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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

INTRODUCTION
Rationale of the Study

According to Karen A. Matthews, Ph. D (2009), people who are

engaged in multiple enjoyable activities are better off physically and

psychologically .This statement of Karen A.Matthews is indirectly stating

that one must not frustrate himself working too much .There is a need to

enjoy and relax in order to become a better person .

Students who are dedicated on their studies spend a lot of time

thinking about their studies, doing their assignments and constructing their

projects. They focus almost all of their time in doing academic stuff in

order for them to step up and achieve their goals as students. These kind of

students are the students that are in demand for different scholarship

programs. These are the students of International Maritime Employers’

Council (IMEC), an organization which is dedicated to maritime industry

,have .

The International Maritime Employers’ Council (IMEC) aims to

promote physically, mentally, emotionally, socially and spiritually


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developed cadets through the IMEC Cadetship Programme in partnership

with the University of Cebu–Maritime Education and Training Center (UC-

METC). The IMEC Cadets are provided with all their needs from board

and lodge, food, uniform, tuition and recreational facilities.

The IMEC cadets have their own recreational or leisure room that

can be used during free times. They spend their leisure time in different

activities .They play board games and ball game or watch television .They

have the freedom to choose whether if they are going to play or rest .

Different types of activities may produce an impact to the academic

performance of the IMEC Cadets .It may be desirable or undesirable

effects.

The proponents chose to do the study for the reason that in doing so;

hopefully, it will help the proponents to leisure activities and academic

performance of The International Maritime Employers’Council (IMEC)

Cadets.

This study of leisure activities and academic performance of The

International Maritime Employers’ Council (IMEC) Cadets will hopefully

become a medium to open up new ideas to improve the status of the IMEC

Cadets, IMEC Administrators, Instructors and the society.


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This study will provide answers that cannot be stated through surface

analysis, but by providing valid information and data that will show the

correlativity of leisure activities and academic performance of IMEC

Cadets.

Theoretical Background

Compensatory Theory of Leisure (Burch, 1994).The main idea of

the compensatory theory is that “work is seen as the dominant force in life,

and leisure is seen compensating for either the boredom or the excitement

of the job.” (Bammel & Bammel, 1992)

This theory can explain some of the leisure behavior seen in modern

society. For example people exciting jobs often seek relaxation after work.

It seems from that mostly people with an extreme level of either boredom

or excitement in their job fall under this theory. This indicates that this

approach has some relevance for modern society. On the other hand, this

theory cannot explain why the school teacher becomes a sports trainer in

his free time or why a dentist is also a passionate watchmaker. ( Haecker,

2002)

The compensatory hypothesis suggests that whenever the individual

is given the opportunity to avoid his regular routine, he will seek a directly
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opposite leisure activity such as music, art, community involvement, and

physical fitness for relaxation, broadening of knowledge, and spontaneous

social participation. (Burch, 1994)

Spillover Theory of Leisure (Wilensky, 1996). Spillover Theory is

the antithesis to the compensatory theory. It states leisure somehow

parallels or results from work activity. It suggests that work has a strong

impact on the worker’s personality and therefore also determines his leisure

behavior. This means that a teacher gets used to teaching so much that he

cannot help continuing it after work. ( Haecker, 2002)

These last two theories equal Kelly’s approach to leisure as

contextual, which sees leisure embedded in habits, relationships and social

arrangements like work. (Kelly, 2000)

This theory, too, explains some parts of modern leisure

behavior. A lot of people do things similar to their work in their free time,

some even regard their work leisure. But like the compensatory theory it

can only explain parts of modern leisure behavior. There seem to be more

variables involved. (Haecker, 2002). More positively, the worker may

enjoy work so much that its basic themes are repeated in leisure pastimes.

For example, a student who enjoys long hours of reading books also has a
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hobby of collecting books or other reading paraphernalia that may lead to

discovery of more knowledge which can improve his rational skills and

academic performance.

Moreover, for student populations, participation in leisure activities

is also believed to be a benign mechanism for fighting social ills such as

drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, and other deviant behaviour (Vicary,

Smith, Caldwell, & Swisher, 1998). Another positive effect of participation

in leisure includes the broadening of an individual’s perspective on the

world of work (Munson & Savickas, 1998). Munson (1993) conducted a

survey of 251 American youths and found that the stronger the perceived

freedom in leisure, the higher the leisure participation, conviction, and

value.

Moreover, the higher the perceived freedom, the less likely that

participation in activities would be restricted by exogenous factors. More

importantly, investigations by Munson and Widmer (1997) and Munson

and Savickas (1998) indicate that significant relation-ships exist among

thinking and contemplating, ethical leisure behaviour, and occupational

identity; that is, the more those students involve themselves in intellectual
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and creative leisure activities, the better they advance in occupational

identity development with clear career goals.

In an environment immersed with pragmatism, leisure activities have

traditionally been treated as a residual issue in the cultivation of students,

while the idea that leisure and career roles reciprocally influence each other

(Super, 1984) is generally neglected. Fitzgerald, Joseph, Hayes, and

O’Regan (1995) suggest that an understanding of youth and young adults’

leisure activities and interests can help further our knowledge of their

individual needs, development, and social world.

