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FUNDAMENTOS CULTURAIS DA LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA

1ª edição SESES rio de janeiro

2015

autor

HÉLCIO LANZONI

FUNDAMENTOS CULTURAIS DA LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA 1ª edição SESES rio de janeiro 2015 autor HÉLCIO

Conselho editorial

bortoloti; marilda franco de moura

luis claudio dallier ; roberto paes; gladis linhares; karen

Autor do original

hélcio de paula lanzoni

Projeto editorial

roberto paes

Coordenação de produção

Coordenação de produção

gladis linhares

karen fernanda bortoloti

Projeto gráfico

paulo vitor bastos

Diagramação

bfs media

Revisão linguística

hélcio de paula lanzoni

Imagem de capa

photowitch | dreamstime.com

Todos os direitos reservados. Nenhuma parte desta obra pode ser reproduzida ou transmitida por quaisquer meios (eletrônico ou mecânico, incluindo fotocópia e gravação) ou arquivada em qualquer sistema ou banco de dados sem permissão escrita da Editora. Copyright seses, 2015.

Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (cip) L297f Lanzoni, Hélcio Fundamentos culturais da literatura
Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (cip)
L297f Lanzoni, Hélcio
Fundamentos culturais da literatura em língua inglesa / Hélcio Lanzoni.
Rio de Janeiro : SESES, 2015.
104 p. : il.
isbn: 978-85-5548-025-6
1. Literatura inglesa. 2. Literatura norte-americana. 3. Aspectos culturais.
4. História britânica e americana. I. SESES. II. Estácio.
cdd 820

Diretoria de Ensino — Fábrica de Conhecimento Rua do Bispo, 83, bloco F, Campus João Uchôa Rio Comprido — Rio de Janeiro — rj cep 20261-063

Sumário

Prefácio

7

1. O Cristianismo e a Idade Média

9

Objectives

10

1.1 Anglo-Saxon Christianity

11

1.2 Middle Ages (5th-15th Century):

The Christianity and the Church

12

1.2.1

The Struggle for Christianity

12

1.3 The Roman Catholicism

13

1.4 The Missionary Activities of the Church

15

1.4.1

The Monasteries and the

Maintenance of Knowledge

16

1.5

The Beginning of the Middle Ages in Britain

17

1.5.1 The Feudalism in Europe and its Organization

17

1.5.2 Organization of the Feudal System

18

1.6

The Origins of Feudalism

19

1.6.1 The Feud

21

1.6.2 Decline of Feudalism

21

1.6.3 The Magna Carta

24

 

1.7 Chivalry

25

1.8 The Pilgrimage

26

1.9 The Wars of the Roses

27

Activities

28

Reflection

28

 

Bibliography

29

2. Idade Média: A Lenda do Rei Arthur e a Condição das Mulheres

31

Objectives

32

2.1

The Mythic King Arthur

33

2.1.1

King Arthur: The Legend

33

2.2

The “Historical” King Arthur

35

2.2.1 A Possible Reality

36

2.2.2 Arthur, the Warrior

37

2.3 The Creation of a Myth

38

2.4 The Situation of Women in the Middle Ages

40

2.4.1

Witchcraft in the Middle Ages

41

2.5

Women in the Middle Ages: Joan of Arc

42

2.5.1 The Accusation of Heresy and Witchcraft

43

2.5.2 Persecution of “Witches”

44

2.5.3 Genocyde of Women

45

 

Activities

45

Reflection

45

Bibliography

46

3. A Inglaterra após a Idade Média

47

Objectives

48

3.1 Absolutism in England

49

3.2 The English Protestant Reformation

49

3.2.1 The Anglicanism

50

3.2.2 Queen Elisabeth I

51

3.3 The Lutheran Reformation

52

3.4 Calvinism

53

3.5 The Stuarts – King James I

54

3.6 The Puritan Revolution: Civil War

54

3.7 Oliver Cromwell and the Republic

56

3.8 The Renaissance

57

Activities

58

Reflection

58

4. Séculos XVIII e XIX – Independência Americana, Guerras e Revoluções.

61

Objectives

62

4.1 The Seven Years’ War

63

4.2 The United States Independence

64

4.2.1 The American Constitution

64

4.2.2 John Locke

65

4.3

American Civil War

66

4.3.1

Ending the War

67

4.4

The Slavery in the USA

68

4.4.1

The Fight for Equal Rights

68

4.5

The French Revolution

69

4.5.1 Moving towards Revolution

69

4.5.2 The Revolution Begins

70

4.5.3 The Consequences of the French Revolution

71

4.6

Transcendentalism

71

4.6.1

Transcendentalism Emerges

71

Activities

72

Reflection

72

Bibliography

73

5. A Caminhada Americana, do Século 19 ao 21

75

 

Objectives

76

5.1

The Spanish-American War

77

5.1.1 Reasons for the Conflict

77

5.1.2 The Cuban-American Relationship

78

5.2

The First World War

79

5.2.1 The Escalation of War

79

5.2.2 The USA enters the War

81

5.3

The Great Depression

83

5.3.1 Consequences of the Depression in the American Economy

84

5.3.2 Dealing with the Crisis

84

5.4

The World War II

87

5.4.1 Literature during War Times

88

5.4.2 Literature after World War II

89

5.5

The Cold War

90

5.5.1

The Cuban Missile Crisis and the Literary Response

90

5.6

The Vietnam War

91

5.7

Important Cultural Movements in the USA

92

5.7.1

The Beat Movement

93

5.7.2

The Hippie Movement

93

5.7.3

The 60’s: Sexual Freedom and Racial Integration

94

5.8

The 21st Century

95

5.8.1 September 11, 2001: The 21th Century Has Begun

95

5.8.2 The 2008 Financial Crises: Welcome Back to Earth.

96

5.8.3 A Racial Precedent is Broken: Obama is elected.

96

 

Activities

97

Reflection

97

Bibliography

97

Answer key

98

Prefácio

Prezados(as) alunos(as),

É de suma importância fazer o resgate da literatura do passado e as realizações literárias de cada período a fim de podermos entender o encaminhamento da li- teratura de um modo geral e, principalmente, das literaturas inglesa e americana. Entender como era a vida em sociedades de épocas antigas, o contexto histórico, cultural e religioso nos quais elas se desenvolveram nos ajudam a compreender o pensamento dos autores dessas épocas. Em geral, a rica história do povo é refletida na literatura. Esperamos que a visão geral que daremos a respeito das influências culturais, no sentido mais amplo, possa ajudá-lo a compreender o desenrolar do pensamen- to literário de cada época, a entender melhor a obra de autores renomados e que receberam grande influência do momento em que viviam. Um exemplo disso é a literatura dos anglo-saxões, altamente influenciada por aspectos religiosos da épo- ca, ou o nascimento do teatro inglês, impregnado do contexto histórico e cultural. Welcome aboard!

Bons estudos!

1

O Cristianismo e a Idade Média

Neste capítulo, serão abordados o Cristianismo e a Igreja Católica em uma visão abrangente, uma vez que tiveram um papel fundamental no desenrolar da história na Idade Média e no desenvolvimento de uma literatura que se voltou para os aspectos religiosos de forma marcante. Apesar da reputação negativa, a Idade Média foi também um período de muitas mudanças sociais, desastres naturais terríveis, epidemias, rebeliões, resistência e renascimento. A Idade Média é uma época em que a Europa não era densamente povoada. Em 1086, havia aproximadamente um milhão de pessoas vivendo na Inglaterra, ao contrário dos 53 milhões de hoje. Nos anos 1300 a população já era de quatro milhões, mas a Peste Negra ceifou a vida de pelo menos 1,5 milhões de pessoas entre 1348 e 1350, o que fez com que diversas vilas fossem completamente abandonadas.

fez com que diversas vilas fossem completamente abandonadas. OBJECTIVES Compreender a importância da religião na

OBJECTIVES

Compreender a importância da religião na evolução da literatura ao longo do tempo e conhecer

o contexto no qual surgiram obras e autores importantes. Nesse sentido, você estudará o

surgimento do Cristianismo e da Igreja Católica, que teve um importante papel na literatura da Idade Média, principalmente na literatura anglo-saxônica. Você vai conhecer também alguns aspectos importantes do período medieval na Grã-Bretanha, como a Carta Magna, a ascensão

e declínio do Feudalismo e os cavaleiros medievais.

1.1 Anglo-Saxon Christianity

In order to understand the role of Christianity over the Anglo-Saxons, we have to remember that the origin of British people is closely linked to the people who went to Britain. They arrived in the British Isles coming from different regions of Denmark and northwest Germany in the 5th Century AD, especially the Germanic tribes formed by Jutes, Angles and Saxons. In 597, with the arrival of St. Augustine, and the beginning of Christianity in this Saxon England, many Latin words were added to the English language. After the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity in the seventh century, a written literature developed. It is important to highlight that before that period, the stories were passed through generations orally. The Church, as well as their Benedictine monastic institutions, brought the Latin culture and were fundamental to the cultural life, literacy and acquisition of knowledge of the Anglo-Saxon England. The Polytheism of the Anglo-Saxon society was substituted by the Christianity that was strongly influenced by the Celtic Church, which was a relatively organized institution, yet intense and based on monastic experience. Another influence was the Roman Catholic Church, an institution full of structure and moderation. These two churches were very different, even though both of them had identical objectives regarding the introduction of Christianity in the Anglo- Saxon period. Without any doubt, the church was the bridge between the two kingdoms formed by the Anglo-Saxons and truly represented a power in the society of that period. It can be clearly noted in the church schools, which were encouraged during the reign of Alfred the Great. Besides that, the churches developed a strong political power mainly represented by officials of the Church that acted as advisors to the king. Traveling on foot, several monks were able to convert Englishmen into the Christianity. Before the secular priest, comes the monk. Monks of that specific time traveled on foot to the countryside to pray and convert villages, cities and other communities. This new procedure was different from what previous monks had done; monks used to be restricted to a closed monastic community.

1.2 Middle Ages (5th-15th Century):

The Christianity and the Church

The Church was the most dominant institution in medieval period, and its prestige penetrated various aspects of people's lives, such as political, social, and religious history. The Christianity observances created the calendar; the sacramental rituals, such as baptism, marriage, penitence, confirmation and holy orders marked important aspects in an individual's life. Its teachings supported dominant beliefs about ethics, the significance of life, and death. Christianity, a small Jewish movement that began in Jerusalem, more precisely in a place known as Judea, would spread and dominate Europe by the 5th century AD. According to Christianity, during the early 1st century Jesus Christ – called the Son of God - had lived and prayed among people from Judea. At that time, for the Israelites Judaism was considered basically a religion, so Christianity was also considered a religion for them. They have an understanding that the Israelites were the people chosen by God and its thoughts are showed in many passages in the New Testament, which attributes to Jesus the rule that prohibit Jewish followers to tell about the gospel to non-Jews or gentiles.

1.2.1 The Struggle for Christianity

By the 2nd century Jewish Christianity decreased into extinction, and conversely Gentiles embraced Christianity, continuing the fight against Roman persecution in an effort to survive as a religion. First of all, Christianity was ignored in the Roman Empire because it was considered a sect of the Jewish religion, and above all it conflicted with the adoration of the Greco-Roman Gods. Both Christians and Jews were famous for their devotion to rebellion. Besides, many people in the Roman Empire really thought that Christianity antagonized the Greco-Roman Gods, and that because of it Paul and Peter were accused for the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD and, as a consequence, they faced a painful torture. But Christianity was a very pleasant doctrine to peasants, slaves and for all that were considered the lower classes of the society of that era. The idea was that if their sufferings were inevitable in this life, in the afterlife the poor and the humble would be equal if not superior to everyone else. This optimism of Christianity gave them more consolation and courage than the

doctrine provided by the Greco-Romans. The truth is that in the middle and upper classes Christianity had been accepted too because of its altruistic teachings, and especially because Christian doctrine motivated slaves to obey their masters. However, Christianity had only given the first steps toward being legalized in the Roman Empire in the 4th century. The greatest growth happened among Greeks, more that among Romans. Nevertheless, it would be in the nucleus of the Roman Empire where the Christian doctrine would be launched toward the future. Even though Constantine legalized it and Theodosius made it a state religion, there were a lot of controversies that made the path of Christianity difficult from the years 330 to 800 AD. The problems basically involved five points of interest: establishing an adequate doctrine; defining the relationship among the western kings, Roman Papacy and Constantinople; developing the hierarchy of the church, as well as the policies and the whole administration; converting the pagans from Europe; stimulating the monasticism in an effort to bring vigor to the Church. By the death of Constantine, these issues were regarded to the Church itself. Actually, to the Church's hierarchy there were four geographical points of interest:

Rome, Constantinople, Antioch (Syria), and Alexandria (Egypt). The churches at these places were all basically the same, having been founded by Peter or his followers, but Rome began to surge forward in the beginning of the fifth century, and Constantinople, the capital of the rest of the Roman Empire, was its main opponent.

of the rest of the Roman Empire, was its main opponent. CONNECTION Access the link below

CONNECTION

Access the link below to know more about the Middle Ages, including videos, pictures and historical characters: http://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages

1.3 The Roman Catholicism

Regarding Rome, the claim of Popes and bishops was a little bit different: they argued that their vision had more prestige and their skills to determine the doctrine for Christianity were better than any other’s. Based on sacred history of the early Christianity, Christ himself had invested St. Peter with supremacy over the Church. As Peter had been a Bishop of Rome, all Popes were considered his successors and, thus, inherited his superiority and duties upon the Church.

In the view of the Constantinople Council of 381, the Roman Church was not recognized. Then, in 382, responding to the Council Pope Damasus made official the Western policy and strongly defined that the Rome supremacy was based on Christ's promise to Peter and not on a determination of some clerics. Throughout the history of western civilization Roman Catholicism has been a strong spiritual power. Up until now there are more Roman Catholics worldwide than there are followers of any other religious. The truth is that there are more Roman Catholics than all other Christians combined and more than all Buddhists, Hindus or Muslims. As a matter of fact, the development of Roman Catholicism from the early catholic Christianity church depended on many historical factors, among which two factors would be considered determinant: the authority of Peter among the 12 apostles and the alignment of Peter with the Roman Church, even though this fact is not so evident in the New Testament. There is no reference in the Acts of the Apostles that Peter was in Rome as a bishop or even as a resident, and in the epistle of Paul, Peter was not mentioned at all. Nevertheless, the early Christian had professed that Peter came to Rome after having been in Jerusalem and Antioch. But there has been no agreement until the present days about the exact place where Peter’s grave is located. Rome was the capital of the Roman Empire and had prestige because of it:

so the obvious conclusion was that the Church should be in the most important city of the Empire in order to be the number one among all the other Churches. Therefore, Rome became what Jerusalem had been before. Surprisingly, when the emperor Constantine transferred the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in 330, Rome lost much of its power upon the civil society, in contrast to its spiritual authority, which got more powerful. An especially significant change happened when the title “supreme priest” became a prerogative of the pope rather than the emperor. The change of the capital from Rome, called “Old Rome”, to Constantinople, thesocalled"NewRome",provokedadisputebetweenthetwocitiesoverwhether the new capital, Constantinople, should be as ecclesiastically dominant as the church of Peter. Two ecumenical councils of the church in Constantinople in 381 and in Chalcedon in 451 legislated in favor of this position, but Rome did not accept the legitimacy of this decision. Besides the transference of the capital, we have to point out two other factors that played an important role at the beginning of the Middle Ages and

helped a lot in developing Christianity into the Roman Catholicism. First, in the 7th century Islam rose as a strong religious option. The Prophet Muhammad passed away in 632 and during the decade after his death, three among five "patriarchates" of the previous church - Jerusalem, Antioch and Alexandria - became followers of Islamism. Second, the decline of the Roman Empire and the influx of Germanic tribes as well as others tribes into Europe also stimulated the rise of Roman Catholicism as a diverse institution.

Na Bretanha, os católicos sofreram um longo período de perseguição após o rompimento do rei Henrique VIII com o papado nos anos 1530 e foram até mesmo considerados servos de uma potência estrangeira, principalmente depois da Conspiração da Pólvora em 1605, orquestrada por católicos importantes na esperança de restaurar o trono a um católico.

1.4 The Missionary Activities of the Church

The missionary activity began in the early Middle Ages and primarily spread Christianity, but also helped missionaries to blend both the classical and the Germanic cultures. The monks were so zealous and approached their faith in such a sensitive way that the monasteries had multiple functions: they were used by those who were looking for a contemplative life; as archives of knowledge for scholars, and were used as continuous farming places. Ulfilas (c. 311-383) was one of the first Christian missionaries for the Germans, and he and other missionaries were disciples of Arius. As a result, the Arian form of Christianity was adopted in the empire by almost all Germanic tribes. The exception was the Anglo-Saxons and the Franks. Ulfilas lived forty years among the Visigoths and made the translation into gothic of the most of the Bible. It is important to remember that an important collaboration between Frankish rulers and the papacy began when the Franks adopted the Roman Catholicism. But in the eighth century it was Boniface, considered as "the Apostle to the Germans," who played an important role in the expansion of Christianity around the European continent. He spent most of his years as a missionary among the Germanic tribes and during that period he could develop a good work, establishing important monasteries, bishoprics, and an archbishopric. It was also Boniface

who had the duty of revitalizing the Church in France and he did it very well, taking Christianity to the countryside as well as renewing the monasteries.

Na época de Constantino (306-337 DC), o Cristianismo se espalhou por todo o Império Romano, tanto no Oriente quanto no Ocidente. Ainda que o paganismo ainda existisse, por volta de 500 DC a população do Império era predominantemente cristã. Durante esse período, os missionários se espalharam para além das fronteiras do Império Romano. O avanço do Cristianismo começou a perder força com a desintegração do Império Romano. Nos séculos 7 e 8, a invasão dos árabes estabeleceram o Islã como religião dominante em cerca da metade da área onde o Cristianismo tinha dominado. No entanto, durante esse período, os missionários celtas e britânicos espalharam sua fé pela Europa Ocidental, enquanto os missionários da igreja grega em Constantinopla trabalharam na Europa Oriental e Rússia.

