccessible to vehicles and pedestrians (IN), Accessible only
to pedestrians (AP);
3
Presence of Exists (E), Does not exist (NE), Potential site of unidentified landmine
Landmines or to demine (PM),
4
Distance closer to a location of an identified landmine
5
Tourism Surf (S), Recreational fishing (RF), Diving (D)
(Nautical
Sports)
6
Fishing activity Estimated villages obtained during the social survey prepared by
Holísticos (2011/2012)
7
Provincial estimates according to the artisanal fishing report of IDPAA
(2012)

154
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Table 9: Summary of the main biological and socioeconomic aspects in the Cabinda province.

Sampling sites in Cabinda (coordinates)

05002´42´´S/12001´05´´E

05009´76´´S/12006´30´´E

05012´31´´S/12008´04´´E

05027´58´´S/12013´22´´E

05033´50´´S/12012´70´´E

05037´26´´S/12009´32´´E

05044´14´´S/12009´40´´E
C6 Rio Mbwa Nquissi
C5 Baía de Cabinda
C1 Lagoa Massabi

C2 Lagoa Mpuela

C3 Rio Chiluango

C4 Rio Lulondo

C7 Rio Lumbo
Status of the biotype

1A Exposed Rocky Shores - - - - - - -

1B Exposed, solid man-made structures - - - - - - -

1C Exposed rocky cliffs with boulder talus base - - - - - - -

2A Exposed wave cute platforms in bedrock, mud, - - - - - - -


or clay
2B Exposed scarps and steep slopes in clay - - - - - - -

3A Fine to medium grained sand beaches X X X X X X X

3B Scarps and steep slopes in sand - - - - - - -

3C Tundra cliffs - - - - - - -

4 Coarse Grained Sand beaches - - - - - - -

5 Mixed Sand and Gravel Beaches - - - - - - -

6A Gravel Beaches - - - - - - -

6B Riprap - - - - - - -

7 Exposed Tidal Flats X X X X - X X

8A Sheltered scarps in bedrock, mud or clay - - - - - - -

155
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Cabinda (coordinates)

05002´42´´S/12001´05´´E

05009´76´´S/12006´30´´E

05012´31´´S/12008´04´´E

05027´58´´S/12013´22´´E

05033´50´´S/12012´70´´E

05037´26´´S/12009´32´´E

05044´14´´S/12009´40´´E
C6 Rio Mbwa Nquissi
C5 Baía de Cabinda
C1 Lagoa Massabi

C2 Lagoa Mpuela

C3 Rio Chiluango

C4 Rio Lulondo

C7 Rio Lumbo
Status of the biotype

8B Sheltered, solid man-made structures - - - - - - -

8C Sheltered riprap - - - - - - -

8D Sheltered rocky rubble shores - - - - - - -

8E Peat shorelines - - - X - X -

9A Sheltered tidal flats - - - - - - -

9B Vegetated low banks - - - - - - -

9C Hypersaline tidal flats - - - - - - -

10A Salt and brackish water marshes - - - - - - -

10B Freshwater marshes - - - - - - -

10C Swamps - - - - - - -

10D Scrub-scrub wetlands; Mangroves - - - - X - -

10E Inundated low - lying tundra - - - - - - -

Very
Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) High High High High High High
High

156
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Cabinda (coordinates)

05002´42´´S/12001´05´´E

05009´76´´S/12006´30´´E

05012´31´´S/12008´04´´E

05027´58´´S/12013´22´´E

05033´50´´S/12012´70´´E

05037´26´´S/12009´32´´E

05044´14´´S/12009´40´´E
C6 Rio Mbwa Nquissi
C5 Baía de Cabinda
C1 Lagoa Massabi

C2 Lagoa Mpuela

C3 Rio Chiluango

C4 Rio Lulondo

C7 Rio Lumbo
Biological Resources

Coral / Hard bottom reef - - - - - - -

Submerged Aquatic Vegetation - - - - - - -


Habitat
Floating Aquatic Vegetation - - - - - - -

Mangroves X X X X X X X

Crab - - - - - - -

Lobster - - - - - - -

Shrimp X X X X X X X
Invertebrates
Bivalve (oyster/clam/mussel) - - - - - - -

Gastropods (whelk, conch) - - - - - - -

Cephalopods (squid) X X X X X X X

Fish Commercial fish X X X X X X X

Crocodile X X - - - - -

Reptile Turtle X X X X X X X

Other reptiles/amphibians X X X X X X X

157
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Cabinda (coordinates)

05002´42´´S/12001´05´´E

05009´76´´S/12006´30´´E

05012´31´´S/12008´04´´E

05027´58´´S/12013´22´´E

05033´50´´S/12012´70´´E

05037´26´´S/12009´32´´E

05044´14´´S/12009´40´´E
C6 Rio Mbwa Nquissi
C5 Baía de Cabinda
C1 Lagoa Massabi

C2 Lagoa Mpuela

C3 Rio Chiluango

C4 Rio Lulondo

C7 Rio Lumbo
Biological Resources

Passerine Birds X X X X X X X

Waterfowl X X X - X - -

Wading X X X - X - X

Shorebirds X X X X X X X
Birds
Raptor X X - - X - -

Pelagic - - - - - - -

Gull/Tern X X X X X X X

Diving X X X - X - -

Whales X X X X X X X

Mammals Dolphins X X X X X X X

Manatee - - X - - - -

Sensibility of Biological Resources (BIO) High Medium High High High High Medium

158
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Cabinda (coordinates)

05002´42´´S/12001´05

05009´76´´S/12006´30

05012´31´´S/12008´04

05027´58´´S/12013´22

05033´50´´S/12012´70

05037´26´´S/12009´32
C6 Rio Mbwa Nquissi

05044´14´´S/12009´40
C5 Baía de Cabinda
*C2 Lagoa Mpuela
C1 Lagoa Massabi

C3 Rio Chiluango

*C7 Rio Lumbo


C4 Rio Lulondo
Socio-economic aspects

´´E

´´E

´´E

´´E

´´E

´´E

´´E
Protected Areas Status (1) - - - - - - -

Urban / peri-urban - - X - X - -
Area type
Rural X X - X - X X

Summer (rainy) I I G R G R R 4x4


Access (road) (2)
Cacimbo (dry) P 4x4 P 4x4 G R G R R

Access (maritime) Access X X X X X X X

Local / Site NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Presence of
Landmines (3) Access NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