Self-development Theory (Dumazedier, 1992).This is based on

Dumazedier´s tripartite theory of leisure, consisting of three functions of

leisure: relaxation, entertainment, and personal development. He supposes

that there will be a time when personal growth, not working for a living,

will be life’s primary motivator. Here, relaxation is a prerequisite for

leisure, as we need to overcome fatigue, entertainment is the diversion

aspect of leisure, and finally personal development is the enduring

component of leisure (Bammel & Bammel, 1992).

Bammel and Bammel state that this approach has found its way into

modern society, as most people regard work less important than personal
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growth. More and more workers make use of the possibility of sabbaticals

for self-development, and for many young students not the money they will

earn with their future job, but the satisfaction they hope to find there, seems

to be the major influence on the choice of study.

But even though modern people have more free time than ever

before, Bammel & Bammel state, “with additional free time, many workers

simply increase their television-watching time”. This means that most

people will only realize the first two steps of Dumazedier´s tripartite

theory: relaxation and entertainment. For many people this is what leisure

means: easy entertainment. To achieve self-development some reflection

and “work” on oneself is necessary, and this does not fit into a lot of

people’s perceiving of leisure.

Similar from conservative- Marxist perspective, Dumazadier (1974

cited in Rojek 1995) defines leisure as time orientated towards self-

fulfilment as an ultimate end. However, this leisure time is granted to the

individual by society, when they have complied with his occupational,

family, socio-spiritual and socio-political obligations, which makes leisure

a necessary element of social order as an opportunity for free time activities

contribute to well-being of individual and society.


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Furthermore, Kaplan (1984 cited in Rojek 1995) claims that the

leisure is the primary value of mankind in industrial society as it is “a

relatively self-determined activity experience that falls into economically

free-time roles ; that is psychologically pleasant in anticipation and

recollection; that potentially covers the whole range of commitment and

intensity; that contains characteristic norms and constraints; and that

provides opportunities for recreation, personal growth and service to

others” (Kaplan 1975 cited in Rojek 1995). (Zurawik, 2012)

Perspectives on Leisure

` Leisure is defined as freedom from paid labour or as a voluntary

behavior (Rojek 2005). Developing this concept, Mannell and

Kleiber(1997) state that leisure is commonly characterised as an activity in

time free from obligations, which provides meaningful and satisfying

experience identified with freedom, choice and life satisfaction.

In 1974, John Neulineger created a model classification of the

perceived freedom and fundamental motivation dimensions. Neulinger

identified a criterion of leisure as a perceived freedom- a state in which a

person feels that what they are doing is done by choice and because they

want to do it (Neulinger, 1981 cited in Mannell, Kleiber 1997:126).


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He also distinguished between intrinsic- rewards coming from

engaging in activity itself, which can be explained by self –determination

theory; and extrinsic motivation- engagement in activity leads to other

rewards (money, grades). According to Neulinger’s typology when activity

is freely chosen for intrinsic reasons it is called a pure leisure. At the

opposite extreme there is activity least leisure like – pure job. Neulinger’s

pure job also known as Godbey’s anti-leisure is “an activity which is

undertaken compulsively, as a means to an end, from a perception of

necessity, with high degree of externally imposed constrains, with

considerable anxiety, with high degree of time-consciousness, with

minimum of personal autonomy, and which avoids self- actualization,

authentication and finitude” (Neulinger 1989 cited in Rojek 1995).

Following this socio- psychological perspective, Kaplan (1960 cited

in Rojek, 2005 p. 80) identified seven essential elements of pure leisure

experience: psychological recognition of activity which is antithesis of

work, identification of leisure with pleasure, minimum involuntary role

obligation, psychological perception of freedom, inclusion of an entire

range of responses from inconsequence and insignificance to weightiness

and importance, general psychological recognition of play, identification of

activity as being close to the values of culture. (Zurawik, 2012)


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Review of Related Literature

This part presents the literatures that have bearing on the concerns of

the study. A number of pieces of literature, documents, pamphlets,

handouts, unpublished theses were perused and analyzed to provide the

necessary framework of this study. Ideas, insights, theories, conclusions

and recommendations advanced by these papers were cited as authorities of

the study.

Related Studies

The study of Hickerson, Benjamin D. and Beggs, Brent A. (1992),

about Leisure time boredom: issues concerning college students, examined

the impact of boredom on leisure of college students in relation to gender,

level of education, and activity choice. Subjects at a Midwestern university

completed the Leisure Boredom Scale and a modified version of the

Leisure Activities Blank. No significant differences were found between

overall levels of leisure boredom and the three independent variables.

However, examinations of individual Leisure Boredom Scale items

indicated specific differences. Hultsman, 1993).For many young adults, the

college years are a period of expanding freedoms and focusing interests

(Gitelson & Thomason, 1992).


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College is seen as the last stage of formal education for most people

and it is also one of the last structured opportunities for individuals to form

leisure time behavior patterns before they move into the workforce (Cheng

et al., 2004). The college environment has a unique influence on leisure

behavior, including different patterns of free time availability and the

acquisition of new activities. Leisure participation in college students has

long-term ramifications as it molds attitudes and behaviors leading to

continued recreation participation in later life (Gordon & Catalbiano,

1996).

