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Rejuvenating the Malaysian Pineapple Industry

M.H. Othmana, L. Buang and M.S. Mohd Khairuzamri


Malaysian Pineapple Industry Board (MPIB)
Malaysia

Keywords: rejuvenating, pineapple, industry

Abstract
In Malaysia, pineapple is the first crop grown as a commodity or industrial
crop with high export potential. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Malaysia was the
number three exporter in the world for canned pineapple. However, its ability to
remain competitive suffered tremendous setback. While other industrial crops,
particularly rubber and oil palm gained accelerated momentum in their
development, pineapple did not follow the pattern. During the last three decades
(1973-2003), the Malaysian pineapple industry had deteriorated. The total planted
areas for pineapples have decreased by 52% from 13,267 ha in 1973 to 6,434 in 2003.
The decline was most significant in the smallholder sector which experienced a
decrease from 8,498 ha in 1973 to 1,366 ha in 2002. In the estate sector, the planted
areas have increased by 211 ha, but have remained static at 5,000 ha from 1990 to
2004. The export value of canned pineapples decreased from RM 52.0 million in
1997 to RM 32.0 million in 2008. Despite the fact that Malaysia’s pineapple industry
declined, the industry including the trading of neighboring countries, particularly
Thailand, the Philippines and Indonesia and globally in general, continue to develop
and expand. This, consequently, suggests that the pineapple industry in Malaysia
has good potential to escalate. This paper addresses the strategies of reviving the
pineapple industry and trading in Malaysia.
INTRODUCTION
The pineapple industry is the oldest agro-based industry in Malaysia, dating back
to 1888 when pineapple canning on a commercial scale first started. Since then, the
pineapple industry expanded rapidly until World War Two in 1941 during which time, the
pineapple industry ground to a complete halt. Pineapple cultivation expanded alongside
the rubber industry as a secondary crop. At that time, rubber was grown widely in the
west coast states of Peninsular Malaysia such as Johor, Singapore and Selangor. During
the pre-war period, the estimated area of cultivation was 24,291 ha. Since 1904, Malaya
had been an exporter of canned pineapple. The country was ranked as the second largest
producer of canned pineapple in the world after Hawaii before the war. Hawaii produced
an average of 190,000 t per annum compared to Malaya with an average of 60,000 t per
annum. The pineapple industry was then the major food and agricultural industry
contributor to the national economy, as cocoa and oil palm were yet to be exploited.
After the war, the pineapple industry was revived. The industry grew rapidly in the
1960s and early 1970s, making Malaysia the largest exporter of fresh pineapple and the
third largest exporter of canned pineapple in the world. In the subsequent years, however,
the industry experienced a decline and became stagnant as compared to other neighboring
countries such as Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines, which experienced rapid
growth. As a result, Malaysia’s global ranking as a major producer and exporter dropped.
In 2008, Malaysia was ranked the eighth world exporter of canned pineapple. Although
the decline may not be too drastic, the total percentage of pineapple exports was only at
1.0%, which was equivalent to 12,530 tons of 1,272,768 tons. In terms of value, it
constituted only 0.08% of total export value or RM 31.1 million out of the total export
value of RM 3.7 billion.
Efforts to improve the country’s pineapple industry are currently being and will be
a
mathassan@mpib.gov.my

Proc. 7th International Pineapple Symposium 39


Eds.: H. Abdullah et al.
Acta Hort. 902, ISHS 2011
carried out, primarily through the five-year plans (9MP and 10MP). At present, there are
some difficulties in rejuvenating the country’s pineapple industry. They include
competition from other producer countries. Domestically, there is greater interest in the
cultivation of oil palm and rubber than in pineapple. These problems need to be addressed
before the pineapple industry can improve.

