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Veloso, Bettina Alexandra Y.

30B
Experiment No. 1: Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid May 10, 2019

Data and Results

Table A: ​Quantitative and Qualitative Results of Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid

Benzoic Acid Crystals Appearance and Percent Yield Melting Point


Description

Results Flaky, thin, white [(47.59g-45.91g)/2g] Start: ​110.5 C


crystals x100​= 84% End : ​150.0 C
Melting Point: 130.25 C

Other Before reaction: Mass of vial-​ 47.59g This deems the sample
Observations/Alterations gray powder Mass of vial with relatively impure due to the
interlaced with shiny crystals-​ 45.91g high melting point caused by
solids Mass of crystals- 1.68 the impurities.
g

Discussion
The unreacted benzoic acid was a gray powder interlaced with shiny solid-looking
structures. After performing the procedure successfully, the benzoic acid in this form was
synthesized into flaky, thin, crystal-like, white structures proving this to be a successful product
from the qualitative description alone. The other, various elements of the experiment will be
explained in-depth in the succeeding paragraphs below.

​ oth crystals and precipitates are synthesized from oversaturated solutions and have
B
relatively the same chemical compositions of their original material, however crystals are slowly
and selectively formed through crystalline networks, resulting in a pure, ​polymorph​ compound.
On the other hand, precipitates are quick formations of ​amorphous ​solids that contain many
impurities.​ The benzoic acid obtained in this experiment were ​crystals​ due to their matching
physical appearance and slow formation in the mother solution.

The use of ​cold water​ during suction filtration can​ greatly increase the percent yield​ as it
retains the ability to ​turn any remaining precipitate into crystals as cooler environments provide
greater potential for crystallization. ​Using hot water is not advisable as any precipitates mixed in
with the crystallized compounds will remain uncrystallized, thus decreasing the percent yield.
The necessity of the decolorizing charcoal in this experiment is for the absorption of any
impurities mixed in with the benzoic acid. However,​ excessively adding decolorizing charcoal
can result to low percent recovery as the charcoal may absorb the organic compounds used for
the synthesis of the desired crystals​. Therefore, it is better to add less charcoal to the mother
solution compared to overly saturating it with decolorizing charcoal.

The ​impurities​ present in the resulting crystals explains the slightly higher than average
melting point of 130.25 C when the target melting point hovers at around the 122 C mark. The
mishandling of these crystals, interference of outside contaminants as well as improperly carried
out filtration​ could be the main causes of the resulting melting point and should be minimized in
future experiments for the production of purer crystals.

Adjusting the problem due to the use of benzoic acid rather than acetanilide in this
experiment, the maximum theoretical yield is calculated. Thus,​ the result is 1.72 g of benzoic
acid or 86% yield. ​Since​ 86% is the theoretically expected maximum and 84% is the calculated
percent yield of this product, this indicates that the conducted experiment was successful in
producing an adequate amount of yield close to the target result due to the narrow margin
between the values.

Sample Calculations

A. Calculating the Mass of Crystals


The mass of crystals was calculated by using the following given data.
Mass of vial-​ 47.59g
Mass of vial with crystals​- 45.91g
The mass of the vial with crystals is subtracted from the mass of the empty vial.
47.59-45.91g= ​1.68g

B. Calculating For Percent Yield


The percent yield is calculated through the following formula:
Actual yield/ theoretical yield X 100= percent yield
By plugging the given values above into the equation, the percent yield can now be
calculated.
1.68g/2g X 100=​ 84%

C. Calculating Maximum Theoretical Yield


Based on the solubility for benzoic acid given: 0.34g/ 100ml, an equation can then be
constructed:
0.34g/100ml=x/80ml
X in this equation indicates the amount of benzoic acid in grams that will dissolve in 80 ml of
water.
After cross multiplying to find x, the result of the operation is 0.27g.
Thus, 0.27 g of benzoic acid can dissolve in 80 ml of water.
Following this, 0.27g is simply subtracted from the original 2.00 g of benzoic acid used in this
experiment.
2.00g-0.27g=1.72g
To find the percent yield, divide 1.72 by 2 and multiply it by 100 to find the maximum
theoretical % yield.
1.72/2 X 100= ​86%

D. Finding the Melting Point of the Yielded Crystals


The melting point of the crystals is determined by adding the initial temperature the crystals
began to melt and the final temperature it was completely melted and dividing the total by 2.
Thus, the give-in is plugged in:
110.5C+150C/2= ​130.25 C

Mini Glossary
Polymorph​- exists in many forms or crystal-like structures
Amorphous​- does not have a defined lattice structure such as that of crystals

References
1. Ultrasonic Crystallization and Precipitation [Internet]. Hielscher.com. [cited 7 May
2019]. Available from:
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2. User: PresidentHackerWhale893.T ​ he theoretical maximum recovery is found using
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https://www.coursehero.com/file/p78o28c/The-theoretical-maximum-recovery-is-found-u
sing-solubility-data-Solubility-g100/
3. What Everyone Needs to Know about Polymorphs [Internet]. SSCI. [cited 7 May 2019].
Available from:
https://www.ssci-inc.com/publications/what-everyone-needs-to-know-about-polymorphs/
4. Recrystallisation of Benzoic Acid and Determination of its Melting Point | Science &
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nt
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