1.4.1 The Monasteries and the Maintenance of Knowledge

In medieval times, the Church had strong political influence but also had an important task as a source of knowledge. The monasteries provided reliable education in England and even the schools built by the Church offered studies to the peasant’s children that had a chance to be selected to study in a University or in a monastery. The beginning oftheuniversitieswasmarked bythe cathedral schools, where students attended and were classified as clerics. While the students were under the Church’s supervision, they were protected and benefited with immunity. The cathedral schools gradually changed and started to be independent schools that were conducted apart from the cathedral administration. Therefore, the first European universities emerged from the Middle Ages Christian Church. The monasteries were of great help in order to keep knowledge, especially the classical materials. A good example is the determination of translating into Latin the works of Plato and Aristotle in the sixth-century. Only the works of the Aristotelian logic were translated and only these philosophical treatises were available until the 12th century. Another example of this period was The Book of Kells, which survived the years because many men in the monasteries took care of the manuscripts and even created some amazing pieces of art.

1.5

The Beginning of the Middle Ages in Britain

Around the 11th Century, in the British Islands there were four kingdoms:

Scotland, Gales and Ireland, composed of Celtic peoples, and England, composed of Angle-Saxons. In 1066, Duke Guilherme, from Normandy (North of France) invaded and conquered England. “Guilherme the Conqueror”, as he was known, obeyed the French king and divided England in counties, each ruled by a type of Governor, who represented the King and had full authority over both peasants and landlords. This way, Guilherme strengthened his power. In 1154, Henrique Plantagenet, a French nobleman and Guilherme’s relative, became the King of England, getting known as Henry II (1154-1189). During his reign, the centralization of power in England gets stronger.The successor of Henry II was his son, Richard the Lionheart (1189-1199). From the ten years of his government, Richard was out of England for nine years, leading the Third Crusade and fighting on the European Continent to keep England’s domains. His long absence caused the weakening of the royal authority and the growth of the power of the Feudal Lords. That’s why now it is important to understand exactly what Feudalism is.

1.5.1 The Feudalism in Europe and its Organization

Feudalism consists of a group of practices involving economic, social and political matters. Between 5th and 10th centuries, Western Europe suffered a series of transformations that made possible the rise of new ways of thinking, reasoning and acting. In general, the configuration of the feudal world was linked to two simultaneous historical experiences: the fall of the Roman Empire and the Barbarian invasions. The retraction of commercial activities caused the retraction of the economy, the currencies lost their values, and agricultural production was basically for subsistence. In this period, the Roman Empire crisis had favored a process that sent to the fields those who could no longer live through commercial activities. This occurred due to the constant wars caused by the barbarian invasions and the crisis in the urban centers that were constituted at the height of classical civilizations. The movement towards the fields also struck directly the social classes that were instituted within Rome. Slaves and commoners formed, along with the Germanic peoples, a consolidated class of peasants, who were the main

workforce in the feuds. A peasant would be linked for life to the rural life due to fear of the frequent conflicts during the Middle Ages and the personal relationship with the feudal lord. A nobleman could be responsible for different activities: the administration of a feud, military protection of a certain property, or tax collection. The authority of the feudal lord was, in practical terms, higher than that of kings, who had no power to interfere directly on the rules and impositions of a feudal lord within his properties. Therefore, feudalism can be viewed as a model that promoted a decentralized political power. The economy and socio-political relations were under great transformation during the Middle-Ages, but there was another force, maybe the most powerful of all: the Church. During that time, the clergymen had the power to interfere in politics and other areas and set deals with the nobility and the kings with the purpose of expanding the Christian ideals. It was not uncommon to see a feudal lord donate lands to the Church as a sign of his religious devotion. Because of this practice, the Church also became a great “feudal lord”. In the 10th century feudalism reached its peak and was present in most of the European continent. In the following century, the improvement of agricultural production techniques and the population growth led to appropriate conditions for the revival of commercial activities. Thanks to this, the urban centers started to flourish again and part of the population could get out of the hermetic structure that marked the Middle Ages.

1.5.2 Organization of the Feudal System

The clergy was of great importance inside the feuds at that time. Once they were the only literate class of that historical period, the Church had a great influence on the customs and actions during the medieval times. The Clergy were divided into High Clergy and Lower Clergy. The former included bishops, abbots and canons, who strongly influenced the political decisions of kings and feudal lords. The latter was composed of priests and monks who either dealt directly with the religiosity of the population of the feuds or lived cloistered in monasteries. The nobility were represented by the feudal lord. Owner of the land, the feudal lord had authority within his properties. Due to the right of the first-born, many of the children of the feudal lord ended up occupying other functions.

Many of them became knights, determined to guarantee the protection of the feud. In other cases, a nobleman could administer the land of a feud or turn to

a religious life, occupying some clerical position. In some cases, a nobleman who had a lot of land could concede part of it to another nobleman. In the process, the landlord concedes some of his land or any other type of economic privilege to another nobleman (a vassal) who, in exchange, promises military help in case of any external threat to the landlord. This kind of contract would take place only among noblemen. In the intermediary layer of the feudal society was composed of villeins or

villains, a class of free men who did not have the obligation of being stuck to the work on the fields. In general, they would provide little services to the feudal lord, and they could move to another feud whenever they wanted. At the same lever there were those who assumed administrative functions and, in some cases, could ascend socially and become a knight. The servant class was composed of peasants, who were destined to work on the fertile lands of the feud. Among their obligations, a servant should work compulsorily on the land of the feudal lord and pay the feudal requirements, a group of taxes that should be paid to the feudal lord. Among other requirements,

a feudal lord could request part of the harvest of the servant, charge extra taxes according to the number of servants in the feud, charge for the use of the facilities and tools of the feud, etc.

1.6 The Origins of Feudalism

The origin of feudalism goes back to the fall of the Roman Empire. From the 3rd century on, there is a continuous decline on the power of Rome. With the cessation of wars, the Roman productive structure (read slavery) moves toward bankruptcy. The slaves were war prisoners and became rare merchandise as the Roman conquering wars ceased. With a shortage of labor, the prices of the slaves increase which affect all the production chain. The reduction on productivity, on its turn, affects the level of Roman exports, reducing the most important wealth generator for the empire.

Não há um motivo único que possa explicar o declínio do Império Romano, que acabou resultando na criação do sistema feudal. Mas um dos motivos é a dependência extrema da mão de obra escrava. Roma estava começando a ruir internamente graças a uma crise econômica severa. Guerras constantes e excesso de gastos esvaziaram as reservas do império e o excesso de impostos e a inflação aumentou a lacuna entre ricos e pobres. Ao mesmo tempo, a economia de Roma dependia de escravos para trabalhar nos campos e nas cidades e era o exército quem fornecia a mão de obra trazida das terras conquistadas. Quando a expansão do império estacionou, o suprimento de escravos foi interrompido. Com sua economia falhando e sua produção agrícola e comercial em declínio, o império começou a perder seu controle sobre a Europa.

With the limitation of income, Rome starts spending its reserves and the general impoverishment of the empire causes an urban exodus. Due to the lack of workers, the owners of vast extensions of land start renting parts of their land to peasants and even slaves, who obtain the right to live in the land and from the land. They have to give part of the harvest to the landlord who, in exchange, provides protection. This productive structure is based on reciprocity between the landlord and the peasant, resulting in a reduction of productivity and commerce. Taking advantage of the weakening of the Roman Empire, the German barbarians invade Rome and take the empire in 476. One aspect should be emphasized: In the 4th century the Roman Empire was divided in Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire. The barbarians take the Western Empire, while the Eastern Empire lasted until the 15th century, when it is taken by the Ottoman Turks in 1453 and this marks the end of feudalism. From the arrival of the barbarians on, the urban exodus reaches its peak. Many of the German tribe leaders became landlords and they “hire” peasants to produce for themselves and for the landlord. Nevertheless, in the 8th century the Arabs take the Mediterranean, cutting off the commerce with the Orient. As the commerce reduces dramatically, the villages isolate, producing basically for self-consumption. They act in an autonomous way, with their own regulations, paving the way to feudalism.

CONNECTION

CONNECTION

A partir do século IV começou o processo de queda do Império Romano, apesar dele ainda se manter forte por muito tempo na sua metade oriental. No link abaixo você vai encontrar oito razões que procuram explicar a queda do Império Romano. http://www.history.com/news/

history-lists/8-reasons-why-rome-fell

1.6.1 The Feud

In the feuds, the use of low productivity agricultural techniques hindered the surplus that could be used in commercial activities. Besides that, the plowing instruments and the low quality of the seeds prevented expressive harvests. The availability of fertile land was a constant worry among peasants. Therefore, the practice crop rotation was a way to extend the fertility of the land. In this system, a field would have 2/3 of its area used for two different crops. The other 1/3 was left to rest from previous harvests. In fact, commerce lost a lot of space in this context. The rare commercial exchanges that occurred were through barter. Agricultural products were rarely used in exchange for tools or types of food that was lacking in a certain feud. Only through the increment of agricultural activities and demographic growth did the feudal economy grow and allow the necessary transformations that were responsible for the appearance of a new class of bourgeois merchants.

1.6.2 Decline of Feudalism

The demographic growth that occurred in Europe from the 10th century on modified the self-sufficient model of the feuds. Between the 11th and 13th centuries European population more than doubled, and this population increase led to the growth of the agricultural lands and commercial activities. Nevertheless, these transformations were not enough cover the food demand of that time. In order to expand the agricultural land, many forests were leveled.

Figura 1.1 – A hand showing how gangrene of the fingers due to bubonic plague

Figura 1.1 – A hand showing how gangrene of the fingers due to bubonic plague causes the skin and flesh to die and turn black.

The gap between the productive capacity and demand retracted the commercial activities, and the food intake of the population was dramatically reduced. In adverse conditions like those, the risk of epidemics became a great risk factor. Then in the 14th century the so-called “black death” spread among the population causing a great wave of deaths: approximately one-third of the European population died because of the disease. In the 15th century, the population of England reached about 35 million inhabitants. The lack of available labor reinforced the rigidity observed in the relationship between lords and servants. Fearing that they could lose their servants, the feudal lords created several new obligations with the purpose of maintaining the link between peasants and land. Besides, the payment of obligations faced a remarkable change with the reintroduction of currency in the economy. The feudal lords preferred to receive part of the obligations with currency, which later could be used for the acquisition of merchandise or other agricultural products commercialized in markets. The increase of the obligations led peasants to promote a wave of violent protests along the 14th century throughout Europe. With the cessation of these revolts, there was a growth in population, agricultural production, and commercial activities. On the other hand, the improvement of the social and economic indexes was followed by new problems with which European society would have to deal.

One of them was that the production of the feuds was not enough to supply the urban centers which, on its turn, could not commercialize their merchandise.

on its turn, could not commercialize their merchandise. Figura 1.2 – Henry Hudson's ship Halve Maen

Figura 1.2 – Henry Hudson's ship Halve Maen in the Hudson River.

The difficulties of the trading sector were partly explained by the monopoly of the Arabs and the Italian cities, once the commercial routes and markets controlled by them contained a series of intermediaries, which contributed to inflating the prices of merchandise brought from the Orient. Besides the high prices, the shortage of currency hampered the improvement of commercial activities in that period. In that context, the search for new markets for production and consumption of goods would be a way to minimize those difficulties. That’s why there is a great exploratory expansion in the 15 th and 16 th centuries, which led to the discovery of the Americas and other naval routes.

A chamada “Era das Explorações”, que ocorreu após a Idade Média, teve início na Inglaterra em 1497, ou seja, poucos anos após a chegada de Colombo no Novo Mundo. O primeiro explorador inglês foi John Cabot, que viajou para a costa da América do Norte. Preocupações domésticas relacionadas com questões religiosas foram prioridade na Inglaterra do século 16 e, assim, a exploração territorial não foi uma prioridade. No entanto, depois da derrota da esquadra espanhola em 1588, a Inglaterra

tomou o lugar que era da Espanha como potência mundial dominante, expandindo seus interesses imperiais. Neste processo, a Espanha passou por uma fase de declínio em sua influência no Novo Mundo. No século 17, as três potências europeias que iriam minar ainda mais o poder espanhol e português nas Américas foram a Inglaterra, a França e a Holanda.

1.6.3 The Magna Carta

In the 13th century England, the English realm was being ruled by King John (1166-1216), who ascended to the throne after the death of his brother, King Richard Lionheart (1157-1199). Several territorial disputes with France and the Third Crusade (1189-1192) generated huge expenditures for the Crown. Therefore, King John ordered a raise on the taxation of the feuds, which led to an inevitable discontentment of the feudal lords, who viewed in this an act of oppression. Besides, the English were also facing problems in Wales and Scotland. There was a crescent indignation among feudal lords regarding the Crown’s exploration on their resources. Then, the feud lords decided to unite and go after the king with their armies, which invaded and occupied London. In order to cease the hostilities King John “surrendered”, which happened through a legislative document, considered the first in English History, called Magna Carta ("Great Charter”). Originally written in Latin, the Magna Carta altered the relationship of the Church with the State and conceded social, political, administrative and commercial rights, which allowed the feud lords to have more control on the administration of their lands. Besides, it stated that the king was not above the law anymore, which meant that he could be submitted to the law like anybody else. It is important to highlight that the king still had authority on the feud lords, once they were his vassals, but the Carta limited that authority. The Magna Carta was signed, on July 15, 1215, by King John and a several other noblemen, clergymen, barons and royal employees. Due to this, King John became known as John Lackland in reference to the fact that he “lost” his land to the feud lords due to the concessions conceded by the Carta.

1.7 Chivalry

The medieval Chivalry was the main defense mechanism for the protection of the nobility interests during feudalism, and it was composed exclusively by noblemen. In the Middle Ages, social division included three aspects: those who prayed (the clergymen), those who worked (the servants) and those who fought (the noblemen). Wars were a constant occupation for the noblemen. A knight was usually a son of a nobleman but was not the first-born and, therefore, was not an heir. At that time, only the first-born would inherit all of his father’s properties. The goal of this procedure was to prevent the division of the family’s heritage. The Catholic Church had an enormous influence in the creation of the chivalry and defined that the actions of the knights should have the main goal of defending the morality of the Christian faith. In order to become a knight in the Middle Ages, a nobleman had to go through a religious ceremony, followed by an oath, in which the knight accepted the compromise to follow the principles of Christian faith and morality. Until the present day, the medieval knight is remembered as a strong, loyal, generous, and fearless man who would protect the weak and oppressed. Nevertheless, the training of a knight occurred throughout his life – a person would not become a knight instantly. It was a compromise for his whole life. A person would start his training at the age of seven, when he started riding horses and getting classes on good manners. When he turned 14, he would become a squire, whose main occupation was to take his lord’s shield to the battlefield, among other duties. When he turned 18, the knight apprentice would become a knight. In the ceremony he received the sword, the helmet and the shield. Then, he went through a series of rituals, which included a 24-hour fast, followed by a purification bath in order to pray. After praying, he put on a tunic and was taken to the priest to be blessed with his sword. To finish the ritual, he should kneel and listen to the laws of chivalry and swore on the bible the he would protect the king, defend the Christians against the unfaithful (muslins and pagans), be loyal to the church, and be generous.

1.8 The Pilgrimage

The religiosity of medieval men would manifest, among other ways, through pilgrimages to places that were considered sanctified. Some places were more important than others and attracted, therefore, a greater number of people – similarly to what happens nowadays. In this topic you will understand the motivations and itineraries of a 12th and 13th century pilgrim. Many people in the middle ages had nothing, or almost nothing. Therefore, it was not complicated for them to go on a pilgrimage. The poor pilgrims carried very little luggage, and the not so poor would carry some coins in their pockets. The rich, on the other hand, would carry safes with some valuable objects inside.

In Medieval times, the interior of the churches was used as a theater. When the plays are more elaborate and require more space, they are transferred to the plaza in front of the church. In this very simple stage, a door may symbolize a city; a little elevation could be a mountain; a dragon mouth on the left means Hell; an elevation on the right means heaven. Popular groups improvise stages on wagons and move from one village to another.

From the 14th century on, the pilgrims were seen, to certain extent, as bums. In general, the fear of diseases and violence was justifiable, because the inhabitants of a certain region had to deal with people they did not know, from sometimes very far places. Nevertheless, what moved these travelers was their devotion. The symbol of the pilgrims was the walking stick that most of them carried. The pilgrimage was not only an act of will power, but also an act of penitence. In these cases, the pilgrimage was a reward, but a type of punishment for the sins they had committed. The pilgrims that traveled on the back of mules or on wagons tried to avoid the Roman roads, wherever they still subsisted. The fact is that the Romans had built their roads for soldiers and citizens of the Empire, connecting an urban center to another. In the Middle Ages, the fields replaced the cities, and the peasants would open their own paths, according to their needs. But these paths, which led them to the church, to the village, and to the nearest river could be mortal traps for outsiders.

CONNECTION

CONNECTION

A mais famosa coletânea de contos sobre a vida medieval na Inglaterra chama-se Canterbury Tales (em português, Contos da Cantuária), escrito por Geoffrey Chaucer. O livro trata de um grupo de peregrinos que vão contando estórias pelo caminho, para passar o tempo. No link abaixo você vai encontrar a obra completa, em português (PDF). http://www.dle.ufms.br/ daniel/literature/Os_Contos_de_Cantuaria.pdf

Besides their terrible conditions, those paths were full of dangers, and the most feared was the ambush. Thieves acted usually in groups and were frequently violent, hurting the pilgrims and leaving them by the roads exposed to beasts and weather. The vegetation and the poor maintenance of those paths were the perfect hideout for a surprise attack. Tired of the journey, the pilgrims offered little reaction, even when traveling in groups. Justice was inefficient and slow, which allowed those thieves to act for very long time without being bothered. When caught, their end was predictable: hanging. With their pilgrimage, the medieval man was seeking redemption. He faced the unknown and, despite all difficulties and dangers, defies death and keeps on, moved by faith.

1.9 The Wars of the Roses

A series of dynastic conflicts for the English throne was called The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487), a very important historical moment for the comprehension of the English Monarchy. The origin of this conflict is the rivalry between two noble families: the York and the Lancaster. These two families came from the Plantagenet Dynasty, which occupied the English throne for a long time. The crisis between these two families happened because of the death of King Edward III and the ascension of the new king, Henry VI. The York supported Henry VI for the English throne, even though he did not have any ability to deal with the political and military decisions of the time. The war with France was near its end, but France was in a better situation. The expectation of the York was that Henry VI would die soon. Nevertheless, the inept king Henry VI succeeded in conceiving and heir, which put the plan of the York at stake.

