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JOSE RIZAL, the national hero of the Philippines and pride of the Malayan race, was born on

June 19, 1861, in the town of Calamba, Laguna. He was the seventh child in a family of 11
children (2 boys and 9 girls). Both his parents were educated and belonged to distinguished
His father, Francisco Mercado Rizal, an industrious farmer whom Rizal called "a model of
fathers," came from Biñan, Laguna; while his mother, Teodora Alonzo y Quintos, a highly
cultured and accomplished woman whom Rizal called "loving and prudent mother," was born in
Meisic, Sta. Cruz, Manila. At the age of 3, he learned the alphabet from his mother; at 5, while
learning to read and write, he already showed inclinations to be an artist. He astounded his
family and relatives by his pencil drawings and sketches and by his moldings of clay. At the age
8, he wrote a Tagalog poem, "Sa Aking Mga Kabata," the theme of which revolves on the love of
one’s language. In 1877, at the age of 16, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree with an
average of "excellent" from the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. In the same year, he enrolled in
Philosophy and Letters at the University of Santo Tomas, while at the same time took courses
leading to the degree of surveyor and expert assessor at the Ateneo. He finished the latter course
on March 21, 1877 and passed the Surveyor’s examination on May 21, 1878; but because of his
age, 17, he was not granted license to practice the profession until December 30, 1881. In 1878,
he enrolled in medicine at the University of Santo Tomas but had to stop in his studies when he
felt that the Filipino students were being discriminated upon by their Dominican tutors. On May
3, 1882, he sailed for Spain where he continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid.
On June 21, 1884, at the age of 23, he was conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine and on
June 19,1885, at the age of 24, he finished his course in Philosophy and Letters with a grade of

Having traveled extensively in Europe, America and Asia, he mastered 22 languages. These
include Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese,
Latin, Malayan, Portuguese, Russian, Sanskrit, Spanish, Tagalog, and other native dialects. A
versatile genius, he was an architect, artists, businessman, cartoonist, educator, economist,
ethnologist, scientific farmer, historian, inventor, journalist, linguist, musician, mythologist,
nationalist, naturalist, novelist, opthalmic surgeon, poet, propagandist, psychologist, scientist,
sculptor, sociologist, and theologian.

He was an expert swordsman and a good shot. In the hope of securing political and social
reforms for his country and at the same time educate his countrymen, Rizal, the greatest apostle
of Filipino nationalism, published, while in Europe, several works with highly nationalistic and
revolutionary tendencies. In March 1887, his daring book, NOLI ME TANGERE, a satirical
novel exposing the arrogance and despotism of the Spanish clergy, was published in Berlin; in
1890 he reprinted in Paris, Morga’s SUCCESSOS DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS with his
annotations to prove that the Filipinos had a civilization worthy to be proud of even long before
the Spaniards set foot on Philippine soil; on September 18, 1891, EL FILIBUSTERISMO, his
second novel and a sequel to the NOLI and more revolutionary and tragic than the latter, was
printed in Ghent. Because of his fearless exposures of the injustices committed by the civil and
clerical officials, Rizal provoked the animosity of those in power. This led himself, his relatives
and countrymen into trouble with the Spanish officials of the country. As a consequence, he and
those who had contacts with him, were shadowed; the authorities were not only finding faults but
even fabricating charges to pin him down. Thus, he was imprisoned in Fort Santiago from July 6,
1892 to July 15, 1892 on a charge that anti-friar pamphlets were found in the luggage of his sister
Lucia who arrive with him from Hong Kong. While a political exile in Dapitan, he engaged in
agriculture, fishing and business; he maintained and operated a hospital; he conducted classes-
taught his pupils the English and Spanish languages, the arts.

The sciences, vocational courses including agriculture, surveying, sculpturing, and painting, as
well as the art of self defense; he did some researches and collected specimens; he entered into
correspondence with renowned men of letters and sciences abroad; and with the help of his
pupils, he constructed water dam and a relief map of Mindanao - both considered remarkable
engineering feats. His sincerity and friendliness won for him the trust and confidence of even
those assigned to guard him; his good manners and warm personality were found irresistible by
women of all races with whom he had personal contacts; his intelligence and humility gained for
him the respect and admiration of prominent men of other nations; while his undaunted courage
and determination to uplift the welfare of his people were feared by his enemies.

When the Philippine Revolution started on August 26, 1896, his enemies lost no time in pressing
him down. They were able to enlist witnesses that linked him with the revolt and these were
never allowed to be confronted by him. Thus, from November 3, 1986, to the date of his
execution, he was again committed to Fort Santiago. In his prison cell, he wrote an untitled
poem, now known as "Ultimo Adios" which is considered a masterpiece and a living document
expressing not only the hero’s great love of country but also that of all Filipinos. After a mock
trial, he was convicted of rebellion, sedition and of forming illegal association. In the cold
morning of December 30, 1896, Rizal, a man whose 35 years of life had been packed with varied
activities which proved that the Filipino has capacity to equal if not excel even those who treat
him as a slave, was shot at Bagumbayan Field.


· Jose Protasio Alonso Realonda y Mercado Rizal

· Rizal is the surname that was given to him by Spanish Alcalde Mayor.
· Jose Rizal was born on June 19, 1861 in the town of Calamba in Laguna province.
· He died on December 30, 1895 at the age of 35.
· He was a Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial
period of the the Philippines.
· He is an ophthalmologist by profession.
· He also became a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement which
Advocated political reforms for colony under Spain.
· He was executed by the Spanish colonial goverment for the crime of rebellion after an
anti-colonial revolution.
· He is widely considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines and implied by
Philippine law to be one of the national heroes.
· His father is Francisco Mercado and his mother is Teodora Alonso.
· Domingo Lamco is the paternal great-great-grandfather of jose Rizal.
· He had nine sisters and one brother.
· During his childhood years in Calamba there are 3 uncles of Rizal that influenced him the
the most they are the following: Jose Alberto, Manuel, and Gregorio.
· 9 June 1861
· JOSE RIZAL, the seventh child of Francisco Mercado Rizal and Teodora Alonso y
Quintos, was born in Calamba, Laguna.
· He was baptized JOSE RIZAL MERCADO at the Catholic of Calamba by the parish
priest Rev. Rufino Collantes with Rev. Pedro Casañas as the sponsor.
· The parochial church of Calamba and the canonical books, including the book in which
Rizal’s baptismal records were entered, were burned.
· Barely three years old, Rizal learned the alphabet from his mother.
· When he was four years old, his sister Conception, the eight child in the Rizal family,
died at the age of three. It was on this occasion that Rizal remembered having shed real
tears for the first time.
· During this time his mother taught him how to read and write. His father hired a
classmate by the name of Leon Monroy who, for five months until his (Monroy) death,
taught Rizal the rudiments of Latin.
· At about this time two of his mother’s cousin frequented Calamba. Uncle Manuel
Alberto, seeing Rizal frail in body, concerned himself with the physical development of
his young nephew and taught the latter love for the open air and developed in him a great
admiration for the beauty of nature, while Uncle Gregorio, a scholar, instilled into the
mind of the boy love for education. He advised Rizal: "Work hard and perform every task
very carefully; learn to be swift as well as thorough; be independent in thinking and make
visual pictures of everything."
· With his father, Rizal made a pilgrimage to Antipolo to fulfill the vow made by his
mother to take the child to the Shrine of the Virgin of Antipolo should she and her child
survive the ordeal of delivery which nearly caused his mother’s life.
· From there they proceeded to Manila and visited his sister Saturnina who was at the time
studying in the La Concordia College in Sta. Ana.
· At the age of eight, Rizal wrote his first poem entitled "Sa Aking Mga Kabata." The
poem was written in tagalog and had for its theme "Love of One’s Language."


· Rizal family is considered one of the biggest families during their time.
· Rizals paternal great-great-grandparents ascendant was a full-blooded Chinese who came
to the Philippines from Amoy.
· Mercado-Rizal family had also traces of Japanese, Spanish, Malay, and even Negrito
blood aside Chinese.
· Rizal came from a 13-member family consisting of his parents, Fransisco and Teodora,
and nine sisters and one brother.

Parents of Jose Rizal

Fransisco Mercado (1818-1898)

· Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 offsprings of Juan and Cirilia Mercado.
Born in Binan, Laguna on April 18, 1818, studied in San Jose College, Manila; and died
in Manila.
· Don Francisco Rizal Mercado was born on May 11, 1818 and was the youngest of his 13
siblings. Mercado was a well respected man in their home town of Calamba in which
citizens made him the their "cabeza de barangay" (head of town.) He was of part Chinese
descent, having been related to a Chinese entrepreneur by the name of Domingo Lamco.
Mercado die shortly after Rizal in the home of his daughter, Narcisa Rizal in Binondo,
Manila on January 5, 1898.
· Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado y Alejandra II (11 May 1818 to 5 January, 1898), was
the youngest of the 13 children of Cirila Alejandro and Juan Mercado. He was born in
Biñan, Laguna. He belonged to the fourth generation of Domingo Lam-co, a Chinese
immigrant in the late 1600s. He married Teodora Alonso Realonda de Quintos, a
Manileña who came from a well-known family. They were gifted with eleven children
and one of them was José Rizal.
· In 1690, Lam-co migrated to the Philippines. He is the son of Siang-co and Zun-nio,
which were from the village of Sionque in the Chin-Chew district in Fujian, China. When
he was 35 years old, Lam-co was baptized to the Catholic Church thus acquiring
“Domingo” as his first name. The baptism was held in the San Gabriel Church in
Binondo, Manila.
· Domingo Lam-co married a Chinese mestiza, Ines de la Rosa, who came from a
consumerist family. Ines was half of Lam-co’s age then. Furthermore, Lam-co had a very
close relationship with two Spanish friars, namely, Fr. Francisco Marquez and Fr. Juan
Caballero. These two friars encouraged him to reside in the Dominican estate of San
Isidro Labrador in Biñan, Laguna. Lam-co was very helpful to the development of water
irrigation in their area, thus making it one of the wealthiest parts of the estate.
· In 1731, de la Rosa gave birth to a son whose name was Francisco Mercado. The name
Francisco was derived from a friar’s name while Mercado is a Spanish word which
means “market.” He also resided in Biñan, Laguna. He married Bernarda Monica in
1771. The latter was a native of a hacienda (estate) in San Pedro Tunasan which is near
Biñan. The couple had two sons, Juan and Clemente. Mercado decided to move his
family in Calamba but Chinese immigrants were not well accepted during that time. With
this, Mercado’s family was forced to move back to Biñan. At around 1783, Francisco
Mercado was elected as gobernadorcillo (municipal mayor) of the town. He was popular
in town that he often acted as the godfather when there’s a baptism or wedding.
· Juan Mercado (Jose Rizal’s grandfather) was also elected as capitan del pueblo of the
town in 1808, 1813, and 1823. His wife was also a Chinese mestiza named Cirila
Alejandro. They had 13 children and lived in a large stone house in Biñan. He and his
wife lived in a humble way. But Juan Mercado died when his son, Francisco Engracio
Mercado, was eight years old. Since Francisco Engracio Mercado lost his father, his
mother took care of him. Francisco helped his widowed mother in running their business.
He studied Latin and philosophy at the Colegio de San Jose in Manila. This was where he
met his wife, Teodora Alonso Realonda, who was studying in Colegio de Santa Rosa.
· He raised his family by rented lands from the Dominican Order. From that land, they
produced rice, corns, and sugarcane. They even had poultry in their backyard. Jose Rizal
coined him as a model of fathers. He passed away in Manila on 5 January 1898.
Teodora Alonso (1827-1913)

Early life

· Teodora Morales Alonzo Realonda y Quintos (b. 9 November 1827 - d. 16 August 1911)
was the mother of Philippine national hero Jose Rizal, and a native of Sta. Cruz, Manila.
She was known for being a disciplinarian as well as a dedicated, courteous and hard-
working mother. As the young Rizal's first teacher, she had a profound influence on his
development and was his inspiration in taking up medicine.
· Teodora was the second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. Lorenzo was a
capitan-municipal of Biñan, Laguna, a representative in the Spanish Cortes, a Knight of
the Order of Isabela the Catholic and a surveyor by profession. Brijida de Quintos was an
educated housewife who attended to her family's needs. In accordance to the decree
issued by Governor-General Narciso Claveria in 1849, their family adopted the surname
"Realonda." Coming from an able family, Teodora had her formal education at the
Colegio de Santa Rosa in Manila. Just like her mother, she was well-educated and highly
cultured, and had knowledge in literature and mathematics.

Married life

· When Teodora turned 20 years old, she married Francisco Mercado who was a native of
Biñan, Laguna. The two resided in Calamba where they engaged in agriculture. They
achieved prosperity because of their industry, not to mention Teodora's efficiency at
managing both the farm and the family's finances. She even set up her own textile
business, a sugar and flour mill, and a small store at the ground floor of their house.
· Teodora and Francisco had eleven children: Saturnina, Paciano, Narcisa, Olympia, Lucia,
Maria, Jose, Concepcion, Josefa, Trinidad and Soledad. It was said that she suffered the
most when she gave birth to Jose. All their children were sent to respected colleges in
Manila, but Jose was the only child sent to Europe. He was inspired to take up medicine -
specifically opthalmology - in order to treat Teodora's failing eyesight.


· As the mother of a perceived enemy of the Spanish authorities, Teodora was often made a
target. She was imprisoned for two and a half years on trumped-up charges of poisoning
her brother's wife, but was finally acquitted and released after being defended by two of
Manila's most famous lawyers. She was made to walk fifty kilometers to Sta. Cruz,
Laguna, for failing to use her "Hispanicized" surname, Realonda de Rizal, instead of
Alonzo. Her family was ejected from their lands in Calamba as a result of a land conflict
between Dominicans and the Filipino tenants. The family moved to Manila, but the
Spanish persecution still followed.
· Teodora joined Rizal in Hong Kong in 1891 and kept a house in Dapitan where her son
was in exile. She returned to Manila to visit her husband and made an appeal to the
governor-general, but this was in vain.
Life after Rizal’s Death

· On August 1898, Narcisa Rizal-Lopez got the permission to get the body of Rizal and
found out that Rizal’s body was never even put in a coffin. The legislature offered her a
lifetime pension as a token of gratitude when Rizal was declared the national hero of the
Philippines. She politely refused it. She said: "My family has never been patriotic for the
money. If the government has plenty of funds and does not know what to do with them,
it's better to reduce the taxes." Teodora even witnessed the declaration of the monument
of Rizal. She was very old then and her mind and memory failing. She died few weeks
· For about two years, Alonso took only milk. She was so weak that her stomach cannot
tolerate solid foods. On August 16, 1911 at around 4:53pm, Alonso died in her home in
San Fernando Street, Binondo, Manila.

Siblings of Jose Rizal

Saturnina Rizal (1850-1913)

· Saturnina Mercado Rizal Hidalgo was born in 1818 and was the eldest sister of Jose
Rizal. She had five children together with husband Manuel T. Hidalgo and died the same
year as her mother in 1913.
Paciano Rizal (1851-1930)
· Only brother of Jose Rizal and the second child. Studied at San Jose College in Manila;
became a farmer and later a general of the Philippine Revolution.
· General Paciano Mercado Rizal aka "Lolo Ciano" was the only brother of Jose Rizal. He
was born in 1851 and studied in Binan later attending school at the Colegio de San Jose
in Manila. After the execution of his brother, he joined in the Philippine Revolution
where he rose up to the ranks of a General. He later married Severina Decena of Los
Banos and had two children of which one died at an early age. Paciano passed away in
· Paciano Mercado Rizal (b. March 7, 1851 – d. April 13, 1930) was the elder brother of
the Philippine national hero, Jose Rizal. Having studied under Father Jose Burgos,
Paciano was influenced by the ideologies of the said priest – being open-minded and out
spoken in denouncing the abuses of the friars.

