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Geography

 Earliest civilizations
rose in the valleys
between the Tigris and
Euphrates Rivers.
 Some say this Fertile
Crescent was the real
Garden of Eden.
Mesopotamian Law
HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS IN THE COURSE OF SCIENCE - Code of Hammurabi
AND TECHNOLOGY - Written on a stele (at right) in cuneiform
ANCIENT TIMES - people were concerned with - Based on the premise of an“eye for an eye
transportation and navigation, communication and tooth for a tooth”
record keeping, mass production, security and Hammurabi’s Code
protection, as well as health, aesthetics and
architecture. - Strict code of justice with severe penalties
* Penalties varied according to the social
Transportation - was significant during that time class of the victim
because people were trying to go places and discover * Largest category of laws focused on
new horizons. marriage and the family – supported the
Communication- was also essential in their endeavors patriarchal society
to discover and occupy new places. Ziggurats (Temples)
Record-keeping- was also important since they needed Sumerian Achievements
to remember the places they had been to and
document the trades they made with each other. The Big Idea
Weapons and armors were important as well in the The Sumerians made many advances that
discovery of new places or the establishment of new helped their society develop.
alliances with other tribes.
Main Ideas
Conservation of Life a primary challenge they faced.
Different illnesses and diseases both natural and man- • The Sumerians invented the world’s first writing
made, hampered the full potential of a human being. system.
• Advances and inventions changed Sumerian
Engineering. The development in this field allowed
humans to build structures that would address their lives.
specific needs and wants. • Many types of art developed in Sumer.
Architecture. The development in engineering also The Sumerians invented the world’s first writing
ushered in the introduction of architecture. Others system.
might see architecture as a mere style, but during the
ancient times, elaborate architectural designs were  The cuneiform system involved the use of sharp
signs of technological advancement of a particular tools called styluses.
civilization.  The Sumerians first used cuneiform to keep
SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION business records.

ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA  The Sumerians also used their writing skills to


write books about history, poems, and math.
 Oldest known civilization
Invention of Writing
 Cradle of human civilization
 Old Testament
 Ziggurat (right)
 Hanging gardens
Writing Sargon
- The most important invention of the - 2340 B.C., Sargon conquered all of
Sumerians was writing. Mesopotamia creating the world’s first
- The writing of the Sumerians was called empire.
cuneiform.
Empire - group of many different lands under one ruler.
Advances and inventions changed Sumerian lives. Sargon’s empire lasted for more than 200 years before
falling to invaders.
 Development of the wheel
o Used for carts and wagons
o Potter’s wheel
 The plow increased farm production.
 Sewers under city streets
 Math and science
o Number system based on 60
o Names of animals, plants, and minerals
 Used medicines for healing and catalogued
medical knowledge
The Babylonians
Food in Sumer
Babylon - Old Babylonian Period
- Sumerians grew several kinds of crops. The
most valuable one was barley, which was - High point was reign of King Hammurabi
used to make flour and bread. Dates were (1792-1750 B.C.) united all of Mesopotamia
also very valuable to the Sumerians. through conquest
- During reign government controlled
City-states economy and passed comprehensive laws
 Each Sumerian city and the land around it called the Hammurabi Code
became a separate city-state. Hammurabi Code
 Each city-state had its own government and  Code reinforced “An eye for an eye” mentality
was not part of any larger unit.
 Laws focused on property rights, slaves, children
SOCIAL CLASSES IN SUMER and women’s rights, murder, theft and marriage
Upper class - kings, priests, warriors, and government  Punishment differed based on a person’s social
officials. class
Middle class - artisans, merchants, farmers, and fishers.  Laws were introduced for two main reasons:
These people made up the largest group.
To establish order in a land in constant conflict
Lower class - enslaved people who worked on farms or in
the temples. To represent a king’s beliefs of justice

