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LABORATORY METHOD

I. INTRODUCTION
For a country to develop, it must have adequate human capital .The human capital is
obviously obtained through sound education. It is believed that education is a pivotal
part of human development, and can positively influence standards of living, health
and governance. Schools handle the important responsibility of imparting education to
students and developing them in to responsible and enterprising citizen. Laboratory
has been described as a room or a building especially built for teaching by
demonstration of theoretical phenomenon in to practical terms. The Dewey philosophy
learning by doing led to the gradual application of the term laboratory method in other
fields, particularly the social science.

II. DEFINITION OF LABORATORY METHOD

Word laboratory was applied originally to the workroom of the chemist, a place
devoted to the experimental study of natural science, to testing,and preparing various
chemical materials.
Webster
The Dewey philosophy,“Learn by doing,”led to the gradual application of the term
“laboratory method” in other fields particularly the social sciences.

Laboratory method of teaching utilized a problem solving approach to learning


that offers students opportunities for supervised ,individualized, and direct experiences
in the testing and application of previous learned theories

BT Basavanthappa

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III. PURPOSES OF LABORATORY METHOD

1. Specify objectives for laboratory experience and make them known to student.
Explicitly the laboratory method of teaching utilizes a problem solving approach
to learning that offers student opportunities for supervise, individualizes, direct
experiences in the testing and application of previously learned theory and principles
and the refinement of specific skills or complex abilities, through which the student
can acquire psychomotor as well as mental skills.

2. To promote learning by doing.


In a laboratory, the skills can be learned through experience under careful
supervision. Thus to gain knowledge through study and experience, to apply
knowledge in life setting and to acquire the attitudes, appreciation and ideas and skills
needed to practice.
3. To orient new equipment or procedure
Laboratory method help the student to handle advanced apparatus in the lab. So it
will improve the skills of student to manage new advanced methods used in the labs
and getting knowledge from making theory in to practical. Nursing laboratory which is
demonstration room, it is used for demonstration of some technique used by nursing
student may practice to become familiar with nursing procedures. It helps to acquire
new and broad knowledge by improving the self activity to learn from practical
experiences.
4. It helps the student to acquire scientific attitudes and scientific approach in
problem solving.
It should be well organized and well planned with close coordination between class
and laboratory work. Supervised study activity, in which the student is involved in a
firsthand experience designed to achieve particular objectives by solving problem.
After the lab work, the class should meet together for discussion of common problems,
for the organizations of findings, for the presentation of the results of individual or
group problem solving activities.

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5. To teach psychomotor skill
Students are provided opportunities to practice psychomotor skills. The acquisition of
these skills is required to conduct experimental work. This method stresses to acquire
various kinds of manipulative skills which involve the development of hand-eye
coordination.
6. To educate the student or learner
Laboratory procedure is considered as planned learning activities dealing with
original or raw data in the solution of problems. It is a procedure involving firsthand
experience. With primary source material or fact that derived from investigation or
experimentation in the solution of a problem, the answering of some question , rather
than hunting for a readymade answer from book
7. To prove and discover new facts.
The laboratory method helpful in getting new knowledge and skill. Labs are often the
best or only source o interaction for the students. Laboratory helps to acquire new and
broad knowledge by improving the self activity to learn from practical experience.
8. To supplement the classroom work
Lab classroom give teachers opportunities to share effective teaching practices. It is
the theory which studied in the class. The learning experiences are planned so the
theory and laboratory experiences complement each other.

IV. CHARACTERISTICS OF LABORATORY METHOD

 Promotes information acquisition through observation, experimental solutions to


problems guided by reflective thinking and acquisition of skill in manipulation.
 Provides students opportunities to conduct or participate in original research
Real life experience makes the students more interesting in attaining knowledge
through theory cum practical. Research help to identify new thing and developing
thinking skills of the student.
 Develop skill in using laboratory equipment and instrument.
In laboratory methods students are able to handle the equipments and instruments
by learning by doing . This will increase the confidence of student also.
 Enhances higher order thinking skills.
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It enhances the thinking skills of a student . She will get more opportunity to
explore in all levels .students can improve their critical thinking if they are more
exposure with laboratory. The laboratory method frequently requires usage of problem
solving and science process skills and is mainly based on experiments.

V. Functions of Laboratory Teaching Method

 Verification activities:
Students are asked to verify major concepts. Students are provided
opportunities to witness events that have previously been discussed on
describing in reading assignments.

 Explorative activities:
Students are encouraged to probe and investigate new information through
open-ended problems. Explanatory activities help students to develop interest in
science. They are motivated to study the subject in depth. The new information
gathered through explanatory activities is utilized to process new information
and to find scientific relationships.

 Inductive activities:
Questions are posed to students and they are guided to discover a
relationship or a concept on their own. Students are required to recognize facts
through inductive activities and derive meaningful generalizations and
principles.

 Deductive activities:
These activities are based on the maxim from the general to specific. Students
are encouraged to apply the previously learned principles in explaining,
predicting or describing an event. These activities contribute to reinforce major
concepts.

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 Psychomotor skill development activities:
Students are provided opportunities to practice psychomotor skills. The
acquisition of these skills is required to conduct experimental work.
 Problem-solving activities:
Students are required to solve scientific problems and formulate answers.
Assistance must be provided to the designed problematic students with the aim
to impart training in scientific process or problem-solving skills.

VI. PRINCIPLES OF LABORATORY METHOD

 Principle of Learning by doing


Learning by doing that the theory cum practical in a defined area. So this helps
the students in to develop motor skills in cognitive skill. Also to give students an
understanding of the advantages and limitations of laboratory method.
 Principle of Self preparation
The teacher should know everything about what are going to teach the students
and must know the details of the experiment. Revise the techniques of the lab so
that the teacher can make the students learn the correct way.

 Principle of problem solving.


There are different ways to start with. The best is to explain the process orally one,
explaining the methods as written in the procedure. The teacher should ask
students to follow the procedure before handling the instruments. This way they
will learn he correct procedure for performing the experiment
 Principle of right explanation
The teacher’s value is always judged by students. A teacher should know the
proper and effective way of teaching students the experiments in the easiest way.
Teacher should be able to sharing knowledge with students. And must be able to
explain them each and every scientific cause behind the observations. Hence
students will be interested to know and so teacher have to be efficient enough to
reply them confidently.

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 Explaining observation
One the experiment is over teacher suppose to explain the students the reasons
behind the observations. Explain them the conclusion in details, so that no doubt
remain in their mind. Relate the observation with the text they have learned in
their theory classes. Getting the correct results is essential for the success of an
experiment.

 Principle of recording and reporting


There are different way to write lab reports. Teacher should teach the students the
sequence for writing a lab report. The typical structure of the lab reports begins
with the aim of the experiment, the requisite and then the detailed explanation of
the process, methods and precautions required. At last, the observation along with
a good conclusion is written . Diagrams, flow charts, formulas, are important part
of the report.

 Principle of safety
Everyone should be alert in the lab, never work in the lab alone. Do not taste,
touch, or smell any reagents. Carefully follow directions, both written and oral. Wear
safety equipments glasses / goggles, aprons. Handle toxic or combustible gases or
chemicals only under the direction of the teacher. Do not eat or drink in the lab, keep
flammable and combustible materials away from open flames. Some examples of
flammable materials include alcohol, carbon disulfide, and acetone. If a substance is
splashed in the eyes, immediately use the water faucet to rinse eyes. Water
appropriate clothing. Handle chemicals carefully. Wash the hands thoroughly with
soap and water before leaving the lab.

PREPARATION OF STUDENT

Before laboratory method

 It requires establishment of objectives and plan of work


Motivates the student by presenting problem together with effective method for
its solution. Teacher prepares the plan with cooperation of the student considering
objectives not wasting time.
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 Students prepare in advance for the experiment they would perform in the laboratory
Pre laboratory discussion must give students the clearest possible picture and
understanding of what they are to do in the laboratory. This will help the students
to concentrate on what they are doing and make the experience more meaningful.

