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http://edweb.tusd.k12.az.us/sandre/computers/index.htm Let's take a look at the main components of a typical desktop computer:
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Central processing unit (CPU) - The microprocessor "brain" of the computer system is called the central processing unit. It's a chip that holds a complete computational engine. It uses assembly language as its native language. Everything that a computer does is overseen by the CPU. Memory - This is very fast storage used to hold data. It has to be fast because it connects directly to the microprocessor. There are several specific types of memory in a computer: • Random-access memory (RAM) - Used to temporarily store information with which the computer is currently working • Read-only memory (ROM) - A permanent type of memory storage used by the computer for important data that doesn't change • Basic input/output system (BIOS) - A type of ROM that is used by the computer to establish basic communication when the computer is first powered on • Caching - The storing of frequently used data in extremely fast RAM that connects directly to the CPU • Virtual memory - Space on a hard disk used to temporarily store data and swap it in and out of RAM as needed • Flash memory - a solid state storage device, Flash memory requires no moving parts and retains data even after the computer powers off Motherboard - This is the main circuit board to which all of the other internal components connect. The CPU and memory are usually on the motherboard. Other systems may be found directly on the motherboard or connected to it through a secondary connection. For example, a sound card can be built into the motherboard or connected through an expansion slot. Power supply - An electrical transformer regulates the electricity used by the computer. Hard disk - This is large-capacity permanent storage used to hold information such as programs and documents. Traditional hard drives contain moving parts -- the drive has platters on which it stores data. The drive spins the platters to record and read data. But some newer hard drives are flash-based with no moving parts. These drives are called solid-state drives. Operating system - This is the basic software that allows the user to interface with the computer. Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) Controller - This is the primary interface for the hard drive, CD-ROM and floppy disk drive. Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) - This is a very high-speed connection used by the graphics card to interface with the computer. Sound card - This is used by the computer to record and play audio by converting analog sound into digital information and back again. Graphics card - This translates image data from the computer into a format that can be displayed by the monitor. Some graphics cards have their own powerful processing units
o Flash memory . Mouse . No matter how powerful the components inside your computer are.• • • (called a GPU -. PC Connections A typical computer connects to the world around it in three different ways: input/output devices. This interaction is called input/output (I/O). a port is an interface that allows a computer to communicate with peripheral equipment. There are several types of removable storage: o CD-ROM .In computer hardware terms. Cooling systems keep computers from overheating. but many computers still have ports to help you connect to a wide selection of peripherals. ports and networking. o DVD-ROM . all the components in a computer can synchronize properly. Many systems now offer CD-R (recordable) and CD-RW (rewritable). You may use Bluetooth or Wi-Fi to sync your music player or print driving directions.Removable storage devices allow you to add new information to your computer very easily.DVD-ROM (digital versatile disc. While there have been others. The battery provides uninterrupted power. By referring to this clock. heat sinks and cooling systems . Flash memory provides fast. Removable storage . as well as save information that you want to carry to a different location.The mouse is the primary device for navigating and interacting with the computer.The keyboard is the primary device for entering information into the computer.graphics processing unit).The CMOS and CMOS battery allow a computer to store information even when the computer powers down.CD-ROM (compact disc. As heat rises. performance can suffer. Fans. CompactFlash. The GPU can handle operations that normally would require the CPU. Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor . you need a way to interact with them. CD-RW discs can be erased and rewritten many times. SmartMedia and PCMCIA cards are all types of Flash memory.The components in a computer generate heat. The most common types of I/O in PCs are: • • • • Monitor . read-only memory) is a popular form of distribution of commercial software.The monitor is the primary device for displaying information from the computer. which can also record.Based on a type of ROM called electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). permanent storage. Real-time clock . Ports .Every PC has a clock containing a vibrating crystal. Keyboard . two are most commonly found on newer computers: . read-only memory) is similar to CD-ROM but is capable of holding much more information.