Proximity of the site(4) - - - 1,15 - - -

Hotel - - X - X - -

Restaurant - - X - X - -

Marina / Dock - - X - X - -
Tourism
Recreational beach - - X - X X -

Historical/Cultural site - - - - X X -

Nautical Sports (5) - - - - - - -

159
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Cabinda (coordinates)

05002´42´´S/12001´05

05009´76´´S/12006´30

05012´31´´S/12008´04

05027´58´´S/12013´22

05033´50´´S/12012´70

05037´26´´S/12009´32
C6 Rio Mbwa Nquissi

05044´14´´S/12009´40
C5 Baía de Cabinda
*C2 Lagoa Mpuela
C1 Lagoa Massabi

C3 Rio Chiluango

*C7 Rio Lumbo


C4 Rio Lulondo
Socio-economic aspects

´´E

´´E

´´E

´´E

´´E

´´E

´´E
Aquaculture - - - - - - -

Artisanal fishing X X X X X X X

Nr. of fishermen(6) - - - - - - -

Fishing activity
Nr. of fishing communities(7) 17

Nr. of fishermen(7) Year 2010 = 2.889 / 2011 = 3.136

Production volume(7) Year 2010 = 4.550 ton / 2011 = 2.022 ton

Industrial facilities - - - - - - -

Industries and Port activities Port facilities - - - - - - -

Oil facilities - - - - - - -

Unitel X X X - X X X
Communications
Movicel - - X - X - -

Very
Sensitivity of the presence and human activities (SOCECO) High Medium High Medium Medium Medium
High
Medium Medium
Index of Environmental and Social Classification (E2SI) Medium Medium High Medium Medium
- High - High

160
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Coordinates of landmines closest to the sampling sites (CABINDA)


Site Sampling sites coordinates Landmine Coordinates Distance approx. (km)
C4 – Lulondo 05027´58´´S / 12013´22´´E 05028´07´´S / 12013´58´´E 1,15

161
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Table 10: Summary of the main biological and socioeconomic aspects in the Zaire province.

Sampling sites in Zaire (coordinates)

060 06’74’’ S/120 16’58’’ E

060 10’22’’ S/120 17’56’’ E

060 23’70’’ S/120 25’70’’ E

060 26’74’’ S/120 27’15’’ E

060 35’30’’ S/120 31’76’’ E

060 39’56’’ S/120 33’75’’ E

060 40’07’’ S/120 34’67’’ E

060 41’17’’ S/120 34’74’’ E

060 43’10’’ S/120 36’71’’ E

060 47’66’’ S/120 40’90’’ E

060 50’29’’ S/120 43’06’’ E

060 52’76’’ S/120 45’33’’ E

060 54’56’’ S/120 46’35’’ E

060 55’78’’ S/120 46’99’’ E

060 58’93’’ S/120 49’39’’ E

070 05’11’’ S/120 50’52’’ E

070 12’21’’ S/120 51’16’’ E

070 18’13’’ S/120 53’31’’ E

070 34’35’’ S/130 00’26’’ E

070 34’28’’ S/130 00’12’’ E

070 41’53’’ S/130 02’61’’ E

070 43’39’’ S/130 03’47’’ E


Z16 Rio Ncoco Pequeno

Z17 Rio Mbridge/Nzeto


Z15 Rio Quinguengue
Z1 Canal Moita Seca

Z10 Rio Macamena


Z7 Lagoa Quimbriz

Z12 Rio Quintana


Z11 Rio Moanda

Z14 Rio Lucunga

Z18 Rio Cungulo

Z20 Lagoa Pandi


Z13 Rio Zangala
Z2 Canal Pululu

Z22 Rio Sembo


Z3 Rio Nzombo

Z4 Rio Matadi

Z6 Rio Quipai

Z8 Rio Luculo

Z19 Rio Xingi


Z5 Rio Zanga

Z9 Rio Sange

Z21 Rio Gia


Status of the biotype

1A Exposed Rocky Shores - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - X

1B Exposed, solid man-made - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - X - - - - -


structures
1C Exposed rocky cliffs with - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
boulder talus base
2A Exposed wave cute platforms in - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
bedrock, mud, or clay
2B Exposed scarps and steep - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
slopes in clay
3A Fine to medium grained sand - - - - - - X X - - - - - - - - - - - X - -
beaches
3B Scarps and steep slopes in sand - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

3C Tundra cliffs - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

4 Coarse Grained Sand beaches X X X X X X - - X X X X X X X X X X X - X X

5 Mixed Sand and Gravel Beaches - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

6A Gravel Beaches - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

6B Riprap - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

7 Exposed Tidal Flats X X X X X X - - X X X X X X X X X X X - X X

Sheltered scarps in bedrock,


8A - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
mud or clay

162
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Z22 Rio Sembo


X

Very High
-

070 43’39’’ S/130 03’47’’ E


Z21 Rio Gia High
-

070 41’53’’ S/130 02’61’’ E


Z20 Lagoa Pandi
X

Very High
-

070 34’28’’ S/130 00’12’’ E


Z19 Rio Xingi High
-

070 34’35’’ S/130 00’26’’ E


Z18 Rio Cungulo High
-

070 18’13’’ S/120 53’31’’ E


Z17 Rio Mbridge/Nzeto
X

Very High
-

070 12’21’’ S/120 51’16’’ E


Z16 Rio Ncoco Pequeno High
-

070 05’11’’ S/120 50’52’’ E


Z15 Rio Quinguengue
X

High
-

060 58’93’’ S/120 49’39’’ E


Z14 Rio Lucunga Very High
X
-

060 55’78’’ S/120 46’99’’ E


Sampling sites in Zaire (coordinates)