 Students must accompany or carry their practical notebooks, laboratory manual,


geometry box, pencil, sharpener, and eraser to the practical class.
Students follow strictly the instructions given by the teacher and perform the
experiments carefully at the allotted places. They should not move around
unnecessarily in the laboratory. The teacher may be consulted for any help or
guidance. Disposal of reagents must be done with care.

 All equipment such as microscope, physical balance, measuring items and glassware
must be must be handled with care and after understanding their functions.
 Advice students that the mouth should not be pointed towards while heating or
adding a reagent and for smelling the vapors, fan the vapors gently with hands
towards the nose. Avoid direct smelling of chemicals or vapors
 Do not handle chemicals with hands. Do not taste any chemicals. Safety precautions
should keep in mind.

After the laboratory method

 Keep working table and surroundings clean. Replace all laboratory equipment to its
assigned place in the laboratory once the practical work is over.
 Always wash hands after the laboratory class.
 After the lab in case of any accident or injury or breakage of apparatus , report to the
teacher immediately.
 Recording of experiment.
Preparing a report on each practical performed in the laboratory and maintaining a
record of the work done is an essential requirement. The report on each experiment
should be such that it informs all steps involve in performing the experiment and the
result obtained.

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VII. VALUES OF LABORATORY METHOD

Laboratory procedure has many particular values for both the teacher and the
student. Its values for the student lie in the opportunity to experience a learning
situation at first hand, to use the problem-solving approach, to the solutions of real
problems, to translate theory into practice, to develop, to test and apply principles and
to learn methods of procedure, with greater which group work often imposes on the
student.

 Specify objectives for laboratory experience and make them known to students.
Explain the students about what the goal is to achieve through this method and
clear the doubts. Laboratory allows the participants to participate and select the
objectives to be achieved. Make them to know that this method helps to solve the
problems, to develop scientific attitudes and scientific approach in problem solving.

 Outline general plan of activities in accord with objectives, provide for


correlation of activities with theory courses.
In clinical nursing, the use of the laboratory method becomes procedure for
providing students with well planned, supervised experience in translating principles
of nursing in to active, problem solving for nursing problems. The laboratory methods
best suited for establishing a structural framework to bridge the gap between the
theoretical study of nursing and the study of patients.

 Plan for sequential learning experiences.


Allow progression according to the individual abilities. And supervise students
through question and example, timing of guidance must be strategically planned know
when to act, when to withhold action . Provide reinforcement at regular intervals, keep
records of daily progress.
Adequate records should be kept so that student progress can be checked and waste of
time prevented. Provision should be made for individual differences. Some students
will complete their task more quickly than others. They can be given additional

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assignments which will help them to deepen their knowledge or they may be released
to work on some related learning area in which they are especially interested

 Make self available for group or individual help.


The length of the laboratory period should be determined by the nature of the
problems and the objective. The activity should be adapted to the type of the work to
be done. Student may be work individually , as individual, small teams , or in small
teams within a large group. When student works individually or in a small teams they
may come together as a group at various times either during a laboratory session .
For example , a clinical conference may be used to bring students together to study
the common problems encountered by the individual student in their nursing care of
patients.

 Supervise to guide the student to correct mistake


Laboratory procedure provides the teacher with an opportunity to observe the
student in action, to assess her worth, correct her mistake and to guide her in
promising directions. Through a penetrating question or two at the time, the teacher
can discover whether the student knows “the why” of what she is doing or is trying to
follow instructions without comprehending them. Often, a little encouragement or
special help at the right moment may enkindle or intensify interest and provide the
basis for independent accomplishment m the future.

 Summarize through discussions and individual conferences, data collection,


organization of findings, data collection, organization of findings, method of solving
problems, common problem encountered, individual accomplishments and
implications for use in solving other nursing problems.

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VIII. PHASES OR STEPS OF LABORATORY METHOD

WORKING PHASE

INTRODUCTORY
PHASE EVALUATION
PHASE

a) Introductory phase:

 Establishment of objectives and plan: The introductory phase involves the


establishment of objectives and a plan of work. It calls for the preparation of the
teacher and student. The planning for a laboratory period (objectives and or plan
of work) may be done in advance by the teacher or cooperatively by the teacher
and the student by means of class discussion.

 The teacher preparations calls for the selection of the purpose and the objectives for
the laboratory period- to solve a problem, to understand a process to develop a skill
etc, the selection of a general plan to work and provide for correlation of the
laboratory aspect of the course with the class work. Even though cooperative
planning with students may be used, teacher advanced preparation is necessary to
ensure that the proper material and equipment will be available for the laboratory
work. It is necessary so that the teacher can give whatever instructions my be
necessary for the students to proceed without wasting time.

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 Teachers preparation essentially consist in thinking over what the student will be
doing , that is the verbal preliminary instruction that they will require, the difficulties
that they are likely to encounter and some of the questions which the quality of their
work can be appraised and their learning experience improved.

 Student preparation is essentially one of orientation and motivation achieved through


proper instruction and guidance. When instructions are short, they may be given
verbally, but when long procedures are involved or complex equipment must be
handled, instructions should be in writing.
However, Laboratory procedures should not be too detailed, or they deprive the
student of intellectual challenge.

 The teacher who stands at the students elbow and prompts here at every step
achieves the same effect. To be instructive, the laboratory procedures may be in
the form of a manual. They should be prepared so as to state the problem to be
solved, or the procedures to be followed, fill the necessary background and general
mode of procedure to be followed and leave it to the students to formulate precise
plan of investigation up the plan and reaching her on conclusions.

b) Working phase

 Supervision: It is the period during which the individual student or group of


student do their particular work under the supervision of the teacher. It is
essentially a type of supervised study activity in which the student is involved in a
firsthand experience designed to achieve particular objectives.
 Accomplishment of task: The laboratory procedure presumes skills on the part of
the teacher, different from the lecture or demonstration, in which emphasis is on the
organization and the exposition of knowledge. In contrast, the emphasis in the
laboratory procedures is on the ability to guide a student creatively in the
accomplishment of tasks, without allowing her to commit serious mistakes.
 The teacher who would use the laboratory procedure effectively must have the right
proportion of reserve and readiness in advancing suggestions when necessary; this

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means that she must be able to gauge the students abilities, to know at what point to
offer help and when to withhold it.
 The length of the laboratory period should be determined by the nature the problems
and the objectives. The activities should be adapted to the type of work to be done.
Students may work individually, as individual small teams, or in small teams with
in a large group.
 When students work individually or in small teams they may come together as a
group at various either during a laboratory period or between laboratory sessions.
For example, a clinical conference may be used to bring students together to the
common problems encountered by the individual students in their nursing-care of
patients.
 Adequate records should be kept so that student progress can be checked and waste
of time prevented. Provisions should be made for individual differences. Some
students will complete their tasks more quickly than others. They can be given
additional assignments which will help them to deepen their knowledge or they may
be released to work on some related learning area in which they are especially
interested.
c) Evaluation phase
When the laboratory work has been completed , the class should meet together for
common problems for the organization of findings , for the presentation of the results
of individual or group problem- solving activities. A wide variety of types of activities
may be utilized in this phase of the laboratory procedure.
 Review of the plan for solving the problem.
 Reports by the students on data gathered or other findings.
 Presentation of illustration material or special contributions by student development of
projection visual, of tape recordings, posters, bulletin board, etc.
 Organization of findings, summarization and conclusion by the group. The findings
and scored or rated by members of the class or by competent judge outside the class.
 Exhibits of various projects may be set-up and explained by their student sponsors.

IX. IMPORTANCE OF LABORATORY METHOD IN NURSING EDUCATION


The laboratory procedure may be used in any course in the nursing curriculum,
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 It may be used in the classroom, in courses that employ problem- solving activities ,
in which students gather first hand or primary course data from outside the classroom.
Example : Research

 In a laboratory, nursing skills can be learned through experience in the clinical


laboratory under careful supervision. Thus to gain knowledge through study and
experience, to apply knowledge in life setting and to acquire the attitudes, appreciation
and ideas and skills needed to practice the art of nursing.

 In clinical nursing, the use of laboratory method becomes procedure for providing
students with well planned, supervised experiences in translating principles of nursing
in to active, problem solving for nursing problems.