STATUS OF THE MALAYSIA PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY

Planted Area
The total planted area over the years 1990 to 2008 (Table 1) fluctuated from year
to year as smallholders grew pineapple only as an intercrop (covering 62% of planted
area) in oil palm or rubber plantations, which prevented continuous cultivation. Overall,
the planted area increased by an average of 1.1% per annum from 12,925 ha in 1990 to
15,586 ha in 2008. The planted area by smallholders increased from 7,925 ha in 1990 to
12,410 ha in 2009. In the estate sector, the planted area remained relatively stable from
5,000 ha in 1990-2004 to 6,000 ha in 2005-2007. However, the area of estates fell to
3,800 ha in 2008. Overall, smallholders planted 62% of the area with the remaining 38%
by the plantation sector.
Currently, pineapple is grown throughout the country (Table 2). Nevertheless,
pineapple is mostly grown in Peninsular Malaysia and in 2008, 77.5% or 12,078 ha were
located there. Johor has remained the state with the largest area planted with pineapple,
having 60% or 9,268 ha, followed by Sarawak with 2,501, Sabah with 1,007 and Penang
with 714.

Production and Productivity


A number of factors affect pineapple production, in particular planting area and
current crop productivity. Since planting area and crop productivity vary from year to
year, crop yields fluctuated in 1990-2008. Overall, there was 4.24% growth in average
annual production (Table 1). Crop yield increased by 80.6% or from 213,000 t in 1990 to
384,672 t in 2008. In line with increased production, crop productivity also increased
from 19 t ha-1 in 1990 to 29 t ha-1 in 2008. This was due to the use of better agricultural
practices by farmers.

Pineapple Trade
1. Export Trends. Overall, pineapple exports have declined (Table 3). Total pineapple
exports dipped by 10,229 t or 23.3% from 43,877 t in 1998 to 33,648 t in 2009, mainly
owing to decline in export of canned pineapple by 11,274 t or 48.4%. Pineapple juice
export also dropped by 39.2%. There was a small increase of 1,721 t or 9.3% in fresh
pineapple exports from 18,592 t in 1998 to 20,313 t in 2009.
The clear decline in canned pineapple was due to the closure of Pineapple Cannery
Malaysia (PCM) factories in 2008 and farmers’ increasing interest in planting pineapple
for the fresh market. It is estimated that over 80% of pineapple smallholders grow
pineapples for the fresh market owing to better pricing. With the trend towards fresh
pineapple, growth of the pineapple canning industry in Malaysia is expected to experience
a further decline. On the other hand, the export value of fresh pineapple continues to grow
and is expected to continue its upward trend for the next 5 years owing to the changing
farming patterns from canned to fresh. This trend is due to the higher selling price of fresh
pineapple as compared to canned pineapple.
As a result of the drop in total pineapple exports, the total value of pineapple
exports also dropped (Table 4). Overall, pineapple export value fell by 12.2% from
RM 60.7 million in 1998 to RM 54.0 million in 2009. The decline was attributed to the
39.5% drop in export value of canned pineapple, a decrease by RM 19.7. Although total
exports increased slightly (9%), the export value of fresh pineapple increased by RM 12.0
million (158.8%) from RM 6.6 million in 1998 to RM 19.6 million in 2009. The increase
was attributed mainly to increased exports of pineapple to the Middle East countries

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(Table 5), which offered a higher price than the traditional market of Singapore.
2. Export Market. To date, the overseas market demand for Malaysian pineapple
remains promising. In 2009, Malaysia exported canned pineapple to nearly 30 countries
(Tables 5 and 6). The United States, Japan, Iran and the United Arab Emirates are the
major importers of Malaysian canned pineapple, forming more than 75% of the total
exports. Aside from Singapore, which has been Malaysia’s traditional market, the Middle
East is a fast growing market for fresh pineapple (Table 6). Malaysian fresh pineapple is
in demand in the UAE as well as many Gulf countries such as Iran, Turkey, Egypt and
Saudi Arabia.

Global Position of the Malaysian Pineapple Industry


In contrast with the pineapple industries of other countries, particularly the
neighboring countries of Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines, the Malaysian
pineapple industry did not show growth after the 1970s. As a result, Malaysia’s
contribution to the global pineapple industry today is relatively small, being less than 2%
(Table 9). In 2007, Malaysian pineapple production was estimated at 340,000 t compared
to 19.16 million t of world production. Pineapple exports were also very small with only
32,374 t exported in 2008, which was only 0.69% to the international market.