Z13 Rio Zangala


X

High
-

060 54’56’’ S/120 46’35’’ E


Z12 Rio Quintana High
-

060 52’76’’ S/120 45’33’’ E


Z11 Rio Moanda High
-

060 50’29’’ S/120 43’06’’ E


Z10 Rio Macamena
X

High
-

-
060 47’66’’ S/120 40’90’’ E
Z9 Rio Sange Very High
X

X
-

-
060 43’10’’ S/120 36’71’’ E

163
Z8 Rio Luculo
X

X
Very High
-

-
060 41’17’’ S/120 34’74’’ E
Z7 Lagoa Quimbriz Very High
X

X
-

-
060 40’07’’ S/120 34’67’’ E
Z6 Rio Quipai High
-

-
060 39’56’’ S/120 33’75’’ E
Z5 Rio Zanga High
-

-
060 35’30’’ S/120 31’76’’ E
Z4 Rio Matadi High
-

-
060 26’74’’ S/120 27’15’’ E
Z3 Rio Nzombo High
-

-
060 23’70’’ S/120 25’70’’ E
Z2 Canal Pululu

X
Very High
-

-
060 10’22’’ S/120 17’56’’ E
Z1 Canal Moita Seca

X
Very High
-

-
060 06’74’’ S/120 16’58’’ E
Sheltered rocky rubble shores

Inundated low - lying tundra


Sheltered, solid man-made

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)


Salt and brackish water

Scrub-scrub wetlands;
Hypersaline tidal flats
Vegetated low banks

Freshwater marshes
Sheltered tidal flats
Sheltered riprap

Peat shorelines

Mangroves
structures

marshes

Swamps
Status of the biotype

10D
10A

10B

10C

10E
8D

9A
8B

9B
8C

9C
8E
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Z22 Rio Sembo


X

X
-

070 43’39’’ S/130 03’47’’ E


Z21 Rio Gia
X

X
-

070 41’53’’ S/130 02’61’’ E


Z20 Lagoa Pandi
X

X
-

070 34’28’’ S/130 00’12’’ E


Z19 Rio Xingi
X

X
-

070 34’35’’ S/130 00’26’’ E


Z18 Rio Cungulo
X

X
-

070 18’13’’ S/120 53’31’’ E


Z17 Rio Mbridge/Nzeto
X

X
-

070 12’21’’ S/120 51’16’’ E


Z16 Rio Ncoco Pequeno
X

X
-

070 05’11’’ S/120 50’52’’ E


Z15 Rio Quinguengue
X

X
-

060 58’93’’ S/120 49’39’’ E


Z14 Rio Lucunga
X

X
-

060 55’78’’ S/120 46’99’’ E


Sampling sites in Zaire (coordinates)

Z13 Rio Zangala


X

X
-

060 54’56’’ S/120 46’35’’ E


Z12 Rio Quintana
X

X
-

060 52’76’’ S/120 45’33’’ E


Z11 Rio Moanda
X

X
-

-
060 50’29’’ S/120 43’06’’ E
Z10 Rio Macamena
X

X
-

-
060 47’66’’ S/120 40’90’’ E
Z9 Rio Sange
X

X
-

-
060 43’10’’ S/120 36’71’’ E

164
Z8 Rio Luculo
X

X
-

-
060 41’17’’ S/120 34’74’’ E
Z7 Lagoa Quimbriz
X

X
-

-
060 40’07’’ S/120 34’67’’ E
Z6 Rio Quipai
X

X
-

-
060 39’56’’ S/120 33’75’’ E
Z5 Rio Zanga
X

X
-

-
060 35’30’’ S/120 31’76’’ E
Z4 Rio Matadi
X

X
-

-
060 26’74’’ S/120 27’15’’ E
Z3 Rio Nzombo
X

X
-

-
060 23’70’’ S/120 25’70’’ E
Z2 Canal Pululu
X

X
-

-
060 10’22’’ S/120 17’56’’ E
Z1 Canal Moita Seca

X
-

-
060 06’74’’ S/120 16’58’’ E

Bivalve (oyster/clam/mussel)
Floating Aquatic Vegetation

Gastropods (whelk, conch)


Coral / Hard bottom reef

Cephalopods (squid)
Submerged Aquatic

Commercial fish
Mangroves
Vegetation

Crocodile
Lobster

Shrimp
Biological Resources

Turtle
Crab
Habitat

Reptile
Fish
Invertebrates
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Z22 Rio Sembo


X

Very High
-

070 43’39’’ S/130 03’47’’ E


Z21 Rio Gia Medium
X

X
-

070 41’53’’ S/130 02’61’’ E


Z20 Lagoa Pandi Medium
X

X
-

070 34’28’’ S/130 00’12’’ E


Z19 Rio Xingi
X

High
-

070 34’35’’ S/130 00’26’’ E


Z18 Rio Cungulo
X

Medium
-

070 18’13’’ S/120 53’31’’ E


Z17 Rio Mbridge/Nzeto
X

Very High
-

070 12’21’’ S/120 51’16’’ E


Z16 Rio Ncoco Pequeno Medium
X

X
-

070 05’11’’ S/120 50’52’’ E


Z15 Rio Quinguengue
X

High
-

060 58’93’’ S/120 49’39’’ E


Z14 Rio Lucunga Very High
X

X
-

060 55’78’’ S/120 46’99’’ E


Sampling sites in Zaire (coordinates)

Z13 Rio Zangala High


X

X
-

060 54’56’’ S/120 46’35’’ E


Z12 Rio Quintana High
X

X
-

060 52’76’’ S/120 45’33’’ E


Z11 Rio Moanda
X

Medium
-

060 50’29’’ S/120 43’06’’ E


Z10 Rio Macamena
X

High
-

060 47’66’’ S/120 40’90’’ E -


Z9 Rio Sange Very High
X

X
-

-
060 43’10’’ S/120 36’71’’ E

165
Z8 Rio Luculo Very High
X

X
-

-
060 41’17’’ S/120 34’74’’ E
Z7 Lagoa Quimbriz Very High
X

X
-

-
060 40’07’’ S/120 34’67’’ E
Z6 Rio Quipai
X

X
High
-

-
060 39’56’’ S/120 33’75’’ E
Z5 Rio Zanga
X

X
Medium
-

-
060 35’30’’ S/120 31’76’’ E
Z4 Rio Matadi
X

X
High
-

-
060 26’74’’ S/120 27’15’’ E
Z3 Rio Nzombo
X

X
High
-

-
060 23’70’’ S/120 25’70’’ E
Z2 Canal Pululu
X

X
Very High

-
060 10’22’’ S/120 17’56’’ E
Z1 Canal Moita Seca
X

X
Very High

-
060 06’74’’ S/120 16’58’’ E
Other reptiles/amphibians

Sensibility of Biological Resources (BIO)