Personal Life and Genealogy

· Paciano Rizal was born in Calamba, Laguna on March 17, 1851. He was the second of
the 11 children of Don Francisco Mercado and Doña Teodora Alonso. He was the oldest
between the two sons of the couple, one of which was Philippine national hero, Jose
Rizal. Paciano had a relationship with Severina Decena, from Los Baños, Laguna.
· Paciano and Severina Decena were blessed with two children - a boy who died during
infancy, and a daughter named Emiliana Rizal. Emiliana was the last to carry the name
Rizal. She later married Antonio Rizal Lopez, Jr. her first cousin, son of Antonino Lopez
and Narcisa Rizal. Emiliana and Antonio were blessed with six children, namely:
Eugenia, Francisco I, Francisco II, Edmundo, Jose I, Jose II. Eugenia was married to
Vivencio Villaruz, Francisco II was married Mabait Conception, Edmundo was married
to Rufina de Guzman and Jose II was married to Elena Talao.


· Paciano had his first occurrence of education under the tutelage of his mother who taught
him basic reading, writing, and praying. Eventually, he was sent to Biñan to receive a
formal education under Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz. Later on, he was sent to Manila
to pursue higher education at the [[Colegio de San Jose].
· He was educated under the supervision of Father Jose Apolonio Burgos, an active mover
of secularization. His close association with the secularist priest had influenced Paciano’s
ideas of nationalism. Involved with Fr. Burgos activities, he served as a personal
messenger and collector of the contributions to the movement.
· Paciano’s disappointment with the unjust government intensifies when Fr. Burgos,
together with Father Mariano Gomes de los Angeles and Father Jacinto Zamora were
executed on February 17, 1872, as a result of the Cavite Mutiny of January 20, 1872.
· Paciano’s grievance on the lost of his mentor caused him to stop his studies. He went
home to Calamba, and helped his father on the management of their land.

Paciano as Rizal's mentor

· Paciano was the one who foresee the well being of his siblings, including the young Jose.
He was responsible of accompanying Jose to Biñan to receive a proper education under
the same mentor- Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz. He also, accommodate Jose’s
enrollment at Ateneo Municipal in 1872. He plays the role of Jose’s second father in the
absence of their ageing parents and was the one whom Jose sought for advice when he
decided to study abroad for advancement. The older Rizal was left then with the
responsibility of informing their parent’s about Jose’s departure. He consoles his parents
on their grief on the absence of their youngest son. Upon Jose’s stay abroad, he regularly
sent him the stipend for his studies and for the publication of his first novel, the Noli.
· Paciano was accountable in supplying Jose the information on the events occurring in the
country. He constantly corresponds with Jose, conferring on the defects of the
government and the ills of the friars, the local problems, and the crisis in Calamba.


· Paciano was as well engaged in the propaganda movement. He had served behind the
operation of Diaryong Tagalog, in 1882. Eagerly helped in soliciting for subscription of
the newspaper in his province, and in the neighbor towns of Batangas.
· When Jose was arrested in 1895, Paciano was also arrested and detained. He was tortured
and forced to sign a testimonial, which states that his brother is connected with the
Katipunan. But after three days of wasted interrogation, he was subsequently released at
the state of near dead. And by the time so as to he fully recovered, he decided to adhere
with the movement of Revolution. After Jose’s execution, on January 1897 he joined
General Emilio Aguinaldo in Cavite, where Trinidad Rizal and Josephine Bracken
accompanied him, he presented himself to General Emilio Aguinaldo to serve under the
Katipunan. He was appointed as general of the Katipunero’s and elected Secretary of
Treasury in the Departmental Government of Central Luzon. It was on December 1897
that the famous truce of Biak na Bato was signed that marks the official end of 1896
Philippine Revolution. In compliance with the agreement, General Aguinaldo together
with other leaders of revolution succumb their arms and flees to Hong Kong. Terms of
submission were imposed by Aguinaldo so as to surrender the arms and ammunitions in
different provinces with remaining revolutionists. Abiding with the agreement, General
Paciano submitted their arms on January 14-15, 1898 to the General of Spain. However,
the truce failed, resulting Aguinaldo’s return in the country.
· Paciano as well participated in the battle when the United States and Spain declared war
on each other. He led during the 1900 Filipino-American war, but due to his condition
inflicted by malaria he was captured by the Americans in Laguna.
· When peace was restored, after the Filipino-American War ceased off, Paciano lived a
peaceful life and pledged that he would depart the Americans in peace.

Life after Rizal's death

· During American occupation, Paciano promised to leave them in peace and so as to live a
life in private. He lived in his house in Los Baños with two helpers with him, his man-
Friday and a fisherman with a boat. He must have intensely hated the Americans that he
had named his pet dog into a general, Wood. So every time that Paciano would felt like
cursing the Americans, he would rather curse the dog.
· Paciano died of tuberculosis on April 30, 1930. His remain was buried in Cementerio del
Norte in Manila but his bones were transferred to his home in Los Banos were he was
given a complete military honors in 1985
Narcisa Rizal (1852-1939)
· Narcisa Rizal Lopez was born in 1852 and was the one who found the unmarked grave of
her brother, Jose in the abandoned Old Paco Cemetery. Narcisa married Antonio Lopez
who was a teacher and musician from Morong, Rizal. She died in 1938.
Olympia Rizal (1855-1887)
· Olympia Rizal Ubaldo was born in 1855. She married Silvestre Ubaldo and together they
had three children. She died in 1887 when she was only 32 years old. Died in 1887 from
Lucia Rizal (1857-1919)
· Lucia Rizal Herbosa was born in 1857. She married Mariano Herbosa and had 5 children
together. In 1889 Mariano died due to an epidemic but was denied a Christian burial. This
was due to the fact that he was the brother in law of Jose Rizal. This showed the
beginning of the persecution of the Rizal family by Spanish friars. Lucia died in 1919.
Maria Rizal (1859-1945)
· Maria Cruz Rizal was born in 1855. She married Daniel Faustino Cruz of Binan, Laguna
and together they had 5 children. Mauricio Cruz, one of Maria's children became a
student of Jose Rizal in Dapitan and was known to be one of his uncle's favorites. Maria
was a known recipient of many od Jose's letters during his lifetime. Maria died in 1945
Concepcion Rizal (1862-1865)
· Concepcion Rizal was born in 1862. Concepcion did not live very long as she died at the
age of 3 in 1865.
Josefa Rizal (1865-1945)
· Josefa Rizal was born in 1865. She was unmarried lived together with sister Trinidad
until death. Josefa was said to have suffered from epilepsy. She died in a spinster.
Trinidad Rizal (1868-1951)
· The tenth child. Died on a spinster and the last of the family to die.
· Trinidad Rizal was born in 1868. She remained unmarried and lived together with her
sister Josefa. Trinidad was the one who recieved an alcohol lamp from brother Jose, in
which he secretly hid the "Last Farewell" better known as "Mi Ultimos Adios," a poem
Rizal wrote on the eve of his death in 1896. Trinidad died in 1951, outliving all her
Soledad Rizal (1870-1929)
· Soledad Rizal Quintero was born in 1870 making her the youngest of the Rizal siblings.
She married Pantaleon Quintero and together they had 5 children. Soledad died in 1929


· His first teacher was his mother.

· His private tutors are the following: Maestro Celestino, Maestro Lucas Pauda and Leon
· Rizal first studied under Justiniano Aquino Cruz in Biñan, Laguna, before he was sent to
· As to his father's request, he took the entrance examination in Colegio de San Juan de
Letran but he then enrolled at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila and graduated as one of
the nine students in his class declared sobresaliente or outstanding.
· He continued his education at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila to obtain a land surveyor
and assessor's degree, and at the same time at the University of Santo Tomas where he did
take up a preparatory course in law.
· Upon learning that his mother was going blind, he decided to switch to medicine at the
medical school of Santo Tomas specializing later in ophthalmology.
· Rizal as a student at the University of Santo TomaWithout his parents' knowledge and
consent, but secretly supported by his brother Paciano, he traveled alone to Madrid, Spain
in May 1882 and studied medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid where he earned
the degree, Licentiate in Medicine.
· He also attended medical lectures at the University of Paris and the University of
· In Berlin, he was inducted as a member of the Berlin Ethnological Society and the Berlin
Anthropological Society under the patronage of the famous pathologist Rudolf Virchow.
· Following custom, he delivered an address in German in April 1887 before the
Anthropological Society on the orthography and structure of the Tagalog language.
· He left Heidelberg a poem, "A las flores del Heidelberg", which was both an evocation
and a prayer for the welfare of his native land and the unification of common values
between East and West.
· At Heidelberg, the 25-year-old Rizal, completed in 1887 his eye specialization under the
renowned professor, Otto Becker.
· There he used the newly invented ophthalmoscope (invented by Hermann von
Helmholtz) to later operate on his own mother's eye.
· He lived in a Karlstraße boarding house then moved to Ludwigsplatz. There, he met
Reverend Karl Ullmer and stayed with them in Wilhelmsfeld, where he wrote the last few
chapters of Noli Me Tángere.
· Rizal was a polymath, skilled in both science and the arts. He painted, sketched, and
made sculptures and woodcarving.
· He was a prolific poet, essayist, and novelist whose most famous works were his two
novels, Noli Me Tángere and its sequel, El filibusterismo.
· These social commentaries during the Spanish colonization of the country formed the
nucleus of literature that inspired peaceful reformists and armed revolutionaries alike.
· Rizal was also a polyglot, conversant in twenty-two languages.
· Rizal's multifacetedness was described by his German friend, Dr. Adolf Bernhard Meyer,
as "stupendous."
· Documented studies show him to be a polymath with the ability to master various skills
and subjects.
· He was an ophthalmologist, sculptor, painter, educator, farmer, historian, playwright and
journalist. Besides poetry and creative writing, he dabbled, with varying degrees of
expertise, in architecture, cartography, economics, ethnology, anthropology, sociology,
dramatics, martial arts, fencing and pistol shooting. He was also a Freemason, joining
Acacia Lodge No. 9 during his time in Spain and becoming a Master Mason in 1884.

First Year in Ateneo (1872-1973)

· Father Jose Bech – Rizal‘s first professor in Ateneo who he described as ―tall thin man,
with a body slightly bend forward, a harried walk, an ascetic face, severe and inspired,
smell deep-sunken eyes, a sharp nose that was almost Greek, and thin lips forming an arc
whose fell toward the chin‖.
· - A Religious picture – a Rizal‘s first prize for being brightest pupil in the whole class. -
To improve his Spanish, he took private lessons in Santa Isabel College during noon
recesses. He paid three pesos for those extra Spanish lessons.
· - At the end of the school year in March, 1873, he returned to Calamba for summer
· - When the summer vacation ended, Rizal returned to Manila for his second year term in
Ateneo. This time he boarded inside Intramuros at No. 6 Magallanes Street. His landlady
was an old widow name Doña Pepay.

Second Year in Ateneo (1873-1874)

· At the end of the school year, Rizal received excellent grades in all subjects and a gold
· The Count of Monte Cristo –(Alexander Dumas) – the first favourite novel of Rizal
which made a deep impression on him.
· Universal History (Cesar Cantu) – Rizal persuaded his father to buy him this set of
historical work that was a great aid in his studies.
· Dr. Feodor Jagor – a German scientist-traveller who visited the Philippines 1859-1860
who wrote Travels in the Philippines. He was impressed in this book because; 1) Jagor’s
keen observation of the defects of Spanish colonization, and, 2) his prophecy that
someday Spain would lose the Philippines and that America would come to succeed her
as colonizer

Third and Fourth Year in Ateneo (1874- 1876)

· Rizal's grades remained excellent in all subjects but e won only one medal – Latin.
· At the end of the school year, Rizal‘s returned to Calamba for the vacation. He himself
was not impressed by his scholastic work.
· June 16, 1875 – Rizal became an interno of the Ateneo.
· Padre Francisco de Paula Sanchez – a great educator and scholar, one of Rizal‘s
professors who inspired him to study harder and to write poetry. Rizal described this
Jesuit professor as ―model of uprightness, earnestness, and love for the advancement of
his pupils‖.
· Rizal‘s topped all his classmates ain all subjects and on five medals at the end of the
school term.

Last Year in Ateneo (1876-1877)

· Rizal‘s studies continued to fare well. As a matter-of-fact, the excelled in all subjects. The
most brilliant Atenean of his time, he was truly the pride of the Jesuits.
· March 23, 1877 – Commencement Day, Rizal who was 15 years old, received from his
Alma Mater; the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, with highest honour.
· Marian Congeragtion – a religious society wherein Rizal was an active member and later
became the secretary.
· Rizal cultivated his literary talent under the guidance of Father Sanchez.
· Father Jose Vilaclara – advised Rizal to stop communing with the muse and pay mote
attention to more practical studies.
· Rizal studies painting under the famous Spanish painter, Agusti Saez, and sculpture under
omualdo de Jesus; a noted Filipino sculptor.
· Rizal carved an image of the Virgin Mary on a piece of batikuling with his pocket-knife.
· Father Lieonart – impressed by Rizal‘s sculptural talent, requested him to carve for him
an image of Sacred Heart of Jesus.

Poems in Ateneo
· It was Doña Teodora who was first discovered the poetic genius of her son, and it also
she who first encourage him to write poems. However, it was Father Sanchez who
inspired Rizal to take full of his God-given gift in poetry.
· Mi Primera Inspiracion (My First Inspiration), 1874, the Rizal probably wrote during
days in Ateneo which was dedicated to his mother on her birthday; Rizal wrote he was 14
years old. 1875 (inspired by Father Sanchez)
1. Felicitacion
2. El Embarque: Himno a la Flota de Magallanes
3. Y Es Español:Elcano el Primero en dar la Vuelta al Mundo
4. El Combate: Urbiztondo, Terror de Jolo 5. Al Niño Jesus (To the Child Jesus) – brief ode.
5. Un Recuerdo a Mi Pueblo (In Memory of My Town) – honour for his hometown Calamba. 6.
Alianza Intima Entre la Religion y la Buena Education (Intimate Alliance Between Religion and
Good Education) – shows the importance of religion and education.
7. Por la Educacion Recibe Lustre la Patria (Through Education the Country Receives Light) –
education plays in the progress and welfare a nation.
8. El Cautiverio y el Triunfo: Batalla de Lucenas y Prison Boabdil (The Captivity and the
Triumph: Battle of Lucena and the Imprisonment of Boadbil) – the defeat and capture of
Boabdil, the last Sultan of Granada.
9. La Entrada Triunfal de los Reyes Catolices en Granada (The Triumphal Entry of the Catholic
Monarchs into Granada) – victorious entry of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel of Spain to
10. San Eustacio, Martir (St. Eustace, The Martyr) – prose story of St. Eustace.
11. El Heroismo de Colon (The Heroism of Columbus) – poem praises Columbus.
12. Colon y Juan II (Columbus and John II) – relates how King John II of Spain missed fame and
riches by his failure to finance the projected expedition of Columbus to the New World.
13. Gran Cunsuelo en la Mayor Desdicha (Great Solace in Great Misfortune) – a legend relates
to the tragic life of Columbus.
14. Un Dialogo Aluviso a la Despedida de los Colegiales (A Farewell Dialogue of the Students)
– farewell to his classmates in Ateneo.
15. A la Virgen Maria (To the Virgin Mary) – another religious poem which doesn‘t have exact
date when it was written.

