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LET Review

Social Science Majorship

Focus: Philosophy
 Manifest knowledge and understanding of the nature of a Filipino, the Filipino
society and the emerging Filipino philosophy.
 Manifest a critical and analytical attitude toward specific issues and problems in
daily life.

 To identify and comprehend the meanings of different branches of philosophy
 To explore the standards or criteria of various ethical theories or philosophies.
 To know the different schools of thought or means of acquiring knowledge.
 To get acquainted with the Western classical and modern philosophies.
 To familiarize with the basic concepts and core values of eastern philosophy like
Buddhism, Confucianism, etc.
 To understand the nature of Filipino and his/her society.
 To gain knowledge and skills in detecting informal fallacies.

Key Ideas/Concepts:
Philosophy: love of wisdom.
Epistemology: theory of knowledge.
Metaphysics: the study of being.
Ethics: the science of good and evil.
Aesthetics: the appreciation of art and beauty.
Teleology: the study of meaning or purpose of life.
Axiology: the study of values.
Logic: the science and art of correct thinking.
Cosmology: concern with the origin of the universe.
Evolutionism: the universe evolved of itself.
Creationism: the universe came to be as the result of the working of a Creative
Cause or God.
Ontology: the study of existence.
Determinism: man is not free.
Free Will: man has the power to choice and is capable of genuine initiative.
Atheism: there is no ultimate reality in the cosmos.
Deism: God exists quite apart from the physical universe and human beings but He
created both.
Polytheism: spiritual reality is many.
Pantheism: all is God and God is all.
Agnosticism: the impossibility of knowledge.
Skepticism: a questioning attitude of knowledge.
Absolutism: reality is constant, unchanging, fixed and dependable.
Relativism: reality is a changing thing.
Nichomachean ethics: aims at the moderate living.
Utilitarianism: the greatest happiness for the greatest number.
Categorical imperative: acting based on universal maxim.
Induction: reasoning from particulars to a general conclusion.
Deduction: reasoning from a general principle to particulars.

Dialectic: reasoning in which the conflict of ideas is utilized as a means of detecting
the truth.
Ethical egoism: self-interest is the standard of morality
Ethical relativism: norms of morality are changing.
Hedonism: the highest good is pleasure.
Perfectionism: the highest good is the perfection of the self.
Altruism: interests of others should be served by an individual’s actions.
Egoism: interests of self be served by an individual’s actions.
Pessimism: Existence is evil.
Optimism: Existence is good.
Idealism: truth or reality exists in ideas or in the spirit or mind; reality is made up
of absolute truths.
Naturalism: denies anything as having supernaturality; concepts are formed from
the physical universe.
Realism: meaning comes through empirically proven facts; reality is made up of
natural laws, facts.
Liberalism: aims at the development of individual freedom.
Humanism: humans have potential/innate goodness.
Positivism: based primarily on science.
Communism: aims for a classless or utopian society.
Fascism: a government that heightened national belonging; it rejects liberal ideas
like freedom, liberty.
Existentialism: value is dependent upon the free choice of every man.
Pragmatism: knowledge is determined by practical consideration: truth is that
which works, truth solves problems.
Hinduism: known as Sanaā tana Dharma and Vaidika-Dharma, is a worldwide
religious tradition rooted in Indian culture and based on teachings of the Vedas.
Confucianism: primarily focused on morality, interpersonal ethics and the
cultivation of the civility, which is understood to contribute to the establishment of a
harmonious and well-ordered society.
Shintoism - belief in the "kami no michi" or the "way of the kami".
Loob: as intellectual, volitional, emotional and ethical; the Filipino has a holistic
view of himself.
Filipino’s thinking: subjective, concrete, imprecise and he reason intuitively and
Filipino as social being: interests of the family prevail over individual interests.
Filipinos view the law from its interior aspect.
Filipino’s view of land: common/communal ownership.
Filipino’s view of time: cosmic time is cyclical, spiral, and dynamic.
Fallacy: a defect in an argument.

Question and Answer:

I. What is the Nature of Philosophy?

Philosophy - field of study that explains the concepts of nature and classical beliefs
followed by a particular system. Philosophy is a unique discipline that explores and
traverses through several domains of life like existence, nature, religion, God, ethics,
psychology, science, sociology, and an understanding of the truths of the world we dwell.
Philosophy - science of beings in their ultimate reasons, causes and principles, acquired by
human reason alone. In brief, it is the field of reason.

A. What are the Five (5) Branches of Philosophy?

1. What is Metaphysics?
Metaphysics - branch of philosophy responsible for the study of being and reality. It is the
foundation of a worldview. It answers the question "What is?" It encompasses everything

that exists, as well as the nature of existence itself. It says whether the world is real, or
merely an illusion. It is a fundamental view of the world around us.