Passerine Birds

Shorebirds
Waterfowl

Gull/Tern

Manatee
Dolphins
Wading

Whales
Pelagic
Raptor
Status of the biotype

Diving

Mammals
Birds
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Z22 Rio Sembo


4x4

4x4

3,5
NE

NE
R

P
X

X
L

070 43’39’’ S/130 03’47’’ E


Z21 Rio Gia
4x4

4x4

NE

NE
R
X

X
P
L

070 41’53’’ S/130 02’61’’ E


Z20 Lagoa Pandi
4x4

4x4

NE

NE
P

P
X

X
-

070 34’28’’ S/130 00’12’’ E


Z19 Rio Xingi
4x4

4x4

NE

NE
X

X
P

P
-

070 34’35’’ S/130 00’26’’ E


Z18 Rio Cungulo
4x4

4x4

NE

NE
R

R
X

X
-

070 18’13’’ S/120 53’31’’ E


Z17 Rio Mbridge
2,5
NE

NE
AP

R
X

X
-

070 12’21’’ S/120 51’16’’ E


Z16 Rio Ncoco Pequeno
4x4

4x4

NE

NE
X

X
P

P
-

070 05’11’’ S/120 50’52’’ E


Z15 Rio Quinguengue
4x4

4x4

NE

NE
X

X
P

P
-

060 58’93’’ S/120 49’39’’ E


Z14 Rio Lucunga
4x4

4x4

1,3
NE

NE
P
X

X
P
-

060 55’78’’ S/120 46’99’’ E


Sampling sites in Zaire (coordinates)

Z13 Rio Zangala


1,8
NE

NE
X

X
-

-
I

060 54’56’’ S/120 46’35’’ E


Z12 Rio Quintana
NE

NE
R

R
X

X
-

060 52’76’’ S/120 45’33’’ E


Z11 Rio Moanda
NE

NE
X

X
-

-
I

060 50’29’’ S/120 43’06’’ E


Z10 Rio Macamena
NE

NE
X

X
-

-
I

060 47’66’’ S/120 40’90’’ E


Z9 Rio Sange
NE

NE
X

X
-

-
I

060 43’10’’ S/120 36’71’’ E

166
Z8 Rio Luculo
NE

NE
G

G
X

X
-

-
060 41’17’’ S/120 34’74’’ E
Z7 Lagoa Quimbriz
4x4

4x4

NE

NE
R
X

X
P
-

-
060 40’07’’ S/120 34’67’’ E
Z6 Rio Quipai
4x4

4x4

NE

NE
R

R
X

X
-

-
060 39’56’’ S/120 33’75’’ E
Z5 Rio Zanga
AP

AP

NE

NE
X

X
-

-
060 35’30’’ S/120 31’76’’ E
Z4 Rio Matadi
AP

AP

NE

NE
X

X
-

-
060 26’74’’ S/120 27’15’’ E
Z3 Rio Nzombo

0,3
NE

NE
R

R
X

X
-

-
060 23’70’’ S/120 25’70’’ E
Z2 Canal Pululu

NE

NE
R

R
X

X
-

-
060 10’22’’ S/120 17’56’’ E
Z1 Canal Moita Seca

NE

NE
IN

IN
X

X
L

-
060 06’74’’ S/120 16’58’’ E

Proximity of the site(4)

Recreational beach
Urban / peri-urban

Summer (rainy)

Marina / Dock
Cacimbo (dry)

Restaurant
Local / Site
Status (1)

Access

Access

Hotel
Rural
Socio-economic aspects

Access (maritime)
Protected Areas

Access (road) (2)

Landmines (3)
Presence of
Area type

Tourism
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Z22 Rio Sembo


36
RF

X
-

070 43’39’’ S/130 03’47’’ E


Z21 Rio Gia
X

X
-

070 41’53’’ S/130 02’61’’ E


Z20 Lagoa Pandi
45
RF

X
-

070 34’28’’ S/130 00’12’’ E


Z19 Rio Xingi
48
X

X
-

070 34’35’’ S/130 00’26’’ E


Z18 Rio Cungulo
X

X
-

070 18’13’’ S/120 53’31’’ E


Z17 Rio Mbridge
623
RF
X

X
-

070 12’21’’ S/120 51’16’’ E


Z16 Rio Ncoco Pequeno
X

X
-

070 05’11’’ S/120 50’52’’ E


Z15 Rio Quinguengue
X

X
-

060 58’93’’ S/120 49’39’’ E


Year 2010 = 29.825 ton / 2011 = 16.283 ton

Z14 Rio Lucunga


285
RF

X
-

060 55’78’’ S/120 46’99’’ E


Sampling sites in Zaire (coordinates)