Life in the University of Santo Tomas (1877-1882)

· After finishing the first year of a course in Philosophy and Letters (1877-1878). He
transferred to the medical course.
· April 1877 – he enrolled in the UST taking Philosophy and Letters because; 1) his father
like it, 2) he was “still uncertain as to what career to pursue”.
· Father Pablo Ramon – Rector of Ateneo, who had been good to him his students days in
that college, asking for advice on the choice of a career but unfortunately he was in
· During Rizal‘s first school term in the UST, Rizal also studied in Ateneo. He took the
vocational course leading to the title of perito agrimensor (expect surveyor).
· Rizal excelled in all subjects in the surveying course in Ateneo, obtaining gold medals in
agriculture and topography. He passed all the subject but the title was no issued to him
because he was only 17 years- old, underage. The title was issued to him on November
25, 1881- the title was issued to Rizal for passing the final examination in the surveying
· Liceo Artistico-Literario (Artistic-Literay Lyceum of Manila) – society of literary men
and artists held a literary contest in the year 1879. He also served as the President of the
Spanish Literature in Ateneo.
· While at UST, he fell in love with three women. During his first year, he fell in love with
a woman simply called “Miss L”, a woman with a fair, seductive and attractive eyes. The
romance dead a natural death because of two reasons:
(1) the sweet memory of Segunda Katigbak was still fresh to in his memory and
(2) Rizal‘s father did not like the family of Miss L.
· During his sophomore year, he courted Leonor Valenzuela, a tall girl with regal bearing.
Rizal sent her love notes in invisible ink. But just like Segunda he also stopped visiting
her. During his junior year, Rizal had romance with Leonor Rivera, of Camiling, Tarlac.
Leonor was a pretty girl and a students of La Concordia Colllege. Both Rizal and Leonor
were engaged, he used the sign name ―Taimis‖ to cover their relationship from their
· Rizal studied in UST from 1878-1882. his grade in Medicine consists of 2 excellent, 3
very good, 8 good, and 2 fair (physics and general pathology). His grades in UST College
of Medicine were not as impressive as what he got at Ateneo Philosophy and Letters due
to the hostility of the Dominican professors. Accordingly, laboratory equipment's are just
for display and racial discrimination against the Filipino students.Mylene Gado Almario
· 41. Education in University of Santo Tomas (1877-1882)
· A La Juventud (To the Filipino Youth) – at 18, submitted tis poem, it is inspiring poem of
flawless form. This poem won as a classic Filipino literature for two reasons: a) it was a
great poem in Spanish written by the Filipino, whose merit was recognized by Spanish
literary authorities, 2) expressed for the first time the nationalistic concept that the
Filipino, and not the foreigners, were the “fair hope of the Fatherland”. The Board of
Judges, composed of Spaniards was impressed by Rizal‘s poem and gave it gave it the
first prize which consisted of a silver pen, feather-shaped and decorated with a gold
· A Filipinas – a sonnet written by Rizal for the album of the Society of Sculptors; in this
sonnet, he urged all Filipino artists to glorify the Philippines.
· Abd-el-Azis y Mahoma – poem honouring the Ateneo Patroness.
· Al M.R.P Pablo Ramon – poem dedication to Father Pablo Ramon (Atenean Rector),
who had been so kind and helpful to him.
· Vicenta Ybardolaza – a pretty girl colegiala who skillfully played a harp at the Regalado
home, whom Rizal was infatuated.
· Compañerismo (Comradeship) – Rizal founded a secret society of Filipino students in
UST 1880. - Galicano Apacible – Rizal‘s cousin from Batangas who is the secretary of
the society.

Unhappy Days in UST

· Rizal found the atmosphere at the UST suffocating to his sensitive spirit. He was unhappy
at this Dominican institution of higher learning because
1) the Dominican professors were hostile to him
2) the Filipino students were racially discriminated by the Spaniards
3) the method of instruction was obsolete and repressive.
· In Rizal novel, El Filibusterismo, he described how the Filipino students were humiliated
and insulted by their Dominican professors and how backward the method of instruction
was, especially in the teaching of the natural sciences. He related in Chapter XIII (The
Class in Physics).


· Before reaching Madrid to pursue his medical career in 1882, Jose Rizal had many
· He visited the progressive English colony of Singapore, traversed the historic waterway
of Suez Canal via the steamship Djemnah, reached the Italian city of Naples,
disembarked at the French port of Marseilles, then took a train to the historic city of
· His Filipino schoolmates from the Ateneo Municipal threw a party as they welcomed his
· In Barcelona, Rizal wrote his first essay on a foreign soil – the “El Amor Patrio” (Love of
Country) – which he sent to his friend, Basilio Teodora, an editorial staff member of the
Diariong Tagalog. By the end of 1882, Rizal decided to leave Barcelona for Madrid.
· Rizal lived a frugal life in Madrid, strictly budgeting both his (1) money for food,
clothing and school materials; and (2)time for his studies and social life.
· He joined the Circulo Hispano Filipino and wrote the poem, Me Piden Versos (They
Asked Me for Verses).
· In 1884, Rizal made a splendid speech which saluted two Filipino masters of painting,
Juan Luna and Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo, in a banquet held at the National Exposition
of Fine Arts.
· He met and almost fell in love with Consuelo Ortiga y Rey if not for his engagement with
Leonor Rivera and his friendship with Eduardo de Lete who had a romantic feeling for

First Travel

· In 1885, the 24-year old Rizal went to Paris, France to pursue his career as an
· He tried his skills in music and studied solfeggio, piano and voice culture for a month and
a half.
· Secret Mission of Jose Rizal Rizal conceived the secret mission, with the blessing of his
brother Paciano was to do the following: Observe keenly the life and culture, languages
and customs, industries and commerce and governments and laws of the European
nations in order to prepare himself for the task of liberating his people from Spanish
· He worked as an assistant to the renowned ophthalmologist, Dr. Louis de Weckert, and
left for Heidelberg after a year. He settled in the house of a Lutheran, Karl Ullmer and
worked in the clinics of famous Polish and German ophthalmologists, Dr. Javier
Galezowsky and Dr. Otto Becker, respectively.
· In Heidelberg, he was astound with the flowers along the Neckar River, especially the
forget-me-nots, which made him compose the poem, A Las Flores de Heidelberg (To the
Flowers of Heidelberg), on April 22, 1886.
· It was also in this German city where the long-distance friendship between Jose Rizal and
Ferdinand Blumentritt began.
· Rizal traveled to Leipzig and attended some lectures at its local university.
· After which he went to Berlin to further study ophthalmology and other languages, to get
familiar with the scenic Germany, to be part of the scientific community, and to finish his
novel, Noli Me Tangere.
· However, he was struck by financial problem in Berlin as he was short of allowance from
· When Jose Rizal becomes Jose Mercado ▫ Due to the popularity of the surname and
perhaps the kind Jesuit priest who gave him letters of recommendation for their Society
in Barcelona – he was claimed as a cousin.
· May 3, 1882 – he left Manila through the steamer Salvadora, with 16 passenger including
· May 8, 1882 – the Salvadora reached Singapore (an English Colony), he stayed in
Singapore for two days spending his time sightseeing the sorties of the city.
· May 11, 1882 – he was board Djemnah, accordingly it is more larger and cleaner than
Salvadora. During the travel he was ale to learn French language and observation,
because the steamer’s speaking language is French.
· May 17, 1882 – he steamer arrived at the Point Galle, Ceylon. The town was quiet, lovely
and sad at the same time.
· May 18, 1882 – he had an stopover at Colombo, Ceylon, which describe by him as smart,
elegant than Singapore, Point Galle and Manila.
· May 28, 1882 – from Colombo, Djemnah continued it voyage and crossed the Indian
Ocean until he reached Cape of Guardafin, Africa to Aden, Africa where he was able to
see camels for the first time.
· June 2, 1882 – he proceeded to Suez Canal. It took 5days to travel in the said canal, then
they reached the Port Said.
· June 11, 1882 – from Port Said, the steamer proceeded it travel to Europe and reached the
Naple City, Italy. The city was busy because of its business activity, lively people and
panoramic beauty.
· June 12, 1882 – the steamer docked at the French harbor of Marseilles, France. Rizal
disembarked and visited the Chateau d’ef where Dantes (The Count of Monte Cristo) was
in jailed. He stayed in Marseilles for 3 days.
· June 16, 1882 – by a train he continued his trip to Barcelona, Spain. He stayed in Hotel
de España. He visited Ronda de la Universidad de Barcelona. At first, he had a bad
impresions to Barcelona – because he happened to stay in a stingy people inn. But later
on, he realized the atmosphere of freedom and liberalism around the place, the people
were open-hearted, hospitable and courageous.

Life in Barcelona:
1. He was welcomed by his former classmates in Ateneo.
2. He was treated and guided by his friend in European way.
3. He received the bad news about the cholera outbreak in Manila.
4. Leonor Rivera’s recounting happiness who getting thinner and thinner due to the absence of
her love-one.
· November 3, 1882 – he left Barcelona for Madrid through the advised of Paciano. Life in
1. He enrolled in Universidad Central de Madrid (Philosophy and Letters and Medicine)
2. He lived frugally, budgeting hid money wisely.
3. He used to buy lottery tickets in every draw in Madrid Lottery.
4. He spent his leisure time in reading books.
5. He met and attracted to Consuelo Ortega y Rey.
6. He graduated his degree in Philosophy and Letter and Medicine.

Life in Paris, France

· June 15, 1882 – Rizal was invited to speak for the celebration for the double victory for
the two artist namely: Juan Luna (Spoliarium) and Felix R. Hidalgo (Virgenes Christianas
Expuestas El Populacio), for winning the 1st and 2nd prizes in the Paris Exposition for
the Arts.
· He lived in Paris, France for 4 months and be came an assistant to the clinic of Dr. Louis
de Wecket.
· He also became a model for the artworks of Juan Luna (“The Death of Cleopatra” and
“The Blood Compact”).
· After his stay in Paris, he left for Heidelberg, Germany.

Heidelberg, Germany
1. He work in the University Eye Hospital under the supervision of Dr. Otto Becker.
2. He also attended some lectures of Dr. Becker and Dr. Wilhelm Kuehne.
3. He visited some scenic places in Heidelberg, such as castles, rivers and old churches.
4. He was also befriended with Dr. Karl Ullmer, during summer vacation where he stayed in
5. He wrote his first letter to Ferdinand Blumentritt. - During the 5th centenary celebration of
Heidelberg, he decide to left and went to Leipzig, Germany via train.

Leipzig, Germany
· August 14, 1886 - He attended the lectures at the University of Leipzig in history and
· He met Dr. Hans Meyer and Prof. Friedrich Ratzel.
· He translated Scheller’s William Tell and Hans Christian Andersons’s Fairy Tale.
Dresden, Germany: October 29, 1886
· He met Dr. Adolf Meyer - After two days of stay he left Dresden and went to Berlin,
Germany in the evening of November 1, 1886.

Berlin, Germany
· Rizal was enchanted by Berlin because of its scientific atmosphere and the absence of
race prejudice.
· Rizal met for the first time Dr. Feodor Jagor, celebrated German scientist-traveler and
author of Travels in the Philippines, a book which Rizal read and admired during his
student days in Manila.
· Dr. Rudolf Virchow- introduced to Rizal by Dr. Jagor; famous German anthropologist.
· Dr. Hans Virchow- son of Dr. Rudolf Virchow, professor of Descriptive Anatomy.
· Dr. Ernest Schweigger (1830-1905)- famous German ophthalmologist where Rizal
· Rizal became a member of the Anthropological Society, the Ethnological Society, and the
Geographical Society of Berlin, upon the recommendation of Dr. Jagor and Dr. Meyer.

Grand Tour in Europe

· May 11, 1887 – Rizal and Viola left Berlin for Dresden. They visited Dr. Adolf B. Meyer.
While strolling at the scene of the Floral Exposition, they met Dr. Jagor, and suggested
them to meet Blumentritt.
· May 13, 1887 –Rizal and Viola reached Leitmeritz, Bohemia. They met Ferdinand
Blumentritt. The two enjoyed the warm hospitality of the Blumentritt family.
· They also met famous scientist Dr. Carlos Czepelah and another eminent naturalist
Robert Klutschak.
· May 17, 1887 – they left Leitmeritz by train on their way to the city of Prague. They
carried recommendation letters of Prof. Blumentritt Dr. Wilhomm, a professor of Natural
History in the University of Prague.
· May 19, 1887 – they reached the city of Brunn.
· May 20, 1887 – they arrived at the city of Vienna, Austria. They visited famous
interesting scenic places like churches, museums, art galleries, theatres, public parks,
beautiful buildings, and religious images. They also met Mr. Norfenfoe (European
novelist) and Masner and Nordmenn (Austrian scholars).
· May 24, 1887 – they left Vienna, via river boat to see the beautiful sights of the Danube
river. The river voyage ended in Lintz, afterwards they travelled on land to Salzburg and
from there Munich. In Munich, they had a short time savouring the famous Munich beer
(best beer in Germany).
· From Munich, they went to Nuremberg (oldest city in Germany), were their impressed by
the manufacturer of dolls which was the biggest industry in the city. Afterwards, they
went to Ulm particularly he city cathedral, they enjoyed they view upon reaching the top,
even though Viola felt dizzy and tried.
· All they visit Ulm, they went to Stuttgart, Baden and Rheinfall.
· June 2-3, 1887 – they continued their trip on a boat and reached Basel, Bern, Laussenne,
and they cross to the lake of Geneva.
· June 6, 1887- they reached Geneve, Switzerland. While in Geneva, Rizal received sad
news from his friends in Madrid about the conditions of Igorots, who were exhibited in
the 1887 Madrid Exposition, some of the natives died.
· June 19, 1887 – it was 26th birthday, he treated Viola to a blow-out with a sumptuous
meal. He also wrote a letter to Blumentritt regarding Industrial exhibition.
· June 23, 1887 – Rizal and Viola parted ways. They both spent 15 days in Geneva. Viola
returned to Barcelona and Rizal continued his tour to Italy.
· June 24, 1887 – Rizal went to Italy, and visited Turin, Milan, Venice and Florence.
· June 27, 1887 – he reached Rome and visited famous architectural buildings.
· June 29, 1887 – he visited the Vatican City. He has sightseeing and was impressed by the
magnificent edifice like St. Peter’s Church, the rare works of the art, the vast St. Peter’s
Square, and the colourful Papal Guard. After a week travel in Rome, he decided to return
to the Philippines.

Rizal’s First Homecoming (1887-1888)

Rizal’s Plans of Homecoming

· As early as 1884, Rizal wanted to go back to the Philippines for the following reasons:
– Financial difficulties in Calamba
– Dissatisfaction with his studies in Madrid
– Desire to prove that there is no reason to fear going home.
– His belief that the Spanish regime will not punish the innocent.
· The stunning beauty of the European lands did not stop Rizal from continuously adoring
his native land.

Decision to return home

· After five years of his memorable sojourn in Europe, Rizal returned to the Philippines.
· However, Rizal was warned by the following not to return to the Philippines because his
Noli Me Tangere angered the friars:
– Paciano Mercado
– Rizal’s adviser and only brother.
– Silvestre Ubaldo
– Rizal’s brother in law; husband of Olimpia.
– Jose Ma. Cecilio (Chenggoy)
– one of Rizal’s closest friends.
· He return to Calamba despite the many warnings also, he received from friends and
relatives alike. He had four reasons for returning to the Philippines, first is to perform an
operation on Doña Teodora's eyes; second is to defend his oppressed countrymen more
effectively than doing so in a foreign land; third is to find out how his Noli was received
by the Filipinos and Spaniards; and the is to know the reason for Leonor Rivera's long
· Rizal arrives in Manila
· Rizal left Rome by train to Marseilles, a French port and boarded Djemnah, the same
steamer that brought him to Europe five years ago.
· There were 50 passengers: 4 Englishmen, 2 Germans, 3 Chinese, 2 Japanese, 40
Frenchmen, and 1 Filipino (Rizal)
· When the ship reached Aden, the weather became rough and some of Rizal’s book got
· In Saigon (Ho Chi Minh), Vietnam – he transferred to another steamer, Haiphong, that
brought him to Manila. Mylene Gado Almario

Happy Homecoming
· When Rizal arrived in Calamba, rumors spread that he was a:
– German spy
– An agent of Otto Von Bismarck
– the liberator of Germany.
– A Protestant
– A Mason
– A soul halfway to damnation
· Paciano – did not leave him during the first days after arrival to protect him from any
enemy assault.
· Don Francisco – did not permit him to go out alone

In Calamba
· Rizal established a medical clinic.
· Doña Teodora – was Rizal’s first patient
· Rizal treated her eyes but could not perform any surgical operation because her cataracts
were not yet ripe.
· He painted several beautiful landscapes in Calamba.
· He translated German poems of Von Wildernath in Tagalog.
· Doctor Uliman
– Rizal was called this name because he came from Germany.
– He earned P900 in a few months and P5,000 before he left the Philippines.
· Gymnasium – was opened by Rizal for the young people
· He introduced European sports fencing and shooting to discourage them from
cockfighting and gambling.

