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UFMT – Linguística Aplicada ao Ensino da Língua Inglesa 2019 Profa.

Eladyr Maria A Silva

Unidade 2: Metodologia de pesquisa em LA

Tipos de Pesquisa

I. Categorias de Pesquisa em Aquisição de Segunda Língua (Brown & Rodgers, 2002)

PESQUISA SECUNDÁRIA – envolve qualquer pesquisa baseada em fontes secundárias,


principalmente advinda de livros e artigos de outros pesquisadores. Subdivide-se em

- Pesquisa bibliográfica – inclui qualquer pesquisa feita para uma determinada disciplina ou
curso na universidade, geralmente em forma de papers/trabalhos).

- Revisões de literatura – envolve qualquer pesquisa baseada na literatura de uma determinada


área de estudos.

PESQUISA PRIMÁRIA – envolve qualquer pesquisa que seja baseada em dados primários ou
originais (por exemplo, resultados de testes de alunos, observação do comportamento de
aprendizagem de língua em sala de aula, respostas a questionários, etc.). Pode ser subdividida
em pesquisa qualitativa, pesquisa de levantamento e pesquisa estatística.

- Pesquisa qualitativa – baseia-se predominantemente em dados não-numéricos e utiliza várias


técnicas qualitativas para coleta de dados (observação, notas de campo, diários, entrevistas
abertas/não estruturadas/semi-estruturadas, etc.).

- Pesquisa de levantamento – pode ser conduzida por meio de entrevistas estruturadas ou


questionários.

- Pesquisa estatística – é predominantemente baseada em dados numéricos e geralmente é


denominada „quantitativa‟ em oposição à pesquisa qualitativa. Este tipo de pesquisa enfatiza a
descoberta de fatos existentes por meio do emprego de linguagem científica neutra.
Filosoficamente, é baseada no princípio de que a realidade humana pode ser isolada e existe
independentemente da subjetividade do pesquisador. Sua meta é a descoberta de valores
universais. Valor universal significa que o valor da pesquisa é universalmente aplicável
independente do tempo, lugar, cultura e outros fatores. Este conceito está ligado à capacidade de
generalização da pesquisa. Na pesquisa quantitativa, para se obter generabilidade, enfatiza-se a
objetividade da pesquisa por meio do uso de linguagem científica neutra e de resultados da
análise de dados apresentados de maneira objetiva e numérica. Inclui:

 Pesquisa descritiva – estudos que descrevem resultados em termos numéricos.


 Pesquisa exploratória – estudos que examinam correlações entre variáveis.
 Pesquisa quase-experimental - estudos que comparam comportamentos de grupos em
termos probabilísticos sob situações controladas usando grupos intactos (previa e
cuidadosamente selecionados para atender os propósitos da pesquisa.
 Pesquisa experimental (estudos que comparam comportamentos de grupos em termos
probabilísticos sob condições controladas usando-se amostras aleatórias de
participantes.

II. Continuum de Métodos de Pesquisa em Ensino/Aprendizagem de L2 (Mckay, 2006, p.6)

Action Research - According to Nunan (1992), Action research is carried out by practitioners,
is collaborative and is aimed to changing things. Thus, this method involves an investigation of
teacher‟s own classroom and is directly related to their classroom problems and concerns. It
begins with teachers identifying a concrete problem they have. They then gather data to help
solve the problem and, after carefully analyzing this data, undertake changes in their classroom
to hopefully solve their initial problem.

Surveys – According to Brown (2001), language surveys are any studies “that gather data on
the characteristics and views of informants about the nature of language or language learning
through the use of oral interviews or written questionnaires”. In survey research, the researcher
asks their informant to provide data. The advantage of this type of research is that substantial
amount of information can be collected in relatively short period of time. In all survey research,
the selection of informants and the design of the questions are central to a sound research
design. It can use both statistical and qualitative analysis. The sample size of a survey can vary
from students in one classroom to a random sample of students from a much larger population.
However, statistical generalizations are only possible with a large random sample.

 Questionnaire – a written survey administered to individuals containing closed-


response and/or open-response items. When it is more structured, it can offer a
productive method for gathering a large amount of very specific information on
teachers‟ and learners‟ attitudes and behaviours. It may employ paper-and-pencil or
computer-delivered question-and-answer formats for data collection.
 Interview – a survey done orally in a face-to-face format, on the telephone, or in
groups. Oral interviews can also be highly structured or open-ended. The advantage of
interviews is that they allow the researcher to study individual teachers and students in
much greater depth than written surveys.