2. What is Epistemology?
Epistemology - study of our method of acquiring knowledge. It answers the question,
"How do we know?" It encompasses the nature of concepts, the constructing of concepts,
the validity of the senses, logical reasoning, as well as thoughts, ideas, memories, emotions,
and all things mental. It is concerned with how our minds are related to reality, and
whether these relationships are valid or invalid.

3. What is Ethics?
Ethics - branch of study dealing with what is the proper course of action for man. It
answers the question, "What do I do?" It is the study of right and wrong in human
endeavors. At a more fundamental level, it is the method by which we categorize our values
and pursue them. Do we pursue our own happiness, or do we sacrifice ourselves to a
greater cause? Is that foundation of ethics based on the Bible, or on the very nature of man
himself, or neither?

4. What is Politics?
Politics is ethics applied to a group of people. Politics tells you how a society must be set
up and how one should act within a society.

5. What is Aesthetics?
Aesthetics - study of art. It includes what art consists of, as well as the purpose behind it.
Does art consist of music, literature, and painting? Or does it include a good engineering
solution, or a beautiful sunset? These are the questions that aimed at in esthetics. It also
studies methods of evaluating art, and allows judgments of the art. Is art in the eye of the
beholder? Does anything that appeals to you fit under the umbrella of art? Or does it have a
specific nature? Does it accomplish a goal?

Other Branches of Philosophy:

6. Cosmology - theories of the origin of the universe.
7. Logic – science and art of correct thinking.
8. Axiology - area in philosophy that deals with the problem of human values.
9. Theodicy - study of the nature, essence and existence of God using human reason.
10. Teleology – concerns with the meaning or purpose of life.
11. Ontology - study of being/existence

II. Epistemology
Epistemology - theory of knowledge. Its major concerns are the nature of knowledge itself
and the grounds for its validity.

A. What are the positions in relation to knowledge?

a. Agnosticism - coined by Thomas Huxley which means "not being able to know" or
belief in the impossibility of knowledge.
b. Skepticism is the doubting or questioning attitude towards knowledge (also
known as the scientific attitude).
c. Affirmation of knowledge. It is the possibility of knowledge.

B. What are the Types of knowledge in relation to observation?

a. A priori - knowledge not requiring observation; means "before" or "prior to"
b. A posteriori - knowledge based on observation; means "after" or "posterior to"
c. Experimental - knowledge resulting from tested observation.

C. What are the Types of knowledge according to means/instruments?

a. Empirical - knowledge acquired through sense perception (equivalent to
scientific knowledge). The school of thought is known as empiricism.
b. Rational - knowledge acquired primarily through reason and belief is called
c. Intuitive - knowledge acquired primarily through intuition (sudden flash of
insight) and the belief is known as intuitionism.
d. Authoritative - knowledge acquired through an authority (expertise) and the
belief is known as authoritarianism
e. Revealed. Knowledge acquired through revelation (what God discloses to man).
And the belief is revelationism. It is also called religious knowledge.

III. Ethics (the science of good and evil)

A. What are Classical Ethical Theories?

1. Platonism – if a man knows what the good life is, he will not act immorally, thus evil
is due to lack of knowledge.
2. Absolutism – there is fundamentally one and only one good life for all man.

B. What is the main point of the Nichomachean Ethics of Aristotle?

1. the doctrine of the mean (golden mean - moderate living)
2. the good life is a life of happiness
3. happiness is an activity, not a goal
4. men ought to behave so as to achieve happiness

C. What is the base of good among Hedonist (Epicureanism)?

Hedonism – pleasure is the sole good. Avoidance of pain.

D. What is good from Stoicism (Zeno)?

1. learn to be indifferent to external influences
2. Epictetus – good or evil depends upon oneself
- virtue resides in the will, that only the will is good or bad
- a man who is indifferent is a free man – he becomes independent of the world
3. predestination – all happenings in the world are fixed by God according to some
preconceived plan
4. virtue is a will in which it is in agreement with the happenings of nature

E. What is Christian Ethics?

- there is a divine being who had laid down certain rules for moral behavior
- the church regard the moral code as an objective and infallible guide to correct

F. What is Utilitarianism (Jeremy Bentham and J.S. Mill)?

Utilitarianism believes that action is right in so far as it tends to produce the greatest
happiness for the greatest number.

G. What is the meaning of Categorical Imperative (Kant)?

Categorical imperative states that one should act only on the maxim that you can will that it
should become the universal law.