X. GUIDELINES FOR THE EFFECTIVE USE OF LABORATORY METHOD IN


CLINICAL SETTING.

 Human being is a person who has the right to be respected


Every human being is a person who has the right to be respected because of this
personal worth and dignity as a human being; therefore the teacher should show
respect for the nursing students, the patient, the physician and all other persons
encountered in the clinical setting.

 Individual differences.
Every nursing student is an individual and as such differs from all other students; she
has her own needs, interests and abilities. The teacher should consider individual
differences when planning and supervising nursing students.

 Nursing student should be help to establish realistic and worthwhile goals for
both her class work and clinical learning experience.
Nursing is not a science in the strict sense of the word; it is a series of arts that have
to do with the giving of direct and continuing
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require such assistance because of their personal inabilities in self-care, resulting from
a situation of personal health. It is a relationship in which one person acts for another
or helps the other person to act. Science in its broadest definition is knowledge, and art
is the purposeful application of knowledge. Nursing is a practical art, but one cannot
be practical unless one has knowledge; therefore, knowledge must be emphasized in
the learning of an art.

 Every nursing student comes to the clinical setting with a certain amount of
knowledge and skills.
Every nursing student comes to the clinical setting with a certain amount
knowledge and skill , the teacher should assess and help the student to assess her
knowledge in relation to the particular setting supplement and reinforce it through
clinical teaching and through the students own efforts in reading and study.

 Nursing student require a varying amount and degree of instruction and practice in
performing nursing procedures carrying out routines, developing skills, etc. the teacher
should adapt her instruction and supervision to the capacities and need of each student.
Any new procedure, the teacher should be close at hand to familiarize the student with
the situation.

 Student teacher relationship to help the student to cope up with the emotional
problems (stress, anxious and insecure) and every student desire to grow personally
and professionally during her clinical education also teacher should encourage each
student to act independently. Clinical experience must be well planned and well
supervised.
 Every nursing student should be helped to establish realistic and worthwhile goals for
both her class work and her clinical learning experience.

 Any new procedure, activity or situation is likely to be stressful to the nursing student.
The teacher should be close at hand to familiarize the student with the situation and to
reassure her in functioning in it.

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 Every student desires to grow personally and professionally during her clinical
education. The teacher, through discussion and conferences should show interest in
each student and in her progress toward and achievement of attaining her goals.

 As the nursing student grows personally and professionally, she will grow in
independence; the teacher should encourage each student to act independently when
warranted but should be available when the student need her.
 To be meaningful experience for the nursing student, clinical laboratory experience
must be well planned and the student well supervised when there. The supervisory
activities are the responsibility of the nursing instructor who carries them out in
cooperation and coordination with the nursing service personnel of the clinical
laboratory.

XI. ADVANTAGES OF LABORATORY METHOD

 It gives students real opportunity to discover things for themselves.


Students are provided opportunities to witness events that have previously been
discussed on describing in reading assignments. Students learn by doing and come in
contact with raw data or materials in teaching learning process.
 It gives opportunities to all students.
In this method individual difference and interest of all the students are taken in to
consideration, as a result of which, it is considered to be one of the psychological
method of teaching. As more importance is assigned to students in this method, as a
result of which, it is considered as child centered method. As no student is require to
accept the beliefs and orders of the teacher and full freedom is provided to them to
participate in the laboratory activities, as a result of which they begin to learn various
information by doing works themselves.

 Enables students to carry out the step in problem solving

Through this method, students learn to explore various things on their own. They also
learn to verify various scientific facts and principles. Such students become able to

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solve out various kinds of problems arising in their life own their own, as they possess
of high level of self-confidence.

 As the students directly get indulged in the experimental functions and handle the
various complex instruments themselves, thus various kinds of practical skills and
proficiency get developed in them to considerable extent, with the help of which they
prove to be successful in earning their livelihood in the future.

 Through this method, an intimate relationship got developed in between the students
and teacher, as students are required to acquire necessary guidance for performing
practical work from the teacher while the teacher provides proper individual attention
to them, by which all of them come closer to each other.

 With this method, teacher can develop various good habits among the students
because of which it is known for inculcation of good virtues among the students by a
majority of experts. An important good habit which gets developed among the student
is that they learn to perform their work on their own and independently. Not only this,
they have to work while maintaining cooperation with other students also, as a result
of which habit of team work gets developed in them. In addition of these, qualities of
honesty, sincerity and truthfulness also get developed among the students through this
method.

 When students get success in their experimental work, then they attain a sense of
achievement, which helps them in improving their performance to considerable extent
in all spheres of life. Helps in decision making or problem solving in real life
experience makes a person creativity.

 Reinforces knowledge and attitudes while allowing student to practice the


psychomotor skill.
It is through this kind of learning that the student acquires clinical knowledge, skill
and particularly practical or clinical judgment. To be able to sense what is important to
look at and to do and what is likely to be unimportant, both in theory and practice
comes only with knowledge, experience and with growth of imagination. The
cultivation of the powers of each individual student lies not only in the development of
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skills, it is the education and the training of the individual to know herself and to know
how to use her power.

XII. DISADVANTAGES OF LABORATORY METHOD


1. It is time consuming
Poor planning and lack of direction of teacher may result in wasting student time,
use of complicate approaches and consumes time. Poor direction causes blind manual
without an conception of the purpose.

2. Limited applicability

There are some kinds of knowledge which cannot be verified through experiments,
as a result of which this method has limited applicability. Not only this, generally it is
found that teachers do not allow the students to make experiments independently, as it
involves certain kind of risk of occurrence of accident.

3. Availability of equipments

As all the students get involved in experiment works because of which it becomes
necessary to provide them with separate equipments and other materials, but it is not
possible for the teachers to do so as the main problem in our nation is shortage of
resources. It is an important reason that why this method is used to limited extent in
schools.

4. Lack of budget in getting qualitative


Laboratory equipment create insecurity in teachers to operate them . Actually
simple equipment is far more comprehensive to the student and they are within the
bond of school grant. Teacher should remember that thee equipment does not result in
effective laboratory work ,wise planning and direction of learning activities are more
effective means of in –service learning.

5. As every student in expected to learn by performing experiments, thus it is felt by


some experts that this method expects too much from the students. In this method,
students feel heavy burden on themselves17as a result of which they do not get involved
in the exploration and investigation processes with their fullest capacities. Not only the
students feel lot of burden on them, but teacher also have the same kind of tendency.
Sometimes, teacher find it difficult to attend to the individual needs of the students, as
they differ from each other to considerable extent. As a result of this, students get
discouraged, as a result of which, it becomes very difficult for teacher to provide
timely help and guidance to them.

6. It needs constant supervision.


Without a supervision laboratory method will be failed. Students need an
experienced person for make them interest in subjects. This method can only be used
by experienced and well qualified teacher otherwise, probabilities of getting failure
can be increased.

7. Poor planning and lack of direction of teacher may result in wasting student time , use
of complicated approaches and consumes time. Poor direction causes blind manual
without an conception of the purpose.

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XIII. ROLE OF TEACHER AND STUDENT IN LABORATORY METHOD

Director

Guider
Facilitator

Role
Controller Planner

Educator Instructor

 Teacher as a guider
The teacher has the responsibility of selecting and organizing the learning opportunity
that are appropriate for the laboratory experience. Also this role implies that the
teacher structure the teacher structures the environment of the learners(physical, social
and psychological) to facilitates the learning outcome. Teacher is responsible for
preparing the lab environment and students. It includes laboratory equipments, space ,
availability, time, safety.

 Teacher as instructor
As educator it is important role of a teacher to deliver knowledge and teaching the
students regarding related subjects under curriculum. Educate the students to develop
their knowledge and attitude.

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 Teacher as a educator
This is one of the important role as a educator to build up It has promoted the
development of courses in higher education for nurses next generation.
 Teacher as mediator
The teacher is the mediator of the varied experiences that are the means of learning for
the student. The words, thoughts, and skills flow through the teacher’s responsibility
are given special life and meaning. Motivate the student by presenting problem
together with effective method for its solution.