After a series of conflicts and battles between these two dynasties, in 1485 Henry Tudor left Brittany and invades England with an army of more than five thousand soldiers. The York had a powerful army, with twice as many soldiers. Surprisingly, Henry’s troops won the battle of Bosworth Field, where Richard II was killed. Then, Henry Tudor was crowned Henry VII, the new king of England. In order to avoid another possible conflict between the red rose (the Lancaster family) and the white rose (the York family), Henry VII married Isabel, from the York family. This way, the Tudor dynasty was represented by the “Tudor Rose”, a superposition of the two roses, which indicated the end of the conflict.

of the two roses, which indicated the end of the conflict. ACTIVITIES Pesquise neste capítulo e

ACTIVITIES

Pesquise neste capítulo e localize a resposta às seguintes perguntas:

01. Qual a influência da Igreja Católica na formação dos cavaleiros da Idade Média?

02. Por que o Cristianismo foi ignorado pelo Império Romano por volta do século II?

foi ignorado pelo Império Romano por volta do século II? REFLECTION A concentração de poder em

REFLECTION

A concentração de poder em mãos de poucos sempre foi uma força perturbadora no sistema feudal.

A ascensão de monarcas poderosos na França, Espanha e Inglaterra quebrou a organização local.

Outra força de ruptura foi o aumento da comunicação, que quebrou o isolamento das vilas, auxiliou

o crescimento das cidades e facilitou a ascensão da classe burguesa. O sistema foi se rompendo

aos poucos e não tinha sido completamente destruído na França até a Revolução Francesa (1789),

e persistiu na Alemanha até 1848 e na Rússia até 1917. Muitas relíquias do feudalismo ainda

persistem, e sua influência permanece sobre as instituições da Europa Ocidental. Na Europa medieval, a Igreja e o Estado eram muito próximos. Era dever de qualquer autoridade política, fosse o rei, a rainha o príncipe ou o conselheiro, todos deveriam apoiar e sustentar a igreja. Com algumas exceções, a Igreja reforçou a autoridade política dos Estados que, por sua vez, reforçaram a autoridade da Igreja.

FURTHER READING

FURTHER READING

Para conhecer mais sobre a idade Média e seus desdobramentos, sugerimos a leitura do seguinte livro:

LE GOFF, Jacques. Para uma outra Idade Média: Tempo, Trabalho e Cultura no Ocidente. Editora:

Vozes. Ano: 2013

Trabalho e Cultura no Ocidente. Editora: Vozes. Ano: 2013 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anglo Saxon Literature Disponível em:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anglo Saxon Literature Disponível em: <http://anglosaxonliterature.wikispaces.com/Anglo- Saxon+Christianity>. Acesso em 13 mar. 2015. COTRIM, Gilberto. História Global Brasil e Geral. Editora Saraiva. Edição 1ª / 1997. The Feudal System. Disponível em <http://www.timeref.com> : Acesso em: 05 abr. 2015. Finertimes - Christianity in the Middle Ages Disponível em: <http://www.thefinertimes.com/ middle-ages/christianity-in-the-middle-ages.html>. Acesso em 02 mar. 2015

FLETCHER, H. Robert. A History of English Literature for Students. Boston: Richard G. Badger,

1916.

History - Middle Ages. Disponível em: <http://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages>. Acesso em:

14 mar. 2015 History of Feudalism in Europe. Disponível em: <http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/history/ feudalism-history-feudalism-europe.html> Acesso em 05.03.2015 Spark Notes – Early Middle Ages. Disponível em: <http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/ middle1/section11.rhtml>. Acesso em: 20 mar. 2015 The War of Roses. Disponível em < http://www.warsoftheroses.com> Acesso em 02 abr. 2015 What’s Magna Carta. Disponível em: http://www.livescience.com/2458-magna-carta-changed-world. html> Acesso em 02.04.2015

2

Idade Média: A Lenda do Rei Arthur e a Condição das Mulheres

Como veremos neste capítulo, Arthur foi o primogênito de Pendragon e herdeiro ao trono. No entanto, eram tempos difíceis na Inglaterra e Merlin, um sábio mago, sugeriu que o bebê fosse criado em um lugar secreto e que ninguém deveria saber da sua verdadeira identidade. Com um pano de fundo como este, diversas variações da lenda foram criadas e tornou-se difícil saber se tudo não passou de lenda ou se realmente aconteceu. De qualquer modo, lenda ou não, o Rei Arthur integra a história da Inglaterra de uma forma marcante e, portanto, merece ser estudado para que possamos compreender diversos aspectos da cultura inglesa.

possamos compreender diversos aspectos da cultura inglesa. OBJECTIVES Neste capítulo daremos continuidade à

OBJECTIVES

Neste capítulo daremos continuidade à contextualização da Idade Média, agora com enfoque na figura lendária do Rei Arthur e a esperança que o povo britânico depositou nele, bem como as raízes culturais e as fontes literárias advindas desse período.

2.1 The Mythic King Arthur

2.1 The Mythic King Arthur Arthur was a legendary king from ancient Britain who appears in

Arthur was a legendary king from ancient Britain who appears in several texts, the so-called Arthurian Legends. They form a collection of historic facts, myths, popular tales and religiosity. These stories have excited people’s imagination for centuries. Some researchers believe that Arthur really lived in Britain in the 4th or 5th Century. He would be the leader of Christian Celts against the Saxon invaders. With the death of Arthur in combat, his followers fled to Gales other places. From then on, several stories appeared regarding the bravery and kindness of the king, also remembered as powerful and wise.

2.1.1 King Arthur: The Legend

The legend of King Arthur is present in Celtic and Christian cultures in a series of mythical, magic or fantastic situations about the like of the Breton King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table in their search of the Holy Grail. King of a land recently freed from the Roman Empire, Arthur has the messianic challenge of reunifying the nation and restitute peace, destroying their enemies and defeating the barbarian Saxons.

Figura 2.1 – Statue of King Arthur, made in the 1520s.

The conception and birth of Arthur are prophesized by the druid wizard Merlin, who becomes his advisor in the beginning of his realm. Merlin is responsible for the spell that allowed Uther Pendragon to have an intercourse with Igraine, wife of the Duke of Tintagel, with whom he would marry later on, after the death of the Duke. From this relationship Arthur was born, who is given to Merlin to be educated by him, as a reward for his help.

Merlin devised the test that would prove Arthur’s right to the throne: the sword “Excalibur”, provided by the lady in the lake, is put into a stone, from which only Arthur is able to remove. Still very young, Arthur succeeds his father and becomes a brave leader, defeating the Scots and the Irish. In the peaceful period that comes, he marries Guinevere, daughter of Leodegan – who is also the owner of the round table built by Merlin and given as a dowry. King Arthur creates his Knights of the Round Table Order, formed by knights of several parts of the realm. This is the beginning of a generation of knights of incomparable cultural stature. From the 150 knights, 100 were brought by King Laudegraunce, 28 were chosen by Merlin, two were chosen by Arthur himself and 20 places distributed among those who proved to be up to the challenges that the quest for the Holy Grail would demand. Among those knights, some became more famous, like Mordred, Kay, Galaad and Lancelot, who was also famous for his love affair with Guinevere, revealed by Mordred. The affair forced Arthur to sentence Guinevere to death for treason, from which she escaped with the help of Lancelot. Arthur leaves the court of Camelot in order to conquer Gallia, trusting the regency of his realm to his nephew and knight Mordred, who revolts against Arthur and tries to usurp the throne. Arthur returns to claim for his throne and, even though he is victorious, he is mortally wounded in the final battle. He is then taken to the island of Avalon, where is is cured by the fairy Morgan, daughter of Igraine and the Duke of Cornwall, therefore Arthur’s half-sister. According to the legend, Arthur would be alive in Avalon, waiting for the day he would return. Guinevere who had returned to Arthur after the final battle goes to Amesbury convent, where Lancelot visits her. She gives farewell to him and chooses solitude as a penitence for her sin of ruining a famous dynasty of knights. The wonderful story of Arthur and his knights could have been based on real facts, but there are still lots of controversy. Camelot could have been fiction, or it could have been located in Colchester or Cadbury, among other places. The legend of King Arthur, the way we know it today, became immortal through the romance Morte D’Arthur, written by Sit Thomas Malory, a knight from the city of York, in the second half of the 15th Century.

2.2 The “Historical” King Arthur

In Medieval times, the turmoil caused by Barbarian invasions throughout Europe was responsible for the deflagration of several conflicts related to the process of feudalization of the Old World. As these transformations happened, the legend of King Arthur appeared in Britain and was kept alive until for a very long time. Even today, several movie productions have had King Arthur as a main character. Historically, narratives about King Arthur reflect the demand to consolidate the image of a hero that was able to defend his land from foreign invaders. Nevertheless, in case the legend was based on real facts, it base must have as a model some warrior that participated in the fights that marked the Saxon invasion in Britain. As time goes by, the aptitudes and accomplishments of this warrior have determined a collection of objects and places related to this tradition. Despite all the fantasy that surrounds King Arthur several expeditions were organized in order to find any king Arthur’s relics in places related to his legend. As an example of these efforts, in 1191 King Richard Lionheart announced that he had found King Arthur’s tomb at Glastonbury Abbey, where was found the legendary Excalibur, the sword with magical powers that helped King Arthur to win several battles, which strengthened his glory. The supposed finding had a political interest of enhancing the government of the 12th century monarch. Nevertheless, other excavations in British soil brought the possibility to give life to the myth. Several exploratory missions were directed towards the Tintagel Peninsula with the goal of finding the remains of the place where King Arthur supposedly was born. Until now, all that was found were remains of the construction of a 13th century castle. In more recent archeological works researchers found artifacts of a palace complex built between the 5th and 6th centuries, the same period in which Arthur possibly lived. At that same time, a stone plaque containing a name that could be Arthur’s was also examined by different specialists. In the end of the research, none of the answers were conclusive about the existence of clues that turned Arthur into a real fact of the British past.

2.2.1 A Possible Reality

The stories about noblesse and chivalry turned Arthur a Middle Ages myth. A fictional character not a historical one. Nevertheless, some specialists believe strongly that He may have existed, and behind the wizards, witches and spells there might have been a real man, but who was he? It is very hard to find someone who has never heard at least once about King Arthur and his young and brave knights. Wearing shiny armours, fighting for the honor of their beloved damsels, and inhabiting huge castles, they evoke the chivalry ideals of the Middle Ages. From literature to operas, from arts to Hollywood, few characters deserved so much attention and became so widely known. But, all in all, did he really exist? In order to answer such a question and try to find the “real” Arthur, we would have to go back in time. It is useless to try to find him in the 10th or 11th centuries, when he was eternized as a noble Christian, a feudal lord. This “Arthur” probably is nothing but a legend. The history of the “possible” Arthur starts in Brittany, which today corresponds to the United Kingdom and north of France. This is the region where lived the Celts, a people who originated in Central Europe and spread around the continent during the Iron Ages, approximately 600 B.C.

Nós o conhecemos como “Rei Arthur”, mas em sua primeira aparição, em “História dos Bretões”, escrito em 830 e atribuído a um escritor chamado Nennius, Não há referência

a Arthur como rei, e sim como líder ou soldado. Ele é descrito como um general Bretão e

combatente cristão durante os tempos difíceis do século XV, quando a Inglaterra estava sendo invadida por tribos Anglo-Saxônicas. De acordo com Nennius, Arthur lutou em doze batalhas, matando um total de 980 homens. Como nenhum general poderia ter tido tanto sucesso em suas batalhas, podemos perceber que, mesmo em outra versão

a vida de Arthur está coberta de mistérios e dados não confiáveis.

Fierce tribal warriors, they did not recognize any Power outside their own clan. With the Roman occupation of Britain, in the 1st Century, part of the Celtic tribes were integrated into the Empire and, among them, were the Britons. For five centuries Britain was under Roman rule which, besides bringing progress to the region, also protected them against invasions.

Nevertheless, with the decline of the Empire, Rome started withdrawing its legions and, in the beginning of the 5th century, Britons were under attack: the Germanic tribes: Angles, Juts and Saxons.

2.2.2 Arthur, the Warrior

After the departure of the Roman legions, the Bretons were being constantly defeated and the Anglo-Saxon advance seemed irreversible. It was a good moment for a hero to show up. A relief in the situation occurred in 517, in the Mount Badon Battle, when Britons achieved a remarkable victory against the invaders. In fact, archeology testifies that after that battle, Britain invasions reduced and the local tribes were able to enjoy relative peace for some decades. Then, if Arthur really existed, he may have fought in Mount Badon. But we can rest assured that the Mount Bandon’s Arthur is completely different from that we know from books and movies. Warriors from those times were extremely violent, and their weapons were the iron swords: one short and light, and another heavy and with a blade of almost one meter long. Along with the swords were also the axes, helmets, shields, etc. Combats usually happened on the ground, in a very chaotic situation. Fights were face to face and fast: the common strategy was to hit the opponent hard on the head or on the back in order to send him to the ground. Once on the ground, he would have his throat cut and left on the spot, bleeding to death. The Celts used horses for farming and traction, but not in battles. Combats were common in 5th Century Brittany. The Roman standard of living, with stone houses and even central heating started to cease. They lived very rustic lives, and the roads that used to connect cities were decaying, causing a progressive isolation of the cities. Britons did not have religious or social unity and, therefore, the clans rarely visited each other. There were no sacred dates or commerce among them, except barter that involved goods such as cereals, clothes and leather shoes. They were also suspicious of each other, in a continuous war-like state. Alliances between clans were rare and any disputes for territory or any other thing were decided in a battle. Most of the population was composed of farmers, living a very simple live. Houses had a hole in the roof to let the smoke escape – the same fired was used for cooking and for heating. The knife was almost the only utensil they had. A hollowed horn was used as a cup to drink.

The elite was composed of few Romanized Bretons, who enjoyed a little more comfort, once they lived in fortified houses made of stones and wood. They even imported some fine products, like wine. This privileged group was formed by the warriors, and Arthur may have lived among them, where he learned how to use a sword and a spear. These are the few “proofs” that Archeology gathered to reconstruct the historical Arthurian world. Most artifacts of that period, like fabric and wooden objects decomposed in the swamps of the region and the holes used to build the houses is all could be found. There has been a great effort to try to find out anything that would prove the existence of Arthur.

find out anything that would prove the existence of Arthur. CONNECTION O rei Arthur possui versões

CONNECTION

O rei Arthur possui versões míticas e versões tidas como “históricas”. Visite o link abaixo para ler um resumo em forma de tópicos sobre a lenda do Rei Arthur. (http://www.factsbarn.com/ facts-about-king-arthur/)

2.3 The Creation of a Myth

In the 12th century, about six centuries after the period in which he would have lived finally Arthur was promoted to a King and warrior leader. The transformation occurred in the book Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain), written by clergyman Geoffrey Monmouth. Using the sources he had, like the writings of Gildas, the Welsh and British traditions, and a certain amount of imagination, Geoffrey lined the genealogy of all the kings of Britain. Among them, Arthur was considered one of the most important Britain monarchs. A king must have a Queen, and Arthur got the company of Guinevere and a castle, located in Tintagel, the one that was found in archeological excavations in the 70’s. Mixing fantasy and history, Monmouth creates, one by one, the ingredients of the legend: Arthur fights against monsters and giants, and is mortally wounded and retires to the island of Avalon, in another world. He also mentions the source of his power: a sword called “Caliburn” (or “Excalibur”). The wizard Merlin also makes his debut, once he is the one who prophesizes the birth of the king.

Monmouth’s book turned the Breton warrior into a bastion of Christianity:

respected, courageous, just, and invincible. The book was so influential for 600 years that it was considered an official version of the British History and triggered a flood of novels. In France, this fashion would provide a new push in the life of Arthur and his kingdom. Chrètien de Troyes wrote Five books about Arthur and his knights, in which he introduced characters like Percival and Lancelot, the round table, the Holy Grail and Camelot. The French influence could be observed because of the presence of more “civilized” concepts, such as fidelity and marriage. Another change is that the knights become more active, once the king stops to get involved in fights and adventures and is consulted solely to judge a situation and provide the final word. But the fact is that England needed a founding myth, a hero, real or legend. But the French influence in the story includes the affair between Guinevere and Lancelot, turning Arthur into a cheated husband. Nevertheless, the infidelity of the queen is just a minor aspect of the treatment that Arthur received from French Literature. One of the main introductions of French literature on the English King was the idea of sin and moral values. We have to take into consideration that at that time France was the biggest Christian country in the world. Therefore, the myth goes through a process of Christianization: his shield now has an image of Mary, Jesus Christ’s mother, and the Celtic grail becomes the Holy Grail, the chalice used by Christ in the last supper. Only in 1470 was published the novel that would provide the final touch-ups in the mythological Arthur we know today. Thomas Mallory’s La Morte d’Arthur (The Death of Arthur) brought together all the previous elements to produce a coherent narrative, in which all the versions would fit in order to supply the British with their hero. What we see now is a valorous man, with undeniable power and sense of justice – this is the Arthur with whom all the world is familiar with.

A conquista Normanda em 1066 por William o Conquistador marca o início da influência francesa na Inglaterra. No entanto, o francês não se tornou a língua oficial da Inglaterra, uma vez que William não tinha intenção de substituir a língua ou cultura da Inglaterra. O latim era usado na maior parte dos documentos e em proclamações oficiais, e as classes superiores da sociedade estavam quase totalmente tomadas por Normandos, ou seja, falantes de francês. Assim, apesar do sistema ser inglês, muitos dos procedimentos e documentos estavam em francês.

É importante ressaltar também que o francês usado pelos normandos era diferente daquele usado em Paris ou no restante da França continental. Assim, alguns estudiosos chamam o francês usado na Inglaterra daquele período como “Anglo-Norman” ou “Anglo-Francês”.