H. What is Ethical Egoism [The Virtue of Selfishness] (Ayn Rand)?

o self-interest is the standard of morality and selflessness is the deepest immorality.
o self interest, according to Rand, is to see oneself as an end in oneself.
o one's own life and happiness are one's highest values

I. What is the meaning of Ethical Relativism - norms of morality are constantly changing.
It depends upon time and space.

IV. Classical Philosophy

A. What is Idealism?
 Meaning is in the ideals of life itself
• Reality is made up of absolute truths
• Educationally, this means the use of inductive reasoning, lecturing
• Plato was an early key proponent of this model
• Truth or reality exists in ideas or in the spirit or mind
• Material objects are mere representations of idea
• Will governs our conduct
• Judges behavior in terms of motives (not in results)
• Knowledge is obtained thru speculation and reasoning
• Society is organism in individuals participate
• Selfhood is attained thru social processes
• With society providing the matrix for the development of the individual, the
individual progresses, then attaining self-realization
• At the same time, society develops in a process of realizing the good society

B. What is Naturalism?
• Denies anything as having supernaturality
• Concepts are formed from the physical universe
• Human being is just only transitory product of physical processes
• Thus human and society are dependent upon nature
• Society as aspect/part of nature [not so much of organism]
• Individual is nature’s offspring [not a child of society]
• Though individual is dependent on nature

C. What is Realism?
 Universe as composed of beings existing independently but related and forming a
hierarchical structure [cosmos/totality
 Person as endowed with two natures:
- animal = appetites and sensual desires are perfected through “golden mean”
between two extremes of excess/deficiency
= these habits results moral virtues of temperance and courage
= these moral virtues enable a person to perfect the rational nature by
achieving intellectual virtues of wisdom, prudence, art
 Meaning comes through empirically proven facts
 Reality is made up of natural laws, facts
 However, empirical facts are always subject to change
 Educationally this involves scientific reasoning
 But human nature is not achieved by virtues alone
 Human nature aims to achieve the ultimate goal (happiness) by transcending self-
realization [self is fulfilled with others]
 Aristotle asserts that individual is part of the whole
 Anyone is who is not part of society is like a beast or a god (not a human)
 Society is the external support to man’s fulfillment
 Thus, state as an organized society has a moral purpose of maintaining order and
exercising justice for the common good

D. What is Liberalism?
 Aims at the development of individual freedom

• Society is one which individuals are left free to pursue their own interest and
• There is restraint imposed in order to keep individuals from harming others
• Liberalism believes that human being having rational intellect, have the ability to
recognize problems and solve them, thus achieving improvement in society
• Opposite of liberalism is conservatism (supports the maintenance of status quo)

E. What is Humanism?
• Intellect distinguishes humans from animals
• Humans have potential/innate goodness
• Thus, educationally you facilitate and encourage self-direction
• Some educational needs may be missed?
• Abraham Maslow early proponent

V. Modern Philosophy

A. What is Positivism?
• Based primarily on science, Auguste Comte was the first to use the term when he
developed his philosophical idea of laws of societal growth
• Three ascending stages
- theological stage – explains natural phenomena by involving spiritual being
- metaphysical stage – depersonalizes these beings into forces and essences
- positive stage – relies mainly on sciences
• One’s duties to society and humanity prevails over individual interests
• Development of society is based on sciences, technology, industry
• But it should be accompanied by moral regeneration (welfare of society is more
important that private interests)

B. What is Communism?
• It is not the consciousness of man that determines their beings, but rather it is their
social being that determines their consciousness
• He viewed history as a history of class struggles (between capitalist class and
• There is exploitation, oppression, marginalization and alienation among the working
class because of the capitalist system
• There is a connection between the economic aspect of social life to other aspects
(education, religion, laws, etc)
• Marx claims that capitalism will dig its own graveyard. Capitalism will continue to
develop to the point of extreme exploitation
• The result is social revolution which will be initiated by the working class
• The dominant ideas are the ideas of the ruling class (elite)

C. What is Fascism?
• Adolf Hitler (Nazi Germany); Benito Mussolini (Italian Dictator)
• Totalitarian philosophy of government that heightened national belonging
• It rejects liberal ideas like freedom, liberty
• Presses the destruction of election, legislatures, other democratic institutions
• Glorification of the state. Total subordination of individual to the state. The state
has absolute power
• Survival of the fittest. Complacency is doomed. Aggressive militarism is a leading
character of fascist state (leads to imperialism)
• Elitism – the dictator embodies the ideals of the nation. The leader as superman.