Pineapple Cultivars in Malaysia


In Malaysia, the most widely planted is the ‘Morris’ cultivar, followed by
‘Josapine’, ‘Sarawak’, ‘Gandol’ and ‘N36’. However, the ‘N36’ and ‘Josapine’ cultivars
are planted for fresh pineapple export. The ‘Morris’ cultivar is grown for the domestic
market as well as for export to Singapore while ‘Gandol’ and ‘N36’ are grown for
canning.

Pineapple Production Chain


The pineapple supply chain in Malaysia is composed of smallholders and estates,
which are the major producers. Currently, the pineapple industry is more focused on fresh
pineapple for the domestic and export markets. Less than 20% is supplied to factories for
processing.
In general, the marketing of pineapples in Malaysia is carried out by the farmers
themselves, wholesalers and retailers. FAMA (2008), a government agency, helps to
market the farm produce through contract farming. Pineapples grown for export are
transported to the collection and packaging centers for processing.

Pineapple Research and Development in Malaysia


Pineapple research and development started in Singapore in the 1900s with the
establishment of a pineapple crop experiment station. Following the rapid growth of the
pineapple industry in Johor, the station was moved to the state (Wee, 1970). After World
War Two, pineapple research resumed with the setting up of two more pineapple
experiment stations in Johor and Selangor, which were managed by the Federal
Department of Agriculture (Dunsmore, 1957). After its establishment in 1957, the
Malaysian Pineapple Industry Board (MPIB), located in Pekan Nanas, Johor, took over
research work on pineapple. Malaysian pineapple research work reached its peak in 1964-
1973 (Wee et al., 1964). Nevertheless, on 1 January 1974, pineapple research and
development was taken over by the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development
Institute (MARDI). Today, MARDI’s focus of research includes the development of
pineapple cultivars, agronomy, production, post-harvest practices and product
development.

Pineapple-Based Agro-Based Industry


The pineapple agro-industry in Malaysia is the focus of one of the Malaysian
Government’s efforts to increase pineapple-based value-added products. In this regard,
the MPIB collaborated with MARDI to conduct research and development to produce

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new products. To date, 15 types of pineapple-based agro-based industrial food and non-
food products have been produced. Commercialization of these products is being carried
out by the MPIB in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based
Industry. It involves entrepreneurs who have been selected and trained by the MPIB.

ISSUES IN THE PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA

Dependence on Smallholders in the Crop Sector


As described above, the patterns and trends of pineapple planting area in Malaysia
are mainly influenced by pineapple growers from the smallholder sector. Records show
that on average, smallholders control 60% of the total area of pineapple cultivation in
Malaysia. Land ownership by smallholders is not large enough to be economical at 1.2 ha
each on average. As such, pineapple is planted only as an intercrop with other
commodities such as oil palm, coconut and rubber. This phenomenon causes pineapple
cultivation to be unsustainable in the long run, lasting for about only two to three years
when the main crops are still in the immature stage. By the end of the period, the
pineapple crops will be cleared and the same cycle is repeated at a different area.
Although there may be cultivation in new areas, existing planted areas could not be
sustained. As a result, planted areas could not be increased significantly. In addition, the
level of education of smallholders in Malaysia is still relatively low and more than 70% of
them are over the age of 65 years.

Lack of Private Sector Participation


It has been observed that the pineapple industry in other countries is growing at a
rapid pace as they are spearheaded by the private sector. Currently, private sector
participation in this industry in Malaysia has not been encouraging.

High Production Costs


Owing to the age of most pineapple farmers, hired labor becomes a determinant to
crop yield. Pineapple cultivation is labor intensive and accounts for 30% of the total cost
of production. The situation is further compounded by the fact that pineapple is grown on
peat land in Malaysia, which requires greater use of manpower than machinery.
Costs of agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides and flowering induction
also tend to increase owing to global economic instability since the end of the 1990s. As
an importer country of input materials, the increasing agricultural input costs are an added
burden. Input materials contribute to 30% of the total production costs. Studies have
shown that the cost of pineapple production in Malaysia is 15% higher than in
neighboring countries such as Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines.