2.4 The Situation of Women in the Middle Ages

In ancient times, the wealth and the name of the family passed from mother to daughter. A woman was almost a divine and admired entity, once her womb was able to generate life. This was something spectacular for the primitive men. Nevertheless, with the passing of time, the man started gradually to gain relevance, until the moment when he proclaims himself superior in comparison to the woman. This becomes remarkably relevant during the period called Middle Ages, also known as “Dark Ages”, period marked by the consolidation and expansion of the Christian faith by the Roman empire. This gave the Catholic Church enormous power, allowing it to control the life and minds of people, especially peasants, who carried a blind faith, fearing hell and the devil. The life of medieval women was not easy, once their functions varied according to their social class. In higher classes, women knew about politics, economics and land disputes. The wives of feudal lords were responsible for the organization of the castle, supervising everything – from the kitchen until the manufacture of clothes. They were supposed to know how to preserve meat and foods and coordinate the duties of all employees. Besides that, they had to be prepared to defend the castle in their husband’s absence. On the other extreme of the spectrum, the peasant woman worked side by side with their husbands in the lands of their feudal lord, besides dealing with their domestic chores. Women did not have many options: they could either get married of go to a convent. But the convent was not destined to anyone: only a high-class minority who could afford it, once it was very expensive to become a nun. Therefore, the great majority was destined to marriage and a life of submission to their husbands. Girls were, then, educated exclusively for the purpose of becoming good wives.

A marriage was arranged by the father when his daughter was still a child. The woman was like a property, used in order to bring advantages and bring more land to the family. In higher social classes, girls would marry at the age of eight. A woman was her husband’s property, owing him obedience and fidelity – she would even address him in a very respectful manner, like “my lord”. Physical aggression was an acceptable behavior and it could be applied when the husband thought his wife had disobeyed him. Stories related to violence towards women were a common and funny subject among friends. But the aggression should neither lead to death not bother the neighbors, except in case of adultery, when the husband had the right to even kill his wife.

2.4.1 Witchcraft in the Middle Ages

All women had to learn everything they could about cures and home medicine, but only until a certain point. There was a very tiny line separating medicine from witchcraft. During the Middle Ages, thousands of people were sentence to death, mostly innocent women, accused of witchcraft, sometimes for the simple fact of being single, lonely and ugly – yes, they believed that ugliness was related to being a witch. The book Malleus Malleficarum, 1486, written by German inquisitors, stated that the witches were preparing a conspiracy to dominate the world, and explained how to identify the presence of witches and identify spells. Once most women had to act as midwives and know at least something about common diseases and cooking, many were called witches and burned alive. There were many arguments to “prove” women’s inclination to evil, according to the authors of Malleus Malleficarum. To begin with, they argued that there was a character failure in the creation of the first woman, once she was generated from a curved rib and, therefore, contrary to the straight character of men. Even the etymology of the word “feminine” confirms this original weakness. According to the authors, the word femina, in Latin, is the union of the words fide and minus, which means “less faith”. To defend ideas like these was not an exclusive thought of those two German inquisitors. The aversion regarding women because she was weaker and, therefore, had more propensity to succumb to temptation, was a common concept in all regions of Europe – from small villages to big cities. In the sermons of priests all over Europe, it was a commonplace to believe that witchcraft was associated to the

insatiable sexual appetite of women, who sees no limits to get satisfied. With her “fire”, the woman was seen as a fatal trap, which could take a man to destruction, preventing him from living his life and being in peace with his spirituality. Even though they worked as much as men, women were always on an inferior situation. The concept of the original sin was a very heavy burden that women had to carry until the end of the 18th century. Since the first Christians, the search for religious austerity became not only a rule for spiritual enhancement, but also reinforced women’s role as the main mundane temptation, able to separate a man from his way to purification.

able to separate a man from his way to purification. CONNECTION Visite o link abaixo e

CONNECTION

Visite o link abaixo e leia o artigo “Caça às Bruxas” do site InfoEscola. Ele traz um resumo muito interessante da histeria europeia, com foco em bruxas. (http://www.infoescola.com/ historia/caca-as-bruxas/)

2.5 Women in the Middle Ages: Joan of Arc

2.5 Women in the Middle Ages: Joan of Arc Joan of Arc (Joana d’Arc) was born

Joan of Arc (Joana d’Arc) was born in France, in 1412, in a small village called Domrémy. In the historical context of the 15th Century, France was going through very turbulent times – political, economic and social. King Charles I was sick and absent most of the time, which caused the worsening of the rivalry between different Houses. There was a chaotic environment, full of mutinies, murders and violence. In this context, England saw the opportunity to invade France.

Figura 2.2 – Joan of Arc.

Nevertheless, in 1422, with the death of the French king, England invaded France. During this invasion appeared the mythical figure of Joan of Arc, unhappy with the English government, like most peasants. Joan was a very religious person: at the age of 12 she said she heard voices coming from heaven that told her to save France and crown the king. She wrote a letter to the king asking for advice, and he accepted to listen to her –the reasons why the king did that are not clear. Then, Joan of Arc left for the court on February 13, 1429, and on February 23 she arrived at Chignon Castle, residence of the King Charles VII, son of Charles VI (it is important to emphasize that England did not recognize the legitimacy of Charles VII). She told the king about the vision she had had. At first the kind did not believe in her, but it changed when she told him about the requests he had made to God while preaching alone in a church. After being tested in other situations, she received from the king a sword, a banner, and the general command of the French armies. Joan wanted to attack the Orleans region, controlled by the English, and sent them a warning. She told them that they had no right to be in French soil and, in the name of God, she ordered that they leave the place immediately and return to their home country, of they would have to face the consequences. The French troops, under the leadership of Joan of Arc, won several battles, in a war known as Hundred Years’s War (1337 – 1453), from which France emerged victorious, sending the English away, especially from the North of France. After sending the English home, the French nobility, represented by King Charles VII, were afraid of a strong popular alliance between Joan of Arc and the peasants. They decided, therefore, hand her to the English. Joan was burned alive, under the accusation of witchcraft. The Hundred Years’s War ended in 1453, when England and France signed a peace treaty.

2.5.1 The Accusation of Heresy and Witchcraft

Joan of Arc was arrested and kept in a dark cell, guarded by five men. The process against Joan started on January 9, 1431, under the command of the bishop of Beauvais, Pierre Cauchon. Ten sessions occurred without the presence of Joan – they focused on presenting proofs that would confirm the accusation of murder and heresy. On February 21 she was heard for the first time, and she was questioned about the voices she heard and her masculine vestments. On May 29 she was sentenced to death for heresy.

Joan was burned alive on May 30, 1431 – she was only 19 years old. The executions ceremony occurred at the Place du Vieux Marché, at 9 o’clock, in Rouen. Before being executed, she confessed and then, dressed in white, walked into the crowded plaza, and was placed on the platform built for the execution. While she was burning people shouted words like “witch” and “liar”. Her ashes were thrown in the Seine River, in order to avoid public veneration in the future. The revision of her process began from 1456 on, when she was considered innocent by pope Callixtus III and the process that led to her condemnation was considered invalid. In 1909 the Catholic Church authorizes her beatification and in 1920 Joan of Arc is canonized.

2.5.2 Persecution of “Witches”

Any person could be accused of witchcraft to an “Inquisition Tribunal”. The suspects, mostly women, were arrested and considered guilty unless they were able to prove their innocence. Usually, they could not be killed until they confessed their connection to the devil. In order to force a confession or fabricate proofs of their crime, they use several torture procedures like shaving the whole body in order to find any marks of the devil, which could be moles or even freckles; perforation of the tongue; immersion in hot water; torture in wheels; perforation of the body with needles, searching for a painless spot (“touched” by the devil); violent beating; raping with cutting objects; removal of the breasts. The intention was to torture the victims until they signed a confession prepared by the inquisitors. Usually, those who sustained their innocence were burned alive. Those who confessed had a more merciful death: they were strangled before being burned. In some countries, like Germany and France, they used green wood in the fire, in order to extend the suffering of the victims. In Italy and Spain witches were always burned alive. One insteresting fact is that witch hunters and informers could be very rewarding financially. They were paid by the Tribunal for each condenation and the their possessions were all confiscated. The end of the “witch hunt” occured only in the 18th century and it was, without a doubt, a very organized process, financed and realized by a joint venture between the Church and the State.

2.5.3 Genocyde of Women

After all deaths that occured because of witchcraft, we can say that what happened was really a genocyde agains women, with the purpose on maintainig the power of the Church and punish women who dared expose their medical, polical or religious knowledge. Therefore, the accusation of heresy or witchcraft was an excuse to control revolutionary women, like Joan of Arc, who led the French Army at the age of 17 in 1429, fighting against English occupation. As we saw, she ended up being judged by the Inquisition for witchcraft and heresy and burned alive before she turned 20.

witchcraft and heresy and burned alive before she turned 20. ACTIVITIES 01. De acordo com o

ACTIVITIES

01. De acordo com o que foi tratado neste capítulo, descreva sucintamente o que se esperava da mulher durante a idade Média.

o que se esperava da mulher durante a idade Média. REFLECTION Como foi possível observar neste

REFLECTION

Como foi possível observar neste capítulo, o Rei Arthur não pode ser considerado um único personagem e está longe de ser uma unanimidade. Como uma divisão simples, podemos “dividir” o personagem em dois: O Rei Arthur da lenda e o Rei Arthur histórico. O primeiro foi sendo lapidado em um longo processo, que inclui vários autores e influências culturais diversas, até que todas as partes fossem agrupadas em uma só obra, escrita por Thomas Mallory. De qualquer modo, as chamadas obras arturianas foram escritas na Idade Média e traz muito da visão típica da época, com seus códigos de conduta próprios e forte influência religiosa. E justamente neste período é que pudemos ver também neste capítulo as condições em que as mulheres viviam nesta fase tão difícil da história europeia. Como exemplo de um comportamento feminino “indesejável” foi abordada a vida de Joana d’Arc.

FURTHER READING

FURTHER READING

Para quem quiser aprofundar mais no tema Rei Arthur, recomendamos o livro abaixo:

KNOWLES, James. The Legends Of King Arthur And His Knights. June 28, 2004. A public domain book.

And His Knights . June 28, 2004. A public domain book. BIBLIOGRAPHY Artigo de revista SXLAC,

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Artigo de revista SXLAC, Carlos. O Mito do Rei Arthur- A longa vida do Rei Arthur, um personagem entre o mito e a história. Revista Literatura. Edição 48 – 2013. Ed. Escala Bio – Joan of Arc. Disponível em: <http://www.biography.com/people/joan-of-arc-9354756>. Acesso em: 04 abr. 2015. History – Joan of Arc. Disponível em: <http://www.history.com/topics/saint-joan-of-arc>. Acesso em: 04 abr. 2015. History – Middle Ages. Disponível em: <http://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages>. Acesso em:

02 abr. 2015. History World – The Middle Ages. Disponível em: < http://history-world.org/middle_ages.htm>. Acesso em: 05 abr. 2015. Swide – Ten Facts you Need to Know about King Arthur. Disponível em: <http://www.swide.com/ art-culture/10-facts-about-king-arthur/2014/12/30>. Acesso em: 03 abr. 2015. The Finer Times – Witches and Witchcraft in the Middle Ages. Disponível em: <http://www.

thefinertimes.com/Middle-Ages/witches-and-witchcraft-in-the-middle-ages.html>. Acesso em: 03 abr.

2015.

3

A Inglaterra após a Idade Média

Vamos estudar nesse capítulo um dos períodos mais ricos da História da humanidade, onde o conhecimento floresceu em todas as áreas. Mas, também, foi um período de absolutismo na política e de rompimentos e lutas no aspecto religioso. No campo cultural, a literatura elisabetana geralmente reflete a autoestima em alta de uma nação que expandia seu poder, aumentava suas riquezas, mas se mantinha distante dos problemas sociais e religiosos. Esse foi um tempo de revoluções, restauração da monarquia e depois, a vitória do Parlamento, do Protestantismo nascente e dos interesses monetários. Mas também, de exuberância nas artes, teatro, produção literária!

de exuberância nas artes, teatro, produção literária! OBJECTIVES Ilustrar a importância da dinastia Tudor para o

OBJECTIVES

Ilustrar a importância da dinastia Tudor para o desenvolvimento da Inglaterra, a Reforma Protestante, A Igreja Anglicana e o Renascimento como movimentos de pensadores que exerceram influência sobre a cultura e a literatura da Inglaterra.

3.1

Absolutism in England

The Absolutism in England started after the Wars of the Roses, which involved two families disputing the Crown, the York and the Lancaster. The war ended when a new king, Henry Tudor, was crowned with the support of the bourgeoisie. The new monarch ascended to the throne with the adopted name of Henry VII and founded the Tudor dynasty. He was the king between 1485 and 1509. Henry VIII, the second king of the dynasty, stayed in power until 1547 and was able to impose his will over the nobility, with the support of the bourgeoisie. Henry VIII was the founder of Anglicism and the rupture with the Catholic Church allowed him to take control of the ecclesiastic properties in England.

3.2 The English Protestant Reformation

To truly understand the Protestant Reformation in England, it is important to look back at the transition from the medieval world to a modern world. We can say that the Protestant Reformation can be interpreted as an expression of the contradictions of the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Throughout the Middle Ages there was a high level of Church interference. The great amount of land that belonged to the Church allowed it to interfere strongly on political and economic matters of the government. Besides, some new activities linked to the bourgeoisie, especially the practice of usury (charging interest over loans), were considered sinful. Regarding the Catholic Church, its great material prosperity came along with a crisis on principles and values. The commercialization of sacred relics, the sale of ecclesiastic titles and indulgencies were among the profitable activities practiced by members of the clergy. Besides, there were rumors and complaints concerning celibacy breaks and the existence of whorehouses specifically for clergymen. Because of situations like these the hegemony of the Church started being questioned. In the Renaissance, there were several criticisms on the Church in several aspects. Then, the transformations that occurred in the Modern Age brought about the creation of religious institutions with different Christian bases. Among these new institutions we can mention the Lutheranism, the Calvinism, and the Anglicanism as examples of the new Protestant religions that appeared in the 16th century.

3.2.1 The Anglicanism

As mentioned before, in England there was a very particular reformation movement. Beginning in the 14th century, there was a lot of criticism regarding the material power of the Church. The English king Edward VIII (father of Elizabeth I) became notorious for his controversial marriages in his quest for an heir. As the second king from the Tudor dynasty, he had ample political power and one of the most important measures of his government was the rupture with the Catholic Church and the creation of the Anglicism. The beginning of his problems with the Catholicism was in his first marriage, with the Spanish Catherine of Aragon. The English king wanted a boy to be his successor to the throne, but his first wife had a girl, named Mary. This led the English king to look for another wife so that he would have a chance to accomplish his goal. Nevertheless, in order to obtain a divorce, Henry would have to obtain an authorization from the Pope Clement II. The main reason for the refusal of the Pope in authorizing the divorce was the fact that Catherine was the aunt of Emperor Charles V, who supported the Catholic Church in the fight against the Lutherans. Even without the authorization of the Pope, Henry VIII proposed an initiative and, in 1534, the Parliament proclaimed the act of supremacy through which the king created the Anglican Church. With this maneuver, Henry VIII got his divorce and married Anne Boleyn, with whom she expected to get his heir. Nevertheless, like his first wife, Anna had a baby girl, named Elizabeth. Once he had not yet achieved his goal of having a boy, Henry accused Anne of adultery and she was sentenced to death. Then, Henry could marry again, this time with Jane Seymour. Even though she died after the delivery, she gave him a boy, Edward I, his successor to the throne. Henry VIII died when Elizabeth was 13 years-old and, as expected, his son Edward I ascended to the throne at the age of nine. Nonetheless, the new king’s health was weak and he died of tuberculosis in 1553. In this case, the natural successor was Mary, the daughter that Henry had with Catherine. She ascended to the throne as Mary I in the middle of lots of controversy, once she was Catholic. In 1554 she marries Philip II, king of Spain, and ordered that all of those who were against her government should be persecuted and burned.

Many countries in Europe had to face serious crises related to religious reformations that spread through the continent. Among them we can mention Lutheranism in Germany and Calvinism in Switzerland. In the middle of this turmoil of religious reforms, the English queen, Mary, suspected that her sister, Elizabeth, was stimulating revolts against her government and sent orders to arrest her and keep her locked in the London Tower. Nevertheless, Mary died in 1558 and the right to the throne went to Elizabeth.

3.2.2 Queen Elisabeth I

Queen Elizabeth I, who ruled from 1448 until 1603, managed to increase royal power even further. Among the accomplishments of Elizabeth, we can highlight the investments on English industry, economic expansion via East India Company, and the development on arts and literature. During her reign important works were published, from authors like William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser and Christopher Marlowe. With these actions Elizabeth sponsored an important growth in England. The reign of Queen Elizabeth I also stood out due to the support of the general population, but mainly for continuing her father’s reforms, demanding that the Anglicism be taken again as the official religion of the country, replacing Catholicism. Besides, she took some pragmatic measures and assimilated some characteristics of the Calvinism – she did not want that the realm to be divided because of differences in creeds. To prevent such possible scenario, she established agreements with the Catholics in the Parliament in order to avoid a civil war. Nevertheless, there were religious confrontations with the Catholics, like the one that happened in 1569, which was violently repressed. Besides a delicate relationship with the Catholic Church, the Queen had to face a harsh confrontation imposed by Spanish king Philip II, who ended up losing the war. During Elizabeth’s government, the Catholic Church adopted a series of measures against the reforms, with the purpose of halting the advance of religions like Calvinism and Anglicism. Elizabeth I is also known as “the virgin queen”, once she never married and left no heirs, and remained in power until her death, in 1603, when ascended to the throne her cousin James I, of the Stuart Dynasty, ending the Tudor dynasty.

3.3 The Lutheran Reformation

Considered the first religion founded during the Protestant Reformation, the Lutheranism was a religion created in the middle of social and political crises in the Sacred German Empire. Still stuck on feudal structures, the Empire had a group of principalities in which the Catholic Church dominated one-third of the land. The excessive power of the Clergy worsened the relationship between the nobility and the Church even before the arrival of the questionings raised by the ideas of the priest and professor Martin Luther. In his studies, Luther started to criticize some vital items of the Catholic doctrine. In 1517, he criticized the sale of indulgencies and other practices of the Church in his text The Ninety-Five Theses. Written in German, the text became popular and ended up in the hands of catholic clergymen. Pope Leo X repudiated Luther’s ideas and wrote a letter in 1520 reprobating his text and requiring him to renounce to his ideas, threatening him of excommunication from the Church. In 1521, under the orders of Emperor Charles V, Luther was requested to deny his ideas in a meeting called Diet of Worms. During the meeting, Luther reassured his beliefs and was considered an heretic. Even with the Church’s opposition, some sectors of the German nobility decided to protect Martin Luther. In this period, Luther translated the Augsburg Confession from Latin to German and published it. This text contained the bases of the Lutheran doctrine, which postulated, among other topics, the salvation through faith, the free interpretation of biblical texts, the negation of celibacy and image adoration, the realization of masses in the local language, and the subordination of the Church to the government. Although the new religion contained items that favored the power of the nobility, it was responsible for a series of popular revolts against the establishment. In this period, several properties were invaded and churches were sacked in Germany. Luther was against the insurgents and supported the forces that tried to repress the movement. Only in 1555, with the signature of Augsburg Peace Treaty, did the religious and social conflicts cease. In the treaty, the German princes had the right to freely adopt any kind of religious orientation for themselves and for the people in general.