D. What is Existentialism?

 Philosophy of subjectivity or selfhood whose fundamental doctrine proclaims man’s
freedom in the accomplishment of his destiny
 Human existence was marked off from other kinds of man’s power to choose.
 The decision we make will make us the kind of person that is distinct totally from
every other person.
 Thus every value is dependent upon the free choice of every man

E. What is Pragmatism?
• Contribution of American philosophy (John Dewey, William James, Charles Peirce)
• Theory that the processes and the materials of knowledge are determined by
practical consideration
• It is supported experimental sciences (laboratory method) – hypotheses are ideas or
proposed solutions to problems
• Truth is which that works, solves the problems
• Pragmatist focus on the consequences and how they are controlled thru intelligence
is the foundation of their concepts of person and society
• Person is a social animal (associational being)
• Every value is acquired because of social processes
• Society is an organic process upon which individuals depend and by which they live
(soil: plant; society: individual) in order to attain development of personality
• Human society is the context in which concepts are formed
• Associative life (survival, habits of action and thoughts) and choice of consequences
are served by social groups
• Society is plural (collection of interacting primary groups)
• For pragmatist, a person is a problem solver in a plural environment

VI. Eastern Philosophy

A. What is Hinduism?
Hinduism - a worldwide religious tradition rooted in Indian culture and based on teachings
of the Vedas. It is the major religion of India, accounting for 85% of the population. It has
known as "Trimurti" which consists of BRAHMA, the supreme spirit, VISHNU, the preserver,
and SHIVA, the destroyer and creator.

1. What are social classes of Hindu known as caste system?

o Brahmins/Brahmans - the priests
o Kshatriyas - the nobles and the warriors
o Vaisyas - the traders, cultivators, peasants
o Sudras - the servants (Outside the caste system are the untouchables or

The Hindu's life is governed by the law of "karma" which is a process or series of birth and
rebirth until one attains perfection and finally reaches "nirvana" - the place or eternal
happiness and bliss. Under this belief, the sum of the person's actions carried from one life
to the next results in either an improved or worsened fate.

2. What are four main collections of Vedas (sacred text)?

-Rig Veda - hymns and praises
-Yajur Veda -prayer and sacrificial formulas
-Sama Veda - tunes and chants
-Athan/a Veda - magical formulas

B. What is Buddhism?
Buddhism - one of the major religions of the world; founded by Siddharta Gautama, the
Buddha, who lived in Northern India.

1. What are the Two Major Division of Buddhism?
1. Theravada or "Way of the Elders" (the more conservative type), popular in Sri
Lanka, Burma, and Thailand
2. Mahayana or "Great Vehicle" (liberal type), dominant in Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and

2. What are the four noble truths advocated by Buddha?

o Life is suffering (duhka);
o The cause of suffering is desire;
o The end of suffering is to stop desire; and
o To stop desire is to follow the Noble Eight-fold Path (to break the chain of karma
and to reach Nirvana)

3. What are the Noble Eight-fold Path?

o Right View
o Right Resolve
o Right Speech
o Right Action
o Right Livelihood
o Right Effort
o Right Concentration
o Right Contemplation

C. What is Confucianism?
Confucianism - an East Asian school of ethical, philosophical, and religious thought
originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius (551 - 479

1. What are the Key Concepts in Confucian thoughts?

• Rites (ritual, sacrifice or social etiquette)
• Humaneness (The Golden Rule)
• The Perfect Gentleman/Exemplary Person ("son of a ruler," "prince," or "noble,"
the ideal of a "gentleman")
• Proper governance ("government by virtue")
• Meritocracy
• Filial Piety (respect and obedience that a son should show to his parents)
• Loyalty (moral commitments to one's surrounding social, cultural, and historical
community as a whole)
• Rectification of names

D. What is Shintoism
Shintoism - popular during the Imperial regime but lost its popularity when Japan lost
during the Second World War. Shinto was not a Japanese word. It was derived from the
Chinese "shon" (Gods) and "tao" (the way). The intention was to distinguish this religion
from Buddhism when it first entered Japan.

Shintoism - belief in the "kami no michi" or the "way of the kami". Kami are Japanese
deities or goods of nature like the sun goddess, Kmaterasu, whom the Japanese believed
that the Imperial family came from. During the Imperial reign, Japan is said to be a
theocratic state.