Limited Pineapple Research and Development


Research and development is crucial to the development of the pineapple industry.
However, a number of constraints have restricted pineapple research in Malaysia. After
36 years of research, only 3 pineapple cultivars have been produced: ‘Johor 1’ (late
1970s), ‘Josapine’ (1996) and ‘Maspine’ (2005). After 15 years, the ‘Gandol’ remains as
the sole cultivar for canned pineapple. Furthermore, researchers are still struggling to
resolve the issue of mechanization on peat soil. Planting pineapple on non-peat soil also
requires the use of appropriate technology as researchers need to take into account the
diverse land surfaces and significant climate change.

Value Chain Development


Value chain of the pineapple industry generally encompasses aspects of
cultivation, processing and marketing. For the pineapple industry to become more
efficient and competitive, the industry value chain needs to be improved. With respect to
production, pineapple productivity remains low and irregular. At the same time, the
processing infrastructure is not equipped with the latest technology and this affects

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production efficiency. Marketing remains at a low level and gaps still exist in both the
infrastructure and logistics.

Competing for Resources


Agricultural industries such as the pineapple industry require land resources and
energy for growth. In Malaysia, there is competition in the use of resources and a
tendency among farmers to plant oil palm and rubber instead of pineapple. Based on
experience, pineapple farmers too are switching from pineapple to oil palm and rubber.

STRATEGIES TO EXPAND THE PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY

Government’s Five-Year Plans (9MP and 10MP)


In the 3rd National Agricultural Policy, pineapple is categorized as a fruit to be
developed as a high-value product for export. Pineapple will continue to be looked upon
as a tropical fruit with export potential. As such, the development agenda for the
pineapple industry in Malaysia will continue to be given attention and translated into
programs and projects in the government’s five-year plans, namely the 9MP and 10MP.
The pineapple industry development agendas were formulated by taking into account
value chain and production aspects, including cultivation promotion projects, consultation
services and technology transfer, agro-based industries, product development and
marketing development. It is hoped that this approach will give the much needed boost to
the Malaysian pineapple industry.

Government’s Role in Promoting Private Sector Participation


The government has taken positive steps to encourage private sector participation
by offering fiscal and non-fiscal incentives. In the area of non-fiscal incentives, the
government will assist investors to obtain land and provide the basic infrastructure such
as access roads and drainage to attract the private sector to invest in the farming sector.
An example is the Rompin Integrated Pineapple Cultivation Project with an area covering
2023 ha, jointly managed by the East Coast Economic Region (ECER) and MPIB.
Additionally, the government offers incentives in the form of fiscal cuts and tax relief as
well as pioneer status to any private body investing in the agricultural sector, including
the pineapple industry.

Improving the Efficiency of Smallholders


Efforts to improve the efficiency of smallholders are being carried out to ensure a
more consistent production, increase productivity and improve fruit quality. This is
carried out through programs to improve farm management for individuals or groups. The
methods used are group management and contract farming. Additionally, pineapple
cultivation as a sole crop is emphasized to ensure continuous cultivation and production
of pineapple.

Increasing Research and Development Activities


Pineapple research and development activities will be intensified and expanded to
focus on meeting both industry and long-term needs. This will include research on
environmentally friendly crop management, production of new breeds, product
development and post-harvest technology. Research efforts will also be expanded through
collaboration between researchers from within and outside the country.

Market Development
Efforts will be made to improve on the marketing system to ensure that it is
efficient and able to market Malaysian pineapple products globally. Focus is given to
market niche that offers a high price (high yield market) such as the Middle East and
European markets. In addition, efforts will be made to explore new markets such as China
and Europe.

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Enhancing the Processing Industry
The processing industry is further strengthened to support the development of the
pineapple industry. In addition to the canned pineapple industry, focus will be given to
production by small and medium industries that are of high value. To ensure the quality
and market of products, compliance with standards such as GMP and HACCP will be
enhanced.