Students who do not have leisure skills, cannot manage leisure time,

or are not aware that leisure can be psychologically rewarding are more

likely to be bored during leisure (Hickerson, et al., 2007).

The study of American Journal of Health Studies Publisher (2000)

investigated the interrelationship among academic stress, anxiety, time

management, and leisure satisfaction among 249 university undergraduates

by age and gender. Time management behaviors had a greater buffering

effect on academic stress than leisure satisfaction activities. Freshmen and

sophomore students had higher reactions to stress than juniors and seniors.

Anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction were all predictors of

academic stress in the multivariate analysis. Anxiety reduction and time


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management in conjunction with leisure activities may be an effective

strategy for reducing academic stress in college students.

A disturbing trend in college student health is the reported increase

in student stress nationwide (Sax, 1997). Stressors affecting students can be

categorized as academic, financial, time or health related, and self-imposed

(Goodman, 1993; LeRoy, 1988). Academic stressors include the student's

perception of the extensive knowledge base required and the perception of

an inadequate time to develop it (Carveth, Gesse, & Moss, 1996). Students

report experiencing academic stress at predictable times each semester with

the greatest sources of academic stress resulting from taking and studying

for exams, grade competition, and the large amount of content to master in

a small amount of time (Abouserie, 1994; Archer &Lamnin, 1985; Britton

&Tesser, 1991; Kohn & Frazer, 1986).

When stress is perceived negatively or becomes excessive, students

experience physical and psychological impairment (Murphy & Archer,

1996). Methods to reduce stress by students often include effective time

management, social support, positive reappraisal, and engagement in

leisure pursuits (Blake &Vandiver, 1988; Mattlin, Wethington, & Kessler,

1990). Leisure satisfaction is defined as the positive feeling of contentment


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one perceives as a result of meeting personal needs through leisure

activities (Seigenthaler, 1997).

Although relationships among some leisure domains and perceived

stress have been studied in a variety of settings involving retirees to school-

related settings (Kabanoff& O'Brian, 1986; Kaufman, 1988; Pickens

&Kiess, 1988; Ragheb& McKinney, 1993; Tice &Baumeister, 1997),

relationships between leisure satisfaction and academic stress of college

students have not been addressed directly.

The only scientific research that specifically related leisure

satisfaction to academic stress was that of Ragheb and McKinney (1993),

who established a negative association between academic stress and leisure

satisfaction. A limitation of this study, however, was that it measured

academic stress using seven items that were extracted inclusively from

occupational stress inventories (Misra, 2000).

The above literature suggests that the tendency to structure one's

time and leisure satisfaction may be an important factor in reducing

academic stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the

interrelationship (and predictors) of college students' academic stress with

anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction. It was hypothesized


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that academic stress would show a significant positive correlation with

anxiety, and a significant negative correlation with self-reported time

management behaviors and leisure satisfaction of college students. A

person engaging more frequently in time management behaviors will report

fewer physical and psychological symptoms of stress. The greater

satisfaction with leisure that students indicate the lower their perceived

academic stress will be (Misra, 2000).

The Journal Expanding Opportunities for Young People and

Communities explains that young people’s discretionary time is worth a

significant amount of attention, partly because it is a potential breeding

ground for youth problems, but mainly because it presents endless

possibilities for constructive development. It is critical that a positive

vision of leisure time activities be put forward and defined, and that time

and care be given to specifying how such time should be used and why it

should be protected (World Youth Report, 2003).

International plans and commitments such as the Dakar Youth

Empowerment Strategy offer such a positive vision, taking a clear stand

against severe infringements on young people’s right to free time. Most

have their source in the promise of the Convention on the Rights of the

Child, amplifying, reiterating and expanding on the following basic


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provisions of article 31:1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to

rest and leisure, toengage in play and recreational activities appropriate to

the age ofthe child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts.

2. States Parties shall respect and promote the right of the child

toparticipate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage

theprovision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic,

recreational and leisure activity (World Youth Report, 2003).

Echoing these international commitments, a developing body of

research—and a growing choir of advocates and practitioners—emphasize

the importance of play and recreation for younger children. Leaders in

child development have long identified play as critical space for children’s

cognitive, identity, and social/emotional development (World Youth

Report, 2003).

Research indicates that the specific types of thinking and problem

solving involved in play provide valuable skills for the future. Researchers,

therapists, and childcare practitioners have made play a central element of

their work with children, with demonstrated impact. While the nature of

“play” may change as (especially Western) young people get older—with

increases in peer leisure and time spent talking for some and in structured

recreational and sports activities for others—it appears to be no less critical


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to adolescents than to younger children. Though the precise effects are not

certain, time spent informally with peers and adults in activities such as

talking and playing is likely to result in both stronger social networks and

stronger social skills for adulthood (World Youth Report, 2003).

The physical exercise and habits associated with sports and

recreation, again in concert with the social skills and relationships gained

through such activities, constitute an important input to young people’s

health. Adolescents’ play and recreation, though defined differently in

cultures around the world, has intrinsic value (World Youth Report, 2003).

