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Fluid interfaces:

When two fluids are in contact an interface exists between the two
fluids, in hydrocarbon reservoirs interfaces are based on three systems:
 Gas/Oil/water system:
In which two interfaces exists Gas Oil Contact (GOR) and Water Oil
Contact (WOR).

 Gas/water system:
Where, an interface exists between the gas and water, Gas Water
Contact (GWC).

 Oil/water system:
Where, only Water Oil Contact (WOR) is present.
These interfaces are identified by means of logs, core analysis and
production tests. Also from correlation of near wells we can
approximately determine these interfaces or by fluid pressure regimes.

Fluid pressure regimes:


Pressure points that exist in the interfaces between reservoir fluids, these
pressure points is very useful to the reservoir engineers. Pressure points
include ( . As shown in figures:

Figure 3.4 Fluid Pressure Regimes in Folds


Figure 3.5 Fluid pressure regimes in pinch out traps

Figure 3.6 Fluid Pressure Regimes Fault System

These pressure points are recorded in the surface, then a pressure versus
depth chart is plotted to show the changes occur in pressure with depth,
then we can calculate the depth”Z” and hence the thickness of oil and
gas zones, Pressure Gradients for oil, gas and water must be known with
the geological formation and if its fluid is over pressured or under
pressured.
Many experiments had shown that standard values for pressure gradients
for oil, gas and water are 0.35 psi/ft, 0.08 psi/ft, 0.45 psi/ft. these values
however need to be corrected due to several factors affecting pressure
gradient leading to abnormal fluid pressures:
1. Temperature change:
An increase in temperature of one degree-Fahrenheit can cause an
increase in pressure of 125psi in a sealed fresh water system.

2. Geological changes:
Such as the uplifting of the reservoir, or the equivalent, surface
erosion, both of which result in the water pressure in the reservoir
sand being too high for its depth of burial; the opposite effect
occurs in a downthrown reservoir in which abnormally low fluid
pressure can occur.

3. Salinity:
If the water within the seal is more saline than the surrounding
water the osmosis will cause an abnormally high pressure and vice
versa.
Figure 3.7

Two Ideal assumptions were assumed:


1. The water salinity does not change with depth
2. All geological formations contain water inside them except
formations containing oil or gas.
Through pressure versus depth chart it is possible for us to
determine the depth and thickness of each zone through fluid
pressure regimes laws.
Fluid pressure regimes important laws:
How to add/subtract correction pressure factor “C”:
Case1:

Figure 3.8

The Presence of Gas in gas cap leads to the fact that it is


pressurized by the trap as well as the oil zone.

…………………………...3.6
Where:
C: correction pressure factor “psi”

Case2:

Figure 3.9

Oil zone is pressurized by the Gas zone as well as the water zone.
…………………………..3.7
Case3:

Figure 3.10

Water is balanced by continues supply by River or sea with water


underground movement to the other side on the left of the
reservoir.
…………………...…3.8
Where:
14.7: conversion factor from gauge to atom” ”.

Case4:

Figure 3.11
…………………3.9

Case5:

Figure 3.12

……………........3.10

Example:

1-An oil reservoir with the following data:


WOC=5500 ft, GOC=5200 ft, Top of structure= 5000 ft

Determine the pressure at the top of structure?


Answer:

=2490 psi
For the same depth pressures are equal, then:

=2490 psi
psi

psi

psi

psi