Improving the Good Farming Practice Certification Program


In the future, more pineapple plantations will be required to participate in the
Good Farming Practice Certification Scheme. This will ensure not only high quality and
safe-to-eat products but also a cleaner environment.

CONCLUSION
Based on domestic and international pineapple market trends, the Malaysian
pineapple industry still has great potential for development. However, emphasis should be
given to technology-based production and not focus merely on land and labor resources to
expand planting area and operations. Additionally, the government, through agencies such
as the MPIB, needs to carry out activities and provide services as well as offer incentives
to attract private sector participation to invest in the development of pineapple cultivation
by opening up more plantations. Pineapple research and development must be carried out
more aggressively either in the fields of agronomy, machinery or production of new
pineapple cultivars that are of high quality, disease-resistant, have a longer lifespan and
produce results quickly. New markets need to be explored to expand the niche and market
for Malaysian products.

Literature Cited
FAMA. 2008. J. Agribusiness Mktg. 1:1-80.
FAO. 2010. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
(http://faostat.fao.org).
GTIS. 2010. Global Trade Information Services.(http://www.gtis.com).

44
Tables

Table 1. Pineapple production and productivity in Malaysia. Source: Department of


Agriculture, 2008; FAO, 2010.

Estate Smallholder Harvested Average


Area Production
Year Area Area area yield
(ha) % % (t)
(ha) (ha) (ha) (t/ha)
1990 12,925 5000 38.7 7,925 61.3 10,728 213,000 19.86
1991 14,411 5000 34.7 9,411 65.3 11,961 242,000 20.23
1992 15,502 5000 32.3 10,502 67.7 12,867 237,000 18.42
1993 13,996 5000 35.7 8,996 64.3 11,617 203,000 17.47
1994 13,472 5000 37.1 8,472 62.9 11,182 210,000 18.78
1995 11,377 5000 43.9 6,377 56.1 9,443 220,000 23.30
1996 11,569 5000 43.2 6,569 56.8 9,602 230,000 23.95
1997 11,067 5000 45.2 6,067 54.8 9,186 235,000 25.58
1998 11,104 5000 45.0 6,104 55.0 9,216 240,000 26.04
1999 11,786 5000 42.4 6,786 57.6 9,782 245,000 25.05
2000 15,720 5000 31.8 10,720 68.2 13,048 249,135 19.09
2001 14,043 5000 35.6 9,043 64.4 11,656 288,938 24.79
2002 15,117 5000 33.1 10,117 66.9 12,547 310,000 24.71
2003 14,480 5000 34.5 9,480 65.5 12,018 320,000 26.63
2004 9,306 5000 53.7 4,306 46.3 7,724 196,689 25.46
2005 14,884 6000 40.3 8,884 59.7 12,354 340,000 28.00
2006 14,144 6000 42.4 8,144 57.6 11,740 299,318 24.70
2007 15,513 6000 38.7 9,513 61.3 12,876 264,777 22.60
2008 15,586 3800 24.4 11,786 75.6 12,936 384,672 28.90
Avg. 13,474 5,095 37.8 8,379 62.2 11,183 259,396 23.00

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Table 2. Pineapple planting area and production in Malaysia in 2008. Source: Department
of Agriculture, 2008.

Planting area Planting area Production Production


State
(ha) (%) (t) (%)
Johor 9,268 59.46 275,154 71.53
Kedah 514 3.30 8,881 2.31
Kelantan 274 1.76 4,793 1.25
Melaka 0 0.00 0 0.00
Negeri Sembilan 249 1.60 4,828 1.25
Pahang 157 1.01 1,341 0.35
Perak 69 0.44 1,904 0.49
Perlis 1 0.01 5 0.00
Penang 714 4.58 17,634 4.58
Selangor 298 1.91 8,408 2.19
Terengganu 534 3.43 285 0.07
Peninsular Malaysia 12,078 77.49 323,232 84.03
Sabah 1,007 6.46 20,693 5.38
Sarawak 2,501 16.05 40,747 10.59
Total 15,586 100.00 384,673 100.00

Table 3. Quantity of pineapple exports from Malaysia, 1998-2009. Source: GTIS, 2010.