The shift from a negative view of leisure to a positive vision that

emphasizes the value of leisure in its own right is a critical first step

towards protecting young people’s right to discretionary time and to quality

leisure activities. This message is important for developing and least

developed countries, where economic pressures often propel young people

into the labour force at an early age; it is equally important for highly

industrialized countries concerned about improving academic performance

(World Youth Report, 2003).

Around the world, the amount of time young people spend in work

has decreased, replaced by a larger amount of time in school. In the


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developing countries, school generally occupies a relatively small amount

of young people’s time. In much of Asia, however, the combination of a

longer school day, an expansive network of non-school academic

enrichment programmes (many geared towards test preparation), and more

time dedicated to homework means that up to half of young people’s time

is spent in academic pursuits. In developed countries, frustration with

educational reform efforts and continued pressure for academic

achievement has resulted in an explosion of academic after-school

programmes (World Youth Report, 2003).

At the heart of this international phenomenon is an important fact:

young people’s learning need not—and does not—stop at the end of the

school day. Their leisure time provides a rich opportunity for learning and

a particularly rich climate in which to facilitate the development of lifelong

learners. Pushing for more “time on task”, many programmes simply

replicate the teaching practices used during the school day and extend them

into young people’s leisure time, despite growing evidence that “more of

the same” is both unproductive and developmentally dangerous (World

Youth Report, 2003).

Research supervised by Deborah Vandell(2003) shows that young

people in Thailand who were involved in high-yield arts and cultural


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activities that had reading, writing and mathematics as the “hidden

curriculum” rather than the lead curriculum not only performed better on

State tests than those enrolled in strict content-drill programmes, but were

also emotionally healthier. This study speaks to a tension that is

developing, at least in the United States, challenging the belief that

academic outcomes are best bolstered by the application of formal school-

derived practices during out-of-school hours (Vandell, 2003).

Based on research findings such as these, there is growing

recognition that learning during leisure hours cannot appear identical to

that inside of schools and, equally important, an increased willingness to

describe learning as a primary goal for leisure-time activities. The ideas of

“serious leisure” and “leisure education” put forward by World Leisure in

its Charter for Leisure and other documents imply a set of principles,

professional standards, practices and pedagogical orientations that are

distinct from but complementary to what goes on in formal education

settings (World Youth Report, 2003).

The model of learning put forward by J. Falk and L. Dierking goes

further in specifying the contextual, personal and social factors in place

when young people participate in learning that is volitional, recreational,

and engaged in as a form of self-fulfillment. Falk’s and Dierking’s


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framework for freechoice learning, developed through investigation

focusing largely on museums, is one of a number of research-and-practice

efforts to underscore the unique nature of learning that happens during

leisure. Other efforts push even further in defining the specific features of

environments that support young people’s leisure-time learning and

development (World Youth Report, 2003).

International documents including “Programming for adolescent

health and development: report of the WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF Study

Group on Programming for Adolescent Health” and Adolescence: A Time

That Matters, published by UNICEF, and country documents such as the

New Zealand Ministry of Youth Affairs’ Youth Development Strategy

Aeteatoa, published in 2002, present a set of common features of

environments that support young people’s development. Research and

synthesis by M. McLaughlin, by J.P. Connell, M.A. Gambone and T.J.

Smith, by the Forum for Youth Investment, and, most recently, by the

National Research Council confirms that there are core principles relevant

to learning that goes on during leisure time—principles applicable to

schools as well but not consistently present within them (World Youth

Report, 2003).
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This set of central principles—in reality, conditions for effective

learning and engagement— includes, inter alia, the presence of caring

relationships, challenge and relevance, choice and voice, high expectations,

physical and emotional safety, and experiences of “mattering” and

contribution. This research and practice goes far in validating and

clarifying the significance of leisure-based learning. Research results

indicate that community-based leisure-time settings may actually be more

effective than schools in engaging students in learning (World Youth

Report, 2003).

A study by R. Larson (2002) indicates that young people are only

cognitively and emotionally engaged a small amount of the time, even

though such engagement is a critical precondition to learning. Importantly,

this combination of cognitive and emotional engagement is far more likely

to happen in structured, voluntary leisure-time settings than during school.

Apparently, the blend of principles that make leisure-based learning

what it is offers a powerful model for engagement and achievement. Based

on these findings, stating that leisure time provides an opportunity for

learning represents a richer and more promising claim than the argument

that students should spend more time doing what they do in school. As

indicated by the research just described, the “how” (pedagogy) of learning


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during leisure is significantly different. The “what” of learning—the

appropriate content for learning that goes on outside school hours—is also

different (Larson, 2002).

As both the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Dakar

Youth Empowerment Strategy acknowledge, leisure time is critically a

space in which young people express themselves creatively, take part in

arts and cultural activities, and develop as individuals. Culture, creativity,

and identity are central, defining features of the content of learning during

leisure time. Research confirms that leisure time is important in helping

young people achieve a broad range of positive outcomes, as follows:

social/emotional development, engagement, vocational development,

engagement, civic development, engagement, physical development, and

engagement (World Youth Report, 2003).