Year 2010 = 2.158 / 2011 = 2.918

Z13 Rio Zangala


65
X

X
-

060 54’56’’ S/120 46’35’’ E


Z12 Rio Quintana
55
RF

X
-

060 52’76’’ S/120 45’33’’ E


58

Z11 Rio Moanda


X

X
-

-
060 50’29’’ S/120 43’06’’ E
Z10 Rio Macamena
X

X
-

-
060 47’66’’ S/120 40’90’’ E
Z9 Rio Sange
225
RF

X
-

060 43’10’’ S/120 36’71’’ E

167
Z8 Rio Luculo
55
RF

X
-

-
060 41’17’’ S/120 34’74’’ E
Z7 Lagoa Quimbriz
20
X

X
-

-
060 40’07’’ S/120 34’67’’ E
Z6 Rio Quipai
164
X

X
-

-
060 39’56’’ S/120 33’75’’ E
Z5 Rio Zanga

X
-

-
060 35’30’’ S/120 31’76’’ E
Z4 Rio Matadi
X

X
-

-
060 26’74’’ S/120 27’15’’ E
Z3 Rio Nzombo 185
RF

X
-

-
060 23’70’’ S/120 25’70’’ E
Z2 Canal Pululu

X
-

-
060 10’22’’ S/120 17’56’’ E
Z1 Canal Moita Seca

35
X

X
-

-
060 06’74’’ S/120 16’58’’ E
Historical/Cultural site

Production volume(7)

Industrial facilities
Nr. of fishermen(6)

Nr. of fishermen(7)
Nautical Sports (5)

Artisanal fishing

communities(7)

Port facilities
Nr. of fishing
Aquaculture

Oil facilities

Movicel
Unitel
Socio-economic aspects

Communications
Fishing activity

Industries and
Port activities
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Zaire (coordinates)

060 06’74’’ S/120 16’58’’ E

060 10’22’’ S/120 17’56’’ E

060 23’70’’ S/120 25’70’’ E

060 26’74’’ S/120 27’15’’ E

060 35’30’’ S/120 31’76’’ E

060 39’56’’ S/120 33’75’’ E

060 40’07’’ S/120 34’67’’ E

060 41’17’’ S/120 34’74’’ E

060 43’10’’ S/120 36’71’’ E

060 47’66’’ S/120 40’90’’ E

060 50’29’’ S/120 43’06’’ E

060 52’76’’ S/120 45’33’’ E

060 54’56’’ S/120 46’35’’ E

060 55’78’’ S/120 46’99’’ E

060 58’93’’ S/120 49’39’’ E

070 05’11’’ S/120 50’52’’ E

070 12’21’’ S/120 51’16’’ E

070 18’13’’ S/120 53’31’’ E

070 34’35’’ S/130 00’26’’ E

070 34’28’’ S/130 00’12’’ E

070 41’53’’ S/130 02’61’’ E

070 43’39’’ S/130 03’47’’ E


Z16 Rio Ncoco Pequeno
Z15 Rio Quinguengue
Z1 Canal Moita Seca

Z10 Rio Macamena


Z7 Lagoa Quimbriz

Z12 Rio Quintana

Z17 Rio Mbridge


Z11 Rio Moanda

Z14 Rio Lucunga

Z20 Lagoa Pandi


Z18 Rio Cungulo
Z13 Rio Zangala
Z2 Canal Pululu

Z22 Rio Sembo


Z3 Rio Nzombo

Z4 Rio Matadi

Z6 Rio Quipai

Z8 Rio Luculo

Z19 Rio Xingi


Z5 Rio Zanga

Z9 Rio Sange

Z21 Rio Gia


Socio-economic aspects

Sensitivity of the presence and human

Very High

Very High

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium
activities (SOCECO)

High

High

High

High

High
Index of Environmental and Social
Very High

Very High

Very High

Very High
Medium-

Medium-

Medium-
Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium
Classification (E2SI)

High

High

High

High

High

High
Coordinates of landmines closest to the sampling sites (ZAIRE)
Site Sampling sites coordinates Landmine Coordinates Distance approx. (km)
060 23’70’’ S/120 25’70’’ E 06o 23’48’’ S/12o 25’50’’ E 0,38
Z3 – Nzombo
060 23’70’’ S/120 25’70’’ E 06o 24’25’’ S/12o 26’6’’ E 1,60
Z13 – Rio Zangala 060 54’56’’ S/120 46’35’’ E 060 55’13’’ S/120 47’21’’ E 1,80
Z14 – Lucunga 060 55’78’’ S/120 46’99’’ E 060 55’13’’ S/120 47’21’’ E 1,35
Z17 – Nzeto 070 12’21’’ S/120 51’16’’ E 070 13’26’’ S/120 51’56’’ E 2,5
0 0 0 0
07 43’39’’ S/13 03’47’’ E 07 43’38’’ S/13 05’06’’ E 3,50
Z22 – Sembo 070 43’39’’ S/130 03’47’’ E 070 44’2’’ S/130 05’46’’ E 3,80
070 43’39’’ S/130 03’47’’ E 070 43’58’’ S/130 05’59’’ E 4,20

168
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Table 11: Summary of the main biological and socioeconomic aspects in the Bengo province.

Sampling sites in Bengo (coordinates)

B10 Rio Dande / Barra do


070 48’89’’ S/130 06’00’’ E

070 50’26’’ S/130 06’48’’ E

070 55’55’’ S/130 08’90’’ E

070 59’42’’ S/130 11’06’’ E

080 02’01’’ S/130 12’01’’ E

080 08’11’’ S/130 15’48’’ E

080 24’75’’ S/130 23’84’’ E

080 38’10’’ S/130 24’39’’ E


08o 24’45’’ S/13o 23’50’’ E

08o 28’20’’ S/13o 22’28’’ E


080 04’58’’ S/130 11’57’’E

B11 Salina de São Tiago


B6 Rio Quinzauamuana
B2 Barra do Ambriz

B7 Rio Quincacala
B3 Rio Quitungo

B9 Rio Lifune
B1 Rio Lodge

B8 Rio Onzo
B4 Rio Uezo

B5 Rio Zize
Status of the biotype

Dande
1A Exposed Rocky Shores - X - - - - - - X X -

1B Exposed, solid man-made structures X - - - - - - - - - -

1C Exposed rocky cliffs with boulder talus - - - - - - - - - X -


base
2A Exposed wave cute platforms in - - - - - - - - - X -
bedrock, mud, or clay
2B Exposed scarps and steep slopes in - - - - - - - - - - -
clay
3A Fine to medium grained sand beaches X - - - - - - - X X X

