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C.C. Chien, * C.C. Chiang, W. H. Yang, Vito Tsai and David C.Hsu

CoreTech System Co.,Ltd., HsinChu, Taiwan, ROC

analysis. This supports analyzing real conditions such as

The filling imbalance in geometrically balanced inertia effect, non-isothermal flow, and so on. Besides, it

runner system of multi-cavities is always difficult to excels in its speedy and accurate calculating ability. This

handle in injection molding. Previous researchers makes the analysis results approach reality and

revealed that the flow imbalance problem is related to economizes working hours; moreover, it supports mesh

the three-dimensional thermal history and shear rate analysis for over a million elements!

distribution of melt flow in the runner, and accordingly The polymer melt is assumed to behave as

proposed a novel apparatus to overturn the melt to avoid Generalized Newtonian Fluid (GNF). Hence the

this problem. However, the design parameter of this non-isothermal 3D flow motion can be mathematically

apparatus is different to realize, and it is only performed described by the followings:

by trial-and-error. In this paper, we have proposed a new ∂ρ

methodology to analyze this injection process. Firstly, a + ∇ ⋅ ρu = 0 (1)

flexible meshing methodology comprising different ∂t

element topologies is proposed to provide ∂

high-resolution mesh for the runner system and cavity. (ρu ) + ∇ ⋅ (ρuu − σ ) = ρg (2)

∂t

Further, to demonstrate and verify our idea, the

comparison between simulation and experiments has (

σ = − pI + η ∇ u + ∇ u T ) (3)

been performed. From the numerical experiments, we

have proven that the proposed methodology is a highly ⎛ ∂T ⎞

ρC P ⎜ + u ⋅ ∇T ⎟ = ∇(k∇T ) + ηγ& 2 (4)

valuable tool to help understand and further optimize the ⎝ ∂t ⎠

melt flipping apparatus.

where u is the velocity vector, T the temperature, t the

Introduction time, p the pressure, σ the total stress tensor, ρthe

density, η the viscosity, k the thermal conductivity, Cp

The filling imbalance in geometrically balanced the specific heat and γ& the shear rate. In this work, the

runner system of multi-cavities is always difficult to Modified-Cross model with Arrhenius temperature

handle in injection molding. Previously, it has been dependence is employed to describe the viscosity of

proven that this imbalance results from non-symmetrical polymer melt:

temperature and shear rate distribution. This

phenomenon is always complicated by integration of the ηo (T )

η (T , γ& ) =

runner layout, runner geometry size, material, and

process conditions. Fortunately, one of the commercial

(

1 + ηoγ& τ * )

1− n (5)

the filling between cavities. Basically, it applies an ⎛ Tb ⎞

overturn apparatus in runner system, and thus overcomes η o (T ) = BExp⎜ ⎟ (6)

the non-symmetrical temperature and shear rate ⎝T ⎠

distribution problem shown in Fig.1 [5][6]. Obviously it

is a great device, but for most people, it is too difficult to where n is the power law index, η o the zero shear

understand why and how it works? viscosity, τ * is the parameter that describes the

Hence, in this study, we provide a professional tool transition region between zero shear rate and the power

from CAE viewpoint. We can know how the imbalance law region of the viscosity curve. A volume fraction

flow happened, and how the melt overturn apparatus function f is introduced to track the evolution of the melt

works from the visualization of CAE analysis result. front. Here, f=0 is defined as the air phase, f=1 as the

polymer melt phase, and then the melt front is located

New Methodology and Simulation Approach within cells with 0<f<1. The advancement of f over time

is governed by the following transport equation:

+ ∇ ⋅ (uf ) = 0 (7)

∂t

It has adopted the newly developed FVM

B03-1

The flow rate or injection pressure is prescribed at melt temperatures in secondary runner with one side

mold inlet. No slip is assumed at mold wall. Note that higher and one side lower. Obviously, it is the reason

only inlet boundary condition is necessary for the when the melt flow passed through tertiary runner; the

hyperbolic transport equation of volume fraction flow imbalance between cavities was created (Fig.6).

function. [1-4] This imbalance flow simulation has been compared with

experimental result in a good agreement shown in Fig. 7.