Sad moments while Rizal was in Calamba

· Leonor Rivera – Rizal tried to visit her in Tarlac but his parents forbade him to go
because Leonor’s mother did not like him for a son-in- law.
· Olimpia Mercado-Ubaldo – died because of child birth.

Storm over the Noli Me Tangere

· As Rizal was peacefully living in Calamba, his enemies plotted his doom.
· Governor General Emilio Terrero
– wrote to Rizal requesting to come to Malacañang Palace.
– Somebody had whispered to his ear that the Noli contains subversive ideas.
– Rizal explained to him that he merely exposed the truth, but did not advocate subversive ideas.
– He was pleased by Rizal’s explanation and curious about the book, he asked for a copy of the
– Rizal had no copy that time but promised to send one for him.

Rizal visited the Jesuits

· Rizal visited the Jesuit fathers to ask for their feedback on the novel.
· He was gladly welcomed by the following friars:
– Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez
– Fr. Jose Bech
– Fr. Federico Faura
– told Rizal that everything in the novel was the truth and warned him that he may lose his head
because of it.
· Governor-General Emilio Terrero
– a liberal minded Spaniard who knew that Rizal’s life was in jeopardy because the friars were
– Because of this he gave Rizal a bodyguard to protect him.

Jose Taviel de Andrade

· A young Spanish lieutenant who came from a noble family
· He was cultured and knew painting
· He could speak French, English and Spanish.
· They became good friends. Mylene Gado Almario
Attackers of the Noli
· Archbishop Pedro Payo – a Dominican
· Archbishop of Manila
· Sent a copy of the Noli to Fr. Gregorio Echevarria, Rector of the University of Santo
Tomas to examine the novel.

UST and Rizal

· The committee that examined the Noli Me Tangere were composed of Dominican
· The report of the faculty members from UST about the Noli states that the novel was: –
Heretical, impious and scandalous in the religious orders, and anti-patriotic, subversive of
pubic order, injurious to the government of Spain and its function in the Philippine
Islands in the political order.
· Governor-General Terrero – was not satisfied with the report so he sent the novel to the
Permanent Commission of Censorship which was composed of priests and lawyers.
· Fr. Salvador Font
– Augustinian friar curate of Tondo was the head of the commission.
– The group found that the novel contain subversive ideas against the Church and Spain and
recommended that the importation, reproduction and circulation of the pernicious book in the
islands be absolutely prohibited. Mylene Gado Almario
· The newspaper published Font’s written report
· The banning of the Noli Me Tangere served to make it popular
· The masses supported the book.
· Fr. Jose Rodriguez
– Augustinian Prior of Guadalupe
– Published a series of eight pamphlets under the heading Questions of Supreme Interest to blast
the Noli and other anti-Spanish writing.
– Copies of anti-Rizal pamphlets were sold after mass
– Many Filipinos were forced to buy them in order not to displease the friars. Mylene Gado

Noli Me Tangere in Spain

· The novel was fiercely attacked in the session hall of the Senate of the Spanish Cortes.
· Senators:
– General Jose de Salamanca
– General Luis de Pando
– Sr. Fernando Vida
· Vicente Barantes – Spanish academician of Madrid who formerly occupied high
government position in the Philippines bitterly criticized the novel in an article published
in the Madrid newspaper, La España Moderna.

Defenders of the Noli Me Tangere

· Propagandists such as Marcelo H. del Pilar, Graciano Lopez-Jaena, Antonio Ma. Regidor,
Mariano Ponce rushed to uphold the truths of the Noli.
· Father Francisco de Paula Sanchez – Rizal’s favorite teacher in Ateneo defended and
praised the novel in public.
· Don Segismundo Moret – former Minister of the Crown.
· Prof. Miguel Morayta- historian and stateman
· Prof. Ferdinand Blumentritt – Rizal’s best friend
· Rev. Fr. Vicente Garcia
– a Filipino Catholic priest-scholar, a theologian of the Manila Cathedral and a Tagalog translator
of the famous Imitation of Christ by Thomas Kempis.
– Under the pen name Justo Desiderio Magalang he wrote a defense of the novel published in
· Rizal cried because of his gratitude to his defenders especially to Fr. Garcia who
defended him unexpectedly.
· He attacked Barantes by exposing his ignorance of Philippine affairs and mental
dishonesty which is unworthy of an academician.
· Because of the interest of both enemies and protectors of the Noli the price of the book
increased from five pesetas per copy to 50 pesetas per copy.

Agrarian Problem in Calamba

· Influenced by the novel, Governor-General Emilio Terrero ordered a government
investigation of the friar estates to remedy whatever inequities might have been present in
connection with land taxes and with tenant relations.
· One of the friar estates affected was the Calamba hacienda by the Dominican order since
· Upon hearing about the investigation, the people of Calamba asked helped from Rizal to
gather facts and list the grievances so that the government might institute certain agrarian
Findings submitted by Rizal
· The hacienda of the Dominican Order comprised not only the lands around Calamba, but
the whole town of Calamba.
· The profits of the Dominican Order continually increased because of the arbitrary
increase of he rentals paid by the tenants.
· The hacienda owner never contributed a single centavo for the celebration of the town
fiesta, for the education of the children, and for the improvement of agriculture.
· Tenants who spent much labor in clearing the lands were dispossessed of the said lands
for flimsy reasons
· High rates of interest were arbitrarily charged the tenants for delayed payment of rentals
· When the rentals could not be paid, the hacienda management confiscated the work
animals, tools, and farm implements of the tenants.

Friars Reaction
· Rizal’s exposure to the deplorable condition angered the friars.
· The friars exerted pressure to Malacañang to eliminate Rizal.
· They asked Gov. Gen. Terrero to deport Rizal but the latter refused for there is lack of
charges against Rizal in court.
· Anonymous threats in Rizal’s life alarmed his parents, siblings, Andrade his bodyguard,
friends, and even Terrero, thus they all advised him to leave the country.

Rizal’s reasons for leaving the Philippines

· His presence in Calamba was jeopardizing the safety and happiness of his family and
· He could not fight better his enemies and serve his country’s cause with greater efficacy
by writing in foreign countries.
· A Poem for Lipa – shortly before Rizal left in 1888, he was asked by a friend to write a
poem in commemoration of the town’s cityhood.
· Himno Al Trabajo (Hymn To Labor) – title of the poem dedicated to the industrious
people of Lipa.
· Aboard the steamer Djemnah, Rizal sailed to the East via the Suez Canal on June 3, 1887
and reached Saigon on the 30th of July.
· From Saigon, he boarded the steamer Hayfong bound for Manila.
· On the sixth day of August, he arrived in Manila and visited some friends, and reached
Calamba two days later.
· In his native land, he opened a medical clinic and restored his mother's vision. Such
“miraculous” news spread throughout the community like wild fire, thus, his clinic was
flocked by people aspiring for a better eyesight.
· Newly arrived from Germany, he began to be known as “Doctor Uliman” (from the word
· Regarding his novel Noli Me Tangere, Rizal met Governor General Emilio Terrero who
informed him of the charges against him.
· As a defense, Rizal told Terrero that the Noli only exposes the reality.
· Not having read the book yet and out of curiosity, the governor general asked for a copy
of the controversial novel, which he later confessed that he enjoyed reading.
· He saw no problem on the book, yet to protect Rizal's life which was then in danger, he
assigned Jose Taviel de Andrade, a young Spanish lieutenant, as Rizal's personal
bodyguard. Soon enough, the attackers and defenders of the novel resurfaced.
· On February 3, 1888 Rizal left his country with a heavy heart. • But this is for his own
good and the safety of his family and friends.

Second Travel (1888-1892)

· Realizing that his family's and friends' safety were at risked; and that his fight against the
Spaniards have better chance of winning if he'd stay abroad, Rizal, six months after,
finally decided to sail back to Europe.
· Before his departure, a friend from Lipa City, Batangas asked of him a poem dedicated to
the industrious workers in their town.
· Privileged, Rizal wrote the Himno Al Trabajo (Hymn to Labor).

A glance of East Asia

· On February 3, 1888, for the second time, Rizal sailed to Hongkong as a frustrated being
who wanted the utmost reform in his native land. Terrero’s former secretary, Jose Sainz
de Varranda, followed Rizal in the said British colony, and was believed to be
commissioned by the Spanish authorities to spy on the hero. After almost three weeks, on
board the American steamer, Oceanic, he left Hongkong and sailed to Japan where he was
invited by Secretary Juan Perez Caballero to live at the Spanish Legation. His instinct
told him that it was a bait – a way for the Spanish officials to keep track of his activities.
And since it was economical to stay at the legation and he believed that he had nothing to
hide, he accepted it. Rizal was impressed by the scenic Japan and had keenly observed
the life, customs and culture of the people. He had fallen in love not only with the view
but more to its women, particularly with the 23-year old O-Sei-San (a.k.a. Usui Seiko).
· February 3, 1888 – after a short stay of six months in Calamba, Rizal was forced to leave
his country for a second time. Rizal left Manila for Hongkong on board the Zafiro. He
was sick and sad to leave Calamba.
· February 7, 1888 – the steamer made a brief stopover at Amoy. But he got off the ship he
was not feeling well and that the city was dirty.
· February 8, 1888 – he arrived in Hongkong. He stayed at Victoria Hotel. Accordingly, it
was a small but very clean city. He was welcomed by Filipino residents like Jose Maria
Basa, Balbino Mauricio and Manuel Yriarte. There were other Filipinos in Hongkong but
they were generally poor, gentle and timid. He observed the noisy celebration of the
Chinese New Year due to the continuous explosions of firecrackers, the noisy audience
and music in a Chinese theatre.
· February 18, 1888 – Rizal and Basa visited Macao. They boarded the ferry steamer, Ku-
Kiang. The city was small,low and gloomy. There were many junks, sampans, but few
steamers. The city looked sad and dead. They stayed at the house of Don Juan Francisco
Lecaros. They also visited the theatre, casino, cathedral, churches, pagodas, botanical
gardens and bazaars.
· February 20, 1888 – after their two-day sojourn in Macao, Rizal and Basa returned to
Hongkong on board again on the steamer Ku-Kiang.
· February 21, 1888 – Rizal and Basa went back to Hongkong. Rizal stayed in Hongkong
for almost two weeks. While in Hongkong, Jose Sainz de Varonda, a Spaniard, was
commissioned by the Spanish authorities to spy on Rizal.

Sail to the West

· Rizal was almost tempted to settle in Japan with O-Sei-San, but on April 13, 1888, Rizal
boarded the English steamer, Belgic bound for the United States, reaching the land on
April 28. He visited San Francisco, left it on the second day for Oklahoma, then to
Sacramento, then to Reno, and finally to New York. On May 16, 1888 the ship, City of
Rome sailed for Liverpool and where he decided to stay in London until March 1899.
Rizal chose to stay in London so that he could improve his English skills, study and do an
annotation of Antonio Morga's Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas and because he believed that
the said English city was a safe place for him to carry on the reforms he wanted for the
Philippines. He stayed at Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor's home and boarded at the Beckett
family where he fell in love with
· February 22, 1888 – Rizal left Hongkong alone on board the Oceanic, American steamer
to Japan his next destination. Rizal liked the ship because it was clean and efficiently
managed but did not like the meals on board. Other passengers of the ship were two
Portuguese, two Chinese, several British and an American woman Protestant missionary.
His cabin mate was a British Protestant missionary who lived in China for 27 years.
· February 28, 1888 – Rizal arrived in Yokohama, Japan and registered at the Grand Hotel.
· February 29, 1888 – he proceeded to Tokyo and took a room at Tokyo Hotel where he
stayed for 6 days. Japan was to him the “Land of the Cherry Blossoms” because of its
natural beauty and the charming manners of the Japanese people.
· He visited by Juan Perez Caballero, secretary of the Spanish legation. He wrote a letter to
Ferdinand Blumentritt, sharing his observation in Japan.
· During his first day in Tokyo, Japan, Rizal was embarrassed because he didn’t know the
Japanese language. To avoid further embarrassment, he decided to study the Japanese
language and a few days, he was able to speak the language.
· He also studied Kabuki, visited museum, libraries, art galleries and shrines, and villages.
He was impressed by the beauty of Tokyo, but he was not impressed with the mode of
transportation because the rickshaws were drawn by men, which made Rizal disgusted
because human were working like horses.
· He also met Seiko Usui but Rizal called her as O-Sei-San. They also met daily as they
visited interesting spots of the city, like the Imperial Art Gallery, the Imperial Library, the
city parks and picturesque shrines. She served as his guide, interpreter and tutor.
· April 13, 1888 – Rizal boarded the Belgic, an English steamer bound for the United
States. He left Japan very sad because he would never see again the beautiful land and his
beloved O-Sei-San. His sojourn in Japan for 45days was one of the happiest interludes in
Rizal’s life.
· On board the Belgic, he met a passenger, Techo Suchero, a Japanese newspaperman who
was jailed in his country for his articles and principles and was exiled. The ship carried
643 Chinese people and other nationalities.

Across the Atlantic - USA

· April 28, 1888 – Rizal and Techo arrived in San Francisco Port on Saturday morning of
April 28. All passengers were not allowed to land because the ship was placed on a
quarantine on the ground that it came form the Far East where cholera epidemic was
alleged to be raging.
· He soon discovered that placing the ship under quarantine was prompted by politics.
· After a week of quarantine, all first class passengers, including Rizal were permitted to
land but the Chinese and Japanese passengers of the second and third class
accommodations was remained on board.
· May 4, 1888 – it was the day when Rizal and other passengers were permitted to land.
Rizal registered at the Palace Hotel.
· May 6, 1888 – Rizal left San Francisco to Oakland by ferry boat. In Oakland, he took his
supper at Sacramento for 75 cents and slept in his coach.
· May 7, 1888 – Rizal boarded a train for a trip across the continent.
· Reno, Nevada (May 7); Utah, Ogden, Denver (May 8);
· Colorado (May 9); Nebraska (May 10);
· Chicago (May 11); Canada (May 12);
· Albany (May 13) and travel to New York City. Mylene
· May 13, 1888 – Rizal reached New York and stayed for 3 days. Rizal called it as “The
Big Town”. He visited the memorial George Washington, and other scenic and historic
· May 16, 1888 – he left New York for Liverpool and board the City of Rome. He also
visited the Colossal Statue of Liberty on Bedloe Island. Rizal’s Impressions of America
1. Progressive nation
2. People were energetic and hard-working
3. Better opportunities for immigrants
4. Racial prejudice
5. Freedom and democracy were only in words, not practiced
6. No true liberty

In Great Britain

· In London, Rizal received both good news and bad news from home. The good news was
that Rev. Vicente Garcia was defending his Noli from the attacks of the friars. On the
other hand, the bad news were that the Filipino signatories of the “Petition of 1888” and
the tenants of the Calamba agrarian trouble were facing persecution; that his brothers-in-
law, Manuel T. Hidalgo and Mariano Herbosa, were exiled to Bohol and was denied
Christian burial, respectively; and his friend, Laureano Viado, a UST medical student,
was imprisoned for possessing a copy of his Noli. During his stay in this country, Rizal
also made used of his time in writing essays and articles for the La Solidaridad. On June
12, 1889, with Filipino and Spanish friends, they founded the Asociacion Hispano-
Filipino which aimed for union and reforms. After ten months, Rizal left London and
departed for Paris.
· May 25, 1888 – he went to London and stayed there for a short time as a guest at the
home of Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor (lawyer).
· He boarded at Becket family, and being close to Gertrude Becket.
· He spent Sundays in the house of Dr. Reinhold Rost, and played crickets with Dr. Rost
· He also spent much of his time in the British Museum annotating Morga’s book, Sucesos
de los Islas Filipinas (Historical Events of the Philippine Islands).
· For 10 months, he was deeply immensed in his historical studies in London.
· Persecution of the Filipino patriots who signed the petition addressed to the Queen
Regent of Spain requesting the expulsion of the friars in the Philippines.
· Attacks on Rizal by Senator Salamanca and Vida in the Spanish Cortes and Wenceslao
· Persecution of the Rizal’s family and other Calamba farmers for their courage to petition
the government for agrarian.
· Exile of Manuel Hidalgo without due process.
· Arrest and jailing of Rizal’s friend – Lauriano Viado, for the copies of Noli found in his
In France

· In Paris, Rizal continued his study on various languages and practiced his artistic skills,
and finished two statues - “The Beggar” and “The Maid With A Basket.” He organized a
social club called Kidlat Club which brought together young Filipinos residing in France.
Soon, the members of the said club founded a new Filipino society – the Indios Bravos,
an organization which envisioned Filipinos being recognized by Spain for being excellent
in various fields of knowledge.
· September, 1888 – Rizal visited Paris for a week and visited his Juan Luna and his wife
Paz Pardo de Tavera with their son Andres.
· December 11, 1888 – he went again to Spain and visited Madrid and Barcelona. He went
to visit his compatriots Marcelo H. Del Pilar and Marciano Ponce. They exchanged ideas
and promised to cooperate in the fight for reforms.
· December 24, 1888 – he returned to London and spent Christmas and New Year with the
Becket family.
· December 31, 1888 – the Associacion de La Solidaridad was inaugurated, Rizal served as
the Honorary President; Galicano Apacible (President); Graciano Lopez-Jaena (VP);
Manuel Santa Maria (Secretary); Mariano Ponce (Treasurer); Jose Ma. Panganiban
· January 14, 1889 – Rizal wrote Blumentritt of his proposal to establish the “Inauguration
Association of the Filipinologist” and have its inauguration in the French capital.
Blumentritt gladly supported him.
· January 28, 1889 – Rizal a letter addressed to the members of the Associacion de La
Solidaridad recognizing his position as Honorary President. On his letter, he stressed that
the individual should give way to the welfare of society and he should nor expect
rewards/honours for what he does.
· February 15, 1889 – Graciano Lopez-Jaena and Mariano Ponce was founded newspaper,
called as La Solidaridad in Barcelona – the official organ of the Propaganda Movement.