A reforma protestante foi um movimento de reforma cristã na qual os próprios membros avaliaram as práticas da Igreja Católica, particularmente envolvendo o ensino e a venda de indulgências. Uma indulgência era a remissão da pena devida pelos pecados que já haviam sido confessados e a absolvição dada. Estudiosos religiosos medievais e teólogos, tais como Alberto Magno e Tomás de Aquino visualizavam os méritos dos santos católicos como a base em que poderiam ser concedidas indulgências. Um tesouro dos rendimentos de provindos das indulgências foi estabelecido em 1220 para ser usado pela Igreja Católica. No entanto, posteriormente o período medieval viu o crescimento considerável de abusos, tais como a venda irrestrita de indulgências.

3.4 Calvinism

The Calvinist Movement was a consequence of the Lutheran Reformation, and is considered one of the most important of the Protestant Reformation. Switzerland was created in 1499 and the new country got in touch with the ideas of Martin Luther through the lectures of the priest Ulrich Zwingli. As he spread the word about the Lutheran doctrines throughout Switzerland, Zwingli triggered a series of civil revolts that questioned the bases of current power. This paved the way to the doctrine that would be created later on by the Frenchman John Calvin. Persecuted in his homeland, Calvin found refuge in Switzerland, with the purpose of disseminating another comprehension regarding the faith questionings brought out by Martin Luther. According to Calvin, the principle of absolute predestination was responsible for explaining the destiny of men on earth. This principle advocated that, according to God’s will, the chosen ones would have the right to eternal salvation. The signs that revealed God’s preferences would be linked to a materially prosperous life, with focus on work and away from material ostentation. According to specialists, the emphasis on work and savings attracted great part of European bourgeoisie to the Calvinist doctrine. Counting on these principles, the Calvinist doctrine expanded faster than Lutheranism. In other regions of Europe, Calvinism got different names. In Scotland, the Calvinists were known as Presbyterians; in France, as Huguenots, and in England as Puritans.

CONNECTION

CONNECTION

In the link below you will be able to watch a video and know more about the Protestant Reformation. (https://pt.khanacademy.org/humanities/renaissance-reformation/protestant-

reformation1/v/protestant-reformation-1)

3.5 The Stuarts – King James I

Elizabeth I died in 1603 and, once she did not leave any heirs, James I, king of Scotland, ascended to the throne. He tried to establish the Royal prerogatives for an absolutist monarchy of divine right. He persecuted radical denominations and even Catholics that organized the Gunpowder Plot in 1605, an attempt to blow Westminster during a speech of the king. Many of those unhappy with the situation migrated to the colonies of North America. The opposition between king James I and the Parliament became more evident from 1610 on. The king wanted a feudal occupation in Ireland, but the Parliament preferred a capitalist colonization. They also disagreed on taxes, once the king wanted the monopoly on the commercialization of fabrics, which would make him financially independent from the parliament, once the Crown also possessed revenues from land and other monopolies. With the death of James I in 1625, ascends to the throne his son, Charles I. In 1628 foreign wars force him to deal with a hostile parliament. The members of the House demanded the control of the financial policy, control on the army, and regularity of parliament meetings. As a result, the king dissolves the parliament, which would meet again only in 1640, the year of the revolution. The migration to America increases.

3.6 The Puritan Revolution: Civil War

It is important to highlight that the religious disputes interweave with the political disputes – it is possible to realize this just looking at the name of the revolution:

Puritan Revolution. The religious precepts and the control of the Anglican

Church on daily life guaranteed the control of the socio-political live in England. Even with the ruptures with the Catholic Church during the reign of Henry VIII, the Anglican Church was near Catholicism and the Middle Ages ideology. On the other hand, the Puritanism (the English Calvinism) was an ideological expression of the bourgeoisie, especially for linking the salvation of the soul to the economic actions realized on earth, as well as an individualized religiosity, without the institutional interference of the Church. This way, the Civil War put, on one side, members of the English aristocratic nobility, civil workers, and the clergy, mostly Anglican, against capitalist farmers, urban bourgeoisie, small merchants and artisans, who professed protestant creeds, like Puritanism and Presbyterianism. In the military aspect, the division occurred between the Cavaliers, those loyal to Charles I and supported by landlords, Catholics and Protestants, and the Roundheads, supporters of the Parliament. The term “roundheads” referred to their haircut, short and round; they did not wear wigs to differentiate themselves from the court members, all wearing long wigs. The king transformed Oxford into his headquarters and asked Prince Rupert to command 20 thousand men from the Cavaliers army, supported by the aristocracy from the West and North and the bourgeoisies, who were unrest with the popular turmoil. Oliver Cromwell, on the other hand, reorganized the parliament army, the roundheads, which was composed mainly of peasants, with the support of London bourgeoisie and aristocracy. In Cromwell’s new organization, assuming a certain position in society is not a matter of birthright, but of merit. Soldiers were stimulated to participate in committees that debated the problems. The roundheads were crucial in the final battle of Naseby, in 1645. The first phase of the war ended in 1646, with the defeat of Charles I. But the fear of the radical democratic position of the roundhead made some moderate parliament members to try an agreement with the royalty, which resulted in a radicalization of the revolution. Then, in 1647, King Charles was arrested. The Radicals succeeded in getting hegemony in the House of Commons, expelling the Moderates. In 1649, Charles I faced trial and was executed. That was the first time a monarch was beheaded in England following an order from the Parliament.

3.7 Oliver Cromwell and the Republic

After the beheading of Charles I, a Republic was established in England, forming

a State Council and extinguishing the Chamber of Lords. Oliver Cromwell

subdued the last reactions and put an end on the Civil War in 1651. A State Council, with 41 members, held the executive power, but who really held the power was Cromwell. He also struggled to eliminate the reaction of those who,

with the support of the Scots, were trying to ascend Charles II, son of Charles I,

to the throne. Cromwell also eliminated the radicals from the armed forces and

executed several other enemies. Nonetheless, the political opposition to Cromwell intensified. Therefore, he dissolved the parliament in 1653 and a new constitution gave him the title of Lord Protector. Cromwell had now as much power as a monarch and could even appoint his successor. Cromwell was a very intolerant and rigid ruler, imposing his puritan ideas. His son, Richard Cromwell, substituted him after his death, in 1658. Once he was not as firm as his father, Richard was easily deposed in 1659. There was a counter-revolution, and Charles II ascended to the English Throne, putting an end in the Republic and realizing the Monarchy Restoration. Nevertheless, the social transformations that it represented did not allow that the Monarchy Restoration lasted long. With the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the cycle of the bourgeoisie revolution in England was complete, with the instauration of a constitutional monarchy with liberal characteristics that would guarantee the general conditions for the development of capitalism.

Em 1640, Cromwell foi um membro do Parlamento de Cambridge e desde o início ele era um agitador, ocupando posições extremas - era um crítico ferrenho dos Bispos e um dos primeiros a clamar que a Igreja estabelecida deveria ser reformada em suas raízes. Em julho de 1642, obteve permissão da Câmara dos Comuns para permitir que os constituintes de Cambridge formassem e armassem companhias para se defenderem. Ele próprio foi a Cambridge para impedir as faculdades de enviarem as suas placas para serem derretidas em benefício do rei. Embora não treinado como um soldado, ele parecia ter uma aptidão natural e subiu rapidamente de Capitão para Tenente-General, participando com sucesso nas batalhas contra os exércitos de ambos os monarquista irlandês e escocês e esmagou uma rebelião no sul de Gales.

3.8 The Renaissance

With the decadence of the feudal system, new production techniques emerged. These techniques made lots of people migrate from agriculture to ther functions, such as commerce and handicrafts. Therefore, commerce began its rebirth in several places of Europe. The main cities in the European commercial routes were Venice and Genoa, which became great urban and commercial centers due to their strategic geographic position. The commercial rebirth of Western Europe increased money circulation and the economy in several places, leading to the blooming of the cities. The Renaissance was a revolutionary movement at that time, once it included intellectual, artistic, literary, philosophical, and scientific movements. It marked the transition from the medieval culture to the modern culture, breaking definitely the ecclesiastic monopoly. The Renaissance expressed the first manifestation of a rational, scientific and secular culture. This movement ranged from the end of the 15th century until the end of the 16th century, spreading from Italy to other European countries. Italy was, therefore, the birthplace of Renaissance, a movement that was seeking new answers and a new comprehension of men and the universe.

Para o historiador Thomas Woods, o Renascimento, mais do que uma ruptura total com o passado medieval, pode ser considerado o auge da Idade Média. Diz ele que “os medievais, tal como uma das figuras exponenciais do Renascimento, tinham um profundo respeito pela herança da antiguidade clássica, ainda que não a aceitassem de modo tão acrítico como o fizeram alguns humanistas: e é na Idade Média que encontramos as origens das técnicas artísticas que viriam a ser aperfeiçoadas no período seguinte.” (WOODS, Thomas. Como a Igreja Católica Construiu a Civilização Ocidental. São Paulo: Quadrante, 2008. p. 119)

The Renaissance reflected a new perception of the world in relation to the growth of commerce and the bourgeoisie, and a strengthening of nationalism. It represented a chance in the way people saw the world and themselves. It also represented the rescue and re-elaboration of the Greco-Roman classic ideas. With the Renaissance, the medieval thought, oppressed by religion, is replaced by a culture devoted to the values of the individual. The artists got

inspiration on the Greek classic legacy in their search for the ideal dimensions of the human figure and the faithful representation of reality. The Renaissance movement meant a return to the individual values, which were present in Roman and Greek cultures. These values were despised by the Catholic Church throughout the Middle Ages.

despised by the Catholic Church throughout the Middle Ages. ACTIVITIES 01. Por que o Rei Henrique

ACTIVITIES

01. Por que o Rei Henrique VIII rompeu com Roma? Qual atitude ele tomou com relação à Igreja depois desse rompimento?

ele tomou com relação à Igreja depois desse rompimento? REFLECTION O começo da dinastia Tudor coincidiu

REFLECTION

O começo da dinastia Tudor coincidiu com a primeira divulgação de material impresso. A gráfica de William Caxton foi criada em 1476, apenas nove antes do começo do reinado de Henrique VII. Essa conquista de Caxton encorajou a escrita de todos os tipos e também influenciou a padronização da língua inglesa. As relações políticas com o Continente também se ampliaram, o que aumentou a exposição da Inglaterra à cultura da Renascença. O Humanismo tornou-se a força mais importante na literatura inglesa e na vida intelectual. Em um sentido estrito, significou o estudo e imitação dos clássicos em latim e, em sentido amplo, a afirmação das preocupações materiais das pessoas, além das espirituais. Essas forças produziram durante o reinado de Elisabeth I uma das eras mais fecundas da história da literatura.

I uma das eras mais fecundas da história da literatura. FURTHER READING CLOUSE, Robert G., PIERARD,

FURTHER READING

CLOUSE, Robert G., PIERARD, Richard V. e YAMAUCHI, Edwin M. Dois reinos: a igreja e a cultura interagindo ao longo dos séculos. São Paulo: Cultura Cristã, 2003.

ao longo dos séculos. São Paulo: Cultura Cristã, 2003. BIBLIOGRAPHY MATOS, Alderi Souza. A caminhada cristã

BIBLIOGRAPHY

MATOS, Alderi Souza. A caminhada cristã na história: a Bíblia, a igreja e a sociedade ontem e hoje. Viçosa, MG: Ultimato, 2005.

Tudor and Stuart History. Disponível em : <http://www.tudorsandstuarts.com/>Acesso em 25 mar.

2015.

English literature: The Tudors and the Elizabethan Age. Disponível em: <http://www.infoplease.com/

encyclopedia/entertainment/english-literature-the-tudors-elizabethan-age.html#ixzz3XPSmZXai>

Acesso em 28 mar. 2015 Civil War and Revolution. Disponível em : <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/> Acesso em: 02 abr. 2015

Reformation. Disponível em: <http://www.history.org.uk/resources/primary_resources_133.html>. Acesso em 25 mar. 2015 Illuminating the Renaissance. Disponível em: <http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/flemish/ timeline.html> Acesso em 02 abr. 2015

4

Séculos XVIII e XIX – Independência Americana, Guerras e Revoluções.

O século XVIII viu o auge do Iluminismo e culminou na Revolução Francesa, além da Revolução Americana. Foi uma fase de grande crescimento da ciência e marcada por importantes filósofos e grandes pensadores. Foi neste século que a Inglaterra se consolidou como uma potência mundial, vencendo os franceses em território americano e conquistando grandes extensões na Índia. A Revolução Industrial, que teve início na Inglaterra por volta de 1770 com a invenção de uma máquina a vapor eficiente, mudaria permanentemente a forma como o ser humana via o trabalho. Isso abriu as portas para o século XIX, que testemunharia outros eventos importantes no campo humanitário, como a abolição da escravatura nos Estados Unidos, e cultural, como o Movimento Transcendentalista.

Unidos, e cultural, como o Movimento Transcendentalista. OBJECTIVES Os dois séculos abordados neste capítulo

OBJECTIVES

Os dois séculos abordados neste capítulo influenciaram fortemente tanto a Grã-Bretanha quanto os Estados Unidos e é, portanto, muito importante compreender os fatos e personagens marcantes desse período para, assim, enxergar eventos contemporâneos sobre um prisma mais complexo e abrangente.

4.1 The Seven Years’ War

The Seven Years’ War was a conflict between England and France that occurred from 1756 until 1763 and spread from North-American territory until European territory. Its origin is based on the economic and colonial rivalry between England and France on the USA and India, besides the occupation of other French territories in North America. As a reaction, French troops join Indian tribes and attack the 13 English colonies in the region. Because of these attacks, the colonies are forced to join forces with Britain, leaving aside the commercial conflicts between the colonies and England. The English-American forces win the war and the North Americans called this conflict “war against France and the Indians” In Europe, the war spreads due to the initial French success in the war against the British colonies in North America. As a consequence, England joins forces with Prussia and they block French ports. The English conquest Quebec and Montreal moving up until the Great Lakes region. They also seize French territories in the Antilles, Africa and India. As a consequence, England embraces most of the French colonial empire, especially the Western lands of the North-American colonies. France concedes to England the possession of Canada, Senegal, and Gambia, among others. Spain enters the war in 1761 and gets the territory of Louisiana. In exchange, Spain gives Florida to the English. Despite its triumph, England faces an awful financial situation. The English Parliament decides to penalize the Americans and request payments for war expenses, saying that they did not provide enough men and supplies to guarantee the victory against the French. Along with the heavy taxation, England intends to broaden their rights in the American colonies and impose a pact that restricts America’s commercial transactions. Several protests arise around the colonies and the revolt increases when England prohibits the Americans to occupy the territories recently conquered from the French, forcing them to live only near the coastline, which is a region that can be controlled with more ease. The Seven Years’s War aggravates, therefore, the English-American divergences, which pave the way towards the fight for the independence of the United States. Some prominent independence personalities, such as George Washington, get into the scene at this period.

4.2 The United States Independence

After the Seven Years’ War England doubled its territories. In order to get funds to protect the new territories, London raised taxes and restricted American rights, along with other acts. This was responsible for the deterioration in the relationship between the US and England, which led, thirteen years later, to American War of Independence, also known as the Revolutionary War, in 1775. In April 19, 1775, British troops go to Lexington to invade the city and confiscate American weapons – this is the beginning of the revolution. The Americans knew about the attack and were able to get ready and defend themselves, defeating the English. On May 10, 1775, George Washington is chosen to lead the American troops in a rebellion towards independence. In England, King George declared that the rebellion in the thirteen colonies was official on August 23, 1775. He ordered the cessation of the rebellion, or they would be crushed by English forces.

the rebellion, or they would be crushed by English forces. CONNECTION No site history.com você vai

CONNECTION

No site history.com você vai encontrar diversos vídeos curtos que mostram toda a história da Independência americana em todas as suas etapas. Visite o link abaixo: http://www.history. com/topics/american-revolution

Americans were able to conquer an English Fort in New York during the winter and take a cannon from Massachusetts until Boston. Because of that, on March 17, 1776, English troops left the city of Boston. On July 4, 1776, it was officially announced to the public, through the Second Continental Congress, the Declaration of the American Independence, whose main author was Thomas Jefferson.

4.2.1 The American Constitution

As a result of the emancipation the thirteen colonies, the United States Constitution was discussed right after the victory against England. At that time there were two factions: the Federalists and the Republicans. The Federalists wanted to fortify the central Power in order to guarantee the political union of

the states. The Republicans, on the other hand, believed that the autonomy of the states should not be subservient to a central power. In order to find a balance between these two forces, the American Constitution was formed by very few articles. The document was created in 1787 paved the way to the autonomy of the states in new country, which allowed the states to create their own laws according to specific interests. After more than 200 years, the American Constitution had only twenty- seven amendments. Its first ten modifications were known as Bill of Rights and occurred four years after the creation of the original document and deal with freedom of expression and religious freedom. The Enlightenment, with philosophers like John Locke, strongly influenced the ideology of the American Constitution, which was also influenced by other liberal revolutions that occurred afterwards. Among the reforms that occurred later, the end of slavery (1865) is one of the most relevant. The Prohibition, which prohibited commercialization and consumption of alcoholic beverages, was the only amendment revoked by the American government. It is possible to say, therefore, that the group of laws that rule the United States is very functional and stable.

4.2.2 John Locke

Considered the father of liberal thought, John Locke started questioning the legitimacy of the divine right given to kings. Locke was favorable to the establishment of political practices that were not against the world’s natural laws. According to his view, a power that could not guarantee the right to property and the protection of human life could not be legitimate. On top of that, he defended clearly that a government that did not respect these rights should be legitimately deposed by the population. In regards to property, Locke uses theological arguments to defend his own existence. According to his view, human beings and the world were divine creations and should be considered His property. The same way, all wealth obtained by a man’s individual efforts should be his property. Because of ideas like this, Locke influenced most thinkers of his time and became a theoretical reference for revolutionary leaders, United States included, who transformed Western societies from the end of the 18th century on.