Social/emotional development and engagement: the ability to

respond to and cope with both positive and adverse situations, reflect on

one’s emotions and surroundings, engage in leisure and fun, and sustain

caring friendships and relationships with others.

Vocational development and engagement: acquiring the functional

and organizational skills necessary for employment, including an

understanding of careers and options and the pathways to follow to reach


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these goals.

Physical development and engagement: biological maturation and

the evolving ability to act in ways that best ensure current and future

physical health for oneself and others.

Cognitive development and engagement: the ability to gain basic

knowledge, to learn in school and other settings, to use critical thinking,

problem-solving, and creative and expressive skills, and to conduct

independent study.

Civic development and engagement: the growing recognition of

one’s impact on one’s surroundings and responsibility to others, as well as

the ability and opportunity to work collaboratively towards a common goal.

Leisure is a developmental opportunity and an imperative. Larson

argues that adolescence, including leisure time during this period, should

be defined and understood as a time of preparation for family life,

employment, good citizenship, lifelong learning and personal fulfilment.It

also provides an opportunity for the development of communities and

societies (World Youth Report, 2003).

Young people are more likely to engage fully in learning if the

learning environment incorporates structured leisure time activities

.Research shows that leisure time has a number of positive outcomes for
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individuals involved-including the ability to:react and solve diverse

problems –which include emotional and environmental reflection, active

relaxation; maintaining friendship or relationship with others;acquire

needed functional and employment skills; growth and physically healthy;

acquire basic knowledge through education-this includes the development

of critical thinking and problem solving skills;be socially raised and

involved / participate fully in civil upbringing (World Youth Report,

2003).

Leisure time, therefore, provides an opportunity for personal

growth.Larson and Verma (1999) points out that ‘the period of

adolescence’ needs to be understood as a preparation stage for employment

,family and civil life , lifelong learning ,personal development , and future

achievements . Other studies agree that :young people who regularly take

part in community programmes achieve better academic and social

endeavors ;young people who do not spend time in extra-corricular

activities have 57% more chance of dropping out of school(Eccles et

al.,1999,cited in World Youth Report, 2003) (Livazovic, 2011).

The study of how leisure improves health and boost mood which

appears in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine: Journal of Biobehavioral


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Medicine. For the study, 1,400 adults reported how often they participated

in a variety of leisure activities, including spending time unwinding,

visiting friends or family, going on vacation, going to clubs or religious

activities or playing sports. Adults with higher scores — indicating the

most time spent in different leisure activities — had lower blood pressure,

waist circumference, body mass index and cortisol measurements, all

markers of good health.

People who spent more time doing diverse leisure activities also

reported stronger and more diverse social networks, more feelings of

satisfaction and engagement in their lives and lower levels of depression.

Those who logged the most leisure time also slept better and exercised

more consistently, the authors say.

Other studies have examined the link between specific activities,

such as exercise, and improved physical and psychological health, but this

is the first to show that the accumulation of multiple sources of enjoyable

activity benefits health, Matthews said. The study outcomes add to what we

know about the connection between body and mind, said Kathy Richards,

Ph.D., a registered nurse and professor of health promotion at the

University Of Pennsylvania School Of Nursing in Philadelphia (Sutton,

2009).
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Another study of Schooler C, Mulatu MS(1999) of Section on Socio-

Environmental Studies, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda,

Maryland USA by using data from a representative longitudinal survey,

the authors provide strong evidence that complex leisure time activities

increase intellectual functioning for workers and nonworkers. Although the

effects were relatively moderate, both the present article and its

predecessor on the effects of paid work (C. Schooler.Mulatu,& Oates.

1999) showed that, even in old age, carrying out complex tasks has a

positive effect on intellectual processes. In both cases, initially high levels

of intellectual functioning led to high levels of environmental complexity,

which in turn raised levels of intellectual functioning, thus providing a

pathway contributing to the high correlation of intellectual functioning over

a 20-year period in middle and late adulthood. The present findings

indicate that even in old age carrying out substantively complex tasks

builds the capacity to deal with the intellectual challenges such complex

environments provide. (Mulatu, 1999)

Leisure activities feel like rain shower during scorching heat. Leisure

is the time to be together with your friends and family and to have fun.

Devoting some time for leisure helps in staying healthy and achieving a

peace of mind. Leisure activities serve as a way of relaxing and as


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researches have shown recreation on a daily basis reduces stress, sharpen

skills improves mental and physical health and improves the quality of life

(Jade, 2012).
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Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine the leisure activities and academic

performance of International Maritime Employers’ Council (IMEC) Cadets

in University of Cebu-Maritime Education and Training Center during the

school year 2012-2013.

Specifically, it seeks to provide answers to the following:

1. What is the profile of the respondents according to:

1.1 age;

1.2 course;

1.3 year level;

1.4 first semester grades (2012-2013)?

2. What activities do IMEC cadets do during leisure times in terms of


the following:
2.1 board games;

2.2 physical related activities;

2.3 watching TV or playing computer games;

2.4 other activities?


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3. What is the degree of attachment of the respondents to their

chosen leisure activity?