 Teacher as controller
The teacher is the complete charge of the lab and classroom, what students do. What
they do and how they do. The teacher is the centre of focus, and will give instruction
and supervise study activity and entire learning experiments. The teacher plans,
prepare and deciding the topic to be practiced through the learning experience.
Teacher is controlling the class and lab and she should be well versed in handling the
situation.

 Teacher as facilitator
After introducing the way of practice the teacher should supervise and guide the
student throughout the experiment and recordings. But she should vigilant and alert to
guide the student who is trying to find their way through a difficult problem and
encourage creative thinking and act as an information resource or facilitator. Teacher
must coach students in demonstration, experimentation or practice.

 Teacher as a evaluator
After the experiment or the demonstration, the teacher must evaluate their practice by
checking the records with the students. And help them to clarify if any wrong. Self
analysis can help students gain insight in to what they done. Before the lab teacher
should point out how principles and the theory have been applied and the experiences
ties in to the learning objectives.

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XIV. SUMMARY

From the topic all are able to understand the topic about that laboratory methods
is a procedure involving firsthand experience with primary source of material, and it s
a demonstration of group therapy, values such as for student it gives best opportunity
to experience a learning at first hand and for teachers gets the opportunity to observe
students in action a little encouragement or special help at the right moment may
intensity interest and provide the hopes for independent accomplishment in future and
limitations of laboratory work regarding lack of planning, lack of direction and lack of
budget. The laboratory method is the part of the study in the education which helps to
give proof to the study which is based on scientific principle.
The topic considers the principles relating to the selection and the use of teaching
procedures, in general, and to the lecture, the demonstration and the laboratory
procedures in details.
Although there has been considerable research on teaching methods there is no
definitive data regarding the effectiveness of teaching of teaching methods. The
conclusion warranted at this time seems to be that in general, no one method is in and
of itself intrinsically better than another; its effectiveness is relative, that is to say each
method varies in its effectiveness in relation to the desired objectives, the nature of the
course , the learners level and the teacher.
The technique of the laboratory procedure involve 3 steps: ( 1) introductory which
includes teacher and student preparation,(2) the work period student work with
teacher-guidance and ( 3) culminating activities. Although the general principles
outlined as guides for the use of the liberator procedure apply to the use of it in the
clinical setting, a number of adaptation have to be made. Students should be given
maximum opportunity for the selection of goals, for setting up of a plan of work and
the implementing of it and for the evaluation of the success of her efforts. However
because of the nature of the clinical setting (it is a life situation not a contrived one), it
is necessary for the teacher to be much more directive than in the classroom. For
example, she must cooperate with the head nurse in the selection of patients for her
student’s learning experiences; not even the teacher is free to simply choose what
patient she wants without consultation Nevertheless, when and where possible the
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teacher should permit the student to be as self-directive as possible. The young student
also will need considerable support and reassurance during her clinical education. Skill
guidance and evaluation are absolute essentials in the effective use of the laboratory
procedure in the clinical setting.
XV. RESEARCH ABSTRACT

22
XVI. CONCLUSION
Laboratory is the place where the individual‘s effective learning and skills were
learned and practiced. When we consider laboratory global standards, individual
standardization, norm, roles and rules and regulation varies from one place to another
also nation to nation. Students are getting the opportunity to explore their knowledge,
attitude, skills and learning capacity. So all the curriculum of institution should include
laboratory methods for the upcoming development of future.
Since teaching is the guiding of the learning of another person, the choice of teaching
and learning procedures becomes an important part of the procedural dimension of the
educational process. It considers the principles relating to the selection and the use of
teaching procedures, in general and to the lecture, the demonstration and the laboratory
procedures.
XVII. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Book reference
1. Aggarval J C. (2001). Principles, methods and techniques of teaching. Second revised
edition. Vikas publication. Page number: 254-258
2. Clement I. (2010). Communication and education technology. Second edition.
Emmess publication. Page number: 208-210
3. Neeraja K.P.(2003).Communication and education technology for nurses. First edition.
Jaypee publication. Page number: 217-219
4. Raj Bhaskara elakkuvana.D.(2015). Nursing education. Second edition.Emmess
publication. Page number :125-128.
5. Sodhi kaur Jaspreet.(2005). Comprehensive text book of nursing education. First
edition. Jaypee publication. Page number: 65-68
6. Heidgerken E Loretta.(2012). Teaching and learning in school of nursing:principles
and methods.Third edition. Konark publications. Page number: 431-446
Journals
1. G.w.myeres (2018).Laboratory method in the secondary school. Journal of
agricultural education
Internet reference 23
1. http:/www.ijser.org>researchpaper >
2. http://www.journals.unchicago.edu>doi

24
PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD

I. INTRODUCTION
Problem solving is not merely a method of teaching. It is more a method of
organization of subject matter in which a way that it can be dealt with through the
study of problems .The basic purpose of education is the child to adapt himself to life
in society which is full of problems. To be successful, one must be adequately
equipped with proper reasoning and reflecting power. Not only life in society, there
are problems and puzzling situations which are normal features of a child’s everyday
life in school also. Therefore, it is very important that problem solving must be
encouraged in school life.
Problem solving ability enables the child to find appropriate solutions of problems which
confront him. And sequential based. Problem solving approach is meaningful,
developmental, and sequential based on the discovery of generalization. It involves the
thought process that involves a doubt or a problem. It is an 1important contribution to
learning.
II. MEANING OF PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD
To train the mind of the pupils by confronting them with real problems and giving them
the opportunity and freedom to solve them. Problem solving approach is meaningful
developmental, sequential, based on the discovery of generalizations.

III. DEFINITION OF PROBLEM SOLVING


1. A problem exists for an individual when he has a definite goal he cannot reach by the
behavior pattern which he already has available.
----GATE S
2. A problem occurs in a situation in which a felt difficulty to act is realized. It is that is
difficulty that is clearly present and recognized by the thinker .It may be a purely

25
mental difficulty or it may be physical and involve the manipulation of data. The
individual recognizes it as challenge.
---YOAKAM AND SIMPSON
3. Active ,persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of
knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and further conclusions to which
it tends , constitutes reflective thinking.
----DEWEY
IV. ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF A PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD
a) The problem should be meaningful ,interesting and worthwhile for children.
The pupils should feel that the problem is their own. The teacher can motivate the
pupils in a manner to make the pupils think out the Problem under study by
themselves.
b) It should have correlation with life.
Problem solving strategy makes the student to feel confident in facing problems
not only in the real class but also in real life.
It is very helpful for the students to manage a situation in their real life, students should
be provided sufficient but supervised freedom for independent solving of the problems
with the help of free and frank discussion as well as pursuit of independent and group
activities
c) It should arise out of the real needs of the students.
The use of the strategy provides training and analyzing as well as solving new
problems. Problem-solving constitutes a realistic method for presenting the type of
experience the pupil will face throughout his career. It gives him a fine chance to
think, to judge evaluate, to compare select which is best. Whenever a specific,
question has to be answered, the facts have to be marshaled directed toward solution.
d) The children must possess some background of the problem which they are going
to discuss.
The problem should be clearly defined and the solution of the problem should be
found out by the students themselves working under the guidance and supervision of
the teacher.
V. STEPS IN PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD

26
FORMATION AND APPRECIATION OF THE PROBLEM

COLLECTION OF RELEVANT DATA AND INFORMATION

ORGANIZATION OF DATA

DRAWING OF CONCLUSION

TESTING CONCLUSION

1. FORMATION AND APPRECIATION OF THE PROBLEM


The nature the problem should be made very clear to the students. They must also feel the
necessity of finding out a solution for the problem. The first step is to formulate a clear
question based on clinical problems. The source for formulating a question is
categorized in to two broader classes, that is
(i) problem-based source and (ii) knowledge-based source.
i. Problem-based sources: In this category, the health care professionals get an idea
about relevant question for EBP from the clinical or risk assessment data, such as data
of quailty improvement, risk surveillance, benchmarking data, financial data, recurrent
clinical problems, etc. For example, increased incidence of pressure sore in critical
care units one of the important issues to be considered for EBP.
ii. Knowledge-based sources: The health care protessonas may obtain knowledge of
newer evidences from the scientific journals, publications, research conrerences or
EBP guidelines published by statuary bodies, which may enhance nursing care
practices. For ex new evidences on nursing care interventions on prevention of bed
27
sore, pain management, tube feeding techniques, arterial and venous line potency,
infection control, deep vein thrombosis prevention, etc.
2. COLLECTION OF RELEVANT DATA AND INFORMATION
The students should be stimulated to collect data in a systematic manner, full
cooperation of the students should be secured. They may be invited to make
suggestion as to how they could collect the relevant data. The teacher may suggest
many points to them. He may also ask them to organize a few educational trips
together the relevant information.
3. ORGANIZATION OF DATA
The student should be asked to sift the relevant material from the superficial one put in a
scientific way. – It is better to include high level of evidences for review, such as
meta-analysis and reviews of randomized control trials, original randomized clinical
trials, etc. It must be ensured that an extensive literature review is carried out
including electronically as well as non-electronically available literature. However, the
reviewer must be very careful the facts given in literature because sometimes an article
appears to be precise and factual on the surface but with further and much doser
examination, flaws can be found. On the other hand, the article can be loaded with
opinionated and/ or biased statements that could taint the findings, thus lowering the
creditability and quality of the article. Time management is another factor, which is
very crucial for information retrieval, and current fresh infonnation/ evidexes are
considered more weighted than the older one.
4. DRAWING OF CONCLUSIONS
Discussions should be arranged collectively and individual with each pupil.panton
suggests that the teachers aim should be secure that , as far as possible , the essential
thing is done by the pupils themselves and that their educative process provides the
particular solution , formulation of generalization at stake”care should be taken that
judgement is made only when sufficient data is collected”
5. TESTING CONCLUSION
No conclusion should be accepted with out being properly verified. Te correctness of the
conclusion must be proved . The students must be taught to be critical, to examine the
“truths” which they “discover” to see “whether they fit all known data”. We should
have our minds from every bias in the process of problem-solving.
28
VI. APPROACH OF PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD

Four general approaches to problem solving are termed as inductive and


deductive methods.

INDUCTIVE APPROCH

DEDUCTIVE APPROCH

ANALYTICAL APPROACH

SYNTHETIC APPROACH

1) The inductive method:


The inductive method is a method of development .In the inductive method,
the child is led to discover truth for himself. The various processes in the inductive
method are observation of the given material, discrimination and analysis nothing
difference and similarities,classification,abstraction and generalization, and application
or verification. In the inductive method, the pupils are led from particular instances to
general conclusion. concrete examples are given and with their help students are
helped to arrive at certain conclusion or principles This method is more useful in
lesson where rules ,definitions,generalizations,laws and casual connection between
facts are to be established.
For example, in a grammar lesson, the and then, help the teacher while teaching noun
may give examples then, help the pupils to frame a definition.
Merits of inductive method
 Knowledge is self acquired and is soon transformed in to wisdom .General truths in
order to be earned is a famous saying and the true method is true to it.
 It promotes mental activity on the part of the pupils and makes them active participants
in the learning teaching process.
 It makes the lesson interesting by providing challenging situations to the students.
29
 The methods affords opportunities to the students to be self –dependent and develops
self-confidence.
 The student’s curiosity is well kept up till the end when generalizations are arrived at.
 This method is very natural because the knowledge in possession of man has been
acquiring in this way from the practical side of experience.
 The child learns how to tackle problems. He not only acquires more facts but also
learns the way of acquiring facts whish proves him useful for practical life.
 The method is based on sound psychological principles. Learning by doing is the basis
of this method
2) DEDUCTIVE METHOD
This method is the other way round. In the deductive method rules,
generalisations and principles are provided to the students and then they are asked to
verify them with the help of particular examples .
Example, the students are told that places situated at this altitude are cold and then
particular examples are taken to prove it such examples can be multiplied.
The teachers work is simplified.He gives general principles and the students
verify them.This method is very economical and it saves time and energy both of the
students and the teachers also many principles for the discovery of which mankind has
taken a lot of pains can be told to the students easily.
3) ANALYTICAL APPROACH
Analysis means the breaking up of the problem in hand so that it is ultimately gets
connected with something obvious or already known to us. It is the process of
unfolding of the problem or conducting its operation to know its hidden aspects. We
start with, what we have to find it. Then we think of further steps and possibilities
which may connect the unknown and lead us to find out the desired result .
4) SYNTHETIC APPROACH
It is the opposite of analytic approach.Here, we proceed known to unknown .synthesis is
to place together things that are apart. It begins from something already known and
connects with the unknown . I t is the process of putting together known bits of
information to reach the point where unknown information becomes obvious and true
VII. TEACHERS ROLE IN PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD

30
Valentine Davis quotes prof. Pasher who suggests the following points in problem
solving get them (the students) the problem clearly. Aid them to keep the problem in
mind. Get them to make many suggestions by encouraging them.
 To analyse the situation in parts
Teacher should be properly trained and motivated for adoption of problem solving
strategy.Keen observation and analyzing the problem by the teacher help to make
solution for th problem.
 To recall previously known similar cases and general rules that apply.
Makes the previous experiences to solve the problems in the future. It provides
valuable opportunities for the proper development of the cognitive abilities of the
students . The realization of higher cognitive objectives is also facilitated with the use
of this statergies.
 To guess courageously and formulate guesses clearly.
The teacher help and encourage the student for any guesses for problem technique.
And formulate the guesses as solution. Give them a fine chance to think , to gudge
and evaluate , to compare and select which is best.

VIII. SUMMARY
From the above study all are able to answer what is problem solving method and its types
and steps of method of problem solving ,approaches to problem solving ,teachers role
in problem solving.
Problem solving as a teaching strategy provides opportunity on the basis of the
previous stock of their knowledge enriched with the present means available to them ,
quite independently some systematic steps and arriving at some basic conclusion or
results to be utilized in future for the solution of the similar problems in identical
situation.Steps are Formation and appreciation of the problem: The nature of the
problem should be made very clear to students. They must also feel the necessity of
finding out a solution for the problem.Collection of relevant data and information,The
should be stimulated to collect data in a manner, full cooperation of the students be
secured. Organization of data, The students should be asked sift the relevant material
from the superficial one in a scientific way. Drawing of conclusions,Discussions
should be arranged collectively and individual with each pupil. With out being
31
properly verified. The correctness of conclusion must be proved. The students must
taught to be critical, to examine the truths which to seewhether they fit all the known
data. We should have our minds frome very bias in process of problem- solving. In
problem solving four different approaches may be
Followed: inductive, deductive, analytic and synthetic.Merits of problem solving is It
affords opportunities for participation in social activities. Problems are solved with
the joined of many students. The students learn to preciate the different points of view
and thus tolerant. Students learn to be self- dependent. Method provides opportunities
to the teachers to know in detail their pupils. They learn which students are shy in
nature and which are very active and accordingly they assist the students. Demerits of
problem solving is,it involves a lot of time and the teachers find it different to cover
the prescribed syllabus. There is the danger that the problem that the problem method
may lead to the selection of the trivial topics in some instance to those that generates
more and emotion than thought.
IX. RESEARCH ABSTRCT