4.3 American Civil War

The American Civil War was a conflict between northern and southern states of the United States that defined the identity of the country. During the 19th century, northernandsouthernregionsassumeddifferentcharacteristics.Thesedifferences became so extreme the conflict between these regions became unavoidable. The North of the country hosted a large number of immigrants that came to the USA to work in the expanding industrial sector. Soon, the region expanded economically due to the great industrialization. The power of the industrial bourgeois naturally became political power and dispute for specific interests. On the other hand, the South maintained a traditional system based on large properties and slaves. Therefore, the interests of the industrialized North did not meet those of the agrarian aristocracy of the South and this caused growing political and social tensions.

The American civil War is the most deadly conflict the United States faced. It is estimated that 750,000 soldiers died, not counting the civilians. It is estimated that about 10% of all men between 20 and 45 years of age from the North were killed and about 30% of all white men from the South between 18 and 40 years of age also lost their lives. According to legend, during the war, when the troops returned to the headquarters after

a battle without a single loss, they carried a huge sign where everybody could read: “O

Killed” (Zero Killed), or simply “OK”. This is why until present days “OK” that everything

is fine

The tensions got worse when, in 1861, Abraham Lincoln won the presidential elections. The new Republican president was against the slavery still present in the South of the country. At that time, the United States had 24 states, from which 15 considered slavery a legal practice. Due to the insurmountable differences in the interests of these two groups, eleven of the states that adopted slavery as a means to maintain their agricultural production united and declared themselves independent from the rest of the country. The secession created a new country, named The Confederate States of America. More than ever, the divergence between these regions was established the fragmentation of the country was evident. On April 12, 1861, Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter, a military post in South Caroline that belonged to the North. That action ignited the beginning of a war.

While the South had 1/3 of the estimated 31 million inhabitants of the whole country, from which more than three million were slaves, and had only one factory of heavy armaments, the North had at least three factories that produced modern weapons, a solid industrial park, an extensive railroad network and a powerful navy. Nevertheless, even with this unfavorable situation, it was the south that began the hostilities, creating a new capital, Richmond, and electing for the government Jefferson Davis, who ordered the attack on fort Sunter on April 12, 1861. Initially, the South celebrated some victories, once they had instituted compulsory military enlistment and called all the population for the war. But, with the time, the North started to consolidate its victories. At the sea the North also demonstrated all of its supremacy with its destroyers, modern ships that appeared in this war and were responsible for the crucial naval blockade imposed on the South.

4.3.1 Ending the War

The effective abolition only happened on January 31, 1865. Three months later, southern general Robert Lee surrendered officially to northern general Ulysses Grant. Some days later, President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by the fanatic actor John Wilkes Booth, from the South. The American Civil War is considered the first modern war in history. In this conflict, for the first time repetition rifles and trenches were used, which would be commonplace in the World War I, between 1914 and 1918. New techniques make obsolete the saber and the musket, and the physical combat increasingly useless. The American Civil War lasted until June 28, 1865, when the remaining troops from the Southern states signed their surrender. It was the conflict that caused the greatest number of deaths, approximately 970,000 people. The result of this was demonstrated the superior power of the more industrialized North compared to the agricultural South. As the interests of the South were overcome, at the end of the conflict the United States abolished slavery once and for all throughout the country and they assumed an economic line that was consonant to the interests of the North, which meant industrial development and expansion of the internal market.

economical

development of the country and paved the way for the prominence of the United States by the time of the World War I.

These

elements

allowed

the

enormous

technological

and

4.4 The Slavery in the USA

Since 1619, when the first slaves arrived at Jamestown, the problems related to slavery and the fight for freedom of the black slaves have marked the history of the United States and, more than once, divided the nation. Right before the American Civil War (1861-1865), about eight million white people and four million black people (among them, about 500,000 were free) lived in the South of the USA. The agricultural structure served as an argument to justify the need of slavery in the region. Racial discrimination was justified by the belief on the supposed superiority of white people. The states of the North attached to the Emancipation Act of January 1, 1863 a restructuration of the social system of the South. The Blacks started being accepted by the northern army, but this proclamation did not mean an institutionalized abolition of slavery. The four million black people would have to wait until December 1965, when finally the Congress officially prohibited slavery in the United States, through the 13th Constitutional Amendment. Black people obtained the same rights as the white people in 1868 and, two years later, they had the right to vote. Nevertheless, some states, like South Caroline, Mississippi and Louisiana found a way to keep legal restrictions on black people, the so-called black codes. Some states and cities, not only in the South, struggle to find ways to keep black people “where they belong”. They, for example, require a certain minimum income or academic scores to allow blacks the right to vote.

4.4.1 The Fight for Equal Rights

According to Martin Luther King the third, son of the murdered black activist, today we have freedom to express our opinions and profess our faith, but there are other areas in which we still have no freedom. Just think about the high positions in big corporations: a realm of white people. Great efforts are still necessary to change certain realities.

Lincoln’s Proclamation of Emancipation could not end the humiliation of black people at once. It did not prevent the violence against blacks. On the contrary, it even motivated the creation of secret societies, like the Klu Klux Klan, which established as a rule to maintain white hegemony in the South. Organizations like this tried to postpone or cancel any laws that bring any benefit to black people. For example, due to their efforts, only in 1967 were the last laws that prohibited multi-racial marriages overruled.

By the time the American Government planned the construction of the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, the United States had a strong racial segregation. The planners of the project decided to include separate toilets and cafeterias for blacks and whites. The law that prohibited segregation among civil servants was promulgated in 1941, during the construction of the building. Authorities in Virginia insisted on the separation according to the race, but, nevertheless, the Pentagon opened with all toilets and cafeterias available to all employees. This made the construction of the Pentagon a cornerstone of the affirmative actions towards racial integration.

4.5 The French Revolution

The Enlightenment and its ideas were very influential in the whole world (a good example is the independence of the United States) and helped one of the greatest revolutions in the world, the French Revolution. This is how is called the movement that led to a series of events that occurred between May 5, 1789 and November 9, 1799 and changed drastically the political and social status of France.

4.5.1 Moving towards Revolution

In 1789, France had one of the biggest populations in the world and there were three states. The first one was the Clergy (the Church), the second was the Nobility, and the Third State was the people, the rest of France. Because of their social position, the Clergy and the Nobility had several privileges. One of them is that they did not have to pay taxes, as anyone else did. This situation started to bother the third state, which had to pay for the other two states. Influenced by the Enlightenment ideals,

the third state began a revolt and started fighting for equality of all. They fought against Monarchic Absolutism and the Clergy and Nobility privileges. French economy was in crisis, once the agricultural sector was facing difficulties due to droughts and floods, and the textile industry was facing competition with English fabrics. Because of these factors, commerce was very low, generating hunger, misery, unemployment and marginalization.

4.5.2 The Revolution Begins

On July 14, 1789, the French people went to the streets and their first target was the Bastille. This occurrence is known as The Storming of the Bastille, which marked the beginning of the revolutionary process. Most of the Nobility left the country, but the royal family was captured as they were trying to escape. King Louis XVI and his wife were guillotined in 1793. During the Revolution, the possessions of the Church were confiscated, affectingtremendouslytheClergy.TheNationalConstituentAssemblycancelled all the feudal rights that still existed and promulgated Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. This document brought some social advances, but it was not enough: the French divided into the Girondins representing the high bourgeoisie, and the Jacobins, representing the low bourgeoisie. The two groups have opposing ideas, but the Jacobins, the most radical of them, take the power and organize the National Guard, which receive orders to kill anyone that opposes the government. Nevertheless, in 1795 the Girondins assume the government and start a bourgeois government, with a new constitution. Soon after, there is a coup and Napoleon Bonaparte is put in power and institutes a dictatorship.

Bonaparte is put in power and institutes a dictatorship. CONNECTION Você sabia que o Rei Louis

CONNECTION

Você sabia que o Rei Louis XVI quase escapou da execução? Durante a votação, 361 votaram a favor da execução e 288 votaram contra - uma diferença de apenas 73 votos. Conheça outros fatos curiosos sobre a Revolução Francesa no link abaixo: http://this-is-

france.com/21-fun-facts-about-the-french-revolution/

4.5.3

The Consequences of the French Revolution

The French Revolution is an important milestone the history of civilization, not only in Europe, but throughout the world. The Revolution put an end on the archaic absolutist system and on the privileges of nobility. The people managed to get more space, gain more authonomy, and have their rights respected. Besides, the bourgeoisie guaranteed its space in society and this was the cornerstone of a capitalist society. Finally, the French Revolution influenced many other revolutions around the world, with its motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité (Liberty, Equality and Fraternity). It also inspired the independence of some countries in the Americas.

4.6 Transcendentalism

The Transcendentalism has its roots in the Romanticism, which came from Germany and quickly spread throughout the world. It landed in the United States around 1820. Romanticism was permeated by the aesthetic and spiritual dimension of nature and by the relevance of mind and spirit of the individual. The Romanticists highlighted the importance of the self-expression art both for the individual and for the society. The romanticism was affirmative and adequate for most creative American poets and essayists. The great mountains, the deserts and the tropics of the United States all expressed the sublime. The romantic spirit seemed especially suitable for American democracy, once it emphasized individualism, highlighted the value of common people and sought in the imagination its aesthetic and ethic values.

4.6.1 Transcendentalism Emerges

Represented by essayists Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, and intimately connected to the Romantic Movement, the Transcendentalist Movement was a reaction against the rationalism of the 18th Century. The Movement is deeply associated to the city of Concord, Massachusetts, located near Boston, where Emerson, Thoreau and other writers. In general, Transcendentalism was a liberal philosophy that privileged nature instead of a formal religious structure, individual perception instead of dogma, and human instinct instead of social convention. The American

Transcendentalists carried individualism to the limit, and the American writers, those at that period and those who came later, viewed themselves as solitary explorers, out of society and conventions. The American hero, like captain Ahab, in Moby Dick (Herman Melville), or Huck Finn, in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Mark Twain), typically had to face risks or even certain destruction during the quest of the metaphysical self. For the American Romantic writer, nothing is given. The literary conventions, far from being useful, were dangerous. There was great pressure to find an authentic literary voice, form or content. The practical objectives of the Transcendentalists varied. Some people related the Movement to a utopic social change, in a way related to socialism, while others viewed it as an individual and idealist project. Emerson adopted the second view, and suggested that a purely transcendental life was impossible to achieve in our reality. He said that there is nothing like a “transcendental group” and those who were inclined towards the spiritual side of the doctrine did not go much further in their quest.

side of the doctrine did not go much further in their quest. ACTIVITIES 01. A escravidão

ACTIVITIES

01. A escravidão de negros africanos esteve presente na sociedade americana e deixou marcas profundas que ainda não cicatrizaram. De acordo com este capítulo, cite dois dos argumentos que os estados do sul dos Estados Unidos usavam para justificar a manutenção da escravidão.

Unidos usavam para justificar a manutenção da escravidão. REFLECTION Neste capítulo foram abordados diversos fatos

REFLECTION

Neste capítulo foram abordados diversos fatos históricos que marcaram a história da Europa e da América do Norte, mas influenciaram o mundo todo. Uma grande diversidade de abordagens tem sido usada no estudo das guerras e conflitos armados e a História nos fornece diversos casos em que países recorrem à guerra ou qualquer outro ato de coerção para atingir seus objetivos. Como explicar este tipo de comportamento? Podemos afirmar que cada país procura preservar seus próprios interesses, seja lá quais forem, da forma como considera melhor. O uso da força é, portanto, um meio de atingir objetivos externos, uma vez que não existe processo consistente ou confiável de reconciliação de conflitos de interesse que inevitavelmente surgem entre países, povos ou mesmo ideias.

FURTHER READING

FURTHER READING

A Revolução Francesa é um evento que influenciou o mundo todo pelo seu ineditismo, motivações e violência. Para conhecer mais sobre este importante período da história universal, leia o livro indicado a seguir:

MOTA, Carlos Guilherme. 1789-1799 - A Revolução Francesa. Coleção Estudos. Ed. Perspectiva. 2ª edição 2013- revista e ampliada, 1ª reimpressão.

2ª edição 2013- revista e ampliada, 1ª reimpressão. BIBLIOGRAPHY BLOOM, Harold. O Cânone Ocidental. Rio de

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BLOOM, Harold. O Cânone Ocidental. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 1995 Biography.com – John Locke. Disponível em: <http://www.biography.com/people/john- locke-9384544>. Acesso em: 07 abr 2015.

Defense Magazine - The relevance of the study of war to the theory of international relations. Disponível em: < http://www.lebarmy.gov.lb/en/news/?4438#.VShs_NzF_-Y>. Acesso em: 03 abr

2015.

Library of Economics and Liberty. Disponível em: <http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/ GreatDepression.html>. Acesso em: 30 mar 2015. Spark Notes – The French Revolution. Disponível em: <http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/ frenchrev/summary.html>. Acesso em: 05 abr 2015. U.S. Department of State – Office of the Historian. Disponível em: < https://history.state.gov/ milestones/1784-1800/french-rev>. Acesso em: 03 abr 2015.

5

)A Caminhada Americana, do Século 19 ao 21

A partir da sua independência da Inglaterra, o novo país começa o processo

que o levaria a ser uma superpotência mundial. A primeira etapa foi a expansão de seu território, ampliando-o para o sul e para o oeste, forçando os mexicanos, que dominavam toda a conta oeste, a se retirarem para cada vez mais para o sul, até chegarem às fronteiras atuais. Este novo país participou da I Guerra Mundial e, pouco mais de uma década depois, viu sua economia ruir com a quebra da bolsa de valores em 1929. A II Guerra Mundial, de 1939

a 1945, representou um divisor de águas na história mundial. Movimentos

sociais e culturais reduziram a segregação racial e ampliaram a liberdade sexual. Tudo parecia correr relativamente bem quando o ataque terrorista de 11 de setembro de 2001 mostrou ao mundo que o século XXI traria novos desafios e quebras de paradigmas.

o século XXI traria novos desafios e quebras de paradigmas. OBJECTIVES Para conhecer a literatura de

OBJECTIVES

Para conhecer a literatura de um povo é importante conhecer também a forma como aconteci- mentos históricos influenciaram seus autores: sua visão de mundo, seu estado de espírito, seus temores e esperanças. Só assim é possível compreender as fases e as razões que levaram de- terminados autores a escrever o que escreveram e da forma que escreveram. Viver sob o risco iminente de uma guerra nuclear ou de um ataque terrorista pode influenciar o que é colocado no papel (ou na tela do computador)? Ao final deste capítulo esperamos que você amplie sua visão de como alguns eventos importantes a partir de meados do século XX e início do século XXI podem influenciar a literatura de um povo.

5.1 The Spanish-American War

President William McKinley wanted to avoid war, but the Spanish-American War happened in 1898, between April and August. The American worries about Spanish treatment of Cuba and the sinking of the ship USS Maine resulted in an armed conflict. Nevertheless, once the conflict began, American had rapid campaigns and moved fast towards the Philippines and Guam, followed by longer campaign in the south of Cuba. This led to American victories on land and at sea and made the U.S gain Spanish territories and become a local power.

5.1.1 Reasons for the Conflict

The birth of the 1898 Spanish-American War was the American tariff, instituted in 1894, which hurt the economy of Cuba by setting restrictions on sugar imports going to the USA. This hurt severely the economy of Cuba, a Spanish colony, based on production and commercialization of sugar. Nationalists in Cuba got furious on this new tariff and became known as “the insurrectos”. They decided to start a revolt against Spain and its colonial regime, but Spain reacted by sending General "Butcher" Weyler to Cuba. The solution he found was to imprison most Cubans in concentration camps with the hope of stabilizing the insurgents. Due to these facts, the United States got very concerned, once it had many business interests and investments in the Caribbean island. Although presi- dent Grover Cleveland promised to avoid war, there was an increasing anti-S- pain sentiment among American citizens. In 1897 President McKinley came into office and the situation concerning Cuba was still ongoing. At that time, General "Butcher" Weyler had left and, in 1898, the United States sent the ship USS Maine to Cuba on a peace mission, with the mission of rescuing US citizens endangered by the ongoing conflict in Cuba. The Maine mysteriously exploded on February 15, 1898, and American offi- cials blamed a Spanish mine. Based on this “aggression”, President McKinley authorized retaliation and, by April, the United States and Spain were at war. The United States passed an Amendment promising that after the war Cuba would be an independent country. This was in order to assure the world that the war did not have colonial reasons and that the fight was solely for the good of Cuba.

Guam and Puerto Rico were also invades during the war, once they were also Spanish colonies. Then, American forces acted in Cuba and also on a number of fronts. As soon as the war began, Commodore Dewey attacked the Philippines, focusing on the harbor of Manila, the capital city. In sequence, Dewey attacked and destroyed the Spanish fleet at Manila and was ready for the invasion of the Philippines. The actions of American army in Cuban soil were not considered very or- ganized, but the war was not extremely difficult for the Americans and they were able to defeat the Spanish soldiers without much effort. The war ended on December 10, 1898, after the signing of the Treaty of Paris. After the war, the United States freed Cuba, as promised, but Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines became U.S. colonies

5.1.2 The Cuban-American Relationship

Before leaving the country, the US made several improvements in Cuba right after the war, including remodeling the educational system and upgrading the infrastructure. Nevertheless, in 1901 the United States forced the insertion of an Amendment in the country’s constitution. According to this amendment, Guantanamo would become a permanent military base on the island. Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam became protectorates of the United States, and their inhabitants did not possess complete rights as the American citizens did. Once those people expected to become free countries just like Cuba did, the inhabitants of the new colonies were getting very upset concer- ning their current status: those islands became coaling stations for U.S. ships. The Philippines declared its independence right after being annexed by the United States, in January 1899. A guerilla war began, under the command of Emilio Aguinaldo, who was captured by the US troops one year later. The re- bellion was over after that.

260 sailors died when the U.S. Maine sunk on February 15th, 1898, near the Cuban shore. They believed that a mine caused the sinking of the battleship after the explo- sion. This was the main argument for the United States to start a war against Spain. During the war approximately 3,000 Americans died, but the curious fact is that most died from disease, like typhoid fever and yellow fever, and only 385 died due to the battle. Disease was a common enemy for both sides of the conflict.