In Belgium

· With his roommate, Jose Albert, Rizal celebrated Christmas in Paris. Shortly after New
Year, he visited London for the last time and on January 28, 1890, left Paris for Brussels.
With Albert, they left the extravagant and gay social life in Paris and stayed in a boarding
house owned by the Jacoby sisters in Brussels. Rizal continued contributing for La
Solidaridad under the pseudonyms Dimas Alang and Laong Laan. From Calamba, Rizal
received letters telling that the agrarian trouble in the province was getting worse, and as
such, he decided to go home. But instead of going home, a letter from Paciano told him
that they already lost the case against the Dominicans and they were in need of a lawyer
who would defend their family and the families in Calamba from Madrid. Rizal traveled
to Madrid to seek justice but in vain – he could not find the right person and he heard that
his family was already evicted from their land in Calamba and other family members
were banished to Mindoro and Manila.

In Spain
· Rizal had many misadventures in Madrid. For one, he challenged Antonio Luna and
Wenceslao Retana in a duel. With Luna, it was about the latter's frustration with his
unsuccessful “love affair” with Nellie Boustead, and so gave negative remarks on the
lady which Rizal did not tolerated. The other encounter was with Retana who had
insulted Rizal and his family by writing in La Epoca, an anti-Filipino newspaper, that the
Rizal family in Calamba was ejected from their lands because they did not pay their rents.
It is also from this city where Rizal heard the news of Leonor Rivera's marriage with
Henry Kipping, an Englishman, which terrible broke his heart.
· Another marked event in Madrid was the Marcelo H. del Pilar-Jose Rizal rivalry for
leadership in the Asociacion Hispano Filipino. A faction emerged from the Filipinos in
Madrid, the Rizalistas and Pilaristas, Rizal and del Pilar's compatriots, respectively,
during the organization's election. Losing the election, Rizal decided to go back home,
fearing that his presence may result to bigger and stronger faction among the Filipinos in
Madrid. But instead of going straight to Hongkong, he went back to Brussels to finish his
second novel, the El Filibusterismo. (For a detailed discussion regarding the novel, click

Back in Hongkong

· After the Fili was published, Rizal left Europe. Aboard the S.S. Melbourne, he sailed to
Hongkong where he lived for seven months. His reasons for venturing to Hongkong were
the following: to leave behind his rivalry with del Pilar; to facilitate a Propaganda
Movement in Hongkong; and to be proximate to his family in the Philippines.
· On November 20, 1891, Rizal arrived in Hongkong and was cordially welcomed by the
Filipino residents in the city, particularly, his friend Jose Ma. Basa. He resided at No. 5 D'
Aguilar Street, No. 2 Rednaxela Terrace and opened a medical clinic there. Rizal had a
continued correspondence with his family in Calamba and had been aware of the
unsettled agrarian problem. Through a letter from his brother-in-law, Manuel T. Hidalgo,
he had been informed of the deportation of twenty-five persons in Calamba, including the
Rizal family. This news made Rizal even more desperate to return to Manila, but his
sorrow was replaced by surprise when his family visited him in Hongkong and celebrated
the 1891 Christmas with him.
· While in Hongkong, Rizal practiced his medical career. With the help of his friend, Dr.
Lorenzo P. Marquez, they built a large clientèle and opened a medical clinic where he
was recognized as an excellent eye surgeon. He was equally supported and aided both
morally and financially by his family and friends with his chosen career.
· Another marked event during Rizal's stay in Hongkong was his plan to move the landless
Filipinos to Borneo and transform the said wilderness into a “New Calamba” through the
so called Borneo Colonization Project. In April 1892, he visited Borneo and negotiated
with the British authorities who are willing to provide 100,000 acres of land for the
Filipinos. Many Filipino patriots found this project amusing, thus, promoted the said
project. However, there were a number who objected it, one of which was Rizal's brother-
in-law, Hidalgo. Twice did Rizal wrote a letter addressed to Governor General Eulogio
Despujol informing his Borneo colonization project, with whom he received no response.
Instead, Despujol commanded the Spanish consul-general in Hongkong to notify Rizal
that such project was very unpatriotic, and by immigrating Filipinos to Borneo, the
Philippines will surely be lacking of laborers.
· Despite the many oppositions from friends and relatives, he decided to return to Manila
on the following reasons: to discuss with Governor General Despujol his Borneo
colonization project; to form the La Liga Filipina in the Philippines; and to prove that
Eduardo de Lete's allegations on him and his family in Calamba were wrong.
· Before his departure, he wrote three more letters – the first addressed to his parents and
friends; the second one, to the Filipinos; and the last to Governor General Eulogio
Despujol. Instead of having the protection he desired, Rizal and his sister, Lucia, fell into
the Spanish trap – a case was secretly filed against Rizal, and Despujol ordered his
secretary, Luis de la Torre, to verify whether the patriot had naturalized himself as
German citizen or not. And so the siblings sailed across the China Sea without prior
knowledge of what awaits them in the Philippines.

Relationship and Ventures

· José Rizal's life is one of the most documented of 19th century Filipinos due to the vast
and extensive records written by and about him. Almost everything in his short life is
recorded somewhere, being himself a regular diarist and prolific letter writer, much of the
material having survived. His biographers, however, have faced difficulty in translating
his writings because of Rizal's habit of switching from one language to another.
· They drew largely from his travel diaries with their insights of a young Asian
encountering the West for the first time. They included his later trips, home and back
again to Europe through Japan and the United States, and, finally, through his self-
imposed exile in Hong Kong.
· Shortly after he graduated from the Ateneo Municipal de Manila (now Ateneo de Manila
University), Rizal (who was then 16 years old) and a friend, Mariano Katigbak, came to
visit Rizal's maternal grandmother in Tondo, Manila. Mariano brought along his sister,
Segunda Katigbak, a 14-year-old Batangueña from Lipa, Batangas. It was the first time
they met and Rizal described Segunda as "rather short, with eyes that were eloquent and
ardent at times and languid at others, rosy–cheeked, with an enchanting and provocative
smile that revealed very beautiful teeth, and the air of a sylph; her entire self diffused a
mysterious charm." His grandmother's guests were mostly college students and they
knew that Rizal had skills in painting. They suggested that Rizal should make a portrait
of Segunda. He complied reluctantly and made a pencil sketch of her. Unfortunately for
him, Katigbak was engaged to Manuel Luz.
· From December 1891 to June 1892, Rizal lived with his family in Number 2 of
Rednaxela Terrace, Mid-levels, Hong Kong Island. Rizal used 5 D'Aguilar Street, Central
district, Hong Kong Island, as his ophthalmologist clinic from 2 pm to 6 pm. This period
of his life included his recorded affections of which nine were identified. They were
Gertrude Beckett of Chalcot Crescent (London), wealthy and high-minded Nelly
Boustead of the English and Iberian merchant family, last descendant of a noble Japanese
family Seiko Usui (affectionately called O-Sei-san), his earlier friendship with Segunda
Katigbak, Leonor Valenzuela, and eight-year romantic relationship with a distant cousin,
Leonor Rivera (popularly thought to be the inspiration for the character of María Clara in
Noli me tangere).

· Rizal, the Romantic

· There were at least nine women linked with Rizal; namely Segunda Katigbak, Leonor
Valenzuela, Leonor Rivera, Consuelo Ortiga, O-Sei San, Gertrude Beckette, Nelly
Boustead, Suzanne Jacoby and Josephine Bracken. These women might have been
beguiled by his intelligence, charm and wit.

Segunda Katigbak and Leonor Valenzuela

· Segunda Katigbak was her puppy love. Unfortunately, his first love was engaged to be
married to a town mate- Manuel Luz. After his admiration for a short girl in the person of
Segunda, then came Leonor Valenzuela, a tall girl from Pagsanjan. Rizal send her love
notes written in invisible ink, that could only be deciphered over the warmth of the lamp
or candle. He visited her on the eve of his departure to Spain and bade her a last goodbye.

Leonor Rivera
· Leonor Rivera, his sweetheart for 11 years played the greatest influence in keeping him
from falling in love with other women during his travel. Unfortunately, Leonor’s mother
disapproved of her daughter’s relationship with Rizal, who was then a known filibustero.
She hid from Leonor all letters sent to her sweetheart. Leonor believing that Rizal had
already forgotten her, sadly consented her to marry the Englishman Henry Kipping, her
mother’s choice.

Consuelo Ortiga
· Consuelo Ortiga y Rey, the prettier of Don Pablo Ortiga’s daughters, fell in love with
him. He dedicated to her A la Senorita C.O. y R., which became one of his best poems.
The Ortiga's residence in Madrid was frequented by Rizal and his compatriots. He
probably fell in love with her and Consuelo apparently asked him for romantic verses. He
suddenly backed out before the relationship turned into a serious romance, because he
wanted to remain loyal to Leonor Rivera and he did not want to destroy hid friendship
with Eduardo de Lete who was madly in love with Consuelo.

O Sei San
· O Sei San, a Japanese samurai’s daughter taught Rizal the Japanese art of painting known
as su-mie. She also helped Rizal improve his knowledge of Japanese language. If Rizal
was a man without a patriotic mission, he would have married this lovely and intelligent
woman and lived a stable and happy life with her in Japan because Spanish legation there
offered him a lucrative job.

Gertrude Beckett
· While Rizal was in London annotating the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, he boarded in
the house of the Beckett family, within walking distance of the British Museum.
Gertrude, a blue-eyed and buxom girl was the oldest of the three Beckett daughters. She
fell in love with Rizal. Tottie helped him in his painting and sculpture. But Rizal suddenly
left London for Paris to avoid Gertrude, who was seriously in love with him. Before
leaving London, he was able to finish the group carving of the Beckett sisters. He gave
the group carving to Gertrude as a sign of their brief relationship.

Nellie Boustead
· Rizal having lost Leonor Rivera, entertained the thought of courting other ladies. While a
guest of the Boustead family at their residence in the resort city of Biarritz, he had
befriended the two pretty daughters of his host, Eduardo Boustead. Rizal used to fence
with the sisters at the studio of Juan Luna. Antonio Luna, Juan’s brother and also a
frequent visitor of the Bousteads, courted Nellie but she was deeply infatuated with Rizal.
In a party held by Filipinos in Madrid, a drunken Antonio Luna uttered unsavory remarks
against Nellie Boustead. This prompted Rizal to challenge Luna into a duel. Fortunately,
Luna apologized to Rizal, thus averting tragedy for the compatriots.

Their love affair unfortunately did not end in marriage. It failed because Rizal refused to be
converted to the Protestant faith, as Nellie demanded and Nellie’s mother did not like a physician
without enough paying clientele to be a son-in-law. The lovers, however, parted as good friends
when Rizal left Europe.

Suzanne Jacoby
· In 1890, Rizal moved to Brussels because of the high cost of living in Paris. In Brussels,
he lived in the boarding house of the two Jacoby sisters. In time, they fell deeply in love
with each other. Suzanne cried when Rizal left Brussels and wrote him when he was in

Josephine Bracken
· In the last days of February 1895, while still in Dapitan, Rizal met an 18-year old petite
Irish girl, with bold blue eyes, brown hair and a happy disposition. She was Josephine
Bracken, the adopted daughter of George Taufer from Hong Kong, who came to Dapitan
to seek Rizal for eye treatment. Rizal was physically attracted to her. His loneliness and
boredom must have taken the measure of him and what could be a better diversion that to
fall in love again. But the Rizal sisters suspected Josephine as an agent of the friars and
they considered her as a threat to Rizal’s security.

Rizal asked Josephine to marry him, but she was not yet ready to make a decision due to her
responsibility to the blind Taufer. Since Taufer’s blindness was untreatable, he left for Hon Kong
on March 1895. Josephine stayed with Rizal’s family in Manila. Upon her return to Dapitan,
Rizal tried to arrange with Father Antonio Obach for their marriage. However, the priest wanted
a retraction as a precondition before marrying them. Rizal upon the advice of his family and
friends and with Josephine’s consent took her as his wife even without the Church blessings.
Josephine later give birth prematurely to a stillborn baby, a result of some incidence, which
might have shocked or frightened her.

Works and writings

· Rizal wrote mostly in Spanish, the lingua franca of the Spanish Philippines, though some
of his letters (for example Sa Mga Kababaihang Taga Malolos) were written in Tagalog.
His works have since been translated into a number of languages including Tagalog and

Novels and essays

· Noli Me Tángere, novel, 1887 (literally Spanish for 'touch me not', from John 20:17)
· El Filibusterismo, (novel, 1891), sequel to Noli Me Tángere
· Alin Mang Lahi" ("Whate'er the Race"), a Kundiman attributed to Dr. José Rizal
· The Friars and the Filipinos (Unfinished)
· Toast to Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo (Speech, 1884), given at Restaurante Ingles,
· The Diaries of José Rizal
· Rizal's Letters is a compendium of Dr. Jose Rizal's letters to his family members,
Blumentritt, Fr. Pablo Pastells and other reformers
· "Come se gobiernan las Filipinas" (Governing the Philippine islands)
· Filipinas dentro de cien años essay, 1889–90 (The Philippines a Century Hence)
· La Indolencia de los Filipinos, essay, 1890 (The indolence of Filipinos)
· Makamisa unfinished novel
· Sa Mga Kababaihang Taga Malolos, essay, 1889, To the Young Women of Malolos
· Annotations to Antonio de Moragas, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (essay, 1889, Events in
the Philippine Islands)


· A La Juventud Filipina
· El Canto Del Viajero
· Briayle Crismarl
· Canto Del Viajero
· Canto de María Clara
· Dalit sa Paggawa
· Felicitación
· Kundiman (Tagalog)
· Me Piden Versos
· Mi primera inspiracion
· Mi Retiro
· Mi Ultimo Adiós
· Por La Educación (Recibe Lustre La Patria)
· Sa Sanggol na si Jesus
· To My Muse (A Mi Musa)
· Un Recuerdo A Mi Pueblo
· A Man in Dapitan
· Plays
· El Consejo de los Dioses (The council of Gods)
· Junto Al Pasig (Along the Pasig)
· San Euistaquio, Mártyr (Saint Eustache, the martyr)

Other works

· Rizal also tried his hand at painting and sculpture. His most famous sculptural work was
"The Triumph of Science over Death", a clay sculpture of a naked young woman with
overflowing hair, standing on a skull while bearing a torch held high. The woman
symbolized the ignorance of humankind during the Dark Ages, while the torch she bore
symbolized the enlightenment science brings over the whole world. He sent the sculpture
as a gift to his dear friend Ferdinand Blumentritt, together with another one named "The
Triumph of Death over Life".
· The woman is shown trampling the skull, a symbol of death, to signify the victory the
humankind achieved by conquering the bane of death through their scientific
advancements. The original sculpture is now displayed at the Rizal Shrine Museum at
Fort Santiago in Intramuros, Manila. A large replica, made of concrete, stands in front of
Fernando Calderón Hall, the building which houses the College of Medicine of the
University of the Philippines Manila along Pedro Gil Street in Ermita, Manila.