Since the CPU reaches the memory controller though the northbridge. which connects the CPU to the northbridge. Local area network (LAN) card . measured in megahertz (MHz). The speed of the AGP bus is usually 66 MHz. Cable modem . to connect to the Internet. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modem . refers to how much data can move across the bus simultaneously. Bus speed usually refers to the speed of the front side bus (FSB). particularly those in an Ethernet office network. FSB speeds can range from 66 MHz to over 800 MHz.A newer variation of DSL. Networking. The processor determines the speed of the back side bus. On most systems. the faster it will operate -. The IDE or ATA bus connects the southbridge to the disk drives. A fast bus speed cannot make up for a slow processor or chipset.The most popular external connection. Very high bit-rate DSL (VDSL) modem . The memory bus connects the northbridge to the memory. like the kind you might use to subscribe to cable TV.This is used by many computers. Here are some of the other busses found on a motherboard: • • • • • The back side bus connects the CPU with the level 2 (L2) cache.to a point. especially to the Internet. The PCI bus connects PCI slots to the southbridge. The AGP bus connects the video card to the memory and the CPU. also known as secondary or external cache. BUS A bus is simply a circuit that connects one part of the motherboard to another.FireWire is a very popular method of connecting digital-video devices.]. the faster it allows information to travel. to your computer.This is the standard method of connecting to the Internet. VDSL requires that your phone line have fiber-optic cables. USB ports offer power and versatility and are incredibly easy to use.This type of modem uses the cable system in your home. the speed of the PCI bus is 33 MHz. FireWire (IEEE 1394) .• • Universal Serial Bus (USB) . The faster a computer's bus speed. The speed of the bus. to connect to one another. Your computer can probably use one or more of these methods: • • • • • Modem . such as camcorders or digital cameras. FSB speed can dramatically affect a computer's performance.This is a high-speed connection that works over a standard telephone line. which is much faster than PCI but is still compatible with current software and operating systems. et al. An even faster version called the gigabit per second DSL (GDSL) may follow [source: Cioffi. PCI Express is likely to replace both PCI and AGP busses. is very important to today's computer users. The more data a bus can handle at one time. Also compatible with PCI is PCI Express. .
The transistor acts as a switch that lets the control circuitry on the memory chip read the capacitor or change its state. If the data is not in the current location. This refresh operation happens automatically thousands of times per second. you'll learn all about what RAM is. the memory controller reads the memory and then writes it right back. The downside of all of this refreshing is that it takes time and slows down the memory. This means that the memory can transmit data twice per cycle instead of once. . See the next page to learn more about dynamic RAM and memory cells. How RAM Works Random access memory (RAM) is the best known form of computer memory. This refresh operation is where dynamic RAM gets its name.184-pin DDR DIMM RAM Much of the memory available today is dual data rate (DDR) memory. SAM stores data as a series of memory cells that can only be accessed sequentially (like a cassette tape). In the most common form of computer memory. where the data is normally stored in the order in which it will be used (a good example is the texture buffer memory on a video card). For dynamic memory to work. dynamic random access memory (DRAM). RAM data. what kind you should buy and how to install it. Similar to a microprocessor. on the other hand. To do this. which represents a single bit of data. The opposite of RAM is serial access memory (SAM). most motherboards have space for multiple memory chips. which makes the memory faster. This refresh operation happens automatically thousands of times per second. SAM works very well for memory buffers. each memory cell is checked until the needed data is found. Also. Dynamic RAM has to be dynamically refreshed all of the time or it forgets what it is holding. a transistor and a capacitor are paired to create a memory cell. they often connect to the northbridge via a dual bus instead of a single bus. In this article. The capacitor holds the bit of information -.a 0 or a 1 (see How Bits and Bytes Work for information on bits). RAM is considered "random access" because you can access any memory cell directly if you know the row and column that intersect at that cell. can be accessed in any order. and on newer motherboards. This further reduces the amount of time it takes for the processor to get information from the memory. either the CPU or the memory controller has to come along and recharge all of the capacitors holding a 1 before they discharge. a memory chip is an integrated circuit (IC) made of millions of transistors and capacitors.