32
X. CONCLUSION

In problem solving method, attempt is made to train minds of the pupils by


confronting them with problems and giving them the opportunity and to solve them.
The major purpose of the problem is to afford training to the learners in thinking , in
solving the problem mentally . Problem solving approach is meaningful,
developmental, sequential, based on the discovery of generalization. It involves the
thought process that result from doubt , proplexity or a problem . The approach leads
to the formulation of generalization that are useful in future situation involving the
solution problem.
Problem solving is not merely a method of teaching. It is more a method of organization
of subject.In such a way that it can be dealt with through the of problems. However,
this concept of problem does not seem to be suitable at the school stage. That a human
child has to meet and solve problems as he grows is a truth that cannot be denied by
anyone which present themselves in his physical sorroundings, in his intellectual
associations and his social contacts. These problems grow in complexity as he grows
older and older; the solution of b gives him better hold on the environment increases
his store of knowledge develops his intellectual powers. It satisfies his curiosity which
manifests itself in lists of questions that he asks of nature of men and books. Thus we
see, problem- solving is directed by a goal.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1) Aggarval J C. (2001). Principles, methods and techniques of teaching. second revised


edition. India.Vikas publishing house , 235-238
2) Clement I.(2011).Communication and education technology. Second edition. India.
Emmess medical publishers , 218—220
3) Neeraja K P.(2011). Communication and education technology for nurses.First edition.
India.Jaypee brothers medical publishers,277-279
4) Raj Bhaskara Elakkuvana.D(2013).nursingeducation. Second Edition.India:Emmess
medical publishers,125-128.
5) Sodhi Kaur Jaspreet(2017). Comprehensive text book of nursing education. First
edition. India. Jaypee the health sciences publisher,68-69
33
Journel
6) Jamie Kirkley(2003).Principle for teaching problem solving,18(6), 1-12
7) Gunther Charwan (2015).methods for solving reasoning problems in abstract
argumentation –survey .220.28-63
8) Jay T.Knippen(1997). Problem solving a journal of workplace learning vol.9.page 98-
99
Internet references

1) https://en.m.wikipedia.org>wiki>
2) https://www.slideshare.net>
3) https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com>doi>pdf.

34
FIELD TRIP

I. INTRODUCTION
The educational field trip is introduced as the first of the audio-visual media because
it brings the student in to direct contact with a life situation in which the elements can
be studied as they actually exist and because it is the most concrete and the most real
of the audio-visual procedures. Synonyms of the “field trip”are: tour, excursion and
educational trip. A teacher cannot do an effective teaching in a classroom alone but it
is possible if the teacher does no ignore the outside world experience and its influence
of pupil apart from classroom teaching. Direct experience with reality provides an
excellent opportunity for sensory learning and this sensory is best possible through
field trip ,which provides first hand learning experience natural setting. An
educational field trip can be an integral part of the instructional program, designed
around specific educational objectives. Well planning is critical to a successful trip .
Good planning must precede fieldtrips ,real or virtual. Remember it is the journey ,not
just the destination that provides the learning experience .
A field trip should be designed so participants can easily makes connections between
the focus of the field trip and the concepts they are learning in the rest of the
educational program, Ensure fieldtrip compliments the curriculum by meeting specific
objectives.one of the objectives of nursing education is to provide a community nurse,
that is, a nurse who can recognize the social needs and the problems which relate to
nursing.

II. DEFINITION

1. Field trip is defined as an educational procedure by which the student studies first hand
objectives and materials in the natural environment.

- LORETTA.E.HEIDGERKEN

35
2. It is the “part of the day , a day long , or a weekend long excursion ;it can be a simple
guided tour to an area of interest , or it may include the conducting of an active
research oriented field project.

-BEIRSDORFER AND DAVIS


3. Field trip is essential a visit to demonstration ,plots, frames of progressive farmers,
poultry , dairy, orchard model houses.

-DAHAMA

III. PUROSE OF FIELD TRIP

1. It helps to furnish first hand information to supplement and enrich the classroom
teaching.
Field trip is very helpful for easy and direct observation rather than the classroom
teaching. So all the students getting opportunity of equal participation in learning that
are not available within the four walls of classrooms. Student eager to meet and
interact with others in outer areas and memorable life experience.
2. Students remember the field trip because they learn new by using different
methodology.
Students may have more attention through real life experiences. Through using
different methods in trips they may enjoy and learn everything without their
knowledge. They may learn or they can experience by using all five senses that is see,
touch, feel, smell, and taste.
3. It helps to develop keenness and observational skills.
Field trip is one of the effective experience for the students in their educational life.
Learning can and happen everywhere but field trip helps to develop keeness and
observational skill . Field trip helps the student to punctual, obey the commands,
observer etc.

36
4. Field trip provides actual source material for study.
Here the fieldtrip producing the result that, theory come reality. So the students
getting the actual benefit from the experience of reality what they study inside the
class. So they wont forgot those experiences as they got from the fieldtrip. They can
feel , touch even smell also
5. Field trip affords an opportunity to solve problems arising from individual and
group in a natural situation .
The students getting more opportunity than the classrooms through real life
experience. From the fieldtrip it makes the students level, they can achieve adjusting
mentality,problem solving techniques with individual or the group.
6. Field trip serves in an effective means of correlating the subjects of curriculum.
Experiences of the student and information obtained through the trip should be
carefully correlated and integrated with class subjects and activities

IV. VALUES OF FIELD TRIP

The use of field trips in connection with instructional and learning procedures has
very distinctive values , several of which are discussed below:

1) They furnish first hand information to supplement and to enrich the classroom
instruction . For example , a class in public sanitation may go to the city water
department to see how water is purified.
2) They correlate and blend school life with the outside world , providing direct touch
with persons and with community situations. This type of contact develops a
sympathetic understanding of the problems and the social contributions of the various
organizations related to the care of the patient and thereby helps the student to see
where nursing fits in to the complete and continuous care of the patient.
3) They develop a better understanding of the etiologic factors of disease –housing ,
sanitation, economic condition, industry.
4) They create situations which help to develop observation and keenness ;field trips also
offer an opportunity to apply that which has been taught, to verify what has been
learned.
37
5) They provide actual source material for study.
6) They arouse interest and vitalize instruction , thereby providing motivation.
7) They serve as an effective means of correlating the subjects of the curriculum.
8) They afford opportunity to consider and to solve problems arising from individual and
group participation in a natural social situation. They necessitate planning ,
cooperation , securing of transportation and permission to take the trip and other such
details of responsibility.

V. TYPES OF FIELD TRIP


a) Local school trips:
This type forms half a day visit to section of school building and ground to see
procedures ,equipments and materials Example; measuring distance ,studying about
trees ,shrubs and flowers, practicing health and safety procedures. They are done
during regular schedule period
Community trip a whole day visit to near by place likezoo , museum,hospital etc.
b) Tour or journey
This is type of trip forms for several days or a week for example distant projects arrange
by block programme as Bharatyatra , visit to NIMHANS Bangalore, CMCH vellore
etc.
c) Imaginary tour:
Details of real tour are investigated , studied and planned , materials collected decision
taken on trip destination regarding routes ,cost etc but but the destinations are seen by
means of motion pictures, slides, photographs, objects, reports and recording etc.

d) Inter school visits or inter college visit:


medical student visiting the arts college for exchange of ideas , referring books to attain
knowledge. A group of school student s of music or science meeting
corresponding organization of other school to gain knowledge in relation to mutual
interest.
e) Individual trip:

38
This type of trip helps the student to make responsibility to do the assignment in
connection with curricular activity. This trip is example of famous for collecting
biological specimens and fossils for the study of natural science and anthropology.

VI. ORGANIZATION OF FIELD TRIP

The first essential prerequisite to any successful field trip is a well-thought-out-plan.


Every development, possibility and necessity must be anticipated. It should never be a
mere spur-of-the-moment activity or a let’s-go-somewhere event. The field trip should
be a carefully thought-out and planned educational procedure , otherwise time will be
wasted and little value realized. Much time can be wasted on field trips that are poorly
planned or not planned at all.

The following steps are suggested as a guide in organizing and conducting field
trips;

KNOWLEDGE

RAPPORT

OBJECTIVES

TIME AND TRANSPORTATION

PREPARATION OF THE STUDENT

SUPERVISION

1. KNOWLEDGE:
Make a survey of the immediate surroundings and of the community as a whole so as
to determine those settings which offer.Potential education experiences for nursing
students through field trips. Analyze the educational values to be obtained from each
possible trip. This requires an exploratory visit by the teacher so that she can
39
determine whether or not the field trips planned will contribute to the attainment of
desired objectives.