Introspective Studies – In introspective studies, teachers and learners reflect on their thinking
processes or their beliefs and experiences. They include:

 Verbal Reports or Verbal Protocols – In verbal reports, learners typically verbalize


their thought processes while, or immediately after, engaged in a reading or writing
task. There are two kinds of verbal reports: a think-aloud and a retrospective report.
Verbal protocols are oral records of thoughts (think-aloud), provided by subjects when
thinking aloud during or immediately after completing a task. When the reports are
retrospective (carried out immediately after the task) they can be used with oral/aural
activities. Although there are many disadvantages to using verbal reports, it is one of the
few methods available for accessing the thought processes of learners.

 Diary Studies – In these studies teachers or learners keep a detailed record of their
teaching or learning experiences and reflect on these experiences as part of their diaries.
The account of the second language experience is recorded on a first-person journal.
The diarist studies his own teaching or learning. He/she can write about affective
factors, language learning strategies, his/her own perceptions – facets of the language
learning experience which are normally hidden or largely inaccessible to an external
observer. Such studies go beyond journal keeping because they must involve a rigorous
analysis of the data gathered.

Qualitative Studies – It typically starts with the assumption that classroom learning must be
studied holistically, taking into account a variety of factors in a specific classroom. No attempt
is made to intervene in the typical activities of a classroom. Qualitative research is descriptive
rather than abstract. The researcher interprets what he observes happening in a particular context
(is interpretive rather than statistical, because the data cannot be easily quantified). It includes:

 Case Studies – Case studies often involve following the development of the language
competence of an individual or small group of individuals. These studies are usually
longitudinal. Researchers use case studies when they believe contextual features are
highly relevant to their research question. For example, a researcher might select a case
study approach if he or she wants to find out if learners‟ progress in English is affected
by the context where they learning the language. A second feature of case study
research is that it gives attention to the many variables that might be a factor in
answering the research question and thus, the researcher gathers evidence from multiple
sources. For example, if a researcher is interested in examining learners‟ progress in
public versus private classroom; he/she will gather a great variety of evidence by
observing students‟ behavior in both types of classes, gathering students‟ work in both
contexts, and interviewing the students‟ teachers.
 Ethnographies –This kind of research occurs in real situations and settings where
people actually live and work. In ethnographic research, the researcher tries to interpret
what is happening according to the views of people in that particular context or culture
by having prolonged engagement with the participants and context. The research
focuses on the cultural meanings revealed by the behavior of the subjects under study.
According to Van Lier (1988), cultural description is a central characteristic of
ethnography. In ethnographic studies, the researcher tries to interpret what is happening
according to the views of people in that particular context or culture by having
prolonged engagement with the participants and context. Ethnographic research
involves long periods of involvement so that researchers can gain an in-depth
understanding of what is being observed. Moreover, the research is a participant in the
environment being examined and thus is a participant observer. Like most qualitative
research, ethnographic research begins with a general research question and uses
multiple sources of data to investigate the question, e.g., documentary analysis,
participant observation, (unstructured/in-depth interviewing). As Nunan (1992) points
out, ethnography is contextual, unobtrusive, longitudinal, collaborative and interpretive
and organic - there are interactions between question/hypothesis and data
collection/interpretation – the categories are not predetermined.
 Qualitative interviewing – It is a kind of guided conversation (conversation with a
purpose) in which the researcher carefully listens “so as to hear the meaning” of what is
being conveyed. It is similar to standardized survey interviewing in this respect, but
unlike the survey interview, it tends to be less positivist. Interview participants are more
likely to be viewed as meaning makers. The purpose of qualitative interviewing is to
derive interpretations, not facts or laws, from respondent talk. Most qualitative research
are designed to have a fluid and flexible structure, and to allow researcher and
interviewee(s) to develop unexpected themes. This method operates from the
perspective that knowledge and data are constructed through dialogic interaction during
the interview. The researcher is not a neutral data collector – he is active and reflexive
in the process of data generation. People‟s knowledge, views, understandings,
interpretations, experiences and interactions are meaningful properties of the social
reality which the research questions are designed to explore.
 Narrative inquiry – It is a recursive, reflective and reflexive process of inquiry. A
narrative inquirer tries to understand a phenomenon through narratives (it is the study of
experience as a story). Lives are composed, recomposed, lived, told, retold, and relived
in storied ways on storied landscapes. The stories lived and told in a narrative inquiry
relationship is always a co-composition, because the inquirer is not an objective
inquirer. The stories are composed in the spaces between inquirers and participants.
Narrative researchers collect field texts that document the individual‟s story in his or
her own words (e.g., interview transcripts, letters, journal entries, etc.).

The choice of which method to use depends on what the researcher‟s objectives are.
These objectives are typically specified in terms of a research question. The researcher
must then specify the research design that he or she will employ to answer this question.