Collaboration with other Heroes

· He received Bachelor of Arts in Ateneo (1881), afterwards he studied literature,
chemistry, and pharmacy at the UST. He also obtained a licentiate (at Universidad de
Barcelona) and doctorate (at Universidad Central de Madrid) in Pharmacy.
· He collaborated with other Filipino expatriates like Rizal in working for the Propaganda
Movement. Writing for La Solidaridad, he once contributed the article ‗Impressions‘
which discussed Spanish unique traditions and customs under the pen- name ‗Taga-ilog‘.
He also managed the paper La Independencia.
· Luna was good in sharpshooting, swords and military ability.
· Rizal challenged him for a duel for the chance to court Nellie Boustead, eventually Luna
surrendered and Rizal formally courted Boustead.
· He turned down the invitation of the Katipunan, believing that reform was better than
revolution. But when the Spanish authorities had known about the Katipunan and its
plans, the Luna brothers were arrested and locked up in Fort Santiago for supposed
involvement in the society.
· He studied various aspects of military science like guerrilla warfare, management, and
field fortifications. Eventually, he joined Aguinaldo‘s cause in the Philippine-American
war. Assigned by Aguinaldo as commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army, Luna
founded the country‘s first military academy, formed professional guerrilla soldiers
which was later known as the ‗Luna sharpshooters,‘ and designed the three-tier defense
(Luna Defense Line) which gave the opponents a hard campaign in Central Luzon.
· He was killed on June 5, 1899 by Filipino captain Pedro Janolino and other elements of
the Kawit troop.
· The overpowering feeling of patriotism got the better of Ponce that he quit his studies to
join the Filipino Movement in Spain. He co- founded the ‗La Solidaridad,‘ served as
secretary of the Propaganda Movement, and became head of the Literary Section of the
Asociacion Hispano-Filipina.
· He used various aliases like Naning Kalipulako and ‗Tigbalang. Through his writings, he
disclosed the sad condition of Filipinos under Spanish government, attacked the rulers‘
abuses, and fought for reforms and equality. } In 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo chose Ponce to
represent the newly- founded First Philippine Republic and commissioned him to design
a framework of the revolutionary government. Assigned later as a representative of the
First Republic to Japan, Ponce went to Japan to seek aid.
· In Japan, he met, negotiated with, and became a close friend of Sun Yat-Sen, the founder
and First President of the Chinese Republic. Through Dr. Sun‘s assistance, Ponce had
procured weapons for the Philippine revolution, though the shipment failed to reach the
Philippines because of a typhoon off the coast of Formosa.
· In 1917, he published his ‗Ang Wika at Lahi,‘ a discussion on the significance of a
having a national language. He was most likely influenced by Rizal‘s interest in having a
distinct Filipino language. In Rizal‘s August 18, 1888 letter, he informed Ponce, ―The
new Tagalog orthography (a system of spelling) that we are using is perfectly in accord
with the ancient writing and with the Sanskrit origin of many Tagalog words as I have
found out through my research in the British Museum.
· He died in the Government Civil Hospital in Hong Kong on May 23, 1918
· Mariano Ponce was bornto Mariano Ponce Sr. and Mariana Collantes de los Santos in
Baliwag, Bulacan on March 23, 1863. After completing his primary education in his
hometown, he enrolled at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran.
· He afterward took up medicine at the University of Santo Tomas when Rizal was also
attending classes in the institution. In 1881, Ponce left for Spain to continue his medical
studies at the Unversidad Central de Madrid, where Rizal would also enroll as medicine
student the following year.
· In Europe, he met the great Filipino propagandists: Jose Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaena,
and Marcelo H. del Pilar. The overpowering feeling of patriotism got the better of Ponce
that he quit his studies to join the Filipino Movement in Spain (“Philippine heroes—
Mariano Ponce,” n.d.) With Lopez Jaena, he co-founded the ‘La Solidaridad,’ served as
secretary of the Propaganda Movement, and became head of the Literary Section of the
Asociacion Hispano-Filipina.
· As a propagandist, he used various aliases like ‘Naning’ (his nickname), ‘Kalipulako’
(from ‘Lapu-Lapu’), and ‘Tigbalang’ (a supernatural being in Filipino folklore). Through
his writings, he disclosed the sad condition of Filipinos under Spanish government,
attacked the rulers’ abuses, and fought for reforms and equality.
· He actively corroborated with other Filipino patriots like Rizal and Del Pilar and kept
correspondence with them. In fact, Ponce was the one who introduced Del Pilar to Rizal.
Jose Rizal one day received a letter from Ponce with enclosed articles written by a certain
‘Plaridel.’ Impressed by the articles, Rizal wrote to Ponce, “I am very grateful to you for
this … Who is Plaridel?” (“The Love-and-Hate Relationship,” 2013) Upon knowing
Plaridel’s identity through Ponce, Rizal had then befriended Del Pilar (Plaridel) through
correspondence. However, it was only in December 1888 when Rizal first met Ponce and
Del Pilar when he (Rizal) visited his compatriots in Madrid and Barcelona.
· Ponce willingly helped Rizal in the distribution of the Noli Me Tangere. In his letter
dated August 18, 1888, Rizal asked Ponce, “Please send me two or three copies of the
Noli… for I am going to begin the continuation. Try to send to Manila as many copies as
you can. They sell well there…you will get one-half of the sale there.” Ponce’s August
25, 1888 reply read, “I continue sending copies of the Noli to the Philippines through
every possible means. By so doing, I am only filling the orders that I receive. (“Rizal and
Other Reformers [1888],” n.d.)
· Through Ponce’s letters to Rizal, we could also glean that Ponce was also close to
Ferdinand Blumentritt, the Austrian professor whom Rizal considered as his “best,
dearest friend.” In Ponce’s July 4, 188 letter, he told Rizal, “Mr. Blumentritt has already
informed me of the grand reception that the Noli me Tangere had in Germany… This
good and learned professor also told me that he was busy translating it into German”
(“Rizal and Other Reformers [1888],” n.d.).
· Poncemust have been so proud to become Rizal’s friend, especially that the author of
Noli had become so popular among Filipinos after the novel’s publication. In his August
25, 1888 letter, he said to Rizal, “Many friends ask me to send you their greetings. My
family, who also sends your greetings, wished to have a picture of you, and so I wish to
request you to comply with this desire when you have your picture taken” (“Rizal and
Other Reformers [1888],” n.d.).
· During the election for ‘Responsable’ among Filipinos in Madrid in February 1891, Rizal
got the majority of the votes but the count fell short of the required two-thirds vote to be
declared the winner. Rizal won again on the second day, but his votes did not reach again
the needed fraction. On the third day, the very sensible Mariano Ponce appealed to some
Pilaristas to surrender their will to what the majority wanted. Ponce’s influence and wise
move resulted in Rizal’s becoming the ‘legal’ Responsible, though he (Rizal) eventually
decided to politely abdicate his leadership and leave Madrid.
· When the Katipunan launched the revolution on August 1896, Ponce was arrested and
locked up for 48 hours. Upon release, he fled to France to avoid another arrest. He later
traveled to Hong Kong and corroborated with other Filipinos and Filipino-Chinese in the
Junta Revolution.
· In 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo chose Ponce to represent the newly-founded First Philippine
Republic and commissioned him to design a framework of the revolutionary government.
Assigned later as a representative of the First Republic to Japan, Ponce went to Japan to
seek aid. In Japan, he met, negotiated with, and became a close friend of Sun Yat-Sen, the
founder and First President of the Chinese Republic. Through Dr. Sun’s assistance, Ponce
had procured weapons for the Philippine revolution, though the shipment failed to reach
the Philippines because of a typhoon off the coast of Formosa.
· Ponce returned to the Philippines with his Japanese wife, Okiyo Udanwara.
· He was later elected assemblyman for Bulacan’s second district in the Philippine
Assemblyand Speaker Osmeña appointed him chairman of the Committee on Libraries of
the Philippine Assembly.
· In 1917, he published his ‘Ang Wika at Lahi,’ a discussion on the significance of a having
a national language. He was most likely influenced by Rizal’s interest in having a distinct
Filipino language. In Rizal’s August 18, 1888 letter, he informed Ponce, “The new
Tagalog orthography (a system of spelling) that we are using is perfectly in accord with
the ancient writing and with the Sanskrit origin of many Tagalog words as I have found
out through my research in the British Museum. Adopt it.” Ponce’s August 25, 1888 reply
happily notified Rizal, “My family and I have already adopted the new Tagalog
orthography and we write each other in it. My friends are also adopting it.”
· Before his death in the Government Civil Hospital in Hong Kong on May 23, 1918,
Ponce had written and published his memoirs, “Cartas Sobre La Revolucion” (Letters on
the Revolution). His remains are now interred in the Cementerio del Norte, Manila. The
public national high school located in Bagong Nayon Baliuag, Bulacan was named after
· Mariano Ponce was the one who gave the title “Mi Ultimo Pensamiento”(My Last
Thought) to the last and most celebrated, but originally untitled, poem of his dear friend
Jose Rizal. Today though,the poem is conventionally referred to as “Mi Ultimo Adios”
(My Last Farewell).

· At the age of 18, he anonymously wrote a satire, ―Fray Botod (Big Bellied Friar)‖ which
revealed the friars greed, immorality, cruelty, and false piety. This incensed the Spanish
clergy and authorities but they could not prove that Lopez Jaena was its author. He got
into deep trouble, however, when he refused to testify that some prisoners died of natural
causes for he knew that they had died at the hands of the mayor of Pototan. When threats
were made on his life, he left for Spain in 1880.
· He took medical courses at the University of Valencia. His thirst for reforms nonetheless
took him away from medical studies into writing for patriotic cause and establishing the
genesis of the Propaganda Movement two years ahead of Rizal and nine years before
Marcelo Del Pilar. Rizal once reproved Graciano for not finishing his medical studies
· He became known as a great orator in socio-political clubs and thus became a member of
the Progressive Republican Party. Deputized by the party to go on speaking engagements,
Jaena became popular for his fiery and eloquent speeches espousing liberal ideas.
· With a round of drinks, he would artistically craft very impressive patriotic articles.
· Jose Rizal invited him to join the Kidlat Club in Paris, France, through a mail, saying the
appreciation of them to him.
· He died because of tuberculosis at age of 39 (January 20, 1896).
· Graciano Lopez Jaena (December 18, 1856-January 20, 1896) was a Filipino
propagandist, journalist, and orator. He founded the fortnightly patriotic newspaper, La
Solidaridad, of which he became the first editor.
· Lopez Jaena was born to a poor couple, a general repairman and a seamstress in Jaro,
Iloilo. At the age of six, he was placed under the guidance of a priest who noticed his
intellectual capacity and special gift of speech. He finished high school as the best
theologian in a local seminary.
· His mother wanted him to become a priest but Graciano preferred medicine. He tried to
study at the University of Santo Tomas but was denied, for what he finished in the
seminary was not equivalent to a bachelor’s degree. To learn medical practices, he was
nonetheless advised to serve as an apprentice instead at the San Juan de Dios Hospital.
· After two years as a hospital trainee, he returned to his hometown in Iloilo when his
family ran out of money for his allowance and further training. Without a physician
license, he dared to practice medicine and treated many patients for free.
· His visits with the poor and sick provided him various knowledge about the clerical and
colonial injustices inflicted among the natives. He counseled them and gave them hope
by sowing in their minds the idea of freedom. At the age of 18, he anonymously wrote a
satire, “Fray Botod (Big Bellied Friar)” which revealed the friars’ greed, immorality,
cruelty, and false piety. This incensed the Spanish clergy and authorities but they could
not prove that Lopez Jaena was its author. He got into deep trouble, however, when he
refused to testify that some prisoners died of natural causes for he knew that they had
died at the hands of the mayor of Pototan. When threats were made on his life, he left for
Spain in 1880.
· With financial support from his concerned friends, he took medical courses at the
University of Valencia. His thirst for reforms nonetheless took him away from medical
studies into writing for patriotic cause and establishing the genesis of the Propaganda
Movement two years ahead of Rizal and nine years before Marcelo Del Pilar. Rizal once
reproved Graciano for not finishing his medical studies. Jaena figuratively explained,
“On the shoulders of slaves should not rest a doctor’s cape.” Rizal however retorted,
“The shoulders do not honor the doctor's cape, but the doctor's cape honors the
shoulders.” (“Graciano Lopez Jaena,” n.d.).
· In Spain, Jaena became known as a great orator in socio-political clubs and thus became a
member of the Progressive Republican Party. Deputized by the party to go on speaking
engagements, Jaena became popular for his fiery and eloquent speeches espousing liberal
· Jaena wrote very well when drunk. With a round of drinks, he would artistically craft
very impressive patriotic articles. In 1888, he was offered to become the editor of a
Spanish paper in New York through the American Ambassador in Madrid. Declining the
offer, Jaena firmly said, “My brain and my pen belong to the Philippines, and not to any
foreign country.”
· Aside from his labors in La Solidaridad, he translated into Spanish some Visayan
folksongs like ‘Balitaw’ and ‘Lolay.’ He also wrote the novelettes ‘Esperanza’ (Hope) and
‘La Hija del Fraile’ (The Daughter of a Friar). Impressed of Jaena’s talents, Rizal once
described him, “the most talented Filipino I had ever known, even more superior than
· In Rizal’s letter dated March 1889, he invited Lopez Jaena to go to Paris and become a
member of the ‘Kidlat Club’ saying, “If you come, you will be made an exception and
you will not have to pay because here you are appreciated on account of your work for
the country.” In the same letter, he expressed his wholehearted support to Jaena’s La
Solidaridad and advised the editor on the way the patriotic paper must be run:
“...Conduct yourself as you have conducted yourself thus far, liberal and generous towards all,
and I assure you that everyone will support you. See that the newspaper does not stumble and
take care that the title of “Manager” does not make your head swell and make you treat your
friends with contempt, and thus allow discord to arise.
· Be economical, because who knows if the newspaper continues to live, it may become
your fortune. Treat it as if it were your first-born and only hope for it.
· All of us will support your efforts and I shall write to Madrid so that they may do the
… Be careful not to publish exaggerations or lies or imitate others who avail themselves of
dishonest means and of vulgar and ignoble language to attain their ends. See that the periodical
is just, honest, and truthful so that its opinion may always be respected. It is necessary that we
show our enemies that we are more worthy than they, morally and humanly speaking. Should we
tell the truth we shall have won our cause, because reason and justice are on our side. There is
no need for knaveries.
· Excuse me for giving such advice but the existence of that periodical is so dear to me that
I jump over polite conventionality...
· Jaena, Rizal, and Del Pilar are regarded by many historians as the triumvirate of Filipino
propagandists. At the age of 39, Lopez Jaena died of tuberculosis on January 20, 1896
and was buried the following day in an unmarked grave at the Cementerio del Sub-Oeste
of Barcelona. In the same year, Del Pilar (July 4) and Rizal (December 30) also died, thus
ending the great triumvirate of Filipino reformers. Their legacy and death nonetheless
inspired other Filipino heroes like Bonifacio and Aguinaldo to fight for the national
· Today, a public school in Iloilo City bears Jaena’s name, the “Graciano Lopez Jaena
Elementary School.” Republic Act No. 6155 also declares December 18 of every year an
official public holiday in the City and Province of Iloilo to commemorate the birth
anniversary of Jaena. The ‘Jaro Plaza; in Iloilo is now called ‘the Graciano Lopez Jaena