3B Scarps and steep slopes in sand - - - - - - - - - - -

3C Tundra cliffs - - - - - - - - - - -

4 Coarse Grained Sand beaches - X X X X X X X - - -

5 Mixed Sand and Gravel Beaches - - - - - - - - - - -

6A Gravel Beaches - X - - - - - - - - -

6B Riprap - - - - - - - - - - -

7 Exposed Tidal Flats - - - - - - - - - - X

Sheltered scarps in bedrock, mud or


8A - - - - - - - - X X -
clay

169
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Bengo (coordinates)

B10 Rio Dande / Barra do


070 48’89’’ S/130 06’00’’ E

070 50’26’’ S/130 06’48’’ E

070 55’55’’ S/130 08’90’’ E

070 59’42’’ S/130 11’06’’ E

080 02’01’’ S/130 12’01’’ E

080 08’11’’ S/130 15’48’’ E

080 24’75’’ S/130 23’84’’ E

080 38’10’’ S/130 24’39’’ E


08o 24’45’’ S/13o 23’50’’ E

08o 28’20’’ S/13o 22’28’’ E


080 04’58’’ S/130 11’57’’E

B11 Salina de São Tiago


B6 Rio Quinzauamuana
B2 Barra do Ambriz

B7 Rio Quincacala
B3 Rio Quitungo

B9 Rio Lifune
B1 Rio Lodge

B8 Rio Onzo
B4 Rio Uezo

B5 Rio Zize
Status of the biotype

Dande
8B Sheltered, solid man-made structures - - - - - - - - - - -

8C Sheltered riprap - - - - - - - - - - -

8D Sheltered rocky rubble shores - - - - - - - - - - -

8E Peat shorelines X - - - - - - X X X -

9A Sheltered tidal flats - - - - - - - - - - -

9B Vegetated low banks - - - - - - - - - - -

9C Hypersaline tidal flats - X - X - - - - - - -

10A Salt and brackish water marshes - - - - - - - - - - X

10B Freshwater marshes - - - - - - - - - - -

10C Swamps - - - - - - - - - - -

10D Scrub-scrub wetlands; Mangroves X - - - - - - X X X -

10E Inundated low - lying tundra - - - - - - - - - - -

Very Very Very Very Very Very


Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) High Medium Medium Medium Medium
High High High High High High

170
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Bengo (coordinates)

B10 Rio Dande / Barra do


070 48’89’’ S/130 06’00’’ E

070 50’26’’ S/130 06’48’’ E

070 55’55’’ S/130 08’90’’ E

070 59’42’’ S/130 11’06’’ E

080 02’01’’ S/130 12’01’’ E

080 08’11’’ S/130 15’48’’ E

080 24’75’’ S/130 23’84’’ E

080 38’10’’ S/130 24’39’’ E


08o 24’45’’ S/13o 23’50’’ E

08o 28’20’’ S/13o 22’28’’ E


080 04’58’’ S/130 11’57’’E

B11 Salina de São Tiago


B6 Rio Quinzauamuana
B2 Barra do Ambriz

B7 Rio Quincacala
B3 Rio Quitungo

B9 Rio Lifune
B1 Rio Lodge

B8 Rio Onzo
B4 Rio Uezo

B5 Rio Zize
Biological Resources

Dande
Coral / Hard bottom reef - - - - - - - - - - -

Submerged Aquatic Vegetation - - - - - - - - - - -


Habitat
Floating Aquatic Vegetation - - - - - - - - - - -

Mangroves X - - - - - - X X X -

Crab X X X X X X X X X X X

Lobster - - - - - - X - - X X

Shrimp X X X X - - - X - X -
Invertebrates
Bivalve (oyster/clam/mussel) - - - - - - - X - - --

Gastropods (whelk, conch) - - - - - - - - - - X

Cephalopods (squid) X X - - - - - X X - -

Fish Commercial fish X X X X X X X X X X X

Crocodile X X - - - - - X X X -

Reptile Turtle X X X X X - X X X - X

Other reptiles/amphibians X X X X - - - X X - -

171
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Bengo (coordinates)

B10 Rio Dande / Barra do


070 48’89’’ S/130 06’00’’ E

070 50’26’’ S/130 06’48’’ E

070 55’55’’ S/130 08’90’’ E

070 59’42’’ S/130 11’06’’ E

080 02’01’’ S/130 12’01’’ E

080 08’11’’ S/130 15’48’’ E

080 24’75’’ S/130 23’84’’ E

080 38’10’’ S/130 24’39’’ E


08o 24’45’’ S/13o 23’50’’ E

08o 28’20’’ S/13o 22’28’’ E


080 04’58’’ S/130 11’57’’E

B11 Salina de São Tiago


B6 Rio Quinzauamuana
B2 Barra do Ambriz

B7 Rio Quincacala
B3 Rio Quitungo

B9 Rio Lifune
B1 Rio Lodge

B8 Rio Onzo
B4 Rio Uezo

B5 Rio Zize
Biological Resources

Dande
Passerine Birds X X X X X - X X X X X

Waterfowl X X - - - - - - - X -

Wading X X X X X - X X X X X

Shorebirds X X X X X - X X X X X
Birds
Raptor X X - - - - - X - X -

Pelagic - - - - - - - - - - -

Gull/Tern X X X X X - X X X X X

Diving X X - - - - - - - X -

Whales X X X X X X X X X X X

Mammals Dolphins X X X X X X X X X X X

Manatee X - - - - - - - - X -

Sensibility of Biological Resources (BIO) High Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium High High High High

172
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Bengo (coordinates)