5.2 The First World War

In June 1914, a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo, Gavrilo Princip, shot Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Right after the incident, several threats and confusing actions led to the beginning of World War I, which put together the Central Powers (Germany, Austrian-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire), which fought against the Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy and Japan). In 1917 the United States joined the Allied Powers. The Great War, as it was called at the time, lasted four years and caused unprecedented destruction and loss of human lives. This occurred mainly due to the new killing machines and processes, as the machine guns, tanks, sub- marines, chemical weapons and the awful situation of the trench warfare. In this war, more than 9 million soldiers were killed and 21 million were wounded until the Central Powers surrender in November 1918.

5.2.1 The Escalation of War

The United States adopted a policy of neutrality when the war started in Europe in 1914. The government got sure that they had chosen the most adequate option when information of the horrors associated with trench warfare, were broadcasted in the US. Most Americans supported this neutral position of their country, especially because it was very difficult to conceive that a civilized region like Europe would be engulfed in a large-scale war the way it was depicted by war correspondents. Most Americans supported President Woodrow Wilson’s approach concer- ning the war, once he was a president looking for re-election in 1916 and, there- fore, listening to the population claims was paramount. Nevertheless, there were groups in the US, like Italian-Americans, German-Americans, French-Americans, etc – that supported the involvement of the USA in that European war. Although President Wilson delegated different functions to members of his cabinet, he stayed in the limits of American Constitution and put himself in charge of foreign policy issues, keeping full control concerning the actions of America in terms of foreign policy. The president knew that the modern Europe alliances were a complicated scenario. He was a modern history student and, therefore, was aware that it would be not easy to take one side or another in that apparently distant war.

As the war broke out in 1914, President Wilson officially announced American neutrality in the war. Besides that, he announced that Americans would lend money to any of the countries involved in the conflict, once he truly believed that the interests of the United States in Europe (trade, loans, etc.) were not at stake because of the war. Maintain that neutrality would soon become unbearable. British ships blo- cked the German coastline, which prevented American ships to reach Germany, even though it was not America’s fault. For situations like this, overseas trade became extremely complicated, once very few routes were open for merchant ships in the Atlantic. German’s use of submarine warfare (U-Boats) was, accor- ding to German officials, a consequence of the British blockade policy, which means that, according to German words, the unrestricted use of the German U-Boats was Britain’s fault. The main reason for the entrance of the United States into a “foreign” war was the extensive use of German U-boats. It was February 4th, 1915 when Germany informed all nations that any merchant ship that trespassed a certain zone around the British island would be considered enemy and would be atta- cked. Even the ships carrying flags of neutral countries would be attacked, once several ships used the resource of changing their flags to prevent attacks. American President Woodrow Wilson advised the Germans that they would suffer consequences if any American ship were attacked, but on May 7th, 1915, the liner Lusitania, with 128 people on board, was attacked and sunk, killing all people on board. Nevertheless, the Lusitania was not really American. Therefore, the Germans decided to change their strategy and announced that the U-Boats would use 'cruiser' tactics thereafter and would not attack ships when they were submerged: they would go to the surface and use the guns on their decks. President Wilson accepted the apologies and the new policy. Wilson's policy paid good dividends, once the government of Germany pro- posed to pay for any American ships (including the costs of the cargo) that were eventually attacked. A major diplomatic issue was avoided by German chan- cellor Bethmann-Hollweg, but the military in Germany were against the use of the proposed “cruiser tactic”, once they considered it too dangerous for their ships. In late December 1915, a reasonable balance was established between the USA and Germany. Then, President Wilson sent Colonel House, who was a very reliable advisor in England, in an effort to set the USA as an intermediary to sew a peace compromise between Berlin and London.

A Memorandum was signed on February 22nd, 1916 and Colonel House tra- veled back to America with high hopes that it would be the beginning of the peace treaty. It was indeed dawn of the effectiveness of the plan of mediation proposed by President Wilson. Despite all the efforts the agreement was ended on March 24th, 1916 a U-boat sank the paddle steamer Sussex. Reports were sent to the USA stating that two Americans who were on the boat were killed. The truth was that they were just hurt, not killed. Anyway, the incident was settled and the relations between Washington and Berlin were positive again by 1916.

between Washington and Berlin were positive again by 1916. CONNECTION Visite o link abaixo para assistir

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Britain did not take into consideration the Memorandum that Sir Edward Grey, their Foreign Secretary, had signed. In the opinion of some, Britain did not want peace at all, especially when they increased their naval activities and decided to stop or attack any ships that were apparently doing business with Germany or any other member of the Central Powers.

5.2.2 The USA enters the War

The position that most Americans preferred was that of neutrality, and this preference was being accomplished by the policies of President Woodrow Wilson. Nevertheless, some tension appeared as Germany started to impose a quarantine on Britain, which was a great trading partner of the United States. Soon thereafter, Berlin announced that a private American ship, the William P. Frye, had been sunk by a German cruiser. Berlin sent their apologies immediately, saying that the attack was a mistake, but President Wilson was outraged. At the same time, many other American ships traveling to Britain hit German mines and were damaged or even destroyed. In February 1915, Berlin announced that any ships that entered the area around Britain, no matter their flags, would be attacked by German cruisers and U-boats.

As mentioned before, on May 7, 1915, the ocean liner Lusitania, owned by a British company and carrying 1,959 passengers, was torpedoed near coast of Ireland, without any warning. A total of 1,198 people died in the attack, and 128 of these passengers were Americans. Washington required reparations and de- manded an end on these attacks on passenger or cargo ships, but Berlin main- tained that the ship was transporting ammunition. Soon after, Germany announced that they would be more careful and try to protect civilian passengers on unarmed ships, but other cases of incidents re- garding to the sinking of passenger ships continued. Due to these facts, public opinion in the USA started to look at Germany with suspicious eyes. Berlin announced that unrestricted warfare would occur in war-zone waters in 1917, once Germany was determined to do whatever they could in order to win the war. Three days later the US ship Housatonic was attacked and sunk by a German U-boat. A few hours after the attack, Washington ceased diplomatic rela- tions with Berlin. In order to make the USA ready for war, on February 22 the American congress approved a $250 million bill aimed at preparing the country for war. One month later, German cruisers sunk four more American unarmed ships, which led President Woodrow Wilson to go to Congress and request a declaration of war. Within four days, his request was accepted and the USA was officially at war against Germany.

Devido a determinadas regras de Guerra, qualquer jornalista poderia ser executado, de- pendendo da situação. É claro que diversos jornalistas arriscaram suas vidas para che- car in loco a realidade da guerra. Conforme os governos tentavam manter um controle forte sobre o fluxo de informações na fase inicial do conflito, jornalistas de modo geral foram banidos, já que as informações transmitidas pelos jornalistas poderiam ajudar o inimigo. Assim, se um jornalista fosse pego no front poderia receber pena de morte. Em compensação, em apenas dois dias uma carta enviada de Londres chegava nas trincheiras da França. Até o final da guerra, cerca de dois bilhões de cartas haviam sido entregues.

The first 14,000 American troops arrived in France on June 26, 1917, to start their preparation for combat. The war had started in 1914 and after years of

fierce combat on land and sea, the arrival of

well-supplied American forces

changed the course of the conflict an helped the Allied Forces to win the con- flict. The war ended on November 11, 1918, with the defeat of Germany and the Central Powers. About 50,000 Americans died in the war, from about two million US soldiers that were sent to fight in Europe.

5.3 The Great Depression

Countries whose economies were market-based were struck by a severe world depression by the end of the 1920s. This depression was very hard in the United States, but it did not strike all countries the same way. In some places it was mild, but still very perceptible. In the USA, unemployment hit 25% of all workforce, which caused starvation of several people, especially in the cities. Others lost their properties (houses or farms) and started wandering around the country, looking for some work opportunity – but the whole country was facing the same problem. As an additional problem, several people who lost their cotton farms put everything they owned into their old cars and went to California, because of the rumors that there were plenty of jobs there. Of course, those rumors were false. The recovery started in 1933, but it was not a vigorous one, and the economy was still very slow in 1934 and 1935, when, finally, a wind of recovery started to blow across the country. This recovery lasted until 1937, when the economy started to fail again: a new recession was under way. The 30s are, therefore, usu- ally called “The Great Depression” due to these ups and downs of the economy. The so-called “Great Depression” is considered a defining moment in his- tory of the USA. A transformation of the role of the federal government in the economy is considered the most lasting effect of the depression. A growing fe- deral control of several activities caused many businesses at the time to become resentful of American government. A great percentage of the American popu- lation had accepted a different and even expanded role for their government because of the long contraction and extremely slow recovery. Labor negotiations between employers and employees were dramatically changed by The Wagner Act, which promoted unions and acted in labor con- tract negotiations as an arbiter to ensure the fairness of the contracts. With the creation of “Social Security”, the federal government assumed its responsibility for the elderly population and also gave to the unemployed a compensation for the fact that he/she could not find any job.

5.3.1

Consequences of the Depression in the American Economy

As with any economy in the world, the USA had had many other recessions in its history before the crash of 1929, like the one the country faced right after the end of WWI. Nevertheless, the other recessions were just like bumps on the economic road and never lasted long. This time things were different; besides being a very strong and widespread recession, it lasted for a long time – much longer than any would expect. There were optimists, of course, but unfortunately their expectations did not survive the reality shock. By the time President Franklyn Roosevelt assumed the White House, in 1933, the GNP (gross national product) had shrunk from $103.8 to $55.7 billion. In addition, approximately 1/3 of the non-farmer work- force was unemployed, which meant an increase from 8 to 15 million people wi- thout jobs. On President Roosevelt’s inauguration day, 40% of the Mississippi farms were about to be confiscated by the banks due to lack of payment. Except for Germany, no other country in the world had an unemployment rate as high as in the United States, even though it was a world crisis. Can you imagine an unemployment rate of 50%? That is what happened in 1932 in the Harlem, New York. To make things worse in that area, black owned properties had fallen from 30% to 5% by 1932. Poor people suffered extremely because of this recession and even the schools felt the economic situation and were forced to reduce the school day and even the school year in order to make ends meet.

5.3.2 Dealing with the Crisis

President Hoover believed the act of giving money to the poor would be more negative than positive, once nobody knew how best to deal with the crisis. By 1931, as some states started to offer help to local communities, private charities and local governments also began to help the unemployed and homeless. Several cities were on the edge of bankruptcy due to relief efforts. Cities in Chicago stopped paying policemen, teachers and firemen for eight months and then started firing them. Besides, huge lines of people waiting to get a bowl of soup or a piece of bread and encampments for the homeless could be seen anywhere in the whole country.

During that period, suicide rates increased: from 14 per 100,000 to 17 per 100,000. Because they could not find jobs, many people were desperate and ashamed. There were some protests, but mainly locally, not nationally, like and hunger marches. In 1932, resistance to protest became violent when four mem- bers of hunger march were shot and killed near Washington, D.C., as there were about 1,000 soldiers, along with tanks and machine guns, in the area following orders to evict veterans who were living in an Army camp.

orders to evict veterans who were living in an Army camp. CONNECTION Visite o link abaixo

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After arriving at the White House, President Roosevelt promoted many dif- ferent programs (government funded) in order to restore the battered American economy and to provide relieve to the poor and unemployed. To achieve that goal he had to reform the system to make sure that a severe crisis like this one could never ever happen again. This plan was called “New Deal”. Nevertheless, President Roosevelt refused to tackle the deficits that ending the depression would certainly require. The New Deal did help to restore the Gross National Product back to its 1929 level and implemented welfare and basic banking reforms. But the Great Depression only ended with the World War II, once the federal government had to recruit 6 million defense workers, had to impose rationing, and had to gather 6 million soldiers to fight the war. It is not a good idea to solve a problem by dealing with a greater one, but that was what History had prepared for the USA.

5.3.3 A Great Depression and a Great War

Between 1940 and 1943, the number of unemployed people in the USA was about 7,050,000. On the other hand, the number of people in military service increased up to 8,590,000. Because of this, many people say that the war stimulated the recovery of the economy and allowed the United States to get

rid of the Great Depression. Nevertheless, it was not the economic recovery that caused the reduction in unemployment, but the number of soldiers sent to fight the war. In addition, many estimates show that real consumption spending declined, which means that during the war the situation was even worse for Americans. American government spending during WWII was above the GNP expan- sion, and business investments were cut during the war. As the war progressed, the value of munitions spending, according to the government, was said to be increasingly exaggerated, which makes the government estimates not very re- liable. Therefore, throughout the war data on consumption, investment, pri- ce level, and GNP were not really meaningful. In fact, the government control of production caused rationing and other interferences on the economy of the country. According to consumers, the real recovery of American economy came with the end of the war, which meant that they were able again to buy things that they did not find on the shelves during the war or were too expensive during the Great Depression. It practically impossible to establish a price index that is consistent in pe- riods when the government defines the production (or not) of durable goods, once the war effort dictates priorities. The same way, it is too difficult to esta- blish a price for gas when it is set at a low price and its consumption and sale are rationed to maintain reserves for the war effort. The same applies for other consumer goods, once the priority, again, was a war whose end could not be devised. There is a question that should be repeated over and over again: is it pos- sible the occurrence of another Great Depression? It would be unwise to say “No”, once we can never predict how the world’s economy will look like a few years from now. Nevertheless, the experience obtained by observing that and other crises since 1929 hopefully furnished the politicians, economists and po- licymakers with the necessary wisdom and good will that may prevent a depres- sion like that to happen again.

5.4 The World War II

5.4 The World War II Figura 5.1 – German and Soviet army officers pictured shaking hands—after

Figura 5.1 – German and Soviet army officers pictured shaking hands—after Nazi Germany and Soviet Union annexed new territories in Eastern Europe, 1939

The end of an era of great intellectual and creative exuberance was caused by the beginning of war in 1939, as occurred in 1914, with the outbreak of WW I. The rationing of printing paper affected the production of books, magazines and other publications. Poems and short stories were convenient forms for men in the front, and these became the most convenient means of literary ex- pression. It was not a good time for new beginnings and, therefore, there we- ren’t important new playwrights or novelists at that time. Due to its support given to the Allies, the United States contributed enor- mously to the end of the World War II in 1945. The year that the war ended re- presents the same year in which the United States domination on practically all fields on the international area began. Before the Second world War, Paris was the cultural center of the world. After the war, New York became the cen- ter of the world, mostly because of the intellectual emigrants that fled from a destroyed Europe. The best evidence of the strengthened intellectual position of the United States in literature can be seen by the number of Nobel Prizes in

Literature. In 1949 it was William Faulkner, followed by Ernest Hemingway in 1954, and John Steinbeck in 1962.

With the involvement of nations around the world, the World War II was truly a global war. World War II indeed was also a total war; most targets, military and civilian, were unders- tood as legitimate, and all means of war, even the bombing of cities, were acceptable. Entire societies were affected by total warfare. Besides, the war was global; few peo- ple could be completely unaffected. The Holocaust (the systematic killing of roughly ten million civilians who the Nazis considered unworthy) claimed the lives of about six million Jews. Some of the most terrible atrocities in history took place during World War II.

5.4.1 Literature during War Times

I might be hard to highlight the most important theme, because of the great

strength of American literature after WWII, but we can mention post-modernist fiction, for instance. Also known as unrealism, right after World War II writers began to change their way of writing from pure realism in American fiction to this post-modernist fiction. We can mention William Burroughs as one of the first postmodernist writers. Probably created under the influence of his drug and alcohol addiction, in his books there is a fantastic world – a science-fiction world. Nevertheless, Kurt Vonnegut could be said to be one of the best known wri- ters of this literary style. In 1943 he was sent to Europe to fight on the war and had his own experiences related to the war. One year later he was captured and imprisoned in the German city of Dresden, where he spent the nights in an old slaughterhouse and during the day he worked in a factory. The book “Slaughterhouse-five or The Children’s Crusade” is inspired on facts he witnessed. In February 1945, there was a massive bombing and these events were the principal inspiration to write a great book. This book is divided into numerous, short chapters, similarly to other books he wrote and it had the structure of the Bible. This book tells the reader how huge and destructive a war can be. It is also full of gross characters and strange situations. With some absurd and science fiction elements, Vonnegut combines in this book the bom- bing of Dresden and the events that took place during World War II. The huge human tragedy which he witnessed changed his attitude to life. He is

a man that survived the War and his after war life is quite successful, but in fact it is

not so. His book “Breakfast of Champions or Goodbye Blue Monday” is a critique towards American way of life and could be also called a science fiction novel. This is a story of two lonely men living in a created city He is escaping into created world in order to escape from cruel reality, from the world that he cannot understand.

cruel reality, from the world that he cannot understand. CONNECTION O site educacional About Education traz

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5.4.2 Literature after World War II

Considered the greatest dramatists of the 20th century, Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller belong to the post-war years, right after WWII (World War II), considered the great years for the development of drama. Writers in general began to show a particular character after the war in a very different fashion, when compared to the thirties. Now the biggest problem is the loneliness of a character made from an individual that is “alienated” – which means, does not fit into any society or group. Best known for his partnership with Elia Kazan, the great theatre and film director, Arthur Miller concentrated, in his works, on the life of the individual facing the moment to take difficult decisions. Besides touching social and poli- tical themes, his best-regarded book, The Crucible, is the interpretation of the author concerning the 1950’s events in Hollywood concerning the witch- hunt or, in other words, the search for communists in the film industry. On the other hand, Tennessee Williams, another great dramatist, focu- sed on the 40’s and 50’s in order to show changes in the United States society. Tennessee Williams’ works contain a lot of erotism and homosexuality. Once the actions in his books usually occur in the South of the country, it is not a surprise that one his best known books is called “A Street Car Named Desire”, in which the characters meet in New Orleans, capital of the state of Louisiana. To be afraid of the realities of life and its destructive power is a characte- ristic of all of the characters in Tennessee Williams’ writings. The way these

two authors see at the world is not the same. For Williams, the world is irra- tional and for Miller, there is rationality in the world and there is a reason for everything. In the literature after WWII we can also find novels of manners, usually with philosophical message on how to be happy in life and that all people should be surrounded by beloved people. The best example of this literary genre is William Wharton. His best known novel is “Birdy”. For this novel Wharton was given a National Book Award. After World War II the United States started to develop culturally, mainly because of the emigrants from Eastern Europe. It is especially seen in the number and the extent of the literary genres used by wri- ters. The American literature after 1945 may be considered more varied than it had been ever before.