4. What is the academic performance of the respondents according to

their first semester (2012-2013) grade point average?

5. Is there a significant relationship between the profile, leisure

activities and the degree of attachment of the respondents to their

chosen leisure activity?

5.1 profile;

5.2 leisure activities;

5.3 degree of attachment of the respondents to their leisure

activity?

Statement of the Null Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the profile of the

respondents and the degree of attachment of the respondents to their chosen

leisure activities

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the degree of attachment

of the respondents to their chosen leisure activities and academic

performance of the respondents


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Significance of the Study

This study leisure activities and academic performance of

International Maritime Employers’ Council (IMEC) Cadets will be a

significant endeavor that will help the IMEC Cadets, IMEC

Administrators, Instructors and the future researcher, the researcher, the

academe and the university in order to efficiently handle each role.

IMEC Cadets. The proposed study serves to IMEC Cadets as their

reference in distinguishing whether the leisure activities they are attached

are contributing for their better academic performance or not. It will help

the cadets to identify the best activities they must choose and prioritize

during leisure time. This study will also determine the length of time the

cadets must occupy in doing their leisure activities. Lastly, this study will

provide solutions to their common problems in relationship with the leisure

activities and their academic performance.

IMEC Administrators. The proposed study can help the IMEC

Administrators to formulate and establish new rules and regulations in

relation with the leisure activities.By this study they will come up with
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more suitable rules that will enhance the students’ academic performance

with regards to the cadets leisure activities. And lastly, the Administrators

will become aware of what facilities for leisure activities suit for enhancing

the academic performance of the cadets.

Instructors .The proposed study will help instructors to have a

deeper understanding to the relationship of leisure activities to their student

academic performance and become aware of its effects. This will also serve

as a guideline for the teachers on what activities to promote for their

students better academic performance.

The Academe.The proposed study can be a great help in the

academic society to illuminate the significant relationship of leisure and

academics. This will become hopefully an important basis for setting

standards in the academic world.

The University. The proposed study will provide some insights and

information on how the university is going to develop new teaching

approach and to improve the university’s standards in academic in relation

with the leisure activities. This study will also encourage them to choose

the proper equipment and facilities to improve the IMEC Cadets and the

students’ academic performance.


31

The Researchers. The proposed study will help the researcher to

know the present status of the IMEC Cadets in relation with the leisure

activities and academic performance.

Future Researchers. The proposed study will benefit and help the

future researcher as their guide. The study can also open in development

and improvement of this study.


32

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This section contaiins the well-organized account of the research

design, research dependents, research instruments, research procedure s

and treatment of data.

Research Design

This study will use the descriptive-correlation survey method of

investigation to achieve the results that the researchers required.

Descriptive-correlation survey method because this study aims to provide

information and data about the relationship between two or more variables

.The choice of this research design ensures that the study will not result to

anything insignificant. Preparations and efforts will come up to a quality

and a reliable research output. Research design refers to the plan of action

in meeting the objectives of the study. It will involve collecting of data in

order to test a hypothesis or find out answers concerning the present status

of the subject under study. It is also concerned with conditions of

relationship that exist.


33

Research Environment

The researchers will conduct the study in University of Cebu-

Maritime Education and Training Center (UC-METC) and on the

International Maritime Employers’ Council (IMEC) institution. University

of Cebu has improved from its opening in 1964 which was formerly known

as Cebu College of Commerce (CCC) to Cebu Central Colleges in 1972

through the hard work and effort of Atty. Augusto W. Go.

The UC-METC is a University of Cebu campus that specializes in

training and educating world classseafarers. It is one of the outstanding

maritime universities in the Philippines and is accredited by the Det Norske

Veritas (DNV).It is positioned near the sea with an 8-hectare area

accommodating multiple facilities necessary for the seafarers of the future.

The exact address of this well-resourced and well-equipped institution is

Alumnos, Mambaling Cebu City Philippines.

International Maritime Employers’ Council was formerly known as

International Maritime Employers’ Committee (IMEC). IMEC commenced

activities at the University of Cebu-Maritime Education Center (METC) in

the University of Cebu in 2008, by sponsoring an initial 50 cadets .The

programme has steadily grown from strength to strength and now has more
34

more than 300 cadets. The IMEC office is located at I-Building, 2nd Floor,

Alumnus, Mambaling, Cebu City and the cadets are boarding at UC-METC

Dorm 2, Alumnus, Mambaling, Cebu City .

Research Respondents

The respondents of this research study are the International Maritime

Employers’ Council (IMEC) Cadets of University of Cebu-Maritime

Education and Training Center (UC-METC) in the school year 2012-2013

who are scholars with full free grant from their respective companies. They

are taking Bachelor ofScience Marine Transportation and Bachelor Science

in MarineEngineeringcourses.

Research Instruments

The instruments used in this study are questionnaires that are given

to the respondents who are spending their leisure time on different leisure

activities and varying first semester (2012-2013) point grade average. The

questionnaire contains different questions that will allow the researchers to

obtain their required data for the research. The questionnaire also contains

the profile of the respondent. The nature of research instrument was

researcher made.