B10 Rio Dande / Barra do


070 48’89’’ S/130 06’00’’ E

070 50’26’’ S/130 06’48’’ E

070 55’55’’ S/130 08’90’’ E

070 59’42’’ S/130 11’06’’ E

080 02’01’’ S/130 12’01’’ E

080 08’11’’ S/130 15’48’’ E

080 24’75’’ S/130 23’84’’ E

080 38’10’’ S/130 24’39’’ E


08o 24’45’’ S/13o 23’50’’ E

08o 28’20’’ S/13o 22’28’’ E


080 04’58’’ S/130 11’57’’E

B11 Salina de São Tiago


B6 Rio Quinzauamuana
B2 Barra do Ambriz

B7 Rio Quincacala
B3 Rio Quitungo

B9 Rio Lifune
B1 Rio Lodge

B8 Rio Onzo
B4 Rio Uezo

B5 Rio Zize
Socio-economic aspects

Dande
Protected Areas Status (1) - - - - - - - - - - -

Urban / peri-urban - X - - - - - - - X X
Area type
Rural X - X X X - X X X - -

Summer (rainy) IN G P 4x4 AP P 4x4 - P 4x4 R 4x4 P 4x4 G P 4x4


Access (road) (2)
Cacimbo (dry) IN G R 4x4 R 4x4 P 4x4 - R 4x4 R 4x4 R 4x4 G R

Access (maritime) Access X X X X X X X X X X X

Local / Site NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Presence of
Access NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Landmines (3)
Proximity of the site(4) - - - - - - - - 2,45 1,12 -

Hotel - X - - - - - - X X -

Restaurant - X - - - - - - X X -

Tourism Marina / Dock - - - - - - - - - - -

Recreational beach - - X X - - X X X X -

Historical/Cultural site - X - - - - - - - X -

173
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Bengo (coordinates)

B10 Rio Dande / Barra do


070 48’89’’ S/130 06’00’’ E

070 50’26’’ S/130 06’48’’ E

070 55’55’’ S/130 08’90’’ E

070 59’42’’ S/130 11’06’’ E

080 02’01’’ S/130 12’01’’ E

080 08’11’’ S/130 15’48’’ E

080 24’75’’ S/130 23’84’’ E

080 38’10’’ S/130 24’39’’ E


08o 24’45’’ S/13o 23’50’’ E

08o 28’20’’ S/13o 22’28’’ E


080 04’58’’ S/130 11’57’’E

B11 Salina de São Tiago


B6 Rio Quinzauamuana
B2 Barra do Ambriz

B7 Rio Quincacala
B3 Rio Quitungo

B9 Rio Lifune
B1 Rio Lodge

B8 Rio Onzo
B4 Rio Uezo

B5 Rio Zize
Socio-economic aspects

Dande
Nautical Sport(5) - - - - - - - - - - -

Aquaculture - - - - - - - - - - -

Artisanal fishing X X - X X - X X X X X

Nr. of fishermen(6) - 185 - - 17 - 289 - 48 403 83

Fishing activity Nr. of fishing


6
communities(7)

Nr. of fishermen(7) Year 2010 = 1.285 / 2011 = 1.616

Production volume(7) Year 2010 = 12.406 ton / 2011 =13.700 ton

Industrial facilities - X - - - - - - - - -
Industries and Port
Port facilities X X - - - - - - - - -
activities
Oil facilities - X - - - - - - - - -

Unitel - x - X X X X X X X X
Communications
Movicel - X - - - - - - X X X

Sensitivity of the presence and human activities Very Very Very


Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium High High
(SOCECO) High High High

174
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Bengo (coordinates)

B10 Rio Dande / Barra do


070 48’89’’ S/130 06’00’’ E

070 50’26’’ S/130 06’48’’ E

070 55’55’’ S/130 08’90’’ E

070 59’42’’ S/130 11’06’’ E

080 02’01’’ S/130 12’01’’ E

080 08’11’’ S/130 15’48’’ E

080 24’75’’ S/130 23’84’’ E

080 38’10’’ S/130 24’39’’ E


08o 24’45’’ S/13o 23’50’’ E

08o 28’20’’ S/13o 22’28’’ E


080 04’58’’ S/130 11’57’’E

B11 Salina de São Tiago


B6 Rio Quinzauamuana
B2 Barra do Ambriz

B7 Rio Quincacala
B3 Rio Quitungo

B9 Rio Lifune
B1 Rio Lodge

B8 Rio Onzo
B4 Rio Uezo

B5 Rio Zize
Socio-economic aspects

Dande
Index of Environmental and Social Classification Medium-
High Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium High High High
(E2SI) High

Coordinates of landmines closest to the sampling sites (BENGO)


Site Sampling sites coordinates Landmine Coordinates Distance approx. (km)
B9 – Lifune 08o 24’45’’ S/13o 23’50’’ E 08o 25’15’’ S/13o 25’06’’ E 2,45
B10 – Barra do Dande 08o 28’20’’ S/13o 22’28’’ E 08028´23´´S / 13021´44´´E 1,12

175
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Table 12: Summary of the main biological and socioeconomic aspects in the Luanda province.

Sampling sites in Luanda (coordinates)

L2 Porto de Luanda/Ilha de
080 42’02’’ S/130 23’43’’ E

080 48’07’’ S/130 14’35’’ E

09o 01’42’’ S/13o 00’05’’ E

09o 20’37’’ S/13o 09’14’’ E

09o49’12’’ S/13o 16’51’’ E

09o58’31" S/13o 19’43’’ E


09°40'39" S/13°12'10" E
09°31'52"S/13°12'24" E

10°10'24"S/13°27'35"E
09°52'5" S/13°18'49" E

L10 Praia de São Brás


L5 Barra do Kwanza

L6 Sobe e Desce

L9 Sete irmãos
Vários pontos

L8 Cabo Ledo
L1 Rio Bengo

L7 Sangano
L3 Mussulo

L11 Kitoba
Status of the biotype

L4 Buraco
Luanda
1A Exposed Rocky Shores - - - - X - X X - X -

1B Exposed, solid man-made structures - X - - - - - X - - -

1C Exposed rocky cliffs with boulder talus base - - - - - - - - - - -

2A Exposed wave cute platforms in bedrock, - - - - - - - - - - -


mud, or clay
2B Exposed scarps and steep slopes in clay - - - - - - - - - - -

3A Fine to medium grained sand beaches X - - - - - - - - - -

3B Scarps and steep slopes in sand - - - - - - - - - - -

3C Tundra cliffs - - - - - - - - - - -

4 Coarse Grained Sand beaches - X X X X X X X X X X

5 Mixed Sand and Gravel Beaches - - - - - - - - - - -

6A Gravel Beaches - - - - - - - - - - -

6B Riprap - - - - - - - - - - -

7 Exposed Tidal Flats X - X X X X X X X X X

8A Sheltered scarps in bedrock, mud or clay - X - - - - - - - - -

176
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Luanda (coordinates)

