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CHAPTER 18: Enlightenment and

Section 2: Enlightenment Ideas Spread
The Church’s restriction of access to ideas and
information to protect against the attacks of the
Censorship Enlightenment. (banned and burned books,
imprisoned writers)
Persian Written by Montesquieu; used two fictional
Letters Persian travelers (Usbek and Rica) to mock
French society.
(written by?)
Candide Written by Voltaire; slyly used the tale to expose
(written by?) the corruption and hypocrisy of European society.

Informal social gatherings at which writers,

Salons artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas.

Absolute rulers who accepted Enlightenment

Enlightened ideas who used their power to bring about
despots political and social change.
King of Prussia (1740-1786); saw himself as the
“first servant of the state”, with a duty to work for
the common good.
- developed a Prussian academy of science
- distributed seed and tools for peasants who
Frederick the suffered in Prussia’s wars
Great - tolerated religious differences
- reorganized the civil service and simplified
- “rationalized” bureaucracy: stronger
monarchy—more power for Frederick
Russian empress who praised Voltaire and
Diderot/agreed Enlightenment ideas.
Catherine the - granted nobles a charter of rights
Great - criticized the institution of serfdom
- her political contribution was not a reform
—but an expanded empire
Hapsburg emperor who was the most radical of
the enlightened despots; son and successor of
Maria Theresa.
- “peasant emperor”
- Granted toleration to Protestants and Jews
in his Catholic empire.
Joseph II - Ended censorship and attempted to bring
the Catholic Church under royal control
- Sold many convents and monasteries to
build hospitals
- Abolished serfdom
- Reforms were canceled after his death
Art and architecture in the Greek and Roman
tradition or in a grand, complex style.
Baroque - paintings were huge, colorful, and full of
- glorified historic battles or lives of saints
Style developed by architects and designers in
mid-1700s; personal, elegant, and charming art.
Rococo - Portraits of nobles in charming rural settings,
surrounded by happy servants and pets.
Dutch painter who conferred great dignity on
Rembrandt merchants and other ordinary, middle-class
Johann Devout German Lutheran who wrote complex
Sebastian and beautiful religious works for organ and
Mozart A six-year-old prodigy in 1762; composer and
His brilliant operas, graceful symphonies, and
moving religious music helped define the new
style of composition; died in poverty at 35.
German-born composer; wrote Water Music and
Handel Messiah and other pieces for King George I, as
well as many operas.

Daniel Defoe Prose writer who wrote Robinson Crusoe

Robinson An exciting tale about a sailor shipwrecked on a

Crusoe tropical island.

Section 3: Britain at Mid-Century

Ended the French and Indian War and the Seven
Treaty of Years’ War—brought Britain all of French
Paris 1763 Canada and pushed the French out of India.
In 1707, joined two countries England and
Act of Union Scotland; brought economic advantages to both
lands, free trade

Constitutiona Government whose power is defined and limited

l Government by law

Landed aristocrats who sought to preserved older

Tories traditions, supported broad royal powers and a
dominant Anglican Church.
Backed the policies of the Glorious Revolution;
Whigs reflect urban business interests, support religious
toleration, and favor Parliament over the crown.

- spoke no English
George I - relied on Parliament to help him rule
A handful of parliamentary advisers who set
Cabinet policy, who met in a small room or a “cabinet”.

Prime Head of the cabinet

- eager to recover the powers the crown had
- He wanted to end Whig domination,
choose his own ministers, dissolve the
cabinet system, and make Parliament
George III follow his will.
- Made colonists in North America must pay
the costs of their own defenses. Conflicts
after this triggered the American
- After, the cabinet rule was restored.

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