E. Elements of Filipino Philosophy

1. The Filipino as Individual
Concept of Loob

- Loob as intellectual, volitional, emotional and ethical. The Filipino has a holistic view
of himself
- Loob is characterized as holistic (non-dualistic worldview) and as interior
- Loob is a moral conscience (budhi)
2. Filipino as Thinker (Filipino thinking is predominantly “psychological and intuitive”)
- Filipino does not distinguish between object and subject
- Filipino thinks concretely and nondualistically;
- regards his work and himself as one
- Imitation, the “nonscientific” mind and poetic inclination point to the psychological
way of thinking
- Filipino’s thinking is subjective, concrete, imprecise and he reason intuitively and
- The subject is in harmony with nature
3. Filipino as Social Being
- Interests of the family prevail over individual interests
- Respect for authority (po/opo)
- Filipino has communitarian spirit (companionship)
- Sakop behavior (tayo-tayo) – personal alliances
- Filipino interpersonal values such as Utang na Loob (reciprocity), hiya, pakikisama
- Filipino is basically person-oriented
4. Filipino’s Philosophy of Time
- Clock consciousness is not part of Filipino philosophy
- Cosmic time is cyclical, spiral, and dynamic
- Filipino remember events in terms of meaningful association
- History is non-linear
5. Filipino’s Philosophy of Space
- Concept of space is non-linear
- No exact standard measure of distance
- He measure space through his existence or meaningfulness
6. Philosophy of Causality
- His notion of causality is vague and imprecise
- Causality for Filipino rests on the “synchronistic principle” because of the Filipino
harmony-with-nature orientation
7. Philosophy of Private Property
- Land ownership is communal
- Stewardship nation of property
8. Philosophy of Law
- Written contracts are not regularly practice for rural Filipinos
- Early Filipinos occupied the land of their ancestors without the benefit of documents
- Filipinos view the law from its interior aspect
- Filipinos perceives laws concretely
- Filipinos emphasizes the “duty” aspect of the law rather than the “right” aspect

VII. What is a Fallacy?

A fallacy is a defect in an argument. A formal fallacy is a defect in the form or structure of
an argument. Since deductive arguments depend on formal properties and inductive
arguments don't, formal fallacies apply only to deductive arguments. Informal fallacies are
defects found in the content of the argument, which could be inductive or deductive.

What are the Kinds of Informal Fallacy?

I. Fallacies of Ambiguity - these try to support a conclusion with something other than
actual evidence.
A. Amphiboly -- using a premise that is ambiguous because of faulty sentence structure.
B. Accent -- using a premise that is ambiguous because:
• Its intended tone of voice is uncertain.
• Its stress is unclear.

• It is torn from context.
C. Hypostatization - to treat abstract terms like concrete ones, sometimes ascribing
humanlike properties to them.
D. Equivocation - using multiple meanings of the same word.
E. Division - arguing that the parts of a whole must have a certain property because the
whole has it.
F. Composition - arguing that a whole must have a certain property because the parts
have it.

II. Fallacies of Presumption

A. Overlooking the facts
1. Sweeping Generalization (accident) - applying a generalization that is usually true
to an exceptional case by ignoring the peculiarities of the case.
2. Hasty Generalization (converse accident) - drawing general conclusion from
insufficient evidence.
3. False Dilemma - dresuming that there are fewer alternatives than there actually are.

B. Evading the Facts

1. Begging the Question (petitio principii)
i. Offering, as a premise, a simple restatement of the desired conclusion.
ii. A circular argument, more complex than (i) but eventually justifying the
conclusion with itself.
iii. Subsuming a suspect particular under a generalization that is even more
2. Question-Begging Epithets - using strongly emotional language to force home an
otherwise unsupported question.
3. Complex Question - a question that presumes the truth of certain statements. E.g.:
Have you quit smoking?
4. Special Pleading - applying a double standard with your choice of words. E.g.: I'm
proud; you're vain.

C. Distorting the Facts

1. False Analogy - reaching a conclusion by likening or comparing two significantly
incomparable cases.
2. False Cause (post hoc ergo propter hoc) - inferring a causal link between two events
when no such causal connection has been established.
3. Slippery Slope - assuming, unjustifiably, that a proposed step will set off an
undesirable and uncontrollable chain of events.
4. Irrelevant Thesis (ignoratio elenchi) - seeking, perhaps succeeding, to prove a
conclusion not at issue.
i. Red Herring - introducing an irrelevant subject to divert attention away from
the real issue.
ii. Attacking a Straw Man - mispresenting an opposing view in a way that is easy
to refute.

III. Fallacies of Relevance - these try to support a conclusion with something other than
actual evidence.
A. Personal Attack (argumentum ad hominem)
1. Genetic Fallacy - attacking a thesis, institution, or idea by attacking its
background or origin.
2. Abusive ad Hominem - attacking the character of the opposing speaker rather
than her thesis.
3. Circumstantial ad Hominem - attacking the opposing speaker by implying
vested interests.
4. Tu Quoque - attempting to show that an opponent does not act in accord with
her thesis.