but never has to be refreshed. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 528 MBps. you get less memory per chip. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 264 MBps. typically four to six. EDO DRAM begins looking for the next bit. The idea is that most of the time the data needed by the CPU will be in sequence.Memory Cells and DRAM Static RAM Static RAM uses a completely different technology. RDRAM: Rambus dynamic random access memory is a radical departure from the previous DRAM architecture. As soon as the address of the first bit is located. while dynamic RAM forms the larger system RAM space. because it has more parts. Designed by Rambus. EDO DRAM: Extended data-out dynamic random access memory does not wait for all of the processing of the first bit before continuing to the next one. However. It is used primarily for cache. and that makes static RAM a lot more expensive. DRAM: Dynamic random access memory has memory cells with a paired transistor and capacitor requiring constant refreshing. SDRAM: Synchronous dynamic random access memory takes advantage of the burst mode concept to greatly improve performance. A flip-flop for a memory cell takes four or six transistors along with some wiring. Therefore. It is about five percent faster than FPM. for each memory cell but doesn't have a capacitor in each cell. So static RAM is used to create the CPU's speed-sensitive cache. In static RAM. DDR SDRAM: Double data rate synchronous dynamic RAM is just like SDRAM except that is has higher bandwidth. and dynamic RAM is less expensive and slower. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 1. This makes static RAM significantly faster than dynamic RAM. It does this by staying on the row containing the requested bit and moving rapidly through the columns. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 176 MBps. reading each bit as it goes. RDRAM uses a Rambus in-line . meaning greater speed. It waits through the entire process of locating a bit of data by column and row and then reading the bit before it starts on the next bit. Static RAM is fast and expensive. a static memory cell takes up a lot more space on a chip than a dynamic memory cell. Types of RAM The following are some common types of RAM: • • • • • • • SRAM: Static random access memory uses multiple transistors. FPM DRAM: Fast page mode dynamic random access memory was the original form of DRAM. SDRAM is about five percent faster than EDO RAM and is the most common form in desktops today.064 MBps (for DDR SDRAM 133 MHZ). a form of flip-flop holds each bit of memory (see How Boolean Logic Works for details on flip-flops).
so today. RDRAM memory chips work in parallel to achieve a data rate of 800 MHz. . cards of this type are not proprietary and should work with any notebook computer whose system bus matches the memory card's configuration. they generate much more heat than other types of chips.see Why does my computer need a battery? for details. VRAM: VideoRAM. VRAM is located on the graphics card and comes in a variety of formats. This is because the width of the bus is more than a single SIMM. you would install two 8-megabyte (MB) SIMMs to get 16 megabytes total RAM. also known as multiport dynamic random access memory (MPDRAM). The amount of VRAM is a determining factor in the resolution and color depth of the display. designed for notebook computers. but SGRAM is cheaper. Just like there are smaller versions of DIMMs. The first types were proprietary. CMOS RAM: CMOS RAM is a term for the small amount of memory used by your computer and some other devices to remember things like hard disk settings -. while the system bus could handle 16 bits at a time.600 MBps. many of which are proprietary. To help dissipate the excess heat Rambus chips are fitted with a heat spreader. meaning that different computer manufacturers developed memory boards that would only work with their specific systems. Since they operate at such high speeds. there are also SO-RIMMs. True multiport VRAM tends to be expensive. For example. Memory Modules The type of board and connector used for RAM in desktop computers has evolved over the past few years. which looks like a long thin wafer. PCMCIA Memory Card: Another self-contained DRAM module for notebooks. Credit Card Memory: Credit card memory is a proprietary self-contained DRAM memory module that plugs into a special slot for use in notebook computers. many graphics cards use SGRAM (synchronous graphics RAM) instead. What makes RDRAM so different is its use of a special high-speed data bus called the Rambus channel. which stands for single in-line memory module. The "multiport" part comes from the fact that VRAM normally has two independent access ports instead of one.• • • • memory module (RIMM). In most computers. VRAM is also used to hold graphics-specific information such as 3-D geometry data and texture maps. Then came SIMM. This memory uses a small battery to provide it with the power it needs to maintain the memory contents. is a type of RAM used specifically for video adapters or 3-D accelerators. Performance is nearly the same. allowing the CPU and graphics processor to access the RAM simultaneously. or 1. Each SIMM could send 8 bits of data at one time. you had to install SIMMs in pairs of equal capacity and speed. which is similar in size and pin configuration to a standard DIMM.
Sub-notebook computers use even smaller DIMMs. is comparable in size and pin configuration to DIMM but uses a special memory bus to greatly increase speed.5 volts.5 cm). .5 cm).3 volts. Many brands of notebook computers use proprietary memory modules. while older Mac G4 systems typically use 3. the Apple iMac desktop computer uses SODIMMs instead of the traditional DIMMs. but several manufacturers use RAM based on the small outline dual in-line memory module (SODIMM) configuration. SODIMM cards are small. DIMMs range in capacity from 8 MB to 1 GB per module and can be installed singly instead of in pairs. Another standard. and have 144 or 200 pins. Rambus in-line memory module (RIMM).4 x 1 inch (about 14 x 2. With a whopping 168-pin or 184-pin connector and a size of 5. Capacity ranges from 16 MB to 1 GB per module. about 2 x 1 inch (5 x 2. the industry adopted a new standard in dual in-line memory module (DIMM). which have either 144 pins or 172 pins. Most PC memory modules and the modules for the Mac G5 systems operate at 2. To conserve space. known as MicroDIMMs.• As processors grew in speed and bandwidth capability.