Specifically, when melt fills the cavities on the right

Hybrid mesh for true 3D Injection Molding hand side closer to the primary runner, its melt

Simulation temperature is higher. So it is easier to fill the cavities

with lower viscosity and lower flow resistance compared

In general, to obtain reasonable simulation result, with the cavities on the left hand side.

for the pre-processing, it needs to tune up the resolution In the revised design, to overcome the fill

of meshing for numerical simulation. However, it’s hard imbalance, it applies a melt overturn apparatus in runner

to achieve followed the traditional method. In traditional system shown in Fig.8. Also, the geometrical system

way, people have to create the geometry model in CAD with hybrid meshes is demonstrated.

software, and then generate the surface/solid mesh based The simulation results are listed in Fig. 9 to Fig. 11.

on a given characteristic mesh size. By doing this way, it After melt passes through the overturn apparatus and

is very difficult to control the quality and quantity of enters the first divergence, the original left-right

meshing and elements. It will further increase the imbalanced temperature distribution turns to top-button

computation loading and provides the incorrect results. imbalanced distribution (Fig 9). Further, when the melt

To avoid this problem, here we proposed a new passes through the second divergence, the flow

methodology to handle this pre-processing issue shown imbalance between cavities was disappeared (Fig 10).

in Fig. 3. In this way, users only need to draw lines to This is because the runner imbalanced temperature

represent the runner layout, and set the parameters of the distribution through the runner system is removed. Now

runner geometry. Then, the runner solid mesh can be the flow behavior is balanced from the runner to the

generated automatically. Indeed, the hybrid mesh is cavities. (Fig 11)

feature of this method; shown in Fig 2 and Fig.3.

Through this way, people can flexibly tune up the Conclusions

resolution of element layer and also retain the quality

and quantity of elements. It can further enhance the

efficiency of the computation and provide more In this study, we have proposed a new

reasonable results. methodology to analyze the flow imbalance from runner

system to cavities. Obviously, compared both simulation

and experimental results, it demonstrates the reason why

Results and Discussion the filling imbalance happened in geometry-balanced

runners. Furthermore, our CAE tool can greatly help us

In order to illustrate how to handle the filling to visualize the novel apparatus, which is used to

imbalance using this new methodology, we are going to overturn the melt in runner, and realize how it works.

apply two models. One is original design, and the other The melt overturn apparatus design parameter directly

is revised design shown as following. affects the thermal history and shear rate distribution,

In the original design, the model has 314865 and this is the key point of the device. However, the

elements with hybrid solid meshes, including 62640 hexa control of this device is the crucial. When the melt

elements, 93312 prism elements, 600 pyramid elements, turns over if the design parameter is inappropriate shown

and 158313 tetrahedral elements (Fig. 4). The element in Fig.12, the imbalance situation will still happen.

layer count is more than six at most regions. Hence, in the assistance of the suitable CAE tool, people

Based on the original design, Fig.5 to Fig.7 are the can realize and handle these phenomena easily and

visualized CAE analysis results. Fig. 5 shows when the effectively.

melt flow passed through the first divergence, melt

property of the shear rate, temperature and the viscosity Reference

produced imbalance distribution. In Fig. 6., the hotter

melt near outer ring in the primary runner flow along the

right side in the secondary runner A, and the colder melt [1] Wen-Hsien Yang," Integrated numerical simulation of

near middle in the primary runner flow along the left side injection molding using true 3D approach " ANTEC

in the secondary runner A. Similarly, in another side, the (2004)

hotter melt near outer ring in the primary runner flow [2] Rong-Yeu Chang, "Cluster computing in numerical

along the right side in the secondary runner B, and the simulation of extrusion flow " ANTEC (2003)

colder melt near middle in the primary runner flow along [3] W. H. Yang and R. Y. Chang, “Numerical Simulation

the left side in the secondary runner B. It results in the of Mold Fill in Injection Molding Using A

Three-Dimensional Finite Volume Approach”,

B03-2

International Journal for Numerical Methods in

Fluids, vol. 37, p. 125 (2001).

[4] R.Y.Chang and W.H.Yang, Int. J. Numer. Methods

Fluids, 37, 125-148 (2001)

[5] Dr. John P. Beaumont / Beaumont Runner

Technologies, Inc. "Intra-Cavity Filling

Imbalances" Technical Brief 2001,10

[6] John P. Beaumont and Jack H. Young, "Mold Filling

Imbalances in Geometrically Balanced Runner

Systems" Journal of Injection Molding Technology,

September 1997, Vol. 1, No. 3

(d)

build geometrical of model (b) Create solid mesh (c)

(a) (b) Hybrid solid mesh (d) Different solid element

(a) Original (b)Revised (MeltFlipperTM)

geometrical of model (b) create surface mesh (c)

generate the solid mesh

(a) (b)

B03-3

(a) (b)

(Original design)

(c) (d)

Secondary runner B Primary runner experimental without overturn apparatus. Melt front

(a)40%, (b)60%, (c)80%, (d) Experiment result of

original design (MeltFlipperTM)

Secondary runner A

Secondary runner

Figure 6. Z direction Profile at the second divergence modified.

(Original design)

B03-4

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

experimental without overturn apparatus. Melt front

(a)40%, (b)60%, (c)80%, (d) Experiment result of

revised design (MeltFlipperTM)

(Revised design)

(Revised design)

B03-5

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