TheEpic of Gilgamesh  Several laws were written to protect the poor


and powerless from abuse
- most famous piece of literature from Sumer
- hero Gilgamesh is a king who travels around HAMMURABI CODE
the world with a friend and performs great
5. If a judge try a case, reach a decision, and
deeds. When his friend dies, Gilgamesh
present his judgment in writing; if later error
searches for a way to live forever.
shall appear in his decision, and it be through his
Sumerian Inventions own fault, then he shall pay twelve times the fine
set by him in the case, and he shall be publicly
 wagon wheel removed from the judge's bench, and never
again shall he sit there to render judgement.
 plow
6. If any one steal the property of a temple or of
 sailboat
the court, he shall be put to death, and also the
 number system based on 60 one who receives the stolen thing from him shall
be put to death.
 geometry
14. If any one steal the minor son of another, he
 12 month calendar shall be put to death.
22. If any one is committing a robbery and is
caught, then he shall be put to death.
195. If a son strike his father, his hands shall be
hewn off.
197. If he break another man's bone, his bone - The rich soil around the Nile was called the Black
shall be broken. land. The desert was called the Red Land.
202. If any one strike the body of a man higher The Pyramids and Sphinx
in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows with
an ox-whip in public. - Pyramids were built during the Old Kingdom
- They were designed to be tombs for the Pharaoh
218. If a physician make a large incision with the - Originally there were step pyramids, then the
operating knife, and kill him, or open a tumor pyramids evolved into the ones we see at Giza
with the operating knife, and cut out the eye, his - The Pyramids were designed to protect the
hands shall be cut off. mummies of the Pharaohs, but they ultimately
failed. They were robbed and pillaged.
219. If a physician make a large incision in the
slave of a freed man, and kill him, he shall Mummification
replace the slave with another slave.
- preserve the body so that the soul could stay in
282. If a slave say to his master: "You are not my the afterlife, the Egyptians perfected the process
master," if they convict him his master shall cut of mummification. Mummification was
off his ear. expensive, however, and during the Old
Kingdom was a luxury of the rich.
Babylonian Mathematics
Process:
- Babylonians used advance mathematics like
algebra and geometry - body was washed and the internal organs
- They used linear and quadratic equations including the lungs, stomach, liver and intestines
- Adopted Sumerian mathematics because it were removed. The heart was left in the body
was sound because the Egyptians viewed it as the center of
- Studied and made observations of natural emotion.
phenomena - The Brain was removed through the nose and
thrown away. The Egyptians didn’t think it
Downfall of Babylon served any purpose
- 1595 B.C. Hittites invaded Babylon and - The Body was packed in Natron (a drying agent)
conqueror it and left for 70 days. After that the body was
- Hittites introduced international commerce wrapped in linen with tree resin for glue.
by trading in the Mediterranean region Magical amulets and other treasures were
- Modified Hammubria Code and made it buried with the body.
more lenient
Egyptian Society
- A large tribe called Kassites seized
Mesopotamia (Babylon) because region Egypt had a hierarchical social structure
hard to protect
- During rule of Kassites, Babylon saw a period Daily Life
of no growth The people had a positive
- Adopted ziggurat, cuneiform and Laws of attitude toward life.
Hammubria
- Period of famines, disease and nomadic Monogamy was the rule,
invasions plagued Babylon and women had more
- Kassites will not hold Babylon as well and it rights in Ancient Egypt
falls to the Assyrians than the rest of the
Ancient world.
ANCIENT EGYPT
Women could own property, business, and request a
The Geography of Ancient Egypt divorce.
- located on the Nile River Hieroglyphics
- The Nile begins in the Highlands of Ethiopia with
two branches: - Writing began in Egypt around 3000 B.C.
- The White Nile and the Blue Nile There were different types of writing for
- These rivers unite and flow north where they different occasions:
empty into the Mediterranean Sea. - Hieroglyphics were ideograms used for formal
- Where the river empties into the Nile it forms writing
the Nile Delta, a rich area of alluvial soil
- The most important thing to the Egyptians about - Hieratic Script (Demotic) was a simplified
The Nile was the yearly flooding. version of Egyptian writing.
- Nile would flood each year in the spring. With
the flood it would deposit a rich later of silt, or  Egyptians carved their writing on stone, or wrote
soil on either side of the river. on papyrus, a form of paper made from a reed
that grew along the Nile River.
The Rosetta Stone Kohl
- The discovery of the Rosetta stone allowed for - was created by mixing soot or malachite with
the translation of Hieroglyphics .It contained the mineral galena
same passage in three languages: - Egyptians also believed that a person wearing
make-up was protected from evil and that
Hieroglyphics beauty was a sign of holiness
Greek
WIG
Demotic - are used to enhance the appearance of people
Egyptian Art who are balding or those who want to try new
hair trends
- In Egyptian art the human body is usually shown - better than putting on a scarf or any other head
in profile or partial profile cover since a wig allowed heat to escape
Egyptian Advancements in Math and Science - considered cleaner than natural hair because it
prevented the accumulation of head lice
- The Egyptians used math to calculate area and
volume in building the pyramids and in WATERCLOCK/CLEPSYDRA
surveying flooded land for farming - this device utilizes gravity that affects the flow
- developed an accurate solar (365 day) calendar. of water from one vessel to the other
- practice of mummification and embalming led - The amount of water (or its height, depending on
to advances in medical knowledge including the method used) remaining in the device
how to set broken bones, wounds, and disease determines how much time has elapsed since it
EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION is full
- widely used as a timekeeping device during the
Paper or Papyrus ancient times
- one of the earlier contributions of Egyptian GREEK CIVILIZATION
civilization
Greece
Papyrus
- is an archipelago in the southeastern part of
- a plant that grew abundantly along the Nile Europe
River in Egypt - known as the birthplace of western philosophy
- they were able to process the plant in order to
produce thin sheets on which they could write Major Achievements
down things  in-depth works on philosophy and mathematics
- lighter, easier to carry and store, less breakable  more than coliseums and the Olympics
compared to clay tablets  contributed much to the world especially in the
- major accomplishment in Egyptian record- field of science and technology
keeping and communications
ALARM CLOCK
INK
- most utilized gadgets today that was invented
- Egyptians invented ink by combining soot with by ancient Greeks
different chemicals to produce inks of different
colors Ancient Greek’s Alarm Clocks
- used large complicated mechanisms to time the
alarm
- must withstand the elements of nature since it - they made used of water (or sometimes small
was used to record history, culture and codified stones or sand) that dropped into drums which
laws sounded the alarm