2. RAPPORT:
Establish and maintain cordial relations with those in charge of the situations to be
visited. This is one of the first steps in the development of a trip. A friendly welcome
by the visited authorities is conducive to learning. On the other hand, if teacher and
students are merely tolerated as more or less unwelcome guests, enthusiasm will be
lessened, and learning will become perfunctory. The educational trip may be new to
the place being visited, and, because of lack of knowledge and appreciation, they may
consider it merely a sightseeing expedition. In order to prevent or erase such feeling,
the personnel of the institution should be informed as to the purposes, procedures and
future utilization of the field trip as an educational tool.
3. OBJECTIVES.
State objectives for the unit carefully and completely and then select the 1earning
activities which will best contribute to the of the objectives. If a field trip will
contribute better to the attainment of the objectives than other learning experiences or
will supplement carefully to meet these objectives. Consideration also should be given
to the time and the cost of a field trip; whether they are commensurate with the values
to be gained.
4. TIME AND TRANSPORTATION.
Make the necessary arrangements for time and the place of meeting and for the
length of the. Visit, with the administrative personnel in the place to be visited.
Planning for transportation may be done with the students, making sure that all student
have transportation, know where to meet, the exact time of the visit and how long it is
to last.
5. PREPARATION OF THE STUDENTS.
All trips should be made in connection with some unit, material or project and,
therefore, should develop naturally out of the class· setting. The trip assignment is
really but one form of the unit assignment and, as such, must be based on good
principles. A unit assignment not only indicates and locates the materials to be covered
but also establishes the objectives, raises thought-provoking questions and is
40
cha11enging and motivating. The same factors should hold true for the trip. A good
trip assignment not only indicates the objective and its location but also stimulates the
student to think about it in terms of importance, purpose, practice and personnel. Class
preparation may be carried through the use of appropriate questions, references,
illustrations, slides, films or similar devices. Students should be given. An opportunity
to list cooperatively the objectives for which the trip is planned (active participation,
not passive listening) . They should be held responsible for some phase of the trip.
Directions should be given on the procedure to be followed in the observation and the
special points to note.
6. SUPERVISION.
The trip should be supervised carefully in order to protect both the student and the
school. Safety and comfort should be considered. This is provided by instructing the
student carefully. Time, exact place of meeting, type of transportation, conduct and
courtesy all should be explained carefully to each student. Boisterousness, carelessness
or other unpleasantness will result in an unfavorable reaction to the school, future trips
may be seriously limited. The trip itself should proceed in an orderly manner with all
students in an alert and observing frame of mind. The teacher can assist the students
by caning attention to pertinent point.
GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING FIELD TRIP

1. There are many potential liability situations that can occur on a field trip, it is ultimate
responsibility to ensure that the following safety guidelines are meet concerning
safety and behavior while outside the classroom .
2. Behavioral expectations for the field trip and describe and discuss them with the
students prior to departure .
3. Rr junior students are mature enough to be responsible and accountable for their own
behavior, have them sign a written code of conduct; therefore, creating a behavioral
contract . Describe the consequences for not behaving properly prior to embarking on
the trip.
4. Provide parents with behavioral expectations and ask them to ensure that the students
know and understand the code of ,conduct and the consequences .
5. Implement a buddy with students as an additional safety precaution . Use board
approved transportation . 41
6. Permission slip letters to parents/guardians of youth participants. Ensure that safety
gear and first aid equipment are readily available and in plain view.
7. To increase the educational effectiveness of field trips, pre-trip instruction should also
focus on the content topics and concepts that participants will be investigating during
the field trip. It is important for field trip organizers to give participants verbal clues
regarding what to look for during their activities. Pre-trip instruction it easier for
participants to focus on the educational goals of the trip. As ,part of pre-trip lessons,
should demonstrate the use of any equipment and explain in detail any activities that
will be occurring during the field trip.

XI. RESPONSIBILITES OF TEACHER IN FIELD TRIP

Check the presence of all students and see that no student is missing before, during and
after the trip. Adequate information should be given to the students regarding vehicle
number, time, where to get down from vehicle.
 Check the account of the group members and submit account. Guide and supervise the
students during the trip. Safety rules to be followed strictly throughout the trip.
 Teacher should encourage unity, discipline among the group. And First aid box should
be taken and kept in the vehicle for trip. Accuracy, clarity, brevity regarding the
learning experiences in field trip should be fulfilled by teacher.
XII. RESPONSIBILITY OF STUDENT IN A FIELD TRIP

 Each student is personally responsible to know place of visit ,vehicle used for trip,
time, and place of getting on and off the vehicle.
 Student should be punctual and obey the commands or instruction of the teacher.
The students must obey the teacher while on fieldtrip because there are many
potential liability situations that can occur in a field trip , it is ultimate responsibility to
ensure that the following safety guidelines are meet concerning safety and behavior
while outside the class room 42
 Questions should be framed and kept ready, when given opportunity should be asked
by the students relevantly.
 All luggage’s of the student should be ready on time for departure.
The students should be punctual at all the times. preplanning is needed for everything
it makes the students future more successful. Wasting of time for luggage’s and all
leads others interests .So should active all the times.
 Each student should be keep account of his/her expenditure and record fare for the
vehicle used for the trip
 Each student should take notes whenever they are instructed to take.
This will help the student from misunderstanding of places vehicles where they want
to reach. Some times students may absconded because of their unawareness.

XIII. ADVANTAGES OF FIELD TRIP

1) Observation of active participation of reality.


Improvisation of skills in observation and learning skill through direct experience
rather than the classroom studies.
2) Opportunity for co –operative group work and sharing responsibilities.
In a society without sharing and helping mentality a person cant able to live . so
this type of field visits may help to understand each others, their pee groups, to solve
problems if arised with in the situation. Enable the students to develop self
confidence.
3) Permits comparison between reality and theory.
Make them to come out from the four walled classes and allow to explore the reality of
the world what they learned from teacher .
4) Enhances the curriculam
One of the biggest advantages to field trip is that they allow the students to have a
real-world experience. This experience should clearly illustrate and enhance
information taught by the curriculum.
5) It is a good method of individual motivation

43
Field trip helps in self motivation to know more about the reality than the class room
teaching. They extended their knowledge and experience as their motivation and self
confidence.
6) It is the most concrete and most real visual technique which help students to gain
actual meaning to compact tendency of abstractness and simulate correct thinking.
7) It gives relief from monotonous life of classroom.
Students are not interested in monotonous classes .they want real life experiences ,an
interaction classes and discussion. So this field trip method help to explore world to
attain more knowledge tan classrooms.

XIV. DISADVANTAGES OF FIELD TRIP

1. TIME
Most field trips require more than one class period, which necessitates adjustment of the
class schedule. The trip must be planned at the convenience of the establishment
visited , which means that it may not be correlated with the curriculum at the most
effective time. Students may not have the necessary data or the sufficient background
to obtain the maximum learning from uch an experience.
2. TRANSPORTATION
Transportation is another problem , especially if public conveyances are used. Bus
schedules may not coincide with the time of the trip. Still another limitation is the size
of the group. If it is too large for effective observation , it must be divided in to smaller
sections. This , of course , takes up considerable time at the place visited . The teacher
should plan the trip carefully and should interview the administrator of the place
visited in order to obtain specific information about material and activity that will be
open to the student. These safeguards should be followed if the trip is to offer learning
experiences with the time consumed in the trip.
3. PREPARATION
A large amount of preparation is associated with planning a field trip. Collection of
consent forms, waivers and money is normally done by the teacher and adds to an
already –packed to do list . additionally, teachers are usually responsible for recruiting
parent volunteers and making transportation arrangements.
44
4. AFFORDABILITY
Although field trips are sometimes subsidized by the school , there is often an
expense associated with the activity that is the responsibility of the student’s family
.the reality is that there are families that can barely afford to send a healthy lunch to
school with their children, never mind pay for a field trip. This can be an awkward and
uncomfortable situation for both student and teacher.