5. Poisoning the Well - Attempting to preclude discussion by attacking the
credibility of an opponent.
B. Mob Appeal (argumentum ad populum) - using emotion-laden terminology to
sway people ‘en masse’.
C. Appeal to Pity (argumentum ad misericordiam) - trying to persuade by arousing
D. Appeal to Authority (argumentum ad verecundiam) – trying to persuade merely
by citing an authority.
1. The Authority of the One
2. The Authority of the Many (Bandwagon argument)
3. The Authority of the Select Few
4. The Authority of Tradition
E. Appeal to Ignorance (argumentum ad ignorantiam) – claiming a thesis is true
because there is no evidence against it.
F. Appeal to Fear (argumentum ad baculum) -- seeking to persuade through fear or
the threat of force.

Test Yourself:

Directions. Read each item carefully. Choose the best answer.

1. What branch of philosophy is closely related to education because it is concerned with

human knowledge and the criteria of truth?
A. Ethics C. Logic
B. Epistemology D. Metaphysics

2. What is the branch of philosophy that studies the morality of human actions?
A. Cosmology C. Ethics
B. Epistemology D. Metaphysics

3. What is the area of philosophy that deals with the problem of human values?
A. Axiology C. Teleology
B. Epistemology D. Theodicy

4. Which of the following does not refer to a fallacious argument?

A. Formally Valid C. False
B. Materially Invalid D. Disturbing Statement

5. Which of the following statement does not support realism as a philosophical belief?
A. meaning comes through empirically proven facts
B. reality is made up of natural laws
C. reality is based on ideas
D. meaning are derived from experience

6. What kind of fallacy is committed when someone ask this question, “Have you stop
beating your wife?”
A. Hasty Generalization C. False Cause
B. Complex Question D. False Analogy

7. Which of the following is not considered as noble truths according to Buddha?

A. Extirpate the will because the will is the reason of human sufferings.
B. Follow the will in order to attain happiness in life.
C. The end of suffering is to stop our desire.
D. To stop desire is to follow the Noble Eight-fold Path.

8. According to Ayn Rand, ethical egoism is the promotion of

A. altruism as the universal ethical standard to attain happiness.
B. self-interest and altruism as guides of human social interactions.
C. altruism as the basis of human purpose and happiness.
D. self-interest as the standard of morality and selflessness is the deepest immorality.

9. In his Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle advocated the doctrine of the mean. Which of the
following manifests the doctrine of the mean?
A. Pedro is totally in engaged in gambling after his work.
B. Juan drinks beer moderately and only once in a while.
C. Caloy is workaholic and thus, he suffered mild rheumatism
D. Enteng cannot start his day without drinking 3 cups of coffee.

10. Vedas is the sacred text of the Hindu. Which of the following is not part of the Vedas?
A. Rig Veda C. Ramayana Veda
B. Yajur Veda D. Athan/a Veda

11. If one person is asking the ultimate purpose of life, what particular area of philosophy
will answer his question?
A. Metaphysics C. Logic
B. Teleology D. Aesthetics

12. “Boys” rhymes with “toys”; but you have a boy; therefore you have a toy. What fallacy
was committed?
A. Composition C. Amphiboly
B. Equivocation D. Division

13. According to John Locke, human being is born as blank slate (tabula rasa), thus he
believes that knowledge originate from experience. What school of thought is this?
A. Empiricism C. Rationalism
B. Intuitionism D. Revelationism

14. Creationism and evolutionism are two examples of

A. Metaphysical theories C. Cosmological theories
B. Sociological perspectives D. Theories of knowledge

15. Which of the following is not key concept of Confucianism?

A. Filial piety C. Meritocracy
B. Golden rule D. Rationality

16. When an action is acceptable in one place but it is rejected in another place, this means
A. morality is universal C. morality is undefined
B. ethical standards are relative D. morality is absolute

17. "Malaking kahambugan

ang umangkin ng lupa,
sapagkat tayo itong inaangkin
ng lupa.

Paano natin aangkinin ang bagay

na naririyan pa rin kahit
wala na tayo?