· He came from a rich family which was originally from Arayat, Pampanga. pursued
further studies in Spain and in Belgium where he had outstanding academic performance.
Eventually, he finished his degree in chemical engineering in July 1895.
· Alejandrino joined the Propaganda Movement and served as an editorial staff of La
Solidaridad. He supported Rizal in the Pilaristas- Rizalistas rivalry.
· Being Rizal‘s roommate in Belgium, Alejandrino was the one who canvassed printing
press for El Fili. For his assistance, Rizal gave him the El Fili‘s corrected proofs and the
pen used in doing the corrections. Unluckily, these historical souvenirs were either lost or
destroyed during the revolution. Having helped Rizal in correcting errors in the El Fili,
Alejandrino might have been the first person to read the novel aside from the author.
· He served as an engineer and general in the revolutionary army under Emilio Aguinaldo.
he went to Hong Kong to procure guns, ammunitions, and dynamites which would be
used in the Filipino revolutionary movement .
· Filipino – American War – he led the construction of trenches in areas like Caloocan and
Bulacan. He later served as acting secretary of war, appointed as Central Luzon‘s
commanding general of the military operations, and assigned as Pampanga‘s military
governor .
· At age 80, Jose Alejandrino died on June 1, 1951, some 55 years after his former
roommate‘s martyrdom.
· Born in Binondo, Manila on December 1, 1870, Jose Alejandrino was nine-year younger
than Jose Rizal. Alejandrino came from a rich family which was originally from Arayat,
· Alejandrino pursued further studies in Spain and in Belgium where he had outstanding
academic performance. At the University of Ghent in Belgium, he had as schoolmate
Edilberto Evangelista, another Filipino engineer who later also served in the revolution.
Alejandrino finished his degree in chemical engineering in July 1895.
· In Europe, Alejandrino joined the Propaganda Movement and served as an editorial staff
of La Solidaridad. In the Pilaristas-Rizalistas rivalry, Alejandrino supported Rizal
(“Filipino Martyr,” 2013).
· Being Rizal’s roommate in Belgium, Alejandrino was the one who canvassed printing
press for El Fili. He delivered proofs and revisions to the publisher F. Meyer van Loo in
Ghent. For his assistance, Rizal gave him the El Fili’s corrected proofs and the pen used
in doing the corrections. Unluckily, these historical souvenirs were either lost or
destroyed during the revolution (Ocampo, 2012, p. 111). Having helped Rizal in
correcting errors in the El Fili, Alejandrino might have been the first person to read the
novel aside from the author.
· During the revolution, Alejandrino served as an engineer and general in the revolutionary
army under Emilio Aguinaldo. In 1896, he went to Hong Kong to procure guns,
ammunitions, and dynamites which would be used in the Filipino revolutionary
movement (“Jose Alejandrino [revolutionary],” n.d.).
· During the Philippine-American War, Alejandrino led the construction of trenches in
areas like Caloocan and Bulacan. He later served as acting secretary of war, appointed as
Central Luzon’s commanding general of the military operations, and assigned as
Pampanga’s military governor (Dumindin, 2006).
· He became the second city engineer of Manila in August 1901 upon the offer of Gov.
William H. Taft. Holding the position for less than a year, he resigned and instead led a
farmer’s life. In 1925, Gov. Gen. Leonard Wood assigned him as senator for Sulu and
Mindanao. As a politician, Alejandrino became representative of Pampanga’s second
district to the Constitutional Convention in 1934 (Dumindin, 2006).
· In his letter to the editor of ‘The Philippine Magazine’ originally published in February
1941 (as cited in “Liham ng patotoo,” 2007), Alejandrino categorically stated his stand on
the debate whether or not Rizal retracted his anti-Catholic and anti-clerical views:
Certain representatives of the Roman Catholic Church have tried to discredit Dr. Rizal, attacking
the firmness of his convictions and the fortitude of his character with the fable of his "retraction".
· I lived with Dr. Rizal for a long time in Europe and in the intimacy of private life formed
a conception of the real character of the man. … It seems the Spaniards want to persecute
him even in the grave since they slander him by attributing to him confessions and
retractions of which he could not have been capable.
· At age 80, Jose Alejandrino died on June 1, 1951, some 55 years after his former
roommate’s martyrdom.

· He came from a poor family in Sta. Cruz, Manila and he had to work hard to have an
education. To get further education in Europe, he worked first as a cattle dealer, tobacco
merchant, teacher, and later a contractor of public works.
· Rizal counselled him to take engineering in Belgium. Upon the suggestion proved fruitful
as Evangelista finished civil engineering and architecture with highest honours. Some
European companies offered him rewarding positions but he turned them down for
wanting to serve his country instead.
· He was asked to draft a constitution by the Magdalo and Magdiwang—two rival factions
in the Katipunan on which he remained neutral. His composed constitution was accepted
at the Imus Assembly on December 31, 1896.
· He was described as either brave or just relaxed and stoic. He would draw trenches on the
ground even while the Spanish forces were firing bombs at them. When a shell dropped
near him one time, he did not bother to wince or run away, instead he simply brushed the
dirt off his clothes and proceeded drawing. - He nonetheless ―ran out of luck‖ when he
was soon killed during the Battle of Zapote Bridge on February 17, 1897. His military
post was succeeded by Miguel Malvar, the hero who could have been listed as the second
Philippine President for taking over the revolutionary government after Aguinaldo‘s
arrest in 1901.
· Being born on February 25, 1862, Edilberto Evangelista was eight-month younger than
Jose Rizal. Evangelista came from a poor family in Sta. Cruz, Manila and he had to work
hard to have an education. To get further education in Europe, he worked first as a cattle
dealer, tobacco merchant, teacher, and later a contractor of public works (Rojas, n.d.).
· Reaching Madrid in 1890, he befriended and collaborated with Filipino expatriates in
Europe like Jose Rizal. Perhaps sensing his potential, Rizal counseled him to take
engineering in Belgium. Upon Rizal’s advice, Evangelista thus matriculated at the
University of Ghent, one of the world’s leading engineering schools then. Rizal’s
suggestion proved fruitful as Evangelista finished civil engineering and architecture with
highest honors. Some European companies offered him rewarding positions but he turned
them down for wanting to serve his country instead (“Edilberto Evangelista,” 2013).
· During the 1896 Philippine revolution, the Spanish authorities suspected and arrested
many Filipinos for supposed involvement in the uprising. Evangelista, who had in his
possession Jose Rizal’s ‘Noli Me Tangere’ and ‘El Filibusterismo,’was one of those
arrested and imprisoned.
· Having escaped, he joined Emilio F. Aguinaldo’s revolutionary group on October 22,
1896.Known to be intellectual, he was asked to draft a constitution by the Magdalo and
Magdiwang—two rival factions in the Katipunan on which he remained neutral. His
composed constitution was accepted atthe Imus Assembly on December 31, 1896 in
which he was elected Lieutenant General (“Edilberto Evangelista,” 2013).
· The great Filipino engineer, who later became a general in the revolutionary army,
designed trenches as a defense against enemy fire. The defensive forts and barricades he
constructed in Binakayan, Bacoor, Imus, Cavite Viejo, Noveleta, Munting-ilog, Silang,
Dasmariñas, Salitran, and Lumang-bayan were said to have been dubbed as
“fortifications of the future” byone Spanish general (“Edilberto Evangelista,” 2013).
· Evangelista was described as either brave or just relaxed and stoic. He would draw
trenches on the ground even while the Spanish forces were firing bombs at them. When a
shell dropped near him one time, he did not bother to wince or run away, instead he
simply brushed the dirt off his clothes and proceeded drawing (“Edilberto Evangelista,”
2013). He nonetheless “ran out of luck” when he was soon killed during the Battle of
Zapote Bridge on February 17, 1897. His military post was succeeded by Miguel Malvar,
the hero who could have been listed as the second Philippine President for takingover the
revolutionary government after Aguinaldo’s arrest in 1901.
· On January 8, 1892, when Jose Rizal was living a relatively peaceful life in Hong Kong,
Edilberto Evangelista in Ghent took an effort to reach him through a letter. Perhaps
missing his adviser and wanting him to return to Europe, Evangelista wrote in part,
“those of the Propaganda have supported you in the question of the Filipino colony in
Madrid by offering you the management of Solidaridad with excellent conditions, as well
as the formulation of the policy of the Philippine Islands in Europe” (as cited in Yoder,
· One of the busy streets in Makati City today was named after Evangelista—the hero
whom Aguinaldo himself once publicly recommended to head the revolutionary
government for being “the most educated” in the organization and one who could
"command the respect of the Spaniards

· He joined Rizal‘s La Liga Filipina, being one of the 20 attendees in the meeting
administered by Rizal at the house of Doroteo Ongjunco at Ilaya Street, Tondo, Manila
on July 3, 1892.
· He founded the Katipunan on July 7, 1892, when Rizal was to be deported to Dapitan.
Considerably inspired by Jose Rizal, they elected him as honorary president and the
Katipuneros used his name as one of their passwords.
· Instead of using the old Spanish spelling of letter ―c‖ for the name of the society,
Bonifacio preferred the Tagalog spelling of ―k‖, as suggested by Rizal on his earlier La
Solidaridad article as a way of promoting nationalism.
· He used May Pag-asa as his pseudonym in the society. the Katipunan created its organ,
Kalayaan (Freedom) in which Bonifacio wrote several articles like the poem Pag-ibig sa
Tinubuang Lupa (Love for One´s Homeland) under the penname Agapito Bagumbayan.
· Together with Emilio Jacinto, and Guillermo Masangkay had entered the pier where
Rizal‘s ship was docked. Jacinto personally met with Rizal but the physician refused the
suggestion to escape and join Katipunan‘s imminent uprising.
· He wrote a Tagalog translation of the Mi Ultimo Adios entitled Pahimakas.
· He was first married to Monica who died of leprosy; then in 1893 to Gregoria de Jesus of
Caloocan. Gregoria and Andres had one son named Andres (Junior) who died of smallpox
at young age
· Bonifacio had read Jose Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. On July 3, 1892,
he joined Rizal’s La Liga Filipina, being one of the 20 attendees in the meeting
administered by Rizal at the house of Doroteo Ongjunco at Ilaya Street, Tondo,
Manila.When Rizal was exiled to Mindanao, Bonifacio and others revived La Liga in
Rizal’s absence, recruiting members for it.
· Disagreements on how reform must be attained soon emerged however as some members
wanted armed revolution whereas others liked a peaceful reform. The La Liga was thus
dissolved before long and its membership split into two groups: the ‘Cuerpo de
Compromisarios’ which comprised those who preferred peaceful reform, and the
‘Katipunan’ which consisted of the radicals led by Bonifacio. The ‘Cuerpo’ ultimately
died out while the Katipunan attracted many Filipinos.
· Bonifacio and his compatriots officially founded the Katipunan on July 7, 1892 when
Rizal was to be deported to Dapitan. Considerably inspired by Jose Rizal, they elected
him (Rizal) honorary president (without his knowledge) and the Katipuneros used his
name as one of their passwords. Moreover, instead of using the old Spanish spelling of
letter “c” for the name of the society, Bonifacio preferred the Tagalog spelling of “k”, as
suggested by Rizal on his earlier La Solidaridad article as a way of promoting
· Bonifacio, whose pseudonym in the society was ‘May Pag-asa’ (There is Hope), became
Katipunan’s Supremo (supreme leader) in 1895. Inspired by Rizal’s writings, the
Katipunan created its organ, ‘Kalayaan’ (Freedom) in which Bonifacio wrote several
articles like the poem ‘Pag-ibig sa Tinubúang Lupa’ (Love for One´s Homeland) under
the penname ‘Agapito Bagumbayan’.
· Being the Supremo, Bonifacio supervised a council meeting of Katipunan leaders in
Pasig on May 3, 1896. When the council decided to consult first Jose Rizal before
launching a revolution, Bonifacio sent Pio Valenzuela to Dapitan. Rizal nonetheless
politely refused to sanction the uprising, believing that a revolution would be
unsuccessful without arms and monetary support from wealthy Filipinos. He nonetheless
advised that if the Katipunan were to start a revolution, it had to ask for the support of
rich and educated Filipinos
· Although it was said that Bonifacio bluntly denounced Rizal as coward for his ambiguous
stand on revolution, he (Bonifacio) nonetheless used Rizal’s novels as an inspiration,
basis, and as a source of military tactics for the revolution. So influential was Rizal to the
Katipueros that theyshouted his name as part of the society’s battle cry.
· The Spanish authorities had known the existence of the Katipunan in August 1896 while
Rizal was quarantined aboard a ship in Manila Bay, waiting for the next ship that would
bring him to Cuba to serve as a volunteer doctor. Bonifacio thus saw the chance to rescue
Rizal from the Spanish authorities. Disguising themselves as ship crew, Bonifacio, Emilio
Jacinto, and Guillermo Masangkay had entered the pier where Rizal’s ship was docked.
Jacinto personally met with Rizal but the physician refused the suggestion to escape and
join Katipunan’s imminent uprising.
· Bonifacio led the launching of the Philippine Revolution toward the end of August 1896.
Rizal, on the other hand, left for Cuba on September 3, but was later declared as prisoner
onboard, and was imprisoned in Monjuich when he reached Spain in October. He was
then sent back to the Philippines and imprisoned in Fort Santiago upon his return.
· At the onset of December1896, the criminal hearing of Rizal’s case started. When asked
about his connections to Katipunan leaders, he denied to the end that he knew Andres
Bonifacio . Rizal was charged, among other things, with being the principal organizer and
the living soul of the Filipino insurrection that was launched by Bonifacio’s group.
· Rizal’s execution on December 30, 1896 served as the catalyst that intensified the
Katipunan’s revolution. After Rizal’s martyrdom, Bonifacio wrote the first Tagalog
translation of Rizal’s farewell poem (later named ‘Mi Ultimo Adios’) to which he
(Bonifacio) gave the title ‘Pahimakas’ (Farewell).

Love-Hate Relationship to Del Pilar COLLABORATION:

· He fought against clerical abuses, like the unfair collection of tax for the Church‘s
financial gain, and once worked for the establishment of a school for Filipinos.
· He met Rizal through a letter of Mariano Ponce saying that Rizal was impressed to his
work as Plaridel. One of his great work was the Dasalan at Tocsohan (Prayer-book and
Teasing game) - a mock-prayer book and satire on the friars‘ greediness, pretence, and
· He was also helped Rizal with the agrarian trouble in Calamba, when he was trying to
seek justice for his family.