- must also be tamper-proof so that people could WATER MILL


not simply tinker with those written down by
- were also considered as one of the most
authorities
important contributions of the Greek civilization
COSMETICS to the world
- commonly used in agricultural processes like
- Egyptians also invented the use of cosmetics milling of grains which was necessary form of
- for health and aesthetic reasons food processing during that time
- cosmetics in the modern times are used to - considered better that mills powered by farm
improve and highlight the facial features of a animals because they required less effort and
person time to operate since the farmer did not have to
- Egyptians wore KOHL around the eyes to prevent raise animals
and even cure eye diseases -
ROMAN CIVILIZATION - silk trade opened China to the outside world,
making way for cultural, economic and scientific
ROMAN EMPIRE exchanges
- was perceived to be the strongest political and - bridged the gap between the western world and
social entity in the west the middle kingdom
TEA PRODUCTION
- considered to be the cradle of politics and
governance during that period - a beverage produced by pouring hot or boiling
water over crushed or shredded dried leaves
NEWSPAPER - was believed that the first tea was drunk by a
- one of the major contributions of the Romans Chinese emperor
- China thus became known for its tea export
Gazettes aside from its silk products
- first newspapers GREAT WALL OF CHINA
- contained announcement of the Roman Empire
to the people - once considered the only man-made structure
- made before the invention of paper that could be seen from outer space
- were engraved in metal or stone tablets and - said to be the largest and most extensive
then publicly displayed infrastructure that the nation built
- it is conducted to keep out foreign invaders and
BOUND BOOKS OR CODEX control the borders of China
- with the invention of paper, it became easier for - made with stone, brick, wood, earth and other
civilizations to write down everything that materials and it showcased the extent of Chinese
happened in their time engineering technology at that time
- Record-keeping was much easier since paper did - wall’s construction put the nation among the
not easily break, was lightweight, and did not powerful civilizations during the ancient times
occupy much space - was the pride of their land and their crowning
- they were able to provide covers to protect the glory
papyrus the Great Wall still continues to be a world attraction
- earlier covers were made of wax but were later due to its historical significance and architectural
on replaced by animal skin which proved to be grandeur
stronger and longer lasting
- With the papyrus pages bound together and GUNPOWDER
covered by animal skin, the Ancient Roman
- one of the most interesting inventions in China
Empire was able to produce the first books or - it was developed by Chinese alchemists who
codex aimed to achieve immortality
ROMAN ARCHITECTURE -