Tanging ang lahi ang maaring

umangkin ng lupa, sapagkat
ang lahi ay walang kamatayan."
-Macliing Dulag

What is the message of the poem?
A. Land is own by gods
B. Land ownership is communal
C. Land is a powerful force
D. Land is a sacred entity

18. Mano Po is the first-of-the-line embodiment of a Filipino’s stupendous regard to their

fellows. Respect envelops this character, which consequently prompts domino effects on
the other lauded Filipino values such as the following except.
A. the overwhelming hospitality
B. respect for life (by the mean time showcases the delegalization of abortion)
C. respect for Mother Nature (except for those who utterly disregard their natural duties)
D. respect for technology

19. The decision we make will make us the kind of person that is distinct totally from every
other person. What philosophy does this adhere to?
A. idealism
B. existentialism
C. naturalism
D. realism

20. Which of the following is not a Machiavellian ethics of the end justifies the means?
A. The Prince be a mixture of the lion and the fox in his government
B. The Prince must be a beast if necessary
C. The Prince should be friendly and generous to all his people and follow morals
D. The Prince should use of deception and cruelty

Evaluate Yourself:

Directions. Read each item carefully. Choose the best answer.

1. “Vote for him because he has already put in a lot of money and heartache in the
campaign.” What fallacy is committed here?
A. Appeal to People C. Appeal to Pity
B. Appeal to Force D. Appeal to Pride

2. “She is born ahead of you; therefore she is your mother.”

A. False Cause C. Hasty Generalization
B. Illicit Generalization D. False Assumption

3. What is the mean between feelings of fear and confidence?

A. Courage C. Temperance
B. Justice D. Ignorance

4. What is the major aim of liberal political leader?

A. aims for the rejection of human rights
B. secure the individual liberty and freedom
C. seek the economic independence of his constituents
D. aims for the improvement of education

5. Which of the following is not a prerequisite for human actions?

A. Actions should be voluntary
B. Actions is a product ignorance
C. Actions should be with cooperation of reason
D. Actions should be with consent

6. Platonic philosophy or foundational philosophy aims for
A. Relative standards of morality
B. Universal and absolute measures of what is good and bad
C. Respects the rights of everyone to have their distinct culture
D. Changing standards or criteria of morality

7. What philosophical belief in which it asserts that knowledge is impossible?

A. Agnosticism C. Altruism
B. Skepticism D. Empiricism

8. Which of the following would not fall under categorical imperatives?

A. The bases of morality is absolute
B. The ethical standards are unchanging over time
C. Truth is relative
D. Truth is universal

9. The following persons, except one are altruists.

A. A suicide bomber who sacrificed his life for his people
B. A national hero who worked for his country
C. A doctor who didn’t accept a victim of a vehicular accident in the hospital
D. An outstanding teacher who arrived early in the morning to prepare her boardwork

10. Hedonism’s main source of happiness is

A. seeking of pleasure and avoidance of pain
B. altruistic acts
C. self-sacrifice for others
D. pursuit of egoistic desires

11. How is a pragmatist response to a particular problem?

A. a pragmatist will base his/her solutions from a universal truth
B. a pragmatist constantly experiment on what is applicable solutions to his/her problems
C. a pragmatist applies the principles of religion in solving his daily tasks
D. a pragmatist relies from others to improve his/her life

12. What is amoral action?

A. Action which is beyond good and evil
B. Action that is subject to ethical judgment
C. Action that is neither good nor bad
D. Action that is immoral

13. Which of the following is not part of the Noble 8-fold Paths among the Buddhists?
A. Right View; C. Right Speech
B. Right Resolve D. Right Education

14. Political science is the ruling science because

A. Politics tells you how a society must be set up and how one should act within a society.
B. It legislates what must be done and avoided through its control of the other sciences
concerned with action
C. Politics concerns with the good of the city which is higher than that of the individual
D. All of the above

15. Filipino sees the world as cyclic and holistic. Which of the following does not show
these worldview?
A. state of becoming
B. transience for everything

C. neither suffering nor happiness last forever
D. state of being and perfection

16. What is katatagang-loob?

A. Enabled Filipinos to embrace with open arms their sufferings out of the desire for self-
B. Advocates passivity in following the path of nature.
C. Egoistic survival of Filipinos
D. Pakikipagkapwa- tao

17. According to Marx, capitalism causes people to be alienated from (1) the things they
make, (2) the labor that defines them personally, (3) their natures as productive creators,
and (4) other human beings--all as a result of:
A. natural human inclinations to be selfish.
B. the economic institution of private property.
C. the conflict between proletariat and bourgeoisie.
D. the replacement of religion with secular values.