Love-Hate Relationship to Del Pilar RIVALRY:

· Their rivalry begins in 1890, when Del Pilar became the owner of La Solidaridad and had
taken the place of Jaena as editor- in-chief. His political views was different to Rizal. Jose
Rizal and his close friends objected to the periodical‘s editorial policy which was
occasionally contrary to his political views.
· To solve the issue, the Filipino community in Madrid, decided to have an election for the
Responsible – a leader. The faction divided into two the Pilaristas and Rizalistas.
· Jose Rizal won the election because of the vote of Mariano Ponce, however, he declined
the position and decided to abdicate his leadership and leave Madrid. Rizal also stopped
his contribution to La Solidaridad.
· When the year 1890 was about to end, an unwanted rivalry between Rizal and Del Pilar
nonetheless arose. By the time, Del Pilar had become the owner of La Solidardad and had
taken the place of Graciano Lopez Jaena as its editor. Del Pilar’s management and
editorial policy were occasionally dissimilar to Rizal’s political vision.
· The editorial policy of La Solidaridad under Del Pilar’s management enhanced the
cleavage between Rizal and Del Pilar. Rizal and his close friends objected to the
periodical’s editorial policy which was occasionally contrary to Rizal’s political views.
· Ideally to fix differences and solidify the unity among them, about 90 Filipinos in Madrid
met on the New Year’s Day of 1891. It was agreed upon in the gathering that a leader
called Responsable, be elected to administer the campaigns for reform of the Filipinos.
· The voting happened during the first week of February that year. It was decided that the
‘Responsible’ must be elected by a two-thirds vote of the participants. The supposedly
healthy election for a leader produced divisive unpleasant split among the Filipinos, the
Rizalistas and the Pilaristas, as both camps zealously campaigned for their respective
· Rizal won the election but his votes fell short of the required two-thirds vote to be
declared Responsable. He won again on the second day, but then again, the votes counted
for him did not reach the needed fraction. On the third day, since Mariano Ponce
appealed to some Pilaristas to surrender their will to what the majority wanted, the
election resulted in Rizal’s becoming the ‘legal’ Responsable.
· Rizal, however, courteously declined the position. He knew that there were ‘Pilaristas’
who did not like either his views or personality. Jose Rizal, a man of delicadeza, thus
decided to abdicate his leadership and leave Madrid, lest his presence results in more
serious faction among Filipinos in Madrid.
· Inactive in the Propaganda Movement, Rizal also stopped contributing to La Solidaridad.
Realizing that Rizal’s involvement in the reform campaigns was necessary, the humble
Del Pilar wrote to Rizal on August 7, 1891, saying, “If you have any resentment, I beg
you to put it aside; if you consider me at fault, and this fault is pardonable, forgive me…
We would much like that you resume writing for it; not only would we strengthen La
Solidaridad but we would defeat the friar intrigue in the Philippines.”
· In his reply, Rizal denied any resentment and enumerated his reasons for stopping to
write for La Solidaridad:
“I am extremely surprised at your letter, telling me about resentments, disagreements, and
reconciliations, etc. I believe it is useless to talk about what does not exist, and if it has existed, it
ought to have evaporated in the past. I think like you do, that there being nothing, one ought not
to waste time talking about it.’
“If I stopped writing for La Solidaridad, it was because of several reasons, 1st, I need time
to work on my book; 2nd, I wanted other Filipinos to work also; 3rd, I considered it very
important to the party that there be unity in the work; and you are already at the top and I also
have my own ideas, it is better to leave you alone to direct the policy such as you understand it
and I do not meddle in it. This has two advantages: It leaves both of us free, and it increases your
prestige, which is very necessary, inasmuch as men of prestige are needed in our country. This
does not mean to say that I need not work and follow the course of your work. I am like an army
corps who, at a needed moment, you will see arrive to descend upon the flanks of the enemy
before you. Only I ask God to give me the means to do it… I fight for the nation, the
Philippines.” (as quoted in Zaide, p. 188)
· After Rizal’s El Filibusterismo came off the press, Del Pilar frankly commented that it
was inferior compared to Noli. This remark was freely acknowledged and granted by the
author. Reading the La Solidaridad from Hong Kong, Rizal was however disgusted with
the articles’ allegations about him. On May 23, 1892, Rizal sent a letter of protest to
Mariano Ponce against Eduardo Lete’s article which alleged, among other things, that
Rizal was a coward and had abandoned the patriotic cause. Rizal wondered why Del Pilar
allowed the publication of such an article, fearing that it would lead the readers to believe
in the existence of division among them.
· During Rizal’s exile in Dapitan, he nonetheless received a letter dated July 20, 1892 from
Del Pilar, stating his grievance on Rizal’s case. In his last letter to Rizal, Del Pilar
explained Lete’s article, saying, “How could I allow him to attack you when I am
interested in your prestige? …I am sure that when Lete wrote the article he did not intend
to allude to you and much less to molest you. He described an individual whose methods
are diametrically opposed to yours.” Ever wishing to reconcile with Rizal, Del Pilar
lovingly said, “I have not stopped wishing for the renewal of our former ties, for I believe
that slight differences in procedure are not enough to destroy our common principles,
purposes, and feelings…”

Love-Hate Relationship to Del Pilar

· Through a letter, Rizal enumerated his reasons for stopping to write for La Solidaridad: a)
I need time to work on my book b) I wanted other Filipinos to work also c) I considered it
very important to the party that there be unity in the work
· He died of tuberculosis on July 4, 1896 (46yo.) Del Pilar had seven children by his wife
Marciana, but only two of whom (Sofia and Anita) grew to adulthood. The building that
houses the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Graduate School was named after
Marcelo H. Del Pilar.

Connection to Aguinaldo
· Three days after the execution of Rizal, his common-law wife immediately joined the
Katipunan forces in Cavite. Initially hesitant to admit her in the group, Gen. Emilio
Aguinaldo nonetheless even provided Josephine with lessons in shooting and horseback
riding. Bracken helped Aguinaldo‘s group in taking care of the sick and wounded.
· Two years after Rizal‘s martyrdom, Aguinaldo as head of the Philippine Revolutionary
Government issued a decree proclaiming December 30 of every year a national day of
mourning in honour of Jose Rizal.
· He died because of coronary thrombosis at age 94.
· Jose Rizal was the founder of La Liga Filipina, the organization that gave birth to
Bonifacio’s Katipunan, the society which launched the Philippine Revolution against
Spain that eventually laid the foundation of Emilio Aguinaldo’s First Philippine Republic.
This historical statement shows the indirect but significant connection between the
national hero and ‘El Presidente’.
· On May 3, 1896, when Bonifacio convened a council meeting of Katipunan leaders in
Pasig, he (Bonifacio) wanted to launch the uprising as soon as possible. But it was Emilio
Aguinaldo who categorically expressed reservations because of lack of firearms. It was
thus due to Aguinaldo’s reluctance that the consensus was made to consult first Jose Rizal
in Dapitan. It eventually turned out that Rizal shared Aguinaldo’s stand, being against a
premature revolution and suggesting more prior preparation. (In fact, Aguinaldo’s group
did not join Bonifacio’s troops in the August 29 and 30, 1896 initial attack in Manila—a
battle which could have won by the Filipinos had Aguinaldo’s Cavite group cooperated.)
· Three days after Rizal’s martyrdom, the national hero’s common-law wife, Josephine
Bracken hurriedly joined the Katipunan’s forces in Cavite. Initially hesitant to admit her
in the group, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo nonetheless even provided Josephine with lessons in
shooting and horseback riding. Bracken helped Aguinaldo’s group in taking care of the
sick and wounded. In fact, “it was her suggestion to start a field hospital in the casa
hacienda of Tejeros” (Alburo, 2007, para. 16). InTejeros, she witnessed the historical
Tejeros Convention on March 22, 1897 in which Aguinaldo was elected President.
· Paciano Rizal, the national hero’s only brother, likewise went to Cavite and offered his
services to General Emilio Aguinaldo in January 1897. Aguinaldo commissioned him as
general of the Revolutionary Army. Later, he was elected secretary of finance in the
Department Government of Central Luzon and eventually assigned as military
commander of the revolutionary forces in Laguna. Rizal’s sisters Josefa and Trinidad and
their nieces Angelica Lopez and Delfina Herbosa Natividad also joined the Katipunan.
· Two years after Rizal’s martyrdom, Aguinaldo as head of the Philippine Revolutionary
Government issued a decree proclaiming December 30 of every year a national day of
mourning in honor of Jose Rizal (and the other martyrs of the revolution against Spain).
In this decree given in Malolos, Bulacan on December 20, 1898, Aguinaldo pertinently
ordered that all national flags should be hoisted at half-mast from 12:00 noon on
December 29, as a sign of mourning, and that all offices of the Revolutionary
Government should be closed during the whole day of December 30.
· It was Aguinaldo therefore (not the American-sponsored Philippine government) who
first proclaimed December 30, the date of Rizal’s execution, as a day to commemorate
the national hero. The full text of Aguinaldo’s decree (in two languages, Tagalog and
Spanish) appeared in the organ ‘El Heraldo dela Revolution’ on December 25, 1898. In
pursuance of Aguinaldo’s decree, the first celebration of Rizal Day in the country was
held in Manila on December 30, 1898—just two years after Rizal’s death—under the
sponsorship of the Club Filipino
· Born on October 29, 1866in Urbiztondo, Binondo, Manila, Antonio Luna was five-year
younger than Jose Rizal. Antonio was the youngest of the 7 children of Joaquin Luna and
Laureana Novicio Ancheta.
· Antonio received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1881 from the Ateneo Municipal de
Manila. He afterward studied literature, chemistry, and pharmacy at the University of
Santo Tomas. Having superb scientific mind, his paper in chemistry ‘Two Fundamental
Bodies of Chemistry’ won first prize in a contest in UST. Versatile and multi-talented, he
also studied music (he was a good guitar player), as well as fencing, swordsmanship, and
military science and tactics under a Spanish cavalry officer, and became a sharpshooter.
· To obtain a licentiate (at Universidad de Barcelona) and doctorate (at Universidad Central
de Madrid) in Pharmacy, Luna went to Spain where his older brother Juan was living. In
Europe, he corroborated with other Filipino expatriates like Rizal in working for the
Propaganda Movement. Writing for La Solidaridad, he once contributed the article
‘Impressions’ which discussed Spanish unique traditions and customs under the pen-
name ‘Taga-ilog’. He also managed the paper La Independencia.
· Someone who could be considered as an early Filipino scientist, Luna in 1893 published
his scientific treatise on malaria, ‘El Hematozoario del Paludismo,’which was well
received in the community of medical scientists and physicians. The Spanish government
later commissioned him to study tropical and communicable diseases (“Antonio Luna,”
· In 1889, a Spanish writer, Pablo Mir Deas, attacked Antonio Luna in the Barcelona
newspaper “El Pueblo Soberano”. As Rizal’s defense of his friend Luna, he wrote the
article “Inconsequencias” (Inconsequences) which was published on November 30, 1889.
A year after however, Rizal challenged Antonio to a duel. In a party held by Filipinos in
Madrid, the intoxicated Antonio Luna made negative comments against Nellie Boustead
—the woman he was courting but was said to have been infatuated with Rizal. Jose Rizal,
who at the time was not in a good mood for bearing various problems, was prompted to
challenge Luna into a duel. But since Luna apologized to Rizal, the duel was nonetheless
aborted and their friendship was restored. When Rizal later decided to formally court
Nelly, Antonio gentlemanly conceded to Rizal and even congratulated him through a

Arrest and trial

By 1896, the rebellion fomented by the Katipunan, a militant secret society, had become a
full-blown revolution, proving to be a nationwide uprising.[citation needed] Rizal had earlier
volunteered his services as a doctor in Cuba and was given leave by Governor-General
Ramón Blanco to serve in Cuba to minister to victims of yellow fever. Rizal and Josephine
left Dapitan on August 1, 1896, with letter of recommendation from Blanco.
Rizal was arrested en route to Cuba via Spain and was imprisoned in Barcelona on October
6, 1896. He was sent back the same day to Manila to stand trial as he was implicated in the
revolution through his association with members of the Katipunan. During the entire passage,
he was unchained, no Spaniard laid a hand on him, and had many opportunities to escape but
refused to do so.
While imprisoned in Fort Santiago, he issued a manifesto disavowing the current revolution
in its present state and declaring that the education of Filipinos and their achievement of a
national identity were prerequisites to freedom.
Rizal was tried before a court-martial for rebellion, sedition, and conspiracy, was convicted
on all three charges, and sentenced to death. Blanco, who was sympathetic to Rizal, had been
forced out of office. The friars, led by then Archbishop of Manila Bernardino Nozaleda, had
'intercalated' Camilo de Polavieja in his stead, as the new Spanish Governor-General of the
Philippines after pressuring Queen-Regent Maria Cristina of Spain, thus sealing Rizal's fate.


· Moments before his execution on December 30, 1896, by a squad of Filipino soldiers of
the Spanish Army, a backup force of regular Spanish Army troops stood ready to shoot
the executioners should they fail to obey orders. The Spanish Army Surgeon General
requested to take his pulse: it was normal. Aware of this the Sergeant commanding the
backup force hushed his men to silence when they began raising "vivas" with the highly
partisan crowd of Peninsular and Mestizo Spaniards. His last words were those of Jesus
Christ: "consummatum est", – it is finished.
· He was secretly buried in Pacò Cemetery in Manila with no identification on his grave.
His sister Narcisa toured all possible gravesites and found freshly turned earth at the
cemetery with guards posted at the gate. Assuming this could be the most likely spot,
there never having any ground burials, she made a gift to the caretaker to mark the site
"RPJ", Rizal's initials in reverse.
· His undated poem, Mi último adiós believed to be written a few days before his
execution, was hidden in an alcohol stove, which was later handed to his family with his
few remaining possessions, including the final letters and his last bequests. During their
visit, Rizal reminded his sisters in English, "There is something inside it", referring to the
alcohol stove given by the Pardo de Taveras which was to be returned after his execution,
thereby emphasizing the importance of the poem. This instruction was followed by
another, "Look in my shoes", in which another item was secreted. Exhumation of his
remains in August 1898, under American rule, revealed he had been uncoffined, his burial
not on sanctified ground granted the 'confessed' faithful, and whatever was in his shoes
had disintegrated. And now he is buried in Rizal Monument in Manila.
· In his letter to his family he wrote: "Treat our aged parents as you would wish to be
treated...Love them greatly in memory of me...December 30, 1896."He gave his family
instructions for his burial: "Bury me in the ground. Place a stone and a cross over it. My
name, the date of my birth and of my death. Nothing more. If later you wish to surround
my grave with a fence, you can do it. No anniversaries."
· In his final letter, to Blumentritt – Tomorrow at 7, I shall be shot; but I am innocent of the
crime of rebellion. I am going to die with a tranquil conscience. Rizal is believed to be
the first Filipino revolutionary whose death is attributed entirely to his work as a writer;
and through dissent and civil disobedience enabled him to successfully destroy Spain's
moral primacy to rule. He also bequeathed a book personally bound by him in Dapitan to
his 'best and dearest friend.' When Blumentritt received it in his hometown Litoměřice
(Leitmeritz) he broke down and wept.
Role in the Philippine revolution

· Upon the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution in 1896, Valenzuela surrendered to the
Spanish authorities and testified in military court that Rizal had strongly condemned an
armed struggle for independence when Valenzuela asked for his support. Rizal had even
refused him entry to his house. Bonifacio, in turn, had openly denounced him as a coward
for his refusal.[note 15]
· But years later, Valenzuela testified that Rizal had been favorable to an uprising as long
as the Filipinos were well-prepared, and well-supplied with arms. Rizal had suggested
that the Katipunan get wealthy and influential Filipino members of society on their side,
or at least ensure they would stay neutral. Rizal had even suggested his friend Antonio
Luna to lead the revolutionary forces since he had studied military science.[note 16] In
the event that the Katipunan was discovered prematurely, they should fight rather than
allow themselves to be killed. Valenzuela said to historian Teodoro Agoncillo that he had
lied to the Spanish military authorities about Rizal's true stance toward a revolution in an
attempt to exculpate him.[93]
· Before his execution, Rizal wrote a proclamation denouncing the revolution. But as noted
by historian Floro Quibuyen, his final poem Mi ultimo adios contains a stanza which
equates his coming execution and the rebels then dying in battle as fundamentally the
same, as both are dying for their country.


· Rizal was a contemporary of Gandhi, Tagore and Sun Yat Sen who also advocated liberty
through peaceful means rather than by violent revolution. Coinciding with the appearance
of those other leaders, Rizal from an early age had been enunciating in poems, tracts and
plays, ideas all his own of modern nationhood as a practical possibility in Asia. In the
Noli he stated that if European civilization had nothing better to offer, colonialism in Asia
was doomed.