Quantity (t)
Year
Fresh Canned Juice Total
1998 18,592 23,304 1,981 43,877
1999 19,086 22,308 2,184 43,578
2000 18,553 16,532 2,663 37,748
2001 33,416 16,108 2,357 51,881
2002 37,947 20,469 1,594 60,010
2003 16,079 29,008 2,218 47,305
2004 13,651 21,870 1,725 37,246
2005 15,818 19,150 1,448 36,416
2006 17,076 17,995 1,183 36,254
2007 18,073 22,275 1,536 41,884
2008 18,183 12,530 1,661 32,374
2009 20,313 12,030 1,305 33,648
Change 2009/1998 1,721 (9.3%) -11,274 (48.4%) -776 (39.2%) -10,229 (23.3%)

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Table 4. Value of pineapple exports from Malaysia, 1997-2008. Source: GTIS, 2010.

Fresh Canned Juice Total


Year
(RM)1 (RM) (RM) (RM)
1997 5,314,699 52,017,792 2,111,360 59,443,851
1998 6,616,762 50,493,819 3,604,356 60,714,937
1999 7,588,889 49,928,980 4,028,187 61,546,056
2000 9,572,732 32,684,595 5,398,697 47,656,024
2001 9,931,967 28,379,338 4,169,306 42,480,611
2002 10,595,247 35,611,326 2,916,739 49,123,312
2003 9,409,170 60,282,838 4,611,486 74,303,494
2004 8,955,812 47,989,286 4,041,593 60,986,691
2005 10,840,295 41,604,801 3,456,459 55,901,555
2006 13,439,268 38,376,390 2,566,256 54,381,914
2007 14,393,393 47,078,673 1,490,551 62,962,617
2008 14,883,239 31,150,875 4,906,637 50,940,751
2009 19,638,421 30,220,609 4,173,072 54,032,102
12,049,532 -19,708,371 144,885 -7,513,954
Change 2009/1998
(158.8%) (39.5%) (3.6%) (12.2%)
1
RM-Malaysian currency.

Table 5. Malaysian canned pineapple exports, 2009. Source: GTIS, 2010.

Export quantity Export value


Partner country
Quantity (t) Share (%) Value (RM) Share (%)
World 12,030 100.00 30,220,609 100.00
USA 4,827 40.12 10,678,282 35.33
Japan 2,574 21.39 7,568,318 25.04
Iran 1,053 8.75 3,129,444 10.36
UAE 969 8.06 2,557,869 8.46
Pakistan 672 5.59 1,021,233 3.38
Spain 311 2.58 586,785 1.94
Germany 303 2.51 825,653 2.73
Greece 190 1.58 557,682 1.85
France 168 1.40 445,467 1.47
Switzerland 164 1.36 446,777 1.48
Kuwait 148 1.23 372,278 1.23
Singapore 143 1.19 575,545 1.90
Others (17) 511 4.24 1,455,145 4.82

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Table 6. Malaysian fresh pineapple export, 2009. Source: GTIS, 2010.

Export quantity Export value


Partner country
Quantity (t) Share (%) Value (RM) Share (%)
World 20,313 100.00 19,638,421 100.00
Singapore 11,689 57.54 7,720,784 39.31
UAE 4,085 20.11 5,771,165 29.39
Iran 1,789 8.81 2,213,592 11.27
Saudi Arabia 1,362 6.71 2,040,004 10.39
Egypt 690 3.40 788,242 4.01
Syria 248 1.22 326,311 1.66
Zimbabwe 100 0.49 47,596 0.24
Libya 94 0.46 168,798 0.86
Turkey 67 0.33 79,041 0.40
Jordan 49 0.24 145,287 0.74
Indonesia 38 0.19 31,024 0.16
Bahrain 25 0.12 122,005 0.62
Kuwait 22 0.11 30,415 0.15
Maldives 20 0.10 110,658 0.56
Japan 18 0.09 12,733 0.06
Qatar 10 0.05 23,347 0.12
Brunei 7 0.03 6,650 0.03

Table 7. Changing export market trends of Malaysian fresh pineapple. Source: GTIS,
2010.