L2 Porto de Luanda/Ilha de
080 42’02’’ S/130 23’43’’ E

080 48’07’’ S/130 14’35’’ E

09o 01’42’’ S/13o 00’05’’ E

09o 20’37’’ S/13o 09’14’’ E

09o49’12’’ S/13o 16’51’’ E

09o58’31" S/13o 19’43’’ E


09°40'39" S/13°12'10" E
09°31'52"S/13°12'24" E

10°10'24"S/13°27'35"E
09°52'5" S/13°18'49" E

L10 Praia de São Brás


L5 Barra do Kwanza

L6 Sobe e Desce

L9 Sete irmãos
Vários pontos

L8 Cabo Ledo
L1 Rio Bengo

L7 Sangano
L3 Mussulo

L11 Kitoba
Status of the biotype

L4 Buraco
Luanda
8B Sheltered, solid man-made structures - - - - - - - - - - -

8C Sheltered riprap - - - - - - - - - - -

8D Sheltered rocky rubble shores - - - - - - - - - - -

8E Peat shorelines X X - - X - - - - - -

9A Sheltered tidal flats - - X X - - - - - - -

9B Vegetated low banks - - - - - - - - - - -

9C Hypersaline tidal flats - - - - - - - - - - -

10A Salt and brackish water marshes - - - - - - - - - - -

10B Freshwater marshes - - - - - - - - - - -

10C Swamps - - - - - - - - - - -

10D Scrub-scrub wetlands; Mangroves - - X X X - - - - - -

10E Inundated low - lying tundra - - X X - - - - - - -

Very Very Very


Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) High High High High High High High High
High High High

177
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Luanda (coordinates)

080 42’02’’ S/130 23’43’’ E

080 48’07’’ S/130 14’35’’ E

09o 01’42’’ S/13o 00’05’’ E

09o 20’37’’ S/13o 09’14’’ E

09o49’12’’ S/13o 16’51’’ E

09o58’31" S/13o 19’43’’ E


L2 Porto de Luanda/Ilha

09°40'39" S/13°12'10" E
09°31'52"S/13°12'24" E

10°10'24"S/13°27'35"E
09°52'5" S/13°18'49" E

L10 Praia de São Brás


L5 Barra do Kwanza

L6 Sobe e Desce

L9 Sete irmãos
Vários pontos

L8 Cabo Ledo
L1 Rio Bengo

L7 Sangano
L3 Mussulo

L11 Kitoba
de Luanda
Biological Resources

L4 Buraco
Coral / Hard bottom reef - - - - - - - - - - -

Submerged Aquatic Vegetation - - X - X - - - - - -


Habitat
Floating Aquatic Vegetation - - X - X - - - - - -

Mangroves X - X X X - - - - - -

Crab X - X X X X X X X - X

Lobster - X - - X X X X X X X
Invertebrates

Shrimp - - X X X - - - - X -

Bivalve (oyster/clam/mussel) - X X X - X X X X - X

Gastropods (whelk, conch) - - X X - - - - - - -

Cephalopods (squid) X X X X - X X X X - X

Fish Commercial fish X X X X X X X X X X X

Crocodile X - - - X - - - - - -

Reptile Turtle X - X X X X X X X - X

Other reptiles/amphibians X - - - X - - - - - -

178
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Luanda (coordinates)

080 42’02’’ S/130 23’43’’ E

080 48’07’’ S/130 14’35’’ E

09o 01’42’’ S/13o 00’05’’ E

09o 20’37’’ S/13o 09’14’’ E

09o49’12’’ S/13o 16’51’’ E

09o58’31" S/13o 19’43’’ E


L2 Porto de Luanda/Ilha

09°40'39" S/13°12'10" E
09°31'52"S/13°12'24" E

10°10'24"S/13°27'35"E
09°52'5" S/13°18'49" E

L10 Praia de São Brás


L5 Barra do Kwanza

L6 Sobe e Desce

L9 Sete irmãos
Vários pontos

L8 Cabo Ledo
L1 Rio Bengo

L7 Sangano
L3 Mussulo

L11 Kitoba
de Luanda
Biological Resources

L4 Buraco
Passerine Birds X X X X X X X X X X X

Waterfowl X X X X X X X X X - X

Wading X X X X X X X X X X X

Shorebirds X X X X X X X X X X X
Birds
Raptor X - X X X X X X X - X

Pelagic - - - - - - - - - - -

Gull/Tern X X X X X X X X X X X

Diving - - X X - - - - - - -

Whales X - X X X X X X X X X

Mammals Dolphins X - X X X X X X X X X

Manatee X - - - X - - - - - -

Very Very Very Very Very


Sensibility of Biological Resources (BIO) Medium High High High High Medium
High High High High High

179
Environmental and Social Characterisation to Determine the Coastal Sensitivity of the Areas Between Cabinda and Kwanza Sul (Quicombo)

Sampling sites in Luanda (coordinates)

080 42’02’’ S/130 23’43’’ E

080 48’07’’ S/130 14’35’’ E

09o 01’42’’ S/13o 00’05’’ E

09o 20’37’’ S/13o 09’14’’ E

09o49’12’’ S/13o 16’51’’ E

09o58’31" S/13o 19’43’’ E


L2 Porto de Luanda/Ilha

09°40'39" S/13°12'10" E
09°31'52"S/13°12'24" E

10°10'24"S/13°27'35"E
09°52'5" S/13°18'49" E

L10 Praia de São Brás


L5 Barra do Kwanza

L6 Sobe e Desce

L9 Sete irmãos
Vários pontos

L8 Cabo Ledo
L1 Rio Bengo

L7 Sangano
L3 Mussulo

L11 Kitoba
de Luanda
Socio-economic aspects

L4 Buraco
Protected Areas Status (1) - - - - N N N N N N N

Urban / peri-urban X X X - - - - - - - -
Area type
Rural - - - X X X