XV. SUMMARY
From the above study all are able to understand the topic and able to explain the
topic about what is field trip,and its definition, purposes , and , types of field trips and
purposes, values , roles ,merits or advantages and disadvantages .To get maximum
value from a visit as a method of teaching , careful planning is necessary before hand.
As with films, the teacher must pick the visit with care and know what her aims are for
the students in doing so. The students should know what they are going to see and
why. Prepared questions , the answers to which must be discovered during the visit
may help thoughtful observation . Written questions , the answers based on what the
students have seen but not merely describing the visit , may be given after the students
return.
Field trip can be defined as the fact it links works of both theory and practical and the
purpose is that it’s a first hand experience to explore outside world. also to develop
keenness and observational skills and to increase leadership skill. Types of fieldtrips
are local school trip, tour or journey, imaginary tour, inter school visits or inter college
visit, and individual tour. Teacher should always alert for the student in punctuality
and decipline. Also the student must responsible for obedience, punctuality.
Advantages of fieldtrip is live participation with reality, leadership development, the
value of friendship, individual motivation etc. These all help the individual to motivate
himself and self learning. The students need to recognize the privilege that is being
extended to them by those receiving them on the visit . Their behaviour routine and
during the visit must be the concern of the tutor. Such opportunities encourage
thoughtful attitudes and personal growth.
XVI. RESEARCH ABSTRACT

45
XVII. CONCLUSION.

Field trip though is expensive and time consuming it is one of the best method of
learning by direct experience and therefore it forms most concrete and real visual
techniques of learning, this field trips should be regularly conducted in nursing schools
and colleges for better nursing in future. Nursing education has used a, type of field
trip for some time by having the student attend clinics, visit the therapy departments
and other similar activities. However, the educational trip has not been used so widely
nor so effectively it should in order to provide the student with experiences outside the
hospital situation. Through the use of field trips, the nursing student can gain firsthand
knowledge of the community agencies and their functions and relationships to the
hospital in helping the patient. One of the objectives of nursing education is to provide
a community nurse, that is, a nurse who recognize the social needs and the problems
which relate to nursing. In order to achieve this objective, the school of nursing should
provide an opportunity for the student to see the place that nursing has in relation to all
are concerned with the welfare of society. Then, she can better understand her part and
responsibility in the total scheme.

XVIII. BIBLIOGRAPHY

46
1. Aggarval J C. (2001). Principles, methods and techniques of teaching. Second revised
edition. India: Vikas publication, 245-254
2. Clement I.(2011). Communication and education technology. Second edition. India:
Emmess medical publication , 212-216
3. Neeraja K P. Text book of communication and education technology for nurses. India
,Jaypee brothers medical publishers pvt ltd: 241-246
4. Heidergerken E Loretta.(2004).Teaching and learning in schools of nursing :
Principles And Methods. 3rdedition. India: Konark Publication , 552-555
5. Sodhi kaur jaspreet.(2017).comprehensive textbook of nursing education. First edition
: Jaypee Brothers medical publication,65-68
Journal
6. Article.Sciencepublishing Group.com
7. Yassir Mahgoub.(2014).The impact of field trips on students creative thinking and
practices in arts education.vol 10(1),page 46-50
Internet references
8. Http://drum .lib.umd.edu>bitdtream
9. Https.//en.m.wikipedia.org>wiki
10. Https://cathyduffyreviews.com>
11. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/259948225

47
INDEX

SL NO PAGE
CONTENT OF TABLE NO
I INTRODUCTION 1
II MEANING OF LABORATORY METHOD
III DEFINITION OF LABORATORY METHOD 1
IV OBJECTIVES OF LABORATORY METHOD
FUNCTIONS OF LABORATORY METHOD
III PRINCIPLES OF LABORATORY METHOD 2-3
IV ORGANIZATION OF LABORATORY 3
V VALUES OF LABORATORY METHOD 4-5
TYPES OF LABORATORIES IN SCHOOLS

VI PREPARATION OF STUDENT BEFORE AND AFTER 5-6


LABORATORY METHOD
VII VALUES OF LABORATORY METHOD 6-7
VIII PHASES OR STEPS OF LABORATORY METHOD. 8-10
IX IMPORTANCE OF LABORATORY METHOD IN NURSING 10-11
EDUCATION
X GUIDELINES FOR THE EFFECTIVE USE OF METHOD IN 11-13
CLINICAL SETTING.
XII ROLE OF TEACHER AND STUDENT IN LABORATORY 13-15
METHOD
48
XII ADVANTAGES OF LABORATORY METHOD 15

XIII DISADVANTAGES OF LABORATORY METHOD. 16


XIV SUMMARY 17

XV RESEARCH ABSTRACT 18

XVI CONCLUSION 19
XVII BIBLIOGRAPHY 20

49
VIJAYA COLLEGE OF NURSING
1st MSC NURSING

COURSE - IST YEAR MSC NURSING

SUBJECT -CHILD HEALTH NURSING

UNIT -3

TOPIC - BEHAVIORAL PEDIATRICS


AND
PEDIATRIC NURSING

NAME OF THE STUDENT - SOBHA BABU

NAME OF HOD - MRS SMITHA MOHAN

NAME OF THE EVALUATOR - MRS SMITA MOHAN

HOURS ALLOTED - 5HR

SUBMITTED TO -MRS SMITHA MOHAN

DATE OF SUBMISSION - - - 2019

50
INDEX
SL.NO CONTENT PAG
NO
I PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD 1
INTRODUCTION
II MEANING OF PROBLEM SOLVING 1
METHOD
III DEFENITION 2

IV ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF A 2-3


PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD
V STEPS IN PROBLEM SOLVING 3-6
METHOD
VI APPROACH OF PROBLEM SOLVING 6-9
METHOD
VII TEACHERS ROLE IN PROBLEM 10-11
SOLVING METHOD
VIII SUMMARY 11-12
IX RESEARCH ABSTRACT 13-20
X CONCLUSION 21-22
XI BIBLIOGRAPHY 22

51
INDEX
SL.NO CONTENT PAGE NO

FIELD TRIP
I INTRODUCTION 1
II DEFENITION OF FIELD TRIP 1-2
III PURPOSE OF FIELD TRIP 2-3
IV VALUES OF FIELD TRIP 3-4
V TYPES OF FIELD TRIP 4-5
VI ORGANIZING OF FIELD TRIP 5-7

VI GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING FIELD 7


TRIP

VI RESPONSIBILITIES OF TEACHER IN FIELD 8


TRIP
VII RESPONSIBILITY OF STUDENT IN FIELD 8
TRIP
VIII ADVANTAGES OF FIELD TRIP 9
IX DISADVANTAGES OF FIELD TRIP 9-10
X SUMMARY 10-11
XI RESEARCH ABSTRACTION 11-16
XII CONCLUSION 17
XIII BIBLIOGRAPHY 17-18

52
VIJAYA COLLEGE OF NURSING
I YEAR M.SC NURSING

SUBJECT : NURSING EDUCATION

UNIT : 3

NAME OF THE TOPIC : LABORATORY METHOD

NANE OF THE STUDENT : SOBHA BABU

NAME OF THE HOD : MRS.SHAKILA.K


53
NAME OF THE EVALUATOR : MRS.SHAKILA.K

HOURS ALLOTTED : 1HRS

DATE OF SUBMISSION : 11-4-2019

SUBMITTED TO : PRO.V. MARY ELIZEBETH

VIJAYA COLLEGE OF NURSING

I YEAR MSC NURSING

SUBJECT : NURSING EDUCATION

UNIT : 3

NAME OF THE TOPIC : PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD

NANE OF THE STUDENT : SOBHA BABU

NAME OF THE HOD : MRS K SHAKILA

NAME OF THE EVALUATOR : PRO. ELIZEBETH MARY

HOURS ALLOTTED : 1 HR
54
DATE OF SUBMISSION : 6/1/2019

55
VIJAYA COLLEGE OF NURSING

I YEAR MSC NURSING

SUBJECT : NURSING EDUCATION

UNIT : 3

NAME OF THE TOPIC : FIELD TRIP

NANE OF THE STUDENT : SOBHA BABU

NAME OF THE HOD : MRS SHAKILA K

NAME OF THE EVALUATOR : PROF.MARY ELIZEBETH

HOURS ALLOTTED : 1 HRS

DATE OF SUBMISSION : 13-2-2019

56
INDEX

Sl. no content Page no

57
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