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Debatable Between

Qualitative and Quantitative


Research

Karisma Amjad
Lecturer
Department of Social Work
Asian University of Bangladesh
Decision about Research Design

Qualitative Quantitative
• Case Studies • Experimentation
• Narratives • Secondary Research
 Secondary Data Analysis
• Phenomenology  Official Statistics
• Ethnographic  Existing Statistics
 Archival Data
• Grounded Theory
• Survey Research
• Ethnography
• Content Analysis
Differences

Qualitative Research Quantitative Research


• Construction social reality, cultural • Useful for factual information
meaning
• Focus is upon variables
• Focus is upon interactive processes
• Validity or Authenticity is a primary • Reliability is primary virtue
virtue • Tendency to be devoid of
• Circumstances prevail context
• Few cases and subjects • Many cases and subjects
• Thematic Analysis • Statistical Analysis
• Immersion of research is more • Detachment of research is
likely
more likely
Differences

Quantitative Qualitative
• Qualitative Research is about • Qualitative Research is about
MEASUREMENT UNDERSTANDING

 Statistical data to use along  Non- numeric information to


with footfall, revenue and explore or explain operational,
other “objective” metrics artistic or marketing issues.
Differences

Quantitative Qualitative
• Application Examples • Application Examples

 Audience measurement and  Concept Development


profiling
 Communications development
 Forecasting and projection
 Concept testing  Audience reaction
 Quality tracking and customer  Motivations or barriers to use
satisfaction  Reasons for preference
 Benchmarking  Interpretation and engagement
Differences

Quantitative Qualitative
• Methods • Methods

 How many? Who? What?  How? Why? Why not? What if?
Where? When?  Group discussions (focus groups)
 Survey  Depth interviews,
 Audience counts  Observation
 Geodemographic analysis of  Ethnography
databases  Accompanied visits
Strength.…1

Quantitative Qualitative
• Result from sample surveys • Open-ended questioning
can be generalized reveal new or unanticipated
phenomena

• Results can be aggregated • Provides a rich picture of


and are comparable across social phenomena in their
Population groups specific contexts – reveals
critical incidents
Strength….2

Quantitative Qualitative
• Results can be broken down • Provides a holistic
by socio–economic group interpretation of the detailed
for comparisons process that have and are
shaping people’s lives

• Reliability of data and


• Permits researchers to access
findings provides powerful data on ‘difficult issues’ e.g.
indicators to guide policy domestic violence
Strength….3

Quantitative Qualitative
• Transferability of dataset to • Data on marginal groups that
other analysts means that surveys often cannot locate
analysis is not dependent on e.g. illegal migrants, the
availability of an individual homeless, child –headed
households
• Precise professional or
disciplinary minimum • Participatory methodologies
standards exist for much empower, rather than
survey work objectify respondents
Weakness….1

Quantitative Qualitative
• Sacrifices potentially useful • Difficult to demonstrate the
information through process scientific region or the data
of aggregation collection exercise

• Low level of standardization


• Sacrifices potentially useful and definition / criteria etc
data by placing households or vary from researcher to
events in describe categories researcher to researcher
Weakness….2

Quantitative Qualitative
• Commonly under-repots on • Analytical methods are
difficult issues, e.g domestic poorly specified and vary
violence from researcher to
researcher

• Commonly under-reports on • Completion of research is


marginal/difficult to access often dependent on a single
individuals and households individual
Weakness….3

Quantitative Qualitative
• Often results cannot be
• Often wasteful in that large generalized as it is unclear
amounts of the dataset are ‘whom’ they represent
never used

• Relatively expensive in
terms of money
Weakness….4

Quantitative Qualitative
• Poorly trained enumerators
can make mistakes and • Findings less likely to
inadvertently influence
responses influence policy as they
lack the legitimacy of
science and the precision
• Enumerators may falsify/
invent data
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Thanks
Karisma Amjad
Lecturer
Department of Social Work
Asian University of Bangladesh