Import quantity (%)


Importer country
1997 2000 2003 2006 2009
Singapore 94.0 82.7 83.5 74.4 57.5
Brunei 0.8 6.3 3.7 0.6 0.0
UAE 4.3 7.1 7.8 13.7 20.1
Saudi Arabia 0.3 1.9 0.5 0.4 6.7
Egypt 0.5 0.7 3.4
Iran 2.4 4.9 8.8
Syria 1.2
Libya 0.5
Turkey 3.7 0.3
Europe (10 countries) 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0

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Table 8. Quantity and value of pineapple imports by Malaysia, 1997-2008. Source: GTIS,
2010.

Fresh Canned Juice


Year Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value
(t) (RM) (t) (RM) (t) (RM)
1997 2,170 361,224 6 8,678 112 317,576
1998 219 173,095 0 0 117 353,639
1999 10,249 200,549 10 90,314 932 1,171,008
2000 1,222 654,166 77 176,007 297 841,610
2001 278 350,437 136 310,404 92 222,635
2002 3,079 3,474,903 98 224,055 99 333,211
2003 3,423 921,563 169 402,224 153 499,623
2004 2,814 1,177,865 288 825,859 136 468,545
2005 2,272 819,849 472 791,960 169 568,031
2006 6,230 811,308 326 843,688 204 766,325
2007 943 713,805 485 1,097,399 324 1,082,001
2008 2,297 1,346,097 245 470,833 203 690,866
Total 35,196 11,004,861 2,312 5,241,421 2,838 7,315,070
Average 2,933 917,072 193 436,785 237 609,589

Table 9. Status of Malaysian pineapple industry.

Status of Malaysia
Category Item World status World value
Quantity Rank
or quantity (%)
Production Quantity (t) 19,157,325 360,000 1.88 13/60
(2007) Value (US$) 3,704,827,000 69,620,000 0.19
Total world export Quantity (t) 4,675,222 32,374 0.69 17/64
(2008) Value (US$) 10,623,318,000 50,940,751 0.48 21/64
Fresh export Quantity (t) 2,721,610 18,183 0.67 15/59
(2008) Value (US$) 4,950,745,530 14,883,239 0.30 18/59
Canned export Quantity (t) 1,272,768 12,530 1.00 8/55
(2008) Value (US$) 3,674,778,921 31,150,875 0.08 8/55
Juice export Quantity (t) 247,619 1,099 0.44 21/52
(2008) Value (US$) 623,012,103 3,372,701 0.50 21/52

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Table 10. Percentage of pineapple cultivation according to cultivar in Malaysia.

Cultivar Percentage (%)


Morris (Queen) 42.8
Josapine (Hybrid) 27.5
Sarawak (Smooth Cayenne) 12.1
N36 (Hybrid) 10.0
Gandul (Spanish) 7.2
Others 0.3

Figures

18,000
Area (ha)

16,000
14,000
12,000 Total Area (ha)
10,000
Estate (ha)
8,000
6,000 Smallholder (ha)
4,000
2,000
0
1990 1992 1994 199 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008

Year

Fig. 1. Pineapple area trends in Malaysia.

50
70,000

60,000

50,000
Quantity (Ton)

40,000 Fresh (t)


Canned (t)
30,000 Juice (t)
Total (t)
20,000

10,000

0 Year

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Fig. 2. Quantity of pineapple exports from Malaysia, 1998-2009.

80,000,000

70,000,000

60,000,000
Fresh (RM)
Value (RM)

50,000,000
Canned (RM)
40,000,000
Juice (RM)
30,000,000 Total (RM)
20,000,000

10,000,000

0
1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009

Year

Fig. 3. Export value (RM) of pineapples from Malaysia, 1997-2009.

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