18. How would you describe the Filipino concept of time?

A. There is an exact start and end of everything
B. Time is rational and linear
C. Cosmic time is cyclical, spiral, and dynamic
D. Time is gold

19. Moral evil for the Filipino leads

A. Fear and shame of upsetting a pre-existent social or communal order
B. Tarnishing of individual reputation and prestige
C. Isolation of the person from group life
D. Rumor of one’s personality

20. Glorification of the state; total subordination of individual to the state; state has
absolute power are characteristics of a fascist regime. Which of the following is an example
of a fascist government?
A. Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler
B. Post Edsa Philippines under Aquino Government
C. United States of America under Abraham Lincoln
D. Japan under the leadership of Prime Minister Koizumi

Pre-board Items:

1. All cops are crooked. What informally fallacy is being referred to?
A. Illicit generalization C. False Assumption
B. False Cause D. Accident

2. What is this fallacy wherein propositions simulate a syllogism with the result that the
conclusion does not follow?
A. Argument from silence C. Mob appeal
B. Begging the Question D. Non-sequitur

3. According to naturalism, concepts are formed from the physical universe. Which of the
following marks this philosophy?
A. beliefs in superstitions
B. everything in our environment can be explained by reason alone
C. ideas are just products of nature
D. ideas are the bases of reality

4. What is the meaning of the Golden Mean according to Aristotle?
A. In order to achieve happiness, men must act moderately.
B. Men should aim for extreme virtue such as rashness and timidity.
C. Character virtues tend to be supported by excess.
D. A temperate man doesn’t enjoy abstinence itself.

5. What school of thought wherein knowledge is acquired through God’s disclosure to

man? It is also called religious knowledge.
A. Rationalism C. Revelationism
B. Empiricism D. Authoritarianism

6. Human action cannot be morally sanctioned if

A. Voluntary C. Associated with reason
B. With full consent D. Action is caused by ignorance

7. According to utilitarianism, action is right in so far as it tends to produce the greatest

happiness for the greatest number. Which of the following situations shows this principle?
A. When the government imposed taxes to raise revenue so that there will be enough
budget for basic social services.
B. When the government imposed regressive tax system.
C. When the government prioritize infrastructure in Metro Manila because it is where
business is concentrated.
D. When the Department of Health allows all returning OFWs to the country to go home at
once without any health monitoring although there is swine pandemic.

8. Who propounded that “ethics according to which the goal of life is freedom from pain?”
A. Epicurus C. Socrates
B. Plato D. Aristotle

9. Which of the following is not true of philosophy?

A. Philosophy is love of wisdom.
B. Philosophy is a unique discipline that explores and traverses through several domains of
life like existence, nature, religion, etc.
C. Philosophy is the field of reason.
D. Philosophy has all the answers to all questions about life and existence.

10. The fundamental principle of Kant’s ethics is the Categorical Imperative, which is said
to underlie all commonly recognized moral principles. Which of the following shows Kant’s
A. The categorical imperative is a principle of consistency, demanding that we act on
reasons which all rational agents could endorse.
B. Kantian ethics emphasizes selective implementation of ethical rules.
C. Kantian ethics accepts relativity of moral standards.
D. The categorical imperative means that we are allowed to create our own standards of
morality based on our won culture.

11. In Confucianism, what is filial piety?

A. It denotes the respect and obedience that a son should show to his parents, especially to
his father.
B. It refers to the relationship between father and son, ruler and subject, husband and wife,
elder and younger brother, and between friends.
C. This is considered among the greatest of virtues of the Chinese which is respect for
elders in the family.
D. All of the above

12. In Buddhism, the goal of all practice is to achieve “Buddhahood” in order to help all
other sentient beings attain this state, as opposed to mere personal liberation. What is
A. Freedom from desire C. Life is full of sufferings
B. Enlightenment D. Attainment of Nirvana

13. Positivism is based on

A. metaphysical belief
B. theological doctrine
C. unchanging truth
D. science

14. Which of the following characterizes Filipino as social being?

A. Individual interests over the interests of his/her fellows
B. Less on social solidarity
C. Interests of the family prevail over individual interests
D. Nonparticipation to community activities

15. Which of the following does not show utang na loob?

A. An eldest child is delaying his/her marriage in order to help young siblings to finish
their education
B. A son sacrifices his career in order to take care his ailing mother
C. A younger child decided to work abroad send money for the family
D. A daughter who study hard so that she could please her parents

Key to Corrections: Test Yourself

1. B 11. B
2. C 12. B
3. A 13. A
4. A 14. C
5. C 15. D
6. B 16. B
7. B 17. C
8. D 18. D
9. B 19. B
10. C 20. C

Key to Corrections: Evaluate Yourself

1. C 11. B
2. A 12. C
3. A 13. D
14. D
4. B
15. D
5. C
16. B
6. B
17. B
7. A
18. C
8. C
19. A
9. C
20. A
10. A

Key to Corrections: Pre-board

1. A
2. D
3. C
4. A
5. C

6. D
7. A
8. A
9. D
10. A
11. D
12. B
13. D
14. C
15. D