Roman Forum in Italy GUNPOWDER FORMULA

- one of the most visual contributions of the - they mixed charcoal, sulfur, and potassium
ancient Roman Empire to the world nitrate, but instead of creating an elixir of life,
- was considered a continuation of Greek they accidentally invented a black powder that
architecture hence, the resemblance could actually generate large amount of heat
and gas in an instant
ROMAN NUMERALS - widely used to prepare bullets from guns and
CHINESE CIVILIZATION cannons which cause countless deaths
it is also used in fireworks during important
- considered to be the oldest civilization in Asia, if celebrations in China
not in the world
- also known as the middle kingdom MEDIEVAL/MIDDLE AGES
- China, was located on the far east of Asia - start of middle ages was marred by massive
- was famous among other ancient civilizations invasions and migrations
because of its silk trade - wars were prevalent during this time
SILK - great technology was needed in the fields of
weaponry, navigation, mass food and farm
- one of the things that connected China to the production, and health
world - there was a significant rise in the population
- it is naturally produced by silk worms - trade and commerce among nations increased,
- silk production resulted in the creation of a which resulted in greater demands for
product for trade transportation technology
Printing Press PASTEURIZATION
- a more reliable way of printing using a cast type - As people were able to develop better means of
- this general invention soon evolved to be the production to meet the needs of the population,
mechanical printing press which was eventually food preservation and food safety became an
used all over the world issue
- invention also made works accessible to - challenge to keep manufactured food from
individuals who could not even write deteriorating was greater for dairy products,
(Streissguth 1997) especially milk, since they usually spoiled faster
MICROSCOPE Dairy Products
- with this device, people were able to observe - needed to be consumed almost immediately
organisms that were normally unseen by the after production or they would cause illness like:
nakedeyE diphtheria, food poisoning and typhoid fever
- growing populations caused massive migration
Louis Pasteur
and urbanization during the period
Zacharias Janssen - a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist
(found a way to solve the problem)
- was able to develop the first compound - He invented pasteurization
microscope
PASTEURIZATION
TELESCOPE
- the process of heating dairy products to kill the
- since middle ages, was also known as the Age of harmful bacteria that allow them to spoil faster
Exploration, the need for nautical inventions was - through this process, milk could be restored and
high consumed for a longer period
- optical instrument that helps in the observation - it also prevented illnesses caused by harmful
of remote objects bacteria (Macalester College 2010)
- was a great help for navigators during this time - Pasteur other contributions to Science &
- Together with the telescope, the invention of Technology and medicine included his works on
the compass, oars and rudders made sea molecular asymmetry, fermentation, and
travelling easier and safer ( Helden 1989) vaccination
WAR WEAPONS PETROLEUM REFINERY
- since wars were widespread during the middle - The modern times demanded better means of
ages, great development in the weaponry powering homes and transportation
technology occurred - At first, people used animal oils for generating
- all sides must develop weaponries not only as light to illuminate their homes. However the
offensive tools but also as defensive intruments production of animal oils could not keep up with
the demand
Cross bows
Faced with this concern:
Long bows
Samuel M. Kier
Iron Body Armors - in close-range hand-to-hand combat,
soldiers should wear something to protect themselves - was able to invent kerosene by refining
petroleum
- however, body armors were heavy and limited
their movements. The problem was eventually Kerosene
solved by the invention of the chainmail
- was later on referred to as the “illuminating
MODERN TIMES oil”- because it was used at first to provide
lighting to homes
- the booming world population during the 19th - after some time, it was applied to heating
century onwards purposes
- demanded that more goods be produced at a - the development of kerosene established the
faster rate petroleum refinery industry (Skrabec, 2010)
- people needed efficient means of transportation
to trade more goods and cover a larger distance At present:
- All these needs resulted to the development of
industries Petroleum
- However, due to massive industrialization, the - is widely used in powering automobiles,
modern times again faced more complicated factories, and power plants among others
problems
- Food processing and medicine posed some of TELEPHONE
the bigger challenges since health was of great - the more people got connected by trade and
concern exploration, the more they needed a way to