Research Procedure
35

The researcher–made instrument will be used in order to gather data

about the respondents. The researchers will also ask the full cooperation of

the respondents in filling up and answering the researcher-made

questionnaires based on their self-assessment. By tabulating and

interpreting the data of the respondents show, the researchers will be able

to correlate their leisure activity and academic performance.

Since leisure activity is one of the major factors that affect the

students’ academic performance, the researchers have decided to conduct a

study on leisure activities and academic performance of the students to

identify the significant correlation of the respondents’ leisure activities and

academic performance.

Gathering of Data

The researchers will start gathering the data by initiating a unique

intellectual forum wherein researchers have to argue and agree to whom

and where will the study be conducted. The researchers have decided to

conduct the study in University of Cebu-Maritime Education and Training

Center wherein the respondents are the students from the International

Maritime Employers’ Council taking up Bachelor of Science in Marine

Transportation and Bachelor of Science in Marine Engineering.


36

The researchers will seek a written approval from the Maritime

Superintendent, Capt. Arnel N. Malaga and from the selected respondents

to conduct a study about Leisure Activities and Academic Performance of

the Bachelor of Science in Marine Transportation cadets of International

Maritime Employers’ Council. of University of Cebu-Maritime Education

and Training Center.

Before the distribution of questionnaires to the respondents, the

researchers consulted Mr. Elven B. Lorca to validate the research

instrument. After taking up comments and suggestions from the expert

validator, the researchers completely revised the research instrument ready

for pilot testing.

The respondents have been allowed to answer the research

questionnaire provided that the researcher is present during the period. The

information and data were collected and was able to classify and treated

accordingly.

Treatment of Data

The data will be gathered and treated accordingly. The profile and

kinds of leisure activities will be treated with simple percentage. The level

of engagement will be dealt by calculating the weighted mean. The


37

significant relationship between variables will be dealt using Chi-square

test.

After the tabulation, analysis and interpretation of the gathered data ,

the researchers will summarize the findings, conclusion and

recommendation of the study .


38

DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following are the definitions of key terms based on how they are

used in this study.

Academic Performance.In this study, this is the respondents’

school academic performance based on their average point grades in the

first semester (2012-2013).

Degree of Attachment. It is the level of frequency of performing the

activity of the respondents.

Board Games.This is a kind of activity which the respondents

perform on their leisure activity which involves the mental aspects.

IMEC CADETS/International Maritime Employers’ Council

Cadets.In this study they are the scholars which are selected as the

respondents of the study.

Leisure Activity. This is where the respondents perform their free

time in different ways.

Physical Related Activities. This is an activity the respondents

perform which involves the physical aspects.


39

Profile. This is the respondents’ personal background.


40

LIST OF REFERENCES

Books

Haecker, Sabine, (2002), The Meanings of Leisure

Mulatu,Schooler C, MS (1999)Section on Socio-Environmental Studies,


National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland USA.

Parker, S.,.and Lawrence, L., 2002. Leisure studies: trends in theory


and research. Eastbourne: Leisure Studies Association.

Rojek, C., 2005. Leisure theory: principles and practice. Basingstoke:


Palgrave Macmillan.

Rojek, C., 1995. Decentring leisure: rethinking leisure theory. London:


Sage.

Journals

World Youth Report (2003) The Global Situation of Young


People,Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United
Nations,NY,ISBN
Sutton, Amy (2009) Psychosomatic Medicine: Journal of Biobehavioral
Medicine, Health Behavior News Service.
Livazovic,Goran( 2011)University of J.J., occasional papers in
education and lifelong learning: an international journal
volume 4. Strosmayer in Osijec, Republic of Croatia
41

Internet Sources

Babcock, P., & Marks, M. (2010). Leisure college, USA.


Retrieved from http:// www.econ.ucsb.edu/papers/wp02-10.pdf
Chan, J. B., & May, D. T. (1999). The impact of leisure options on the
frequency and spontaneous communication production of a young
child with multiple disabilities.
Retrieved from http://contents.bjdd.net/Iss88/88-3.PDF
Kraus, R. (2000). Basic concepts of play, leisure, and recreation.
Retrieved from http://
www.courseweb.uottawa.ca/lsr3515/PDF/lecture5.pdf
Moksnes, U. K., Moljord, I. E. O., Espnes, G. A., & Byrne, D. G. (2009).
Leisure time physical activity does not moderate the relationship
between stress and psychological functioning in Norwegian
adolescents.
Retrieved from http://ntnu.diva-
portal.org/smash/get/diva2:408593/FULLTEXT02

Nonis, S. A., & Hudson, G. I. (2006). Academic performance of college


students: Influence of time spent studying and working.
Retrieved from http:// www.fatih.edu.tr/.../study.../...
Sirakoulis, K., & Deffner, A. (2002). Urban youth leisure, time use
research and quality of life: The comparison of leisure preferences of
university students in athens and larissa, Greece.
Retrieved from http://www-sre.wu-
wien.ac.at/ersa/ersaconfs/ersa06/papers/916.pdf

Wu, H. C., Liu A., & Wang C. H. (2001). Taiwanese university students’
perceived freedom and participation in leisure.
Retrieved from http:// www.ntcu.edu.tw/hcwu/51/47.pdf
42

APPENDICES
APPENDIXA
LETTER TO THE RESPONDENTS

February 14, 2013

Dear Respondents:
We, a group of students of University of Cebu – Maritime Education
and Training Center, will be conducting a study entitled, Leisure Activities
and Academic Performance of International Maritime Employers’
Council Cadets of University of Cebu-Maritime Education and
Training Center. In this regard, we would like to request for your
cooperation in answering this questionnaire, rest assured that we will treat
all responses provided with utmost confidentiality.
Thank you very much for your cooperation.