5.5 The Cold War

Within two years after the end of World War II, the optimistic anticipation of a new international order had given way to the anxieties of the Cold War. In Europe in particular, writers and filmmakers struggled to find new styles and languages of film, literature and critical theory that could respond to the realities of life under the shadow of the bomb. In this period, we will find films, novels, stories, screenplays, poems, critical and theoretical writing that engage with that struggle. It is important have the European Cold War ‘theatre’ in perspective – mainly France, Germany, Italy, England, but with some reference to Scandinavia, the Eastern Bloc and USSR, and the USA – with their common and contrasting social, political and intellectual agendas. The historical period that began right after Hiroshima and Nagasaki bom- bings could be considered the birth of the “atomic age” or, as some prefers, the “first cold war. The end of World War II ignited a new cultural environment in the Soviet Union and the United States alike.

5.5.1 The Cuban Missile Crisis and the Literary Response

It is a consensus the cold war reached its peak during the Cuban Missile Crisis, which occurred in October 1962. At that time, The Soviet Union and the United States had a conflict that had no precedent and the world was in the verge

of a nuclear war. The cause was the placement of Soviet missiles in Cuba to counterbalance the placement of nuclear missiles in Turkey. Concerning the literature of this turbulent period, Paul Boyer lists in his two remarkable cultural histories, “By the Bomb’s Early Light” (1985) and “Fallout” (1998), the fact that fictional writings related to nuclear themes were far from uncommon in the years before the Cuban Missile Crisis. The dangerous situa- tions created by the situation in Cuba were a stimulus for authors that focused on the theme. Nevertheless, the majority of these works were classified as “low” literary productions related to the science fiction genre. Of the titles of nucle- ar fiction from the pre-crisis, only the writings of two British authors, William Golding and Nevil Shute, with the books “Lord of the Flies” (1954) and “On the Beach” (1957), respectively, brought some fresh air among critics. Cold war themes were still consistent and maybe even expanded in number even though nuclear reasons disappeared in the USA after the Cuban Crisis, at least explicitly in this period. Nevertheless, doomsday scenarios added to the apocalyp- tic temper to set the focus on how would humanity survive in very dangerous times. The so-called “collective paranoia” is a defensive strategy applied by those who are scared against a terror that may seem out of control. This could be called “apocalyptic temper”, prevalent in a post-Hiroshima context, which excludes ne- gative labels proposed by some critics regarding important cold war texts.

5.6 The Vietnam War

There were several versions of the war besides the “official” version, which lost credibility and the population had to have their own conclusions. Several authors wrote books based on their own experiences and had a poor or limited distribution, once were published in small presses. But one thing is certain: No other American war had more books written about it than the Vietnam War. Tracking the Vietnam literature of is very difficult once, in a time that wit- nessed the birth of the "new journalism" and declared the novel dead, it is not easy to figure out what constitutes real "literature" and what is mere reporting. If we think about examples of human behavior, the Vietnam War fed the po- pular imagination with little evidence at the time. The country was pretty much polarized concerning the war that any declaration that could be seen as favora- ble to the war effort would have been seen as a right-wing move. That said, we

can really say that there really was a “war literature” and there was a considera- ble body of very good war literature which shows that it was a very bad war. Time had to pass until it became possible to look at the war with a cool eye. Vietnam involved the USA like no other war had since the Civil War, and there are still some unhealed scars. The war literature of that period has the double task of providing the vision and understanding of the facts and of revealing those scars once and for all. Tim O'Brien's “The Things They Carried” is a collection of related short sto- ries with a main character called "Tim O'Brien", who has strong similarities to the author himself. It is not surprising that this book has been considered by the "best" book to come out of the war, but there are some questions: is it fiction or nonfiction? It is a book that could be compared to Stephen Crane's classic The Red Badge of Courage, about the Civil War. In both cases, it is a simple tale expressed from the point of view of a simple soldier. O'Brien's text concerning the war is direct and deals with its characters' scary experiences in the frontline.

A Guerra do Vietnã foi um conflito armado longo e de alto custo em termos de vidas. De um lado estava o Vietnã do Norte e seus aliados, sob o nome de Vietcongue, e do outro lado estava o Vietnã do sul e seu principal aliado, os Estados Unidos. Esta guerra ideológica entre comunismo e capitalismo foi ficando progressivamente impopular nos Estados Unidos e terminou com a retirada das forças americanas em 1973, resultando na unificação do Vietnã sob controle comunista dois anos depois. Cerca de 58.000 soldados americanos morreram na guerra, de um total de 3 milhões mortos no conflito.

Still a difficult subject to explore, the Vietnam War presents the arguments and feelings that leave a deep scar, once the wounds are tremendously deep. But the best of the books are remarkably free of trite and clichéd polemics, and reveal a wound on the American soul which, if exposed to the air, has a chance to heal; if hidden away, it can only fester.

5.7 Important Cultural Movements in the USA

In the years after the end of WWII, the conventional structures of society gained force, especially due to the postwar economic boom. Thanks to that, students

in universities started questioning the crescent materialism in the society – this questioning had a byproduct: the Beat Generation.

5.7.1 The Beat Movement

In the USA of the 1950s, this new literary and cultural movement struck the whole nation. Never a big movement in terms numbers, the Beat Generation had a tremendous influence and huge cultural status, which turned it into the most visible of all other cultural movements. Their dissatisfaction concerning consumerism led the Beats to fight against the conservative manners of their parents’ generation. They viewed capitalism as a very negative force to the human spirit and a barrier to social equality. In addition, taboos regarding sexuality were viewed as unhealthy and dangerous to mental health. In terms of literature and art, the Beats were in opposition to the formalism of the Modernists. Some critics considered the literature of Beat Generation as simple provo- cation instead or real art – just a means of getting attention. But the cultural impact of the Beat writers survived the time and the influence of their work is still alive. The Beat Poets got inspiration in wandering life, religion and jazz. The ones who are considered the “mentors” of the movement, Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, met in the 1940s and were the basis of what would become the Beat Generation.

5.7.2 The Hippie Movement

In the 1960s, the United States witnessed a massive and unprecedented movement related to counterculture, leading to the Flower Power movement. Called Hippies, these young people did not want to keep up with sexual norms considered repressive and puritan. Also called “children of the road”, they believed that people should make love, not war. The term “hippie” was originally adapted from ‘Hipster’, which was used to define colorful beatniks from the Haight-Ashbury district, in San Francisco This new and visually alternative way of activism proclaimed their opposi- tion to Vietnam War and the American involvement with it. As part of the evol- ving counterculture, psychedelic floral clothes and long beards demonstrated that it was a new fashion period, with new film and literature as well.

Seen by many as dirty and disrespectful, in other words a disgrace to society, to many they were a reminder of a peaceful and “light” part of the American his- tory. Hippies were the counterculture of the 1960’s, as the Beats were the coun- terculture of the 50’s. Their style of life is commonly associated with rock, long hair, flowers and hallucinogenic drugs. Some Hippies were against all types of violence and favored freedom of personal expression. Their lifestyles included the concepts of freedom, peace, and harmony. Because of the Hippie movement, there were huge changes in environmen- tal views, spiritual expression, justification of war, and ethnic and cultural diver- sity. The literary production of the period include "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's

Nest”, “The Crying of Lot 49”, “Trout Fishing in America”, “Siddhartha”, “Stranger in a Strange Land”, and “Slaughterhouse Five” .

in a Strange Land”, and “Slaughterhouse Five” . CONNECTION Visite o link abaixo para conhecer um

CONNECTION

Visite o link abaixo para conhecer um pouco mais sobre a cultura hippie e a contra cultura.

http://study.com/academy/lesson/hippies-and-the-counterculture-origins-beliefs-and-le-

gacy.html

5.7.3 The 60’s: Sexual Freedom and Racial Integration

During the Psychedelic Sixties, as some may call the decade, the rules changed in all possible ways, including manners, music, literature, art, sexuality, fashion, etc. Frontiers were destroyed in art, the government was challenged concerning the Vietnam War and civil rights was the top issue among the young. The famous Ken Kesey’s 1962 novel “One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest” is an example of the literature during the 60’s. The book is a criticism on the me- thods used in the 50s and 60s concerning psychiatry treatments. It describes a mental hospital and its system of destroying a patient who has just pretended to be sick in order to avoid jail. The 60’s allowed authors from all backgrounds: men and women, black and white, rich and poor. Besides, some writers criticize the society in which they lived, others are pure entertainers, while others do have important thing to tell. The varieties in today’s society, the varieties in literature, the racial and sexual tolerance, and the openness that we have in our days all began in the 60s.

5.8 The 21st Century

The beginning of the 21st century witnessed the rise of distrust in government, global worries regarding national security and risk of terrorism, consumerism, and a crescent empowerment of private companies – national and multinational alike. Around the 80s the world faced a so-called Digital Revolution, an ongoing status that sees no end in sight. On top of all of these facts, the population of this planet is reaching 7 billion people in the present days. It is common sense to state that the 21st century started with the USA as the only superpower in the world. China is rising towards this status gradually and the other former superpower, the Soviet Union, no longer exists. Russia, by itself, could not sustain. In this scenario a group of countries called BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and, more recently, South Africa) have the difficult task of counterbalancing the global and political agenda. Digital technology became widely accessible to most countries in the world – computers, internet, cellphones and other technological “gadgets” became widespread in reasonably democratic manner. Due to several events in the 21st century, English literature embraced the events that were of general concern, such as global warming and some of the conflicts that are still under way around the globe, especially in the Middle East. David Mitchell, author of the recently filmed Cloud Atlas is one of the promi- nent novelists in this century.

5.8.1 September 11, 2001: The 21th Century Has Begun

The beginning of 21st century witnessed the biggest terrorist attack ever. On September 11, 2001, terrorists hijacked four airplanes and promoted suicidal attacks in the United States. Among these four planes, two of them hit the towers of the World Trade Center, in New York. Another plane hit the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and the last plane fell in Pennsylvania. These terrorist attacks caused many deaths and destruction, once the two towers of the World Trade Center collapsed. More than 3,000 people died in the attacks in New York, Washington, D.C., and Pennsylvania. More than 400 firefighters and police officers also died during rescue efforts. These events tri- ggered extensive actions to fight terrorism. Some novels were released after 9/11 (as the terrorist attack is known there- after), but the most important ones were released after 2004. Frederic Beigbeder

wrote “Windows of the World”, in which a divorced father has breakfast on the restaurant of the top floor of the World Trade Center with his sons. The attacks found their place in several fictional books for the mass-market, like mysteries and spy novels.

5.8.2 The 2008 Financial Crises: Welcome Back to Earth.

In September 2008, the collapse of a global bank, the Lehman Brothers, marked a global collapse that almost destroyed the financial system of the whole world. After the fall, it was not an easy task to make industry stand up on their feet again, not without massive bail-outs, financed by taxpayers, of course. Nevertheless, it was the beginning of the worst world recession in the last 80 years. The recovery from thee 2008 downfall was much slower than economists had predicted, mainly in Europe. The shock waves of Lehman Brothers’ collapse were felt virtually around the whole globe. Despite quick actions taken by the U.S. Federal Reserve to avoid the collap- se of U.S. banking system, the crisis led to a recession, which affected housing prices more than in the 1929 depression: prices shrank 31.8%. Unemployment was still above 9% two years later.

5.8.3 A Racial Precedent is Broken: Obama is elected.

In 2008, Senator Barack Obama beats Senator John McCain and becomes the 44th president of the United States. The remarkable fact is that he is the first African American to occupy the post of president of the country. Born in 1961 in Hawaii, Obama’s mother is a white woman from Kansas and his father was a black man from Kenya. Before starting his political care- er in 1996, Obama graduated from Harvard Law School and taught Law at the University of Chicago. Then, he was elected senator for the state of Illinois. In 2007, Obama officially announced that he was a candidate for president. After winning the election, Obama appeared in front of a huge crowd in Chicago’s Grant Park and acknowledged that his victory was a historical fact, once only 143 years ago blacks were still slaves in the United States. The inau- guration of Obama occurred on January 20, 2009. Four years later, he defeated Republican Mitt Romney and won a second term in the White House.

ACTIVITIES

ACTIVITIES

01. De acordo com o que foi apresentado neste capítulo, responda as perguntas a seguir:

a) Os Estados Unidos tiveram um envolvimento bem peculiar em relação à Primeira Guerra Mundial. Descreva sucintamente como foi essa relação.

b) Qual a diferença em termos de estilo musical entre o Movimento Beat dos anos 50 e o Movimento Hippie dos anos 60?

Movimento Beat dos anos 50 e o Movimento Hippie dos anos 60? REFLECTION Como pudemos ver

REFLECTION

Como pudemos ver neste capítulo, os Estados Unidos expandiram seu território e influên- cia por meio de diversos conflitos regionais e, posteriormente, internacionais, como as duas grandes guerras mundiais. E foi justamente no intervalo entre as guerras que o país encon- trou seu pior inimigo: A Grande Depressão, que teve início com a quebra da Bolsa de Valores de New York em 1929. Esta depressão afetou tanto países ricos quanto pobres e, em consequência, preços, lucros, renda, etc. caíram drasticamente e o comércio internacional despencou para menos de 50% do que era antes da crise. Como prova de que a crise não foi só americana, o desem- prego nos Estados Unidos chegou a 25% do total da força de trabalho, enquanto em outros países chegou a 33%. Em meados de 1930 algumas economias começaram a se recuperar, mas os efeitos da crise continuariam até o início da II Guerra Mundial.

da crise continuariam até o início da II Guerra Mundial. FURTHER READING O livro Os Sonâmbulos

FURTHER READING

O livro Os Sonâmbulos (título original: The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914) traz um retrato pormenorizado sobre os eventos que levaram à Primeira Guerra Mundial.

CLARK, Christopher. Os sonâmbulos: Como eclodiu a Primeira Guerra Mundial . — 1a ed.— São Paulo : Companhia das Letras, 2014.

. — 1a ed.— São Paulo : Companhia das Letras, 2014. BIBLIOGRAPHY BERNSTEIN, Michael. The Great

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BERNSTEIN, Michael. The Great Depression: Delayed Recovery and Economic Change in America, 1929-1939. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

BLOOM, Harold. O Cânone Ocidental. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 1995 Cultural Expressions in the 1960s. Disponível em: <https://macahe.wordpress.com/5-literature>. Acesso em: 15 fev. 2015. History Learning site – America at WWI. Disponível em: <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/ america_and_world_war_one.htm>. Acesso em: 24 mar 2015. Sobolev, Olga. Of pulp fiction and James Bond. Disponível em: < http://www.economist.com/blogs/ prospero/2014/03/quick-study-olga-sobolev-cold-war-literature>. Acesso em: 24 mar 2015. SparkNotes - The Spanish American War (1898-1901). Disponível em: <http://www.sparknotes. com/history/american/spanishamerican/summary.html>. Acesso em: 25 mar 2015. The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project – the Great Depression. Disponível em: <http://www.gwu. edu/~erpapers/teachinger/glossary/great-depression.cfm>. Acesso em: 30 mar. 2015 The literature network – the Beat Generation. Disponível em: <http://www.online-literature.com/ periods/beat.php>. Acesso em: 16 mar. 2015. The New York Times - Literary Novelists Address 9/11, Finally. Disponível em: <http://www. nytimes.com/2005/03/07/books/07novel.html?_r=0>. Acesso em: 16 mar. 2015. Smiley, Gene. Rethinking the Great Depression: A New View of Its Causes and Consequences. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2002.

of Its Causes and Consequences. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2002. ANSWER KEY Capítulo 1 01. O

ANSWER KEY

Capítulo 1

01. O Cristianismo foi ignorado no Império Romano porque foi considerado uma seita da

religião judaica e, acima de tudo, por que entrou em conflito com a adoração dos deuses

Greco-romanos.

02. A Igreja Católica teve uma influência enorme na criação dos cavaleiros e definia até o ob-

jetivo da cavalaria, que seria defender a moralidade da fé cristã. Para se tornar um cavaleiro na Idade Média, o nobre tinha que passar por uma cerimônia religiosa, seguido de um juramento no qual o cavaleiro aceitava o compromisso de seguir os princípios da fé e moralidade cristãs.

Capítulo 2

01. O papel da mulher na sociedade medieval variava em função da sua classe social. Nas

classes mais altas, as mulheres podiam discorrer sobre política, economia e mesmo disputas por terras. Elas eram responsáveis por toda a organização do castelo, cuidando das roupas,

supervisionando a cozinha e coordenando as atividades dos empregados de modo geral. Elas até tinham que ajudar a defender o castelo em caso de invasões, se o marido estive ausente. Já as mulheres das classes inferiores tinham que trabalhar no campo juntamente com seus maridos, nas terras do seu lorde feudal, além de fazer todas as tarefas domésticas e cuidados com os filhos, que geralmente eram muitos.

Capítulo 3

01. Henrique VIII rompeu com Roma porque o papa não quis conceder a ele o divórcio com

sua mulher, Catarina de Aragão, pois o divórcio era contra a política da Igreja, que pregava que o casamento era indissolúvel. Em razão disso, o rei declarou-se chefe supremo de uma nova igreja na Inglaterra, a igreja Anglicana. Isto marcou o início dos conflitos religiosos na Grã-Bretanha.

Capítulo 4

01. Os principais argumentos que os estados do sul dos Estados Unidos usavam para jus-

tificar a manutenção da escravidão era a dependência que a economia agrícola dos estados sulistas tinha da mão de obra escrava. Outro argumento para justificar a discriminação racial era a crença de que os brancos eram superiores aos negros e, portanto, tinha o direito de subjuga-los.

Capítulo 5

01. Presidente Woodrow Wilson faz o que é possível para manter os Estados Unidos fora

da guerra. Algumas situações vão tornando complicadas as relações entre EUA e Alemanha, como o afundamento do navio Britânico Lusitânia, que vitima 128 americanos. Com outros

ataques a navios americanos desarmados, o presidente apresenta ao congresso uma resolu- ção pedindo a entrada do país na guerra, o que é concedido em 06 de abril de 1917.

02. As respostas podem variar, mas, de modo geral, podemos afirmar que os beatniks, como

eram conhecidos aqueles que participavam do movimento BEAT, apreciavam jazz. Desse modo, nos anos 60 os sonhos, a cultura e as ideias dos Beat foram assimilados pelos Hi- ppies, além deles incorporarem outro ritmo típico dos anos 50: o rock’n’roll.

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