easily maintain these connections and SALT LAMP
communicate with each other in real time
one of the major needs in the Philippines, as a
Alexander Graham Bell developing nation is – electrification
- was the one who invented and developed the Electricity - powers various types of machines,
telephone including light sources
- One of the most important inventions at that
- In many rural areas in the country, activities
time
would cease when it gets dark
CALCULATOR - it also becomes more dangerous to travel
- Filipinos have resorted to using candles and
- Although an earlier version of the calculator had kerosene lamps but they carry certain risks as
already been developed, circumstances in the they are fire hazards
modern times required a faster way to compute
more complicated equations Solar power
Mechanical Calculator - is also a welcome development but like
rechargeable batteries, solar panels are too
- Computing devices must also be easy to carry expensive for ordinary Filipinos
since they would be utilized on a day-to-day
basis Aisa Mijeno
- The creation of modern calculators did not only
pave the way for easier arithmetic calculations, - a young Filipino inventor
but also resulted in the development of more - was able to invent a lighting system that utilizes
complex processing machines like the computer a material abundant in the Philippines –
saltwater
PHILIPPINE INVENTION - invented the Sustainable Alternative Lighting
(SALt) lamp
- The Philippines also contributes to the global
advancement of science and technology Sustainable Alternative Lighting (SALt) lamp
- it is remarkable to note the ingenuity of the
Filipinos despite the lack of resources - an environment-friendly light source that runs
- The Philippines is known to be one of the most on saltwater
vulnerable countries in terms of natural disasters - is safer as it poses no risk of fire and emits no
toxic gases
SALAMANDER AMPHIBOIUS TRICYCLE
MEDICAL INCUBATOR
- It has become ordinary for Filipinos to convert
transport vehicles into something more useful - A common problem in the Philippines is the high
mortality rate of newborn babies
Example: - One reason for this problem in the 20th century
was the lack of available incubators especially in
Conversion of American military jeeps used in World war fur-flung rural areas due to lack of resources and
II into jeepneys electricity
Conversion of US jeep to PH jeep Dr. Fe del Mundo
another Filipino innovation is the addition of sidecar to - deviced a medical incubator made from
a motorcycle – transforming it into tricycle to indigenous and cheap materials which did not
accommodate more passengers run on electricity
During the rainy season, flooding is a common Dr. Fe del Mundo’s Incubator
occurrence in many areas in the country
Tricycle – find it very difficult to traverse the streets. - was made by placing a native laundry basket
inside a bigger one
To remedy the issue: - hot water bottles were inserted between the
Victor Llave and his team at H20 Technologies – were baskets to provide warmth and makeshift hood
able to invent the Salamander to allow oxygen circulation
- Other breakthroughs in Philippine Medicine
Salamander attributed to – Dr. Del Mundo – include her
- an amphibious tricycle that can cross not only in works on the immunization and treatment of
flooded streets but also rivers and lakes jaundice and the BRAT diet for curing diarrhea
- it may also be utilized to travel from island to Incubator
island
- Since the Philippines is an archipelago, the - its main purpose was to maintain conditions
Salamander is a useful invention that has a lot suitable for a newborn, usually a pre-term baby
of potential
-
MOSQUITO OVICIDAL / LARVICIDAL TRAP SYSTEM
DENGUE
- a mosquito-borne viral illness
- endemic in tropical and subtropical areas
including the Philippines
- this virus is usually transmitted by Aedes egypti
mosquito
- rampant during rainy season
In 2010 DOST-ITDI (Department of Science and
Technology-Industrial Technology Development
Institute)
- was able to produce a Mosquito
Ovicidal/Larvicidal Trap system aka OL Trap
- this trap system is made of natural ingredients
that are lethal to mosquitos but safer to humans
and the environment
eJEEPNEY
- A major innovation that change the
transportation industry in the Philippines
- this iconic public utility vehicle was built during
the military jeeps left by the Americans after
World War II
- the chassis and the body of the military jeeps
were extended to accommodate more load and
passengers
Because of its usefulness, the jeepney dominated
the Philippine streets and is considered as the
primary mode of transportation of most Filipinos
Diesel powered jeepney
- produces large quantities of black smoke
- usually a major contributor of noise pollution
due to its primitive exhaust system
- To encounter these disadvantages,
the electric jeepney was developed
Ejeepney
- this modern type of transportation utilizes
electricity instead of the more expensive diesel
- it is environmental-friendly since it does not emit
any smoke and noise