Respectfully yours,

E/C TAMAYO, ROMAR BIEN


E/C LARA, RODRIGO JR.
E/C GEVEROLA, CALEB
E/C ZALDIVAR, JOHN ERIC
E/C CELESTIAL, ZAIDE ROY

Noted:

GIANNE RENSEN V. ANTONIO, MATT -ELL

Adviser
43

APPENDIX B

WAIVER OF INFORMED CONSENT

DATE:___________

I, _____________________________ (name of respondent –


optional), have answered the questionnaire given by the researchers of
Group 6 (MWF 5:30-6:30 PM) and honestly answered the questions of the
instrument.

I am aware that my answers are kept confidential and will be copied


verbatim as stated in the researchers’ letter for the respondents.

Respectfully Yours,

Respondent
44

APPENDIX C
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

Direction: Kindly fill-in or put an(x) mark on the corresponding boxes.

Name (optional):_____________________________________________

Age: 15-16 years old 17-18 years old

19-20 years old 21 years old and above

Course: BS Marine Transportation BS Marine Engineering

Year level: 1st Year 2nd Year 4th Year

1. What is your first semester average grade (2012-2013)?

1.0-1.1 1.2-1.3 1.4-1.5 1.6-1.7 1.8And above

2. What activities do you do during your leisure time? (You can select one
or more activities)

Board games Physical-related activities

Watching TV Others (please specify)____________________

3. How long do you spend time on your leisure activity?

1 hour below 1 hour-2 hours

2 hours-3 hours 3 hours and above

THANK YOU!
45

APPENDIX D
LOCATION MAP
46

CURRICULUM VITAE

A. PERSONAL DATA

Name : Romar Bien D. Tamayo

Age : 19

Civil Status : Single

Home Address : San Esteban ,Burauen Leyte

City Address : Dorm 2 UC-METC AlumnosMambaling Cebu city

Date of Birth : December 21, 1993

Place of Birth : La Castellana , Negros Occidental

Nationality : Filipino

B. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT YEAR

ATTENDED

Primary : San Esteban Elementary School 2001-2007

Secondary: Burauen Comprehensive Nat’l High School 2007-2011

Tertiary : University of Cebu-METC 2011-2015


47

CURRICULUM VITAE

A. PERSONAL DATA

Name : Rodrigo D. Lara Jr.

Age : 19

Civil Status : Single

Home Address : Naga, Cebu

City Address : Dorm 2 UC-METC AlumnosMambaling Cebu city

Date of Birth : February 25 , 1994

Place of Birth : Naga, Cebu

Nationality : Filipino

B. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT YEAR

ATTENDED

Primary : Naga Central Elementary School 2001-2007

Secondary : Naga National High School 2007-2011

Tertiary : University of Cebu-METC 2011-2015


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CURRICULUM VITAE

A. PERSONAL DATA

Name : Zaide Roy T. Celestial

Age : 18

Civil Status : Single

Home Address : Poblacion,Badian, Cebu

City Address : Dorm 2 UC-METC AlumnosMambaling Cebu city

Date of Birth : October 22, 1994

Place of Birth : Badian, Cebu

Nationality : Filipino

B. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT YEAR

ATTENDED

Primary : Badian Central School 2001-2007

Secondary :Badian National High School 2007-2011

Tertiary : University of Cebu-METC 2011-2015


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CURRICULUM VITAE

A. PERSONAL DATA

Name : John Eric R. Zaldivar

Age : 17

Civil Status : Single

Home Address : Salvacion, Buenavista, Guimaras

City Address : Dorm 2 UC-METC AlumnosMambaling Cebu city

Date of Birth : February 27, 1995

Place of Birth : Salvacion, Buenavista, Guimaras

Nationality : Filipino

B. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT YEAR

ATTENDED

Primary : Buenavista Central School 2001-2007

Secondary : Guimaras State College 2007-2011

Tertiary : University of Cebu-METC 2011-2015


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CURRICULUM VITAE

A. PERSONAL DATA

Name : Caleb L. Geverola

Age : 18

Civil Status : Single

Home Address : Cansuje, Argao, Cebu

City Address : Dorm 2 UC-METC AlumnosMambaling Cebu city

Date of Birth : January 13, 1995

Place of Birth : Cansuje, Argao, Cebu

Nationality : Filipino

B. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT YEAR

ATTENDED

Primary : Nug-as Elementary School 2001-2007

Secondary: Calagasan Nat’l High School 2007-2011

Tertiary : University of